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    Changes in Biomarkers of Exposure on Switching From a Conventional Cigarette to Tobacco Heating Products: A Randomized, Controlled Study in Healthy Japanese Subjects.
    Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    British American Tobacco (Investments) Limited, Research and Development, Southampton, UK.
    Background: Smoking is a leading cause of numerous human disorders including pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Disease development is primarily caused by exposure to cigarette smoke constituents, many of which are known toxicants. Switching smokers to modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) has been suggested as a potential means to reduce the risks of tobacco use, by reducing such exposure. Read More

    Evaluating the role of public health in implementation of genomics-related recommendations: a case study of hereditary cancers using the CDC Science Impact Framework.
    Genet Med 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Office of Public Health Genomics, Division of Public Health Information Dissemination, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Public health plays an important role in ensuring access to interventions that can prevent disease, including the implementation of evidence-based genomic recommendations. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Science Impact Framework to trace the impact of public health activities and partnerships on the implementation of the 2009 Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Lynch Syndrome screening recommendation and the 2005 and 2013 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing recommendations.The EGAPP and USPSTF recommendations have each been cited by >300 peer-reviewed publications. Read More

    First case report of human infection with .
    JMM Case Rep 2018 May 22;5(5):e005146. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Introduction: We describe the first detailed case report of human infection with . Infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) related to is well described, despite the lack of previous confirmed reports of related human disease. Localised cervical lymphadenitis is the most common NTM disease in children, with species closely related to such as and , having been shown to be rare causative agents. Read More

    Differentiation of Different Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Types Using OCT.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018 Jun 12;31(5):238-245. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Early detection of various types of nonmelanoma skin cancer has been a challenge in dermatology. Noninvasive examination procedures such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) play an increasingly important role, besides the established gold standard of histological tissue sample analysis. OCT is a noninvasive, cross-sectional, real-time technique that allows conclusions to be drawn with regard to the presence of pathologies. Read More

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma, Version 1.2018, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.
    J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 Jun;16(6):742-774
    This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) focuses on areas impacted by recently emerging data, including sections describing MCC risk factors, diagnosis, workup, follow-up, and management of advanced disease with radiation and systemic therapy. Included in these sections are discussion of the new recommendations for use of Merkel cell polyomavirus as a biomarker and new recommendations for use of checkpoint immunotherapies to treat metastatic or unresectable disease. The next update of the complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for MCC will include more detailed information about elements of pathology and addresses additional aspects of management of MCC, including surgical management of the primary tumor and draining nodal basin, radiation therapy as primary treatment, and management of recurrence. Read More

    Effects of varying doses of estrogen and caudal pressure on wheel running in orchidectomized male mice.
    Physiol Rep 2018 Jun 4;6(11):e13730. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Laboratory of Applied and Exercise Endocrinology, Pilgram Marpeck School of STEM, Truett McConnell University, Cleveland, Georgia.
    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of hypokinetic diseases - obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancers. Increased city walkability, better access to fitness facilities, and remediation of socioeconomic barriers prove successful for limited populations within the confines of stringently controlled environments; however, these strategies fail to reverse the ever-increasing physical inactivity epidemic on a global scale indicating the existence of other unidentified factors. These purported biological factors remain critical targets to understand the regulation of this complex phenotype. Read More

    Ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy provides superior long-term efficacy compared to standard methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for lower extremity Bowen's disease.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Ablative fractional laser-assisted methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (AFL-MAL-PDT) has shown significantly higher efficacy and lower recurrence rates at 12 months than conventional methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) for the treatment of Bowen's disease (BD). However, long-term follow-up data are not available.

    Objective: To compare the 5-year efficacy and recurrence rates of AFL-MAL-PDT and conventional MAL-PDT for the treatment of lower extremity BD. Read More

    Scabies and impetigo in Timor-Leste: A school screening study in two districts.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 May 31;12(5):e0006400. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Paediatric Department, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia.
    Introduction: Scabies and impetigo are common and important skin conditions which are often neglected in developing countries. Limited data have been published on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in Timor-Leste. Sequelae including cellulitis, bacteraemia, nephritis, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease contribute significantly to the burden of disease. Read More

    Role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in chemotherapy-induced mucositis.
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Despite significant advances in our ability to treat cancer, cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be the mainstay treatment for many solid tumours. Chemotherapy is commonly associated with a raft of largely manageable adverse events; however, gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity (also termed mucositis) remains a significant challenge with little in the way of preventative and therapeutic options. The inability to manage GI complications likely reflects our incomplete understanding of its aetiology and the idiosyncrasies of each chemotherapeutic agent. Read More

