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    CD6 as a potential target for treating multiple sclerosis.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195;
    CD6 was established as a marker of T cells more than three decades ago, and recent studies have identified CD6 as a risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease in which autoreactive T cells are integrally involved. Nevertheless, the precise role of CD6 in regulating T-cell responses is controversial and its significance in the pathogenesis of various diseases remains elusive, partly due to the lack of animals engineered to alter expression of the CD6 gene. In this report, we found that CD6 KO mice showed decreased pathogenic T-cell responses, reduced spinal cord T-cell infiltration, and attenuated disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Read More

    Frequent Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model.
    Cell Rep 2017 Feb;18(7):1751-1760
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Electronic address:
    Circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Western hemisphere in late 2014. Primarily transmitted through mosquito bite, ZIKV can also be transmitted through sex and from mother to fetus, and maternal ZIKV infection has been associated with fetal malformations. We assessed immunodeficient AG129 mice for their capacity to shed ZIKV in semen and to infect female mice via sexual transmission. Read More

    Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in refractory plaque-stage mycosis fungoides associated with Bowen's disease.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Science, Institute of Dermatology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

    Factors predicting pain and effect of oral analgesia in topical photodynamic therapy.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin.
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is highly efficacious for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and efficacious in thin nodular BCCs (nBCC).(1) It is generally well tolerated, with pain or discomfort being a known side-effect.(1) Pain is typically described as a burning or stinging sensation of varying intensity. Read More

    Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in Bowen's disease: a retrospective observational study in 423 lesions.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Feb 11. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-known technique that is often used for treating superficial precancerous and cancerous skin lesions. However, only a handful of studies, with a relatively small number of treated lesions, have been carried out on the effectiveness of PDT for Bowen's disease (BD).

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and recurrence risk of PDT in the treatment of BD. Read More

    Widespread GLI expression but limited canonical hedgehog signaling restricted to the ductular reaction in human chronic liver disease.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(2):e0171480. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Liver Injury and Cancer, Centenary Institute, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.
    Canonical Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in vertebrate cells occurs following Smoothened activation/translocation into the primary cilia (Pc), followed by a GLI transcriptional response. Nonetheless, GLI activation can occur independently of the canonical Hh pathway. Using a murine model of liver injury, we previously identified the importance of canonical Hh signaling within the Pc+ liver progenitor cell (LPC) population and noted that SMO-independent, GLI-mediated signals were important in multiple Pc-ve GLI2+ intrahepatic populations. Read More

    Transethnic genome-wide scan identifies novel Alzheimer's disease loci.
    Alzheimers Dement 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Medicine (Biomedical Genetics), Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Neurology, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Genetic loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified in whites of European ancestry, but the genetic architecture of AD among other populations is less understood.

    Methods: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for late-onset AD in Stage 1 sample including whites of European Ancestry, African-Americans, Japanese, and Israeli-Arabs assembled by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. Suggestive results from Stage 1 from novel loci were followed up using summarized results in the International Genomics Alzheimer's Project GWAS dataset. Read More

    Outcome of Flap Surgeries in Dermatosurgical Unit at a Tertiary Care Centre in India with a Review of Literature.
    J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):226-231
    Department of Dermatology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Victoria Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Introduction: Flap surgeries are an excellent choice for closing large defects following trauma, excision of carcinomas or removal of large lesions. This article is a prospective interventional study of various flap surgeries performed at a tertiary care centre with their outcome in dermatosurgical unit.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 35 flap surgeries performed from January 2012 to December 2014 formed part of the study. Read More

