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    Mediterranean Spotted Fever in Children: Study of a Portuguese Endemic Region.
    Acta Med Port 2018 Apr 30;31(4):196-200. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Pediatric Department. Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro. Vila Real, Portugal.
    Introduction: Mediterranean spotted fever is an infectious disease included in the human rickettsiosis group, with its main distribution in the Mediterranean and South European countries. It is an endemic disease in Portugal, with dogs acting as the main domestic reservoir. Children are a particularly vulnerable group due to their close contact with household animals and by frequently playing outdoors. Read More

    [Symmetrical peripheral gangrene: 4 cases].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2018 Feb 21;145(2):95-99. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Service des maladies infectieuses, université de Sfax, CHU Hédi Chaker, 3029 Sfax, Tunisie.
    Background: Symmetric peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a symmetrical distal ischemic lesion on at least 2 or more extremities in the absence of proximal arterial obstruction and vasculitis. It is a rare and severe clinical entity. The aim of this study was to describe clinical symptoms, etiological agents and the management of SPG through a series of 4 cases. Read More

    First detection of Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Zambia.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Nov 7;116(11):3249-3251. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstrasse 11, 80937, Munich, Germany.
    Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Read More

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 mediates internalization of pathogenic spotted fever rickettsiae into host endothelium.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(8):e0183181. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Rickettsial infections continue to cause serious morbidity and mortality in severe human cases around the world. Host cell adhesion and invasion is an essential requisite for intracellular growth, replication, and subsequent dissemination of pathogenic rickettsiae. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans [HSPGs] facilitate the interactions between fibroblast growth factor(s) and their tyrosine kinase receptors resulting in receptor dimerization/activation and have been implicated in bacterial adhesion to target host cells. Read More

    [Rickettsiosis associated with cerebral infarction: a new case study].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 20;26:80. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Service de Neurlogie, Hopital Militaire Moulay Ismail, Meknès, Maroc.
    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a rickettsiosis of the spotted fever group caused by rickettsia conorii. This zoonosis is benign but it can be complicated by severe neurological impairment (hence its severity). We report the case of a 49-year old patient hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology for rickettsiosis, who suffered from right massive hemiplegia of brutal onset. Read More

    Israeli Spotted Fever in Sicily. Description of two cases and minireview.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Aug 10;61:7-12. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione Della Salute e Materno-Infantile, Università di Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:
    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is endemic in Italy, where Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii was thought to be the only pathogenic rickettsia and Rhipicephalus sanguineus the vector and main reservoir. R. Read More

    Epidemiological evaluation of Mediterranean spotted fever in children of the Karak province in south Jordan.
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2017 Mar 31;11(3):242-246. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological patterns of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) as well as its treatment and outcomes in children in south Jordan.

    Methodology: A retrospective observational study was conducted from June 2013 to December 2015. Data regarding demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Read More

    Mediterranean spotted fever in Spain, 1997-2014: Epidemiological situation based on hospitalization records.
    PLoS One 2017 29;12(3):e0174745. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    National Centre for Tropical Medicine, Health Institute Carlos III (ISCIII in Spanish), Madrid, Spain.
    Introduction: Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. In Spain, deficiencies in the official reporting result in misreporting of this disease. This study aims to describe the clinical and temporal-spatial characteristics of MSF hospitalizations between 1997 and 2014. Read More

    [Late diagnosis of fatal invasive rickettsial disease in the Intensive Care Unit].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 6;25:211. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Chirurgie Générale à la Faculté de Médecine de Tunis, Hôpital de Zaghouan, Avenue de l'Environnement, 1100 Zaghouan, Tunisie.
    Mediterranean spotted fever is an infectious disease belonging to the rickettsial group due to an intracellular bacterium: Rickettsia Conorii. Pauci-symptomatic and benign forms are predominant. Severe forms are rare and increasingly reported in the recent literature with potentially life-threatening severe multi-systemic involvement. Read More

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever: A Rare Non-Endemic Disease in the USA.
    Cureus 2017 Jan 12;9(1):e974. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Medicine, Overlook Medical Center.
    We report a case of a 43-year-old Israeli male who presented with an intermittent fever associated with a gradual appearance of diffusely scattered erythematous non-pruritic maculopapular lesions, generalized body malaise, muscle aches, and distal extremity weakness. He works in the Israeli military and has been exposed to dogs that are used to search for people in tunnels and claimed that he had removed ticks from the dogs. In the hospital, he presented with fever, a diffuse maculopapular rash, and an isolated round black eschar. Read More