    Clinical and dermoscopic features of genital pigmented Bowen disease.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 May 27. Epub 2018 May 27.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University of Trieste, Ospedale Maggiore, Trieste, Italy.
    Pigmented Bowen disease (pBD) is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Sometimes it can show clinical and dermoscopic features that are seen in other pigmented lesions of the skin and mucosa, making the diagnosis difficult. We report six cases of pBD occurring on the anogenital area, and discuss the importance of dermoscopy for improving the diagnostic accuracy in pBD. Read More

    Ability of crime, demographic and business data to forecast areas of increased violence.
    Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2018 May 24:1-6. Epub 2018 May 24.
    a Division of Violence Prevention, National Center For Injury Prevention and Control , U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , Atlanta , GA , USA.
    Identifying geographic areas and time periods of increased violence is of considerable importance in prevention planning. This study compared the performance of multiple data sources to prospectively forecast areas of increased interpersonal violence. We used 2011-2014 data from a large metropolitan county on interpersonal violence (homicide, assault, rape and robbery) and forecasted violence at the level of census block-groups and over a one-month moving time window. Read More

    Putative Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy and Dementia: An Application of Medicare Hospitalization Claims Data.
    J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;63(4):1269-1277
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: Estrogen and hormone replacement therapies to reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded conflicting results. However, this study proposes that the well-characterized increase in serum gonadotropins following menopause or andropause are accountable for the increased risk of developing AD among the elderly population.

    Objective: To determine the role of gonadotropins in the development of AD and investigate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as a potential preventative and/or disease-modifying approach to AD management. Read More


    Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratoses.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Dermatology, Bern, Switzerland.
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using daylight is effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs), offering the potential for treatment of large fields such as full face and balding scalp, but with minimal therapy-associated pain. Comparison with conventional PDT indicates similar efficacy for thin and moderate-thickness AKs, but with significantly less discomfort/pain, driving a patient preference for daylight-mediated PDT (DL-PDT) compared with conventional PDT using high-intensity office/hospital-based light sources. Treatment protocol involves the application of a photosensitizing agent without occlusion and subsequent exposure to ambient daylight within 30 min, with patients exposed to daylight for 1. Read More

    Bowen Disease With Sebaceous Differentiation: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Analysis of Adipophilin and Cytokeratin 1.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Division of Dermatology and Dermatopathology, Nippon Medical School Musashi Kosugi Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan.
    Bowen disease with sebaceous differentiation has been rarely documented to date. Here, we present a case of Bowen disease with sebaceous differentiation. A 67-year-old man presented with a 6. Read More

    Delivery Of Cascade Screening For Hereditary Conditions: A Scoping Review Of The Literature.
    Health Aff (Millwood) 2018 May;37(5):801-808
    Heather Hampel is associate director of the Division of Human Genetics and of biospecimen research, and a professor of internal medicine, all at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, in Columbus.
    Cascade screening is the process of contacting relatives of people who have been diagnosed with certain hereditary conditions. Its purpose is to identify, inform, and manage those who are also at risk. We conducted a scoping review to obtain a broad overview of cascade screening interventions, facilitators and barriers to their use, relevant policy considerations, and future research needs. Read More

    Investigation of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in an emerging sequence type 5 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone reveals discrepant resistance reporting.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 May 1. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia; Victorian Infectious Disease Service, The Royal Melbourne Hospital and The University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection & Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

    Mohs micrographic surgery for nail unit tumours: an update and a critical review of the literature.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 28. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is a good treatment option for epithelial neoplasms, especially when localized in areas where tissue conservation is crucial, such as the nail unit (NU). MMS is a method of radical excision offering high cure rates due to the margin control and functional preservation. Our aim is to provide a review on the use of MMS for the treatment of the most common nail tumours. Read More

    Three Rotavirus Outbreaks in the Postvaccine Era - California, 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Apr 27;67(16):470-472. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe diarrhea among U.S. children (1). Read More

    Molecular Profiling of Post-Reperfusion Milieu Determines Acute Kidney Injury after Liver Transplantation: a Prospective Study.
    Liver Transpl 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Centenary Research Institute, University of Sydney.
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after liver transplantation (LT) is a common event, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the potential relationship between post-reperfusion gene expression, serum mediators, and the onset of AKI after LT. Sixty-five consecutive patients undergoing LT were included in the study. Read More

