23,519 results match your criteria Br. J. Cancer[Journal]


Correction: Treatment patterns and survival in HER2-positive early breast cancer: a whole-of-population Australian cohort study (2007-2016).

Br J Cancer 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Centre for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Level 4, Lowy Building (C25), Corner Botany and High Streets, UNSW, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0908-5DOI Listing

A pre-specified model based on four kallikrein markers in blood improves predictions of adverse pathology and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: A pre-specified model based on four kallikrein markers in blood, commercially available as 4Kscore, predicts Gleason Grade (GG) 3 + 4 or higher prostate cancer on biopsy. However, sampling error and variation in pathology reporting may miss aggressive disease.

Methods: The 4Kscore was measured in cryopreserved blood from 2330 men obtained before prostatectomy at a single institution between 2002 and 2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0914-7DOI Listing

The association of diabetes with risk of prostate cancer defined by clinical and molecular features.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: To prospectively examine the association between diabetes and risk of prostate cancer defined by clinical and molecular features.

Methods: A total of 49,392 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) were followed from 1986 to 2014. Data on self-reported diabetes were collected at baseline and updated biennially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0910-yDOI Listing

Evaluation of the activity of a chemo-ablative, thermoresponsive hydrogel in a murine xenograft model of lung cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), 123 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Background: Minimally invasive intratumoural administration of thermoresponsive hydrogels, that transition from liquid to gel in response to temperature, has been proposed as a potential treatment modality for solid tumours. The aim of this study was to assess the inherent cytotoxicity of a poloxamer-based thermoresponsive hydrogel in a murine xenograft model of lung cancer.

Methods: In vitro viability assessment was carried out in a lung cancer (A549) and non-cancerous (Balb/c 3T3 clone A31) cell line. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0904-9DOI Listing

Producing the appropriate model and drug for intratumoural ablation.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Sana Clinic Group Franken, Department of Cardiology/Pulmonology/Intensive Care/Nephrology, 'Hof' Clinics, University of Erlangen, Hof, Germany.

Local treatment is necessary for several cancer patients. There are situations where cancer tissue induces locally severe symptoms. Therefore, additional local disease control is necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0895-6DOI Listing

Regorafenib is effective against neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo and inhibits the RAS/MAPK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Fos/Jun pathways.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Regorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple kinases with aberrant expression and activity in neuroblastoma tumours that have potential roles in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.

Methods: We evaluated neuroblastoma cells treated with regorafenib for cell viability and confluence, and analysed treated cells for apoptosis and cell cycle progression. We evaluated the efficacy of regorafenib in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0905-8DOI Listing

Prognostic significance of pre- and post-operative tumour markers for patients with gastric cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Gastric Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China.

Background: In clinical practice, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 are the most common markers measured before and after surgery for gastric cancer (GC). However, which pre- or post-operative combined tumour markers (CEA and CA19-9) have more prognostic value remains unclear.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing a resection for GC at the Fujian Medical University Union Hospital were included as a discovery database between January 2011 and December 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0901-zDOI Listing

Cancer incidence and spectrum among children with genetically confirmed Beckwith-Wiedemann spectrum in Germany: a retrospective cohort study.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, Hannover, 30625, Germany.

Background: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects on chromosome 11p15.5. The quantitative cancer risks in BWS patients depend on the underlying (epi)genotype but have not yet been assessed in a population-based manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0911-xDOI Listing

The role of sex in the innate and adaptive immune environment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Surgery, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Background: Women with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a significant survival advantage over men. Sex influences on the tumour microenvironment (TME) are not well characterised, despite the importance of immune response in CRC. We hypothesised that sex-divergent immune responses could contribute to survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0913-8DOI Listing

Endpoint surrogacy in oncology Phase 3 randomised controlled trials.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Endpoint surrogacy is an important concept in oncology trials. Using a surrogate endpoint like progression-free survival as the primary endpoint-instead of overall survival-would lead to a potential faster drug approval and therefore more cancer patients with an earlier opportunity to receive the newly approved drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0896-5DOI Listing

CD133 inhibition via autophagic degradation in pemetrexed-resistant lung cancer cells by GMI, a fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 40201, Taiwan.

Background: Adaptive drug resistance is an unfavourable prognostic factor in cancer therapy. Pemetrexed-resistant lung cancer cells possess high-metastatic ability via ERK-ZEB1 pathway-activated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. GMI is a fungal immunomodulatory protein that suppresses the survival of several cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0885-8DOI Listing

Defining COMMD4 as an anti-cancer therapeutic target and prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia.