    Small Regulatory RNAs of Rickettsia conorii.
    Sci Rep 2016 11 11;6:36728. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.
    Small regulatory RNAs comprise critically important modulators of gene expression in bacteria, yet very little is known about their prevalence and functions in Rickettsia species. R. conorii, the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, is a tick-borne pathogen that primarily infects microvascular endothelium in humans. Read More

    Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases in Croatia: Implications for travel medicine.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2016 Sep - Oct;14(5):436-443. Epub 2016 Jul 9.
    Medica, Medizinische Laboratorien Dr. F. Kaeppeli, Wolfbachstrasse 17, CH-8024 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Aim: To review the current state of knowledge concerning rickettsiae and rickettsioses in Croatia and to discuss their implications for travellers.

    Methods: The PubMed database was searched from 1991 to 2015 by combining the words "rickettsia," "rickettsiosis", "travellers" and "Croatia".

    Results: Since 1969, Croatia appears to be free of epidemic typhus (ET) caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and the last case of Brill-Zinsser disease was recorded in 2008. Read More

    Macrophagic activation syndrome related to an infection by Rickettsia conorii in a child.
    Arch Pediatr 2016 Oct 15;23(10):1076-1079. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Hedi Chaker hospital, pediatric department, Sfax, Tunisia; Faculty of medicine, Sfax, Tunisia.
    Since the Arab Spring, a resurgence of zoonotic diseases such as rickettsiosis, endemic in the Mediterranean basin, has been observed. It preferentially infects microvascular endothelial cells of mammalian hosts inducing vasculitis with endothelial injury. Rickettsioses are considered benign infectious diseases. Read More

    Scrub typhus and spotted fever among hospitalised children in South India: Clinical profile and serological epidemiology.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2016 Jul-Sep;34(3):293-8
    Department of Pediatrics, St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Rickettsial infections are re-emerging. In India, they are now being reported from several areas where they were previously unknown.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical profile and outcome of serologically-confirmed scrub typhus and spotted fever among children in a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru. Read More

    Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness in Sardinia, Italy: a clinical and microbiological study.
    Infection 2016 Dec 5;44(6):733-738. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 8, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
    Introduction: Rickettsioses represent a group of emerging infectious diseases in Europe. Climate changes and the anthropization of rural environment have favored vectors' biological cycle and geographic spread. In Sardinia, Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is endemic and represents an important public health problem. Read More

    Rickettsia conorii is a potent complement activator in vivo and combined inhibition of complement and CD14 is required for attenuation of the cytokine response ex vivo.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2016 Aug 20;22(8):734.e1-6. Epub 2016 May 20.
    Department of Immunology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; K.G. Jebsen Inflammatory Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:
    Mediterranean spotted fever caused by Rickettsia conorii is a potentially lethal disease characterized by vascular inflammation affecting multiple organs. Studies of R. conorii so far have focused on activation of inflammatory cells and their release of inflammatory cytokines, but complement activation has not been investigated in R. Read More

    Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks of migratory birds in Romania.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 05 20;9(1):294. Epub 2016 May 20.
    Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Calea Mănăştur 3-5, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Background: Birds are important hosts and dispersers of parasitic arthropods and vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. Particularly migratory species may carry these parasites over long distances in short time periods. Migratory hotspots present ideal conditions to get a snapshot of parasite and pathogen diversity of birds migrating between continents. Read More

    Rickettsia parkeri colonization in Amblyomma maculatum: the role of superoxide dismutases.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 05 20;9(1):291. Epub 2016 May 20.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, 39406, USA.
    Background: The Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum) is an arthropod vector of Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of American boutonneuse fever and an infectious agent of public health significance. In this study, we evaluated the biological significance of the superoxide dismutases (SODs) of A. maculatum in hematophagy and R. Read More

    High serum CXCL10 in Rickettsia conorii infection is endothelial cell mediated subsequent to whole blood activation.
    Cytokine 2016 07 12;83:269-274. Epub 2016 May 12.
    Department of Immunology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, P.B. 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; K.G. Jebsen Inflammatory Research Center, University of Oslo, P.B. 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.
    Background: The pathophysiological hallmark of Rickettsia conorii (R. conorii) infection comprises infection of endothelial cells with perivascular infiltration of T-cells and macrophages. Although interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 is induced during vascular inflammation, data on CXCL10 in R. Read More

    T-Lymphocyte Subset Absolute Counts in the Peripheral Blood of Mediterranean Spotted Fever Patients: Relations to Disease Severity.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2015 Apr-Jun;57(2):93-103
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, St. George University Hospital, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
    Introduction: Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Bulgaria is caused by Rickettsia conorii conorii.