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous HCT for relapsing-remitting MS.
    Neurology 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    From the Colorado Blood Cancer Institute (R.A.N.), Denver; Baylor College of Medicine (G.J.H.), Houston, TX; Ohio State University (M.K.R., S.M.D.), Columbus; MD Anderson Cancer Research Center (U.P.), Houston, TX; Rho, Inc. (K.C.S.), Chapel Hill, NC; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (L.M.G.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Division of Brain Sciences (P.A.M.), Imperial College London, UK; City of Hope National Medical Center (H.O.), Duarte, CA; Immune Tolerance Network (P.H.S.), University of California San Francisco; University of Texas Southwestern (O.S.), Dallas; NeuroRx (D.L.A.), McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (G.E.G.), University of Washington (M.H.W., A.W., G.H.K.); and Swedish Hospital Medical Center (J.D.B.), Seattle, WA.
    Objective: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and durability of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease stabilization after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy (HDIT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

    Methods: High-Dose Immunosuppression and Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis (HALT-MS) is a phase II clinical trial of HDIT/HCT for patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS who experienced relapses with disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] 3.0-5. Read More

    Brain pathology of a patient 7years after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Feb 7;373:339-341. Epub 2017 Jan 7.
    University of Alberta, Department of Pathology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Aggressive immunosuppression followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) can be an effective treatment for severe multiple sclerosis (MS), but not all stages of disease may benefit equally. The case of a 49-year-old woman with advanced secondary-progressive MS whose clinical course was not improved by aHSCT and who seven years after transplantation succumbed to complications of severe MS disease-related disability is presented. Autopsy findings of ongoing neurodegeneration despite only rare infiltrating T-lymphocytes illustrate that late MS disease may not represent a suitable disease stage for aHSCT. Read More

    Complete response to azacitidine priming and nab-paclitaxel in non-Hodgkin lymphoma resistant to biochemotherapy.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2017 Jan 23;6(1):122-124. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake, UT 84112, USA.
    The standard of care for first-line therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen. For patients who fail to respond, have an incomplete response or relapse, numerous effective options exists besides salvage cisplatin-based regimen and autologous stem cell therapy. Even with this approach, the outcome remains very poor for this group of patients. Read More

    One year mirror-image study using paliperidone palmitate for relapse prevention of schizophrenia in four university hospitals in Canada.
    Schizophr Res 2017 Jan 21. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of pharmacy, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 boulevard de l'Assomption, Montreal, Quebec H1T 2M4, Canada; Faculty of pharmacy, Université de Montréal, 2940 Chemin de la Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4, Canada.
    Background: Superiority of long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) over oral antipsychotics remains controversial and dependent on study design and inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 21 RCTs demonstrated no difference in their effectiveness, but meta-analysis of 25 mirror-image studies did. None of these included paliperidone palmitate (PP). Read More

    Aminoleveulinate photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) for Bowen's disease in a SLE patient: Case report and literature review.
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, PR China. Electronic address:
    We reported a rare case of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient with lower limb multiple Bowen's disease (BD). At the end of the treatment, an excellent clinical response was observed and no recurrence of rash after 2 months of treatment. The recovery time was prolonged only after the first treatment, however, no photosensitive phenomena were observed during and after the treatment. Read More

    Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.
    Medwave 2016 Dec 20;16(11):e6805. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Departamento de Dermatología, Hospital Clínico Metropolitano La Florida Doctora Eloísa Díaz Insunza, Santiago, Chile.
    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Read More

    Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma.
    Nature 2017 Jan 4;541(7636):169-175. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Read More

    Antidiabetic Effects of Resveratrol: The Way Forward in Its Clinical Utility.
    J Diabetes Res 2016 5;2016:9737483. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Nutrition and Chronic Disease Research Unit, Oxidative Stress Research Centre, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa.
    Despite recent advances in the understanding and management of diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of the disease is increasing unabatedly with resulting disabling and life-reducing consequences to the global human population. The limitations and side effects associated with current antidiabetic therapies have necessitated the search for novel therapeutic agents. Due to the multipathogenicity of diabetes mellitus, plant-derived compounds with proven multiple pharmacological actions have been postulated to "hold the key" in the search for an affordable, efficacious, and safer therapeutic agent in the treatment of the disease and associated complications. Read More