    Clearance of human papillomavirus related anal condylomas after oral and endorectal multistrain probiotic supplementation in an HIV positive male: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(16):e0329
    Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases.
    Introduction: Here we present the case of a 56-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected man with multiple anal condylomas and positivity for human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 on anal brushing. Biopsies of the anal mucosa led to the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and a subsequent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan evidenced multiple reactive lymphoadenopathies and large intra-anal condylomas. The patient was treated with a complete excision of Bowen's lesion and with a 4 months course of supplementation with a high concentration multistrain probiotic formulation administered orally and by rectal instillation with the purpose to reduce local inflammation and to enhance local mucosal immunity. Read More

    Differential proteomic analysis of actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma by label-free LC-MS/MS.
    J Dermatol Sci 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Centre for Translational Skin Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead, New South Wales, 2145, Australia; Department of Dermatology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, 2145, Australia. Electronic address:
    Background: The boundaries between actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD), and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are sometimes not clear. Large-scale proteomic profiling studies of these lesions are also non-existent.

    Objective: To evaluate proteomic changes between normal epidermis, AK, BD and cSCC that could support a molecular classification and improve our understanding of disease progression. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of bioimpedance spectroscopy in patients with lymphedema: A retrospective cohort analysis.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2018 Jul 9;71(7):1041-1050. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is used by healthcare specialists to diagnose lymphedema. BIS measures limb fluid content by assessing tissue resistance to the flow of electric current. However, there is debate regarding the validity of BIS in diagnosing early lymphedema. Read More

    Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for the differentiation between superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    First Department of Dermatology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Background: The dermoscopic features of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowen's disease (BD) have been extensively investigated and dermoscopy was shown to significantly improve their recognition. However, incorrectly diagnosed cases still exist, with a considerable number of sBCCs dermoscopically interpreted as BD. Our aim was to investigate the dermoscopic variability of sBCC and BD on different anatomic sites, to identify potent dermoscopic predictors for each diagnosis and to investigate the potential source of the inaccurate clinico-dermoscopic diagnosis of some sBCCs. Read More

    Laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's Disease: a randomised intra-patient comparison between a continuous and a fractional ablative CO laser mode.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.
    Background: Laser-assisted photodynamic therapy is being explored as a method to enhance efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT).

    Objective: To compare a continuous (CL) and a fractional (FL) ablative CO laser-assisted methyl aminolevulinate PDT in the management of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowen's Disease (BD).

    Methods: Thirty treatment areas in fifteen patients with inoperable, histologically verified sBCC or BD, received CL or FL after intra-patient randomisation. Read More

    Pan Afr Med J 2018 2;29. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Militaire Mohamed V, Rabat, Maroc.
    We here report the case of a16-year old patient, with no particular past medical history, presenting, with skin swelling at the level of the forefoot evolving for 02 years, at the Department of Dermatology. Clinical examination showed hard budding cutaneous mass painless on palpation covering the 2, the 3 and the 4, right toes, measuring 4 cm in large diameter. The remainder of the clinical examination was normal, without adenopathies. Read More

    An Integrated TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource to Drive High-Quality Survival Outcome Analytics.
    Cell 2018 Apr;173(2):400-416.e11
    Chan Soon-Shiong Institute of Molecular Medicine at Windber, Windber, PA 15963, USA. Electronic address:
    For a decade, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program collected clinicopathologic annotation data along with multi-platform molecular profiles of more than 11,000 human tumors across 33 different cancer types. TCGA clinical data contain key features representing the democratized nature of the data collection process. To ensure proper use of this large clinical dataset associated with genomic features, we developed a standardized dataset named the TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource (TCGA-CDR), which includes four major clinical outcome endpoints. Read More

    A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers.
    Cancer Cell 2018 Apr 2;33(4):690-705.e9. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:
    We analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Our aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. We found 61 somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) and 46 significantly mutated genes (SMGs). Read More

    The Cancer Genome Atlas Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Cell Rep 2018 Apr;23(1):313-326.e5
    Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the RCC subtypes reveals distinctive features of each subtype that provide the foundation for the development of subtype-specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients affected with these cancers. Read More

    Characterization of centriole duplication in human epidermis, Bowen's disease, and squamous cell carcinoma.
    J Dermatol Sci 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: Centrosomes contain two centrioles: a pre-existing mature centriole and a newly formed immature centriole. Each centriole is duplicated once within a cell cycle, which is crucial for proper centrosome duplication and cell division.