    Aim: This study aims at investigating the absolute counts of T-lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of patients with MSF in order to establish relationships with disease severity.

    Materials And Methods: The absolute counts of T-lymphocyte subsets were tested in the blood of 62 patients in the acute stage of MSF. Read More

    Severe Israeli spotted fever with multiorgan failure in a child.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2016 07 12;7(5):663-664. Epub 2016 Feb 12.
    Dona Estefânia Hospital, Rua Jacinta Marto, 1169-045 Lisbon, Portugal.
    An increased risk of severe and fatal Israeli spotted fever (ISF) has been observed in adults, mostly associated with ISF strain. Here, we report a case of severe ISF with multiorgan failure in a Portuguese child. Read More

    Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.
    Epidemiol Infect 2016 07 22;144(9):1889-94. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
    Infectious Diseases Unit,Internal Medicine Service,Hospital de Terrassa,Terrassa,Spain.
    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. Read More

    Shell-vial culture, coupled with real-time PCR, applied to Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia massiliae-Bar29 detection, improving the diagnosis of the Mediterranean spotted fever.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2016 Apr 19;7(3):457-61. Epub 2016 Jan 19.
    Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí - Institut Universitari Parc Taulí - Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Parc Taulí 1, Sabadell, Barcelona, 08208, Spain. Electronic address:
    Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia massiliae-Bar29 are related to Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF). They are intracellular microorganisms. The Shell-vial culture assay (SV) improved Rickettsia culture but it still has some limitations: blood usually contains low amount of microorganisms and the samples that contain the highest amount of them are non-sterile. Read More

    Characterization of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from a city park of Rome, Italy.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2015 ;51(4):284-90
    Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive, Parassitarie ed Immunomediate, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Ticks are vectors and important reservoirs for microbial agents that cause disease in humans and animals. Among these pathogens, the members of Rickettsia species play an important role in public health.

    Aim And Methods: One hundred twenty-nine ticks belonging to four tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Haemaphysalis punctata) were collected at different sites of the Insugherata Natural Reserve, localized in the urban area of Rome, Italy. Read More

    Nonselective Persistence of a Rickettsia conorii Extrachromosomal Plasmid during Mammalian Infection.
    Infect Immun 2016 Jan 11;84(3):790-7. Epub 2016 Jan 11.
    Vector Borne Disease Laboratories, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
    Scientific analysis of the genus Rickettsia is undergoing a rapid period of change with the emergence of viable genetic tools. The development of these tools for the mutagenesis of pathogenic bacteria will permit forward genetic analysis of Rickettsia pathogenesis. Despite these advances, uncertainty still remains regarding the use of plasmids to study these bacteria in in vivo mammalian models of infection, namely, the potential for virulence changes associated with the presence of extrachromosomal DNA and nonselective persistence of plasmids in mammalian models of infection. Read More

    Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2015 Jul-Sep(3):17-21
    The paper analyzes data on the prevalence and possible epidemiological importance of Rickettsia raoultii. The possible risk of infection in the population was assessed from the results of a serological study of patients after tick suction and from those of molecular biological determination of contamination of removed carriers. The place of Rickettsia raoultii among other rickettsia causing rickettsioses of a tick-borne spotted fever group is assessed in Russia. Read More

    Randomized Trial of Clarithromycin for Mediterranean Spotted Fever.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Dec 28;60(3):1642-5. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    The classic antibiotic treatment for Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is based on tetracyclines or chloramphenicol, but chloramphenicol's bone marrow toxicity makes tetracyclines the treatment of choice. However, it is convenient to have alternatives available for patients who are allergic to tetracyclines, pregnant women, and children <8 years old. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to compare clarithromycin with doxycycline or josamycin in the treatment of MSF. Read More

    [Mediterranean Spotted Fever: Retrospective Review of Hospitalized Cases and Predictive Factors of Severe Disease].
    Acta Med Port 2015 Sep-Oct;28(5):624-31. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
    Unidade de Cuidados Intermédios Médico-Cirúrgicos. Centro Hospitalar do Porto. Porto. Portugal.
    Introduction: Mediterranean spotted fever, an ancient zoonotic disease raising current issues. This study aims to reevaluate the disease clinical picture and to identify prognostic factors related to severe disease.