    A phase I trial of azacitidine and nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.
    Oncotarget 2016 12 26. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
    Background: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), an albumin-binding protein, is downregulated by hypermethylation in many cancers. Hypomethylating agents such as azacitidine can upregulate SPARC in tumors, which may enhance the accumulation of albumin-bound drugs at tumor site. The objectives of this phase I trial was to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose and to assess any clinical activity of the combination of azacytidine and weekly nanoparticle-albumin-bound (nab®) paclitaxel. Read More

    Pathologic Evaluation of Skin Tumors With Ex Vivo Dermoscopy With Derm Dotting.
    JAMA Dermatol 2016 Dec 28. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.
    Importance: Ex vivo dermoscopy (EVD) with derm dotting (DD) improves clinicopathologic correlation and the quality of diagnosis in skin tumors.

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of the standard method of skin biopsy processing with the practice of EVD with DD.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective study compares the diagnostic performance in 6526 skin biopsy specimens examined from 2008 to 2010 with a standard method of processing with 8584 biopsy specimens examined in 2015 with EVD and DD. Read More

    Topical Photodynamic Therapy for Primary Bowen's Disease and Basal Cell Carcinoma - Optimising Patient Selection.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Dec 27. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7, Ireland.
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used in the treatment of Bowen's Disease (BD) and Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) and is known to be effective.(1,2) However there is little evidence available on the impact of patient, lesion and treatment characteristics on the effectiveness of therapy. This article is protected by copyright. Read More

    Characterization of non-lethal West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in horses: Subclinical pathology and innate immune response.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Feb 21;103:71-79. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Most natural West Nile virus (WNV) infections in humans and horses are subclinical or sub-lethal and non-encephalitic. Yet, the main focus of WNV research remains on the pathogenesis of encephalitic disease, mainly conducted in mouse models. We characterized host responses during subclinical WNV infection in horses and compared outcomes with those obtained in a novel rabbit model of subclinical WNV infection (Suen et al. Read More

    Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    1Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Leipzig University-Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany; 2K.G. Jebsen Center of Exercise in Medicine, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Thoracic Medicine, Clinic of Thoracic and Occupational Medicine, St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Purpose: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on non-pharmacological treatments such as exercise training.

    Methods: Three groups of mice including control (n=10), smoking (n=10), and smoking with 6 weeks of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n=11) were exposed to 20 weeks of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Read More

    The current role of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy within the continuum of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review.
    Eur J Dermatol 2016 Dec;26(6):549-565
    Department of Dermatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Clinical differentiation between actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, and invasive SCC and its variants may be difficult. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive technique for in vivo skin imaging.

    Objectives: To explicate the diagnostic and monitoring use of RCM within the spectrum of AK and SCC, and evaluate the accuracy of RCM for these diagnoses relative to histopathology. Read More

    Outcomes of Pulmonary Rehabilitation for COPD in Older Patients: A Comparative Study.
    COPD 2016 Dec 20:1-6. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    b Department of Respiratory Medicine , Cork University Hospital , Cork , Ireland.
    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is established as an effective intervention in optimising function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are very limited data on the effectiveness of PR in older patients with COPD. We reviewed all patients attending an 8-week outpatient programme. Read More

    High-Throughput Lipidomic and Transcriptomic Analysis To Compare SP2/0, CHO, and HEK-293 Mammalian Cell Lines.
    Anal Chem 2017 Feb 9;89(3):1477-1485. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States.
    A combined lipidomics and transcriptomics analysis was performed on mouse myeloma SP2/0, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells in order to compare widely used mammalian expression systems. Initial thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were the major lipid components in all cell lines with lower amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) in SP2/0 compared to CHO and HEK, which was subsequently confirmed and expanded upon following mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. HEK contained 4-10-fold higher amounts of lyso phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) and 2-4-fold higher amounts of lyso phosphatidylcholine (LPC) compared to SP2/0 and CHO cell lines. Read More

    Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the Fifth Member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei Complex.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2017 Mar 15;83(5). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Biological Sciences and The Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
    During routine screening for Burkholderia pseudomallei from water wells in northern Australia in areas where it is endemic, Gram-negative bacteria (strains MSMB43(T), MSMB121, and MSMB122) with a similar morphology and biochemical pattern to B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis were coisolated with B. Read More

    Characterization of a triple-recombinant, reassortant rotavirus strain from the Dominican Republic.
    J Gen Virol 2016 Dec 15. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    9Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
    We report the genome of a novel human triple-recombinant G4P[6-8_R] mono-reassortant strain identified in a stool sample from the Dominican Republic during routine facility based rotavirus strain surveillance. The strain was designated as RVA/Human-wt/DOM/2013840364/2013/G4P[6-8_R], with a genomic constellation of G4-P[6-8_R]-I1-R1-C1-M1-(A1-A8_R)-N1-(T1-T7_R)-E1-H1. Recombinant gene segments NSP1 and NSP3, were generated as a result of recombination between genogroup 1 rotavirus A1 human strain and a genotype A8 porcine strain and between genogroup 1 rotavirus T1 human strain and a genotype T7 bovine strain, respectively. Read More

    Frequency of Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Re-Excisions of Biopsy-Proven Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Dec 11. Epub 2016 Dec 11.
    Boston University School of Medicine, Dermatology, Boston, United States.
    Multiple surgical and nonsurgical treatments for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS), sometimes called Bowen's disease, have been described. The best treatment option has not yet been determined. Efficacy comparison studies are rare and difficult to execute due to the variety of treatment protocols used and follow-up periods(1) . Read More

    Loss of Bladder Epithelium Induced by Cytolytic Mast Cell Granules.
    Immunity 2016 Dec 6;45(6):1258-1269. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Department of Pathology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Immunology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore 169857, Singapore.
    Programmed death and shedding of epithelial cells is a powerful defense mechanism to reduce bacterial burden during infection but this activity cannot be indiscriminate because of the critical barrier function of the epithelium. We report that during cystitis, shedding of infected bladder epithelial cells (BECs) was preceded by the recruitment of mast cells (MCs) directly underneath the superficial epithelium where they docked and extruded their granules. MCs were responding to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secreted by BECs after inflammasome and caspase-1 signaling. Read More

    Shedding of porcine circovirus type 1 DNA and rotavirus RNA by infants vaccinated with Rotarix®.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    a Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , 30333 , USA.
    Thirty-three infants aged ∼2 months had serial stool samples collected after receipt of Rotarix® vaccine dose 1, and assessed for shedding of porcine circovirus type 1 DNA and Rotavirus group A RNA by molecular methods. We did not find strong evidence that porcine circovirus type 1 replication occurred. Porcine circovirus type 1 genome with the same sequence as that in Rotarix® was detected in a few infants as late as day ≥13; while this timing could suggest there may have been replication and not just transient passage through the gastrointestinal tract, the lack of increase in copy numbers in any infant supports transient passage and there are inherent limitations to the results. Read More

    Local and Use-Dependent Effects of β-Amyloid Oligomers on NMDA Receptor Function Revealed by Optical Quantal Analysis.
    J Neurosci 2016 Nov;36(45):11532-11543
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado 80045, and
    Beta amyloid (Aβ) triggers the elimination of excitatory synaptic connections in the CNS, an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. Oligomeric assemblies of Aβ peptide associate with excitatory synapses resulting in synapse elimination through a process that requires NMDA-type glutamate receptor activation. Whether Aβ affects synaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function directly and acts locally at synapses to which it has bound and whether synaptic activity influences Aβ synaptic binding and synaptotoxicity have remained fundamental questions. Read More

    Anti-retroviral therapy's miracle in the treatment of Bowen's disease in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient: A rare case report.
    Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2016 Jul-Dec;37(2):201-204
    Department of Skin and STD, V.M.K.V. Medical College and Hospitals, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Bowen's disease (BD) is a form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ often associated with human papillomavirus. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with a greater risk of malignancy. We describe a case of BD in a 52-year-old unmarried HIV-positive male who presented with extensive skin lesions of 1-year duration. Read More