    Objective: To describe the centrosome duplication cycle in human epidermis, Bowen's disease (BD), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Read More

    Pagetoid Bowen Disease Initially Misdiagnosed as Ectopic Extramammary Paget's Disease.
    Ann Dermatol 2018 Apr 21;30(2):218-221. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Dermatology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
    Pagetoid Bowen disease is a histological variant of Bowen disease which demonstrates large pale staining cells (pagetoid cells). It requires differential diagnosis from other cutaneous malignancies with similar patterns, such as extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) and Pagetoid melanoma . Herein, we report a case of Pagetoid Bowen disease which was initially misdiagnosed as ectopic EMPD. Read More

    Psychological outcomes and surgical decisions after genetic testing in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer with and without a family history.
    Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Familial Cancer Service, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.
    In patients with early breast cancer, personal and tumour characteristics other than family history are increasingly used to prompt genetic testing to guide women's cancer management (treatment-focused genetic testing, 'TFGT'). Women without a known strong family history of breast and/or ovarian may be more vulnerable to psychological sequelae arising from TFGT. We compared the impact of TFGT in women with (FH+) and without (FH-) a strong family history on psychological adjustment and surgical decisions. Read More

    Rotavirus surveillance in Pakistan during 2015-2016 reveals high prevalence of G12P[6].
    J Med Virol 2018 Jul 12;90(7):1272-1276. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    The G12 rotavirus genotype has emerged globally since their first detection in 1987 from the Philippines; however it remains a rare cause of gastroenteritis in Pakistan. Rotavirus surveillance conducted during 2015-2016, assessed 3446 children <5 years hospitalized for gastroenteritis and found 802 (23.2%) positive on ELISA. Read More

    Dermoscopic Features of Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Lower Limbs: A Chameleon!
    Dermatology 2017 22;233(6):482-488. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Centro Oncologico ad Alta Tecnologia Diagnostica, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale - IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Background: Lower limbs represent an uncommon location for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and only few reports have described dermoscopic features of BCC in this body site. Since BCCs of the lower limbs frequently display nonclassic BCC dermoscopic criteria, they can simulate other benign or malignant lesions.

    Objective: Our aim was to describe the dermoscopic features of BCC located on lower limbs and to define which criteria were more associated with their benign- or malignant-looking appearance. Read More

    Phototherapy with Light Emitting Diodes: Treating a Broad Range of Medical and Aesthetic Conditions in Dermatology.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2018 Feb 1;11(2):21-27. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Dr. Ablon is with the Ablon Skin Institute and Research Center in Manhattan Beach, California.
    Within the field of dermatology, advances in the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) have led to their clinical application for a variety of medical and cosmetic uses. Of note, one phototherapy device has demonstrated beneficial effects over a range of clinical applications (Omnilux™; GlobalMed Technologies, Glen Ellen, California). The study included a literature review of published studies. Read More

    Glucose Monitoring Dermopathy.
    Skinmed 2018 1;16(1):74-75. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Marlton, NJ;
    A 75-year-old man had been monitoring his glucose using a blood glucose monitoring system at the same body site for at least 20 years (>7300 needlesticks). The asymptomatic skin lesion had been present for many years. He used the same site because it hurt less than the fingers and bled well. Read More

    Use of National Syphilis Surveillance Data to Develop a Congenital Syphilis Prevention Cascade and Estimate the Number of Potential Congenital Syphilis Cases Averted.
    Sex Transm Dis 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Background: Recent increases in reported congenital syphilis have led to an urgent need to identify interventions that will have the greatest impact on congenital syphilis prevention. We sought to create a congenital syphilis prevention cascade using national syphilis surveillance data to (1) estimate the proportion of potential congenital syphilis cases averted with current prevention efforts, and (2) develop a classification framework to better describe why reported cases were not averted.