Background: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) account for 85-90% of all lung cancers. As drug resistance critically impairs chemotherapy effectiveness, there is great need to identify new therapeutic targets. The aims of this study were to investigate the prognostic and therapeutic potential of the copper-metabolism-domain-protein, COMMD4, in NSCLC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0899-2DOI Listing

Racial differences in prostate cancer: does timing of puberty play a role?

Br J Cancer 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

The burden of prostate cancer has a remarkably disproportionate distribution across racial groups. For example, in the USA, African Americans are twice as likely as individuals of European ancestry to develop or die from prostate cancer, and have a more aggressive disease nature at diagnosis. In contrast, Asian American men have the lowest incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0897-4DOI Listing

Omental adipocytes promote peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through the CXCL2-VEGFA axis.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601, Japan.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) patients frequently develop peritoneal metastasis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesised that omental adipocytes (OmAd) trigger GC cells towards malignant activity to induce peritoneal metastasis.

Methods: We analysed interactions among human GC cells, endothelial cells and OmAd using a 3D co-culture system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0898-3DOI Listing

Translating current basic research into future therapies for neurofibromatosis type 1.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, 75390-9069, USA.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary tumour syndrome that predisposes to benign and malignant tumours originating from neural crest cells. Biallelic inactivation of the tumour-suppressor gene NF1 in glial cells in the skin, along a nerve plexus or in the brain results in the development of benign tumours: cutaneous neurofibroma, plexiform neurofibroma and glioma, respectively. Despite more than 40 years of research, only one medication was recently approved for treatment of plexiform neurofibroma and no drugs have been specifically approved for the management of other tumours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0903-xDOI Listing

Identification of low-dose multidrug combinations for sunitinib-naive and pre-treated renal cell carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Molecular Pharmacology Group, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Background: Combinations of drugs can improve the efficacy of cancer treatment, enable the reduction of side effects and the occurrence of acquired drug resistance.

Methods: We approached this challenge mathematically by using the validated technology called the Therapeutically Guided Multidrug Optimization (TGMO) method. In a set of genetically distinct human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines, either treated chronically with sunitinib (-ST) or sunitinib-naive, we identified cell line-specific low-dose-optimised drug combinations (ODC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0890-yDOI Listing

A systematic molecular and pharmacologic evaluation of AKT inhibitors reveals new insight into their biological activity.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Cancer Therapeutics, The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, SM2 5NG, London, UK.

Background: AKT, a critical effector of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling cascade, is an intensely pursued therapeutic target in oncology. Two distinct classes of AKT inhibitors have been in clinical development, ATP-competitive and allosteric. Class-specific differences in drug activity are likely the result of differential structural and conformational requirements governing efficient target binding, which ultimately determine isoform-specific potency, selectivity profiles and activity against clinically relevant AKT mutant variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0889-4DOI Listing

Identification of EMT-related high-risk stage II colorectal cancer and characterisation of metastasis-related genes.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Systems Biology, College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, China.

Background: Our laboratory previously reported an individual-level prognostic signature for patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC). However, this signature was not applicable for RNA-sequencing datasets. In this study, we constructed a robust epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)- related gene pair prognostic signature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0902-yDOI Listing

Fatigue, quality of life and physical fitness following an exercise intervention in multiple myeloma survivors (MASCOT): an exploratory randomised Phase 2 trial utilising a modified Zelen design.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Exercise may improve fatigue in multiple myeloma survivors, but trial evidence is limited, and exercise may be perceived as risky in this older patient group with osteolytic bone destruction.

Methods: In this Phase 2 Zelen trial, multiple myeloma survivors who had completed treatment at least 6 weeks ago, or were on maintenance only, were enrolled in a cohort study and randomly assigned to usual care or a 6-month exercise programme of tailored aerobic and resistance training. Outcome assessors and usual care participants were masked. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0866-yDOI Listing

Rising to the challenge: designing, implementing and reporting exercise oncology trials in understudied populations.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Exercise can improve cancer-related fatigue, quality of life and physical fitness, but is understudied in less common cancers such as multiple myeloma. Studying less common cancers and the adoption of novel study designs and open-science practices would improve the generalisability, transparency, rigour, credibility and reproducibility of exercise oncology research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0868-9DOI Listing

Fatal prostate cancer incidence trends in the United States and England by race, stage, and treatment.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 20892, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Differential uptake of prostate-specific antigen testing in the US and UK has been linked to between-country differences for prostate cancer incidence. We examined stage-specific fatal prostate cancer incidence trends in the US and England, by treatment and race/ethnicity.