    A Monoclonal Antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans Glucuronoxylomannan Manifests Hydrolytic Activity for Both Peptides and Polysaccharides.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jan 21;292(2):417-434. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, and
    Studies in the 1980s first showed that some natural antibodies were "catalytic" and able to hydrolyze peptide or phosphodiester bonds in antigens. Many naturally occurring catalytic antibodies have since been isolated from human sera and associated with positive and negative outcomes in autoimmune disease and infection. The function and prevalence of these antibodies, however, remain unclear. Read More

    Pigmented Bowen's disease presenting with a "starburst" pattern.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2016 Oct 31;6(4):47-49. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Department of Dermatology, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Université Paris 7 Diderot, Paris, France.
    Pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD) is an uncommon in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin usually presenting as a dark scaly plaque involving chronically exposed sites, which is not uncommonly mistaken for other similar pigmented lesions, such as melanoma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma or seborrheic keratosis [1,2]. Dermoscopy has been proven to improve its diagnosis by showing several findings, i.e. Read More

    A prospective clinical trial to assess lapatinib effects on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis.
    ESMO Open 2016 18;1(1):e000003. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Dermatology , University Hospital Zürich, University of Zürich , Zürich , Switzerland.
    Background: Antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy is widely used in many epithelial cancer types. We investigated lapatinib effects on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) scheduled for resection and in coexisting precursor lesions (actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD)) in a phase 2 mode of action clinical trial including a histological workup of the cSCC.

    Patients And Methods: We initiated a prospective single-centre, open-label, non-controlled clinical study with translational intentions to investigate changes in size and histopathological features in cSCC after a 14-day period of neoadjuvant lapatinib therapy at a dose of 1500 mg/day prior to surgery, to quantify the impact on AK and BD in the same patient after 56 days and to evaluate the tolerability in patients with cSCC and precursor lesions. Read More

    The TGF-β inhibitory activity of antibody 37E1B5 depends on its H-CDR2 glycan.
    MAbs 2017 Jan 11;9(1):104-113. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    c Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity, MedImmune Ltd , Cambridge , UK.
    Excessive transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is associated with pro-fibrotic responses in lung disease, yet it also plays essential roles in tissue homeostasis and autoimmunity. Therefore, selective inhibition of excessive and aberrant integrin-mediated TGF-β activation via targeting the α-v family of integrins is being pursued as a therapeutic strategy for chronic lung diseases, to mitigate any potential safety concerns with global TGF-β inhibition. In this work, we reveal a novel mechanism of inhibiting TGF-β activation utilized by an αvβ8 targeting antibody, 37E1B5. Read More

    P53, p16 and Ki67 immunoexpression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2016 ;57(2 Suppl):691-696
    Department of Pathology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;
    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and its precursor lesions argues the research for validating markers that would define the biomolecular mechanisms behind the potential progression and aggressiveness of these lesions. In this study, we analyzed the expression of p53, p16 and Ki67 in 91 cases of CSCC and its precursors in relation with the histological prognostic parameters. The quantification of the immunohistochemical reactions indicated superior significant differences for the studied markers in squamous cell carcinomas compared to keratinocytic intraepithelial neoplasia (KIN). Read More

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.
    Clin Epidemiol 2016 25;8:633-636. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus, Central Denmark Region, Denmark.
    Aim Of Database: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. Read More

    Population-based cohort study of outcomes following cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.
    • Authors:
    Br J Surg 2016 Nov 26;103(12):1704-1715. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Background: The aim was to describe the management of benign gallbladder disease and identify characteristics associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications in a prospective population-based cohort.