    Methods: We reviewed national syphilis and congenital syphilis case report data from 2016, including pregnancy status of all reported female syphilis cases and data on prenatal care, testing, and treatment status of mothers of reported congenital syphilis cases to derive estimates of the proportion of pregnant women with syphilis who received prenatal care, syphilis testing, and adequate syphilis treatment at least 30 days prior to delivery, as well as the proportion of potential congenital syphilis cases averted. Read More

    T follicular helper-like cells contribute to skin fibrosis.
    Sci Transl Med 2018 Mar;10(431)
    Department of Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity, MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA.
    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a debilitating inflammatory and fibrotic disease that affects the skin and internal organs. Although the pathophysiology of SSc remains poorly characterized, mononuclear cells, mainly macrophages and T cells, have been implicated in inflammation and fibrosis. Inducible costimulator (ICOS), which is expressed on a subset of memory T helper (T) and T follicular helper (T) cells, has been shown to be increased in SSc and associated with disease pathology. Read More

    A Multivariable Prediction Model for Mortality in Individuals Admitted for Heart Failure.
    J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 May 6;66(5):902-908. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Center of Innovation in Long-term Services and Supports, Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Objectives: To derive and validate a 30-day mortality clinical prediction rule for heart failure based on admission data and prior healthcare usage. A secondary objective was to determine the discriminatory function for mortality at 1 and 2 years.

    Design: Observational cohort. Read More

    Hereditary cancer gene panel test reports: wide heterogeneity suggests need for standardization.
    Genet Med 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Department of Bioethics and Humanities, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    PurposeLaboratory-generated genomic test reports are used to convey complex, and frequently multivariant or uncertain, information about disease risk to medical genetics professionals as well as to nonspecialist clinicians, patients, and family members. However, few guidelines exist to guide the content and format of genomic test reports, and little is known about variation in current reporting practices.MethodsWe conducted a structured content analysis of hereditary cancer gene panel test reports obtained from 16 United States-based CLIA-certified laboratories, including reports describing a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) only and reports with both a VUS and pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) test result. Read More

    Cutaneous horn: A mask to underlying malignancy.
    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2018 Jan;22(Suppl 1):S87-S90
    Department of Oral Pathology, Manubhai Patel Dental College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
    Cutaneous horns () are uncommon lesions consisting of keratotic material resembling that of an animal horn. It is a conical- or cylindrical-shaped excessive hyperkeratosis of variable size ranging from few millimeters to several centimeters with a variable in size and shape, such as cylindrical, conical, pointed, transversely or longitudinally corrugated, or curved like a ram's horn. The lesions typically occur in sun-exposed areas, particularly the face, ear, nose, forearms and dorsum of hands. Read More

    Multi-state Syphilis Outbreak among American Indians, 2013-2015.
    Sex Transm Dis 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    This article summarizes a multi-state outbreak of heterosexual syphilis, including 134 cases of syphilis in adults and adolescents and at least two cases of congenital syphilis, which occurred on an American Indian reservation in the United States during 2013-2015. In addition to providing salient details about the outbreak, the article seeks to document the case-finding and treatment activities undertaken, their relative success or failure, and the lessons learned from a coordinated, multiagency response. Of 134 adult cases of syphilis, 40% were identified by enhanced, interagency contact tracing and partner services; 26% through symptomatic testing; and 16% through screening of asymptomatic individuals as the result of an electronic medical record (EMR) screening prompt. Read More

    Cryosurgery + 5% 5-Fluorouracil for Treatment of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma and Bowen's Disease.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2018 Feb 1:1203475418758973. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    2 Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Background: Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCis) are 2 types of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) that are amenable to treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil, cryosurgery, or topical imiquimod, among other destructive and surgical modalities. There are few studies examining the effectiveness of combination therapy with 5% 5-fluorouracil and cryosurgery for the treatment of sBCC and SCCis.

    Objectives: Our objective was to study the clinical cure rate achieved with the regimen of cryosurgery and a 3-week course of 5% 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of biopsy-proven sBCC and SCCis. Read More

    Immunohistochemical investigation of predictors of response or aggressiveness of bowen disease after photodynamic therapy.
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Jun 16;22:14-16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a good option for the treatment of Bowen's disease (BD). However, BD occasionally can progress into a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after PDT.

    Objective: Find predictors of aggressiveness of BD after PDT METHODS: Two biopsies of patients with BD treated with PDT with progression to SCC within three months were selected for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. Read More

    West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral genetic determinants of avian host competence.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 15;12(2):e0006302. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Arboviral Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Read More

    The role of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of Bowen's disease difficult to diagnose.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2018 Jan 31;8(1):63-65. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ege, Izmir, Turkey.
    There have been limited reports describing reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of Bowen's disease (BD). Herein, we describe the RCM features of a pigmented BD with atypical dermoscopic features, mimicking a melanoma. This case highlights the importance of RCM in a challenging BD. Read More

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