Methods: Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and Public Health England's National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service, we identified prostate cancer patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2005, aged 45-84 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0859-xDOI Listing

Association of tumour and stroma PD-1, PD-L1, CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression with DCB and OS to nivolumab treatment in NSCLC patients pre-treated with chemotherapy.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are most beneficial in patients with high tumour PD-L1 expression. However, the use of PD-L1 expression is not straightforward. We investigated PD-L1 expression and immune cell (IC) infiltrates in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0888-5DOI Listing

Neoadjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX followed by postoperative gemcitabine in borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a Phase 2 study for clinical and biomarker analysis.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) have poor prognosis with upfront surgery.

Methods: This was a single-arm Phase 2 trial for clinical and biomarker analysis. The primary endpoint is 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0867-xDOI Listing

Adaptive ERK signalling activation in response to therapy and in silico prognostic evaluation of EGFR-MAPK in HNSCC.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients frequently develop treatment resistance to cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, as well as radiotherapy. Here we addressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) regulation by cetuximab or fractionated irradiation (IR) and conducted in silico prognostic evaluation of the EGFR-MAPK axis in HNSCC.

Methods: Expression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was determined in HNSCC cell lines, which were treated with cetuximab or fractionated-IR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0892-9DOI Listing

Lactate concentration in breast cancer using advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Precision medicine in breast cancer demands markers sensitive to early treatment response. Aerobic glycolysis (AG) upregulates lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) with elevated lactate production; however, existing approaches for lactate quantification are either invasive or impractical clinically.

Methods: Thirty female patients (age 39-78 years, 15 grade II and 15 grade III) with invasive ductal carcinoma were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0886-7DOI Listing
May 2020
4.836 Impact Factor

The Pan-Immune-Inflammation Value is a new prognostic biomarker in metastatic colorectal cancer: results from a pooled-analysis of the Valentino and TRIBE first-line trials.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Background: Immune-inflammatory biomarkers (IIBs) showed a prognostic relevance in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We aimed at evaluating the prognostic power of a new comprehensive biomarker, the Pan-Immune-Inflammation Value (PIV), in patients with mCRC receiving first-line therapy.

Methods: In the present pooled-analysis, we included patients enrolled in the Valentino and TRIBE trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0894-7DOI Listing

UGT2B17 modifies drug response in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHU de Québec) Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Québec, QC, Canada.

Background: High UGT2B17 is associated with poor prognosis in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients and its expression is induced in non-responders to fludarabine-containing regimens. We examined whether UGT2B17, the predominant lymphoid glucuronosyltransferase, affects leukaemic drug response and is involved in the metabolic inactivation of anti-leukaemic agents.

Methods: Functional enzymatic assays and patients' plasma samples were analysed by mass-spectrometry to evaluate drug inactivation by UGT2B17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0887-6DOI Listing

CDK4/6 inhibition presents as a therapeutic option for paediatric and adult germ cell tumours and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via canonical and non-canonical mechanisms.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Urology, Urological Research Lab, Translational UroOncology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancies in young men. Although high cure rates can be achieved, metastases, resistance to cisplatin-based therapy and late toxicities still represent a lethal threat, arguing for the need of new therapeutic options. In this study, we analysed the potential of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors palbociclib and ribociclib (PaRi) as molecular drugs to treat cisplatin-resistant and -sensitive paediatric and adult GCTs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0891-xDOI Listing
May 2020
4.836 Impact Factor

Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related colitis assessment and prognosis: can IBD scoring point the way?

Br J Cancer 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) improve survival but cause immune-related adverse events (irAE). We sought to determine if CTCAE classification, IBD biomarkers/endoscopic/histological scores correlate with irAE colitis outcomes.

Methods: A dual-centre retrospective study was performed on patients receiving ICI for melanoma, NSCLC or urothelial cancer from 2012 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0882-yDOI Listing

Enrichment of the tumour immune microenvironment in patients with desmoplastic colorectal liver metastasis.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Surgical Oncology and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Patients with resected colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) who display only the desmoplastic histopathological growth pattern (dHGP) exhibit superior survival compared to patients with any non-desmoplastic growth (non-dHGP). The aim of this study was to compare the tumour microenvironment between dHGP and non-dHGP.

Methods: The tumour microenvironment was investigated in three cohorts of chemo-naive patients surgically treated for CRLM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0881-zDOI Listing

miR-622 is a novel potential biomarker of breast carcinoma and impairs motility of breast cancer cells through targeting NUAK1 kinase.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

IRCCS SDN, Via Emanuele Gianturco 113, 80143, Naples, Italy.