    Methods: Data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Read More

    Effects of the Bowen-Conradi syndrome mutation in EMG1 on its nuclear import, stability and nucleolar recruitment.
    Hum Mol Genet 2016 Oct 23. Epub 2016 Oct 23.
    Institute for Molecular Biology, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany
    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a severe genetic disorder that is characterised by various developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and early infant death. This disease is caused by a single mutation leading to the aspartate 86 to glycine (D86G) exchange in the essential nucleolar RNA methyltransferase EMG1. EMG1 is required for the synthesis of the small ribosomal subunit and is involved in modification of the 18S ribosomal RNA. Read More

    Development and Characterization of Recombinant Virus Generated from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone.
    J Virol 2017 Jan 16;91(1). Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) is a rapidly expanding global pathogen that has been associated with severe clinical manifestations, including devastating neurological disease in infants. There are currently no molecular clones of a New World ZIKV available that lack significant attenuation, hindering progress toward understanding determinants of transmission and pathogenesis. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel ZIKV reverse genetics system based on a 2015 isolate from Puerto Rico (PRVABC59). Read More

    In situ carcinoma in a hybrid cyst: a case report.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Feb 1;44(2):189-192. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Follicular hybrid cysts including two or more components of the epithelial skin adnexa are very rare. The epithelial lining of hybrid cysts varies, and either contains epidermis, and trichilemmal squamous epithelium, or other epithelia of the skin adnexa. Hybrid cysts may also be associated with neoplasia, such as in situ carcinoma, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    HIV-associated opportunistic CNS infections: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.
    Nat Rev Neurol 2016 Oct;12(11):662-674
    Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute for Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10/7C103, Bethesda, Maryland 28092, USA.
    Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Read More

    Histopathological diagnosis of epithelial crateriform tumors: Keratoacanthoma and other epithelial crateriform tumors.
    J Dermatol 2016 Nov 14;43(11):1321-1331. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
    Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a unique and distinct clinicopathological entity, although there is often confusion regarding its differentiation from other types of crateriform tumors. In this study, the clinicopathological features of 380 epidermal crateriform tumors with a central keratin plug were re-examined and the tumors were histologically classified into seven types: (i) crateriform verruca; (ii) crateriform seborrheic keratosis; (iii) KA; (iv) KA with a conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) component (KA-like SCC and KA with malignant transformation); (v) crateriform Bowen's disease; (vi) crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis; and (vii) crater form of infundibular SCC. Our study proved that incidence of SCC developing in KA lesions was 17. Read More

    Undisclosed HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy use in the Kenya AIDS indicator survey 2012: relevance to national targets for HIV diagnosis and treatment.
    AIDS 2016 Nov;30(17):2685-2695
    aDivision of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi bMinistry of Health, National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Nairobi, Kenya cGlobal Health Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA dMinistry of Health, National Public Health Laboratory Services, Nairobi, Kenya eDivision of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. *Members of the KAIS Study Group are listed in the Acknowledgments section.
    Objectives: This analysis assessed the impact of undisclosed HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on national estimates of diagnosed HIV and ART coverage in Kenya.

    Methods: HIV-positive dried blood spot samples from Kenya's second AIDS Indicator Survey were tested for an antiretroviral biomarker by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Weighted estimates of diagnosed HIV and ART coverage based on self-report were compared with those corrected for undisclosed HIV infection and ART use based on antiretroviral test results. Read More

    A robust gene-stacking method utilizing yeast assembly for plant synthetic biology.
    Nat Commun 2016 Oct 26;7:13215. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emery Station East, 5885 Hollis St, 4th Floor, Emeryville, California 94608, USA.
    The advent and growth of synthetic biology has demonstrated its potential as a promising avenue of research to address many societal needs. However, plant synthetic biology efforts have been hampered by a dearth of DNA part libraries, versatile transformation vectors and efficient assembly strategies. Here, we describe a versatile system (named jStack) utilizing yeast homologous recombination to efficiently assemble DNA into plant transformation vectors. Read More

    Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2016 Oct 22;8(10). Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M6 8HD, UK.
    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Read More

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