Background: Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miR) has been proposed as non-invasive biomarkers for breast cancers. The aim of this study was to analyse the miR-622 level in the plasma and in tissues of breast cancer patients and to explore the role of miR-622 and its target, the NUAK1 kinase, in this context.

Methods: miR-622 expression was analysed in plasma and in tissues samples of breast cancer patients by q-RT-PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0884-9DOI Listing

KSHV infection skews macrophage polarisation towards M2-like/TAM and activates Ire1 α-XBP1 axis up-regulating pro-tumorigenic cytokine release and PD-L1 expression.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, laboratory affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Rome, Italy.

Background: Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus strongly linked to human cancer. The virus is also able to induce immune suppression, effect that contributes to onset/progression of the viral-associated malignancies. As KSHV may infect macrophages and these cells abundantly infiltrate Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, in this study we investigated whether KSHV-infection could affect macrophage polarisation to promote tumorigenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0872-0DOI Listing

Lessons to Europe from China for cancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Division of Cancer, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK.

During the COVID-19 era, Chinese hospitals have developed a system that enables vulnerable cancer patients to continue to receive high-quality medical care, optimising their survival whilst protecting them. This includes use of digital quick codes, fever clinics and optimal scheduling. We wish to share our experiences working with patients during the pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0856-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221334PMC

Association between the National Cancer Screening Programme (NSCP) for gastric cancer and oesophageal cancer mortality.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The aim was to evaluate whether this gastric cancer-screening programme was effective in reducing oesophageal cancer mortality.

Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) database. The study cohort comprised 16,969 oesophageal cancer patients who had been diagnosed in 2007-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0883-xDOI Listing

Biomarker measurement in non-invasively sampled colorectal mucus as a novel approach to colorectal cancer detection: screening and triage implications.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, St George's Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Faecal tests are widely applied for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and considered for triaging symptomatic patients with suspected CRC. However, faecal tests can be inconvenient, complex and expensive. Colorectal mucus (CM) sampled using our new patient-friendly non-invasive technique is rich in CRC biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0893-8DOI Listing

Correction: Direct therapeutic targeting of immune checkpoint PD-1 in pancreatic cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0879-6DOI Listing

Predictors of long-term cancer-related distress among female BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers without a cancer diagnosis: an international analysis.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have high lifetime risks of developing breast and ovarian cancers. We sought to estimate the prevalence of cancer-related distress and to identify predictors of distress in an international sample of unaffected women with a BRCA mutation.

Methods: Women with a BRCA1/2 mutation and no previous cancer diagnosis were recruited from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and from a national advocacy group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0861-3DOI Listing

Impact on survival of modelling increased surgical resection rates in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and cardiovascular comorbidities: a VICORI study.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service, Public Health England, London, SE1 8UG, UK.

Background: The impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity on resection rates and survival for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. We explored if CVD comorbidity explained surgical resection rate variation and the impact on survival if resection rates increased.

Methods: Cancer registry data consisted of English patients diagnosed with NSCLC from 2012 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0869-8DOI Listing

Ascites-derived ALDH+CD44+ tumour cell subsets endow stemness, metastasis and metabolic switch via PDK4-mediated STAT3/AKT/NF-κB/IL-8 signalling in ovarian cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Background: Ovarian cancer is characterised by frequent recurrence due to persistent presence of residual cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we identify and characterise tumour subsets from ascites-derived tumour cells with stemness, metastasis and metabolic switch properties and to delineate the involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in such process.

Methods: Ovarian cancer cells/cell lines derived from ascites were used for tumourspheres/ALDH+CD44+ subset isolation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0865-zDOI Listing

Dysregulation at multiple points of the kynurenine pathway is a ubiquitous feature of renal cancer: implications for tumour immune evasion.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Clinical and Biomedical Proteomics Group, University of Leeds, St. James's University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK.

Background: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first step in the kynurenine pathway (KP), is upregulated in some cancers and represents an attractive therapeutic target given its role in tumour immune evasion. However, the recent failure of an IDO inhibitor in a late phase trial raises questions about this strategy.

Methods: Matched renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and normal kidney tissues were subject to proteomic profiling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0874-yDOI Listing

Bimodal magnetic resonance and optical imaging of extracellular matrix remodelling by orthotopic ovarian tumours.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Background: The extracellular matrix modulates the development of ovarian tumours. Currently, evaluation of the extracellular matrix in the ovary is limited to histological methods. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two-photon microscopy (2PM) enable dynamic visualisation and quantification of fibrosis by endogenous contrast mechanisms: magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI and second-harmonic generation (SHG) 2PM, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0878-7DOI Listing

Delayed breast cancer diagnosis after repeated recall at biennial screening mammography: an observational follow-up study from the Netherlands.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Dutch Expert Centre for Screening, Wijchenseweg 101, 6538 SW, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Delay in detection of breast cancer may worsen tumour characteristics, with progression of tumour size and a higher risk of metastatic lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to investigate delayed breast cancer diagnosis after repeated recall for the same mammographic abnormality at screening.

Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in two cohorts of women enrolled in a mammography screening programme in the Netherlands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0870-2DOI Listing

Compensatory combination of romidepsin with gemcitabine and cisplatin to effectively and safely control urothelial carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Background: Human urothelial carcinoma (UC) has a high tendency to recur and progress to life-threatening advanced diseases. Advanced therapeutic regimens are needed to control UC development and recurrence.

Methods: We pursued in vitro and in vivo studies to understand the ability of a triple combination of gemcitabine, romidepsin, and cisplatin (Gem+Rom+Cis) to modulate signalling pathways, cell death, drug resistance, and tumour development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0877-8DOI Listing

Tumour-derived CSF2/granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor controls myeloid cell accumulation and progression of gliomas.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Malignant tumours release factors, which attract myeloid cells and induce their polarisation to pro-invasive, immunosuppressive phenotypes. Brain-resident microglia and peripheral macrophages accumulate in the tumour microenvironment of glioblastoma (GBM) and induce immunosuppression fostering tumour progression. Macrophage colony stimulating factors (CSFs) control the recruitment of myeloid cells during peripheral cancer progression, but it is disputable, which CSFs drive their accumulation in gliomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0862-2DOI Listing

Does multiparametric imaging with F-FDG-PET/MRI capture spatial variation in immunohistochemical cancer biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma?

Br J Cancer 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine & PET and Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The purpose of this study is to test if functional multiparametric imaging with F-FDG-PET/MRI correlates spatially with immunohistochemical biomarker status within a lesion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and also whether a biopsy with the highest FDG uptake was more likely to have the highest PD-L1 expression or the highest percentage of vital tumour cells (VTC) compared with a random biopsy.

Methods: Thirty-one patients with HNSCC were scanned on an integrated PET/MRI scanner with FDG prior to surgery in this prospective study. Imaging was quantified with SUV, ADC and K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0876-9DOI Listing

The untapped potential of ascites in ovarian cancer research and treatment.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Gynaecological Cancer Research Group, Lowy Cancer Research Centre and School of Women's and Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The build-up of fluid in the peritoneal cavity-ascites-is a hallmark of ovarian cancer, the most lethal of all gynaecological malignancies. This remarkable fluid, which contains a variety of cellular and acellular components, is known to contribute to patient morbidity and mortality by facilitating metastasis and contributing to chemoresistance, but remains largely under-researched. In this review, we will critically analyse the evidence associating ascites with metastasis and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer and provide an update on research in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0875-xDOI Listing

Potential through simplicity: thymidine kinase-1 as a biomarker for CDK4/6 inhibitors.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

"Sandro Pitigliani" Medical Oncology Department, Hospital of Prato, Prato, Italy.

We describe a potential role for thymidine kinase-1, a general marker of cellular proliferation, to act as a prognostic biomarker in patients receiving CDK4/6 inhibitors for advanced hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, with early data suggesting that it may also provide early indication of treatment response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0858-yDOI Listing

Molecular profiling of stroma highlights stratifin as a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Univ Rennes, Inserm, Inra, CHU Rennes, Service de Chirurgie Hépatobiliaire et Digestive, Institut NuMeCan (Nutrition Metabolisms and Cancer), UMR_S 1241, Rennes, France.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer worldwide, as a result of a late diagnosis and limited therapeutic options. Tumour microenvironment (or stroma) plays a key role in cancer onset and progression and constitutes an intrinsic histological hallmark of PDAC. Thus we hypothesised that relevant prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets can be identified in the stroma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0863-1DOI Listing

Nine-factor-based immunohistochemistry classifier predicts recurrence for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Liver Surgery and Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University; Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.

Background: Immunoscore have shown a promising prognostic value in many cancers. We aimed to establish and validate an immune classifier to predict survival after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who have undergone curative resection.

Methods: The immunohistochemistry (IHC) classifier assay was performed on 664 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0864-0DOI Listing

Early assessment of KRAS mutation in cfDNA correlates with risk of progression and death in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Medical Oncology 2, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV - IRCCS, Padova, Italy.

Background: Liquid biopsy has the potential to monitor biological effects of treatment. KRAS represents the most commonly mutated oncogene in Caucasian non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to explore association of dynamic plasma KRAS genotyping with outcome in advanced NSCLC patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0833-7DOI Listing