    Material And Methods: We evaluate cases admitted to a central hospital during 12-year period. Read More

    Evaluation of a new serological test for the detection of anti-Coxiella and anti-Rickettsia antibodies.
    Microbes Infect 2015 Nov-Dec;17(11-12):811-6. Epub 2015 Sep 30.
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, University Hospital Center, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Coxiella burnetii and members of the genus Rickettsia are obligate intracellular bacteria. Since cultivation of these organisms requires dedicated techniques, their diagnosis usually relies on serological or molecular biology methods. Immunofluorescence is considered the gold standard to detect antibody-reactivity towards these organisms. Read More

    Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii Israeli Spotted Fever Strain Differentially Regulate Endothelial Cell Responses.
    PLoS One 2015 22;10(9):e0138830. Epub 2015 Sep 22.
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Rickettsiae primarily target microvascular endothelial cells. However, it remains elusive how endothelial cell responses to rickettsiae play a role in the pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. In the present study, we employed two rickettsial species with high sequence homology but differing virulence to investigate the pathological endothelial cell responses. Read More

    [Mediterranean Spotted Fever: epidemiological Assessment in Spain during the Period 2009-2012].
    Rev Esp Salud Publica 2015 May-Jun;89(3):321-8
    Background: The Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) is a zoonosis, produced by Rickettsia conorii whose vector is Rhipicephallus sanguineus. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology in Spain and its Autonomous Communities (AA.CC) and the average cost during the period 2009-2012. Read More

    A case of Mediterranean spotted fever associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome.
    Microbes Infect 2015 Nov-Dec;17(11-12):870-3. Epub 2015 Sep 3.
    Intensive Care Unit, Zadar General Hospital, Zadar, Croatia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia.
    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is usually a mild endemic rickettsial disease occurring in southern Croatia. We have reported the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of an acute MSF case associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome and hemodynamical instability. The patient recovered completely after antimicrobial treatment. Read More

    Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Sep 6;93(3):517-20. Epub 2015 Jul 6.
    Microbiology Laboratory, Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic; Faculty of Postgraduate Studies, University of Health Sciences, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; UMR_D190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales," Aix-Marseille University, IRD French Institute of Research for Development, EHESP French School of Public Health, Marseille, France; WHO Collaborating Center for Rickettsioses and other Arthropod-Borne Bacterial Diseases, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Queensland, Australia; Faculty of Science Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia; Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Copenhagen Centre for Disaster Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Centre of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic; Phalanxay District Hospital, Savannakhet Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic; Savannakhet Provincial Malaria Station, Savannakhet Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic
    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30. Read More

    Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome revealing subclinical Rickettsia conorii infection.
    Int Ophthalmol 2015 Oct 25;35(5):717-9. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, 5019, Monastir, Tunisia.
    The purpose of this study was to report a case of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome associated with subclinical Rickettsia conorii infection. We report a case of a 66-year-old male patient presented with unilateral persistent granulomatous conjunctivitis in the left eye and an ipsilateral preauricular lymphadenopathy without associated systemic features. Laboratory evaluation showed a positive indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for R. Read More

    The role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato saliva in the dissemination of Rickettsia conorii in C3H/HeJ mice.
    Med Vet Entomol 2015 Sep 26;29(3):225-9. Epub 2015 May 26.
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, U.S.A.
    Animal models have been developed for the study of rickettsial pathogenesis. However, to understand what occurs during the natural route of rickettsial transmission via the tick bite, the role of tick saliva should be considered in these models. To address this, we analysed the role of tick saliva in the transmission of Rickettsia conorii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in a murine host by intradermally (i. Read More

    Mediterranean spotted fever and hearing impairment: a rare complication.
    Int J Infect Dis 2015 Jun 16;35:34-6. Epub 2015 Apr 16.
    Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Haemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medico-Chirurgica e dei Trapianti, Università degli Studi di Milano, Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It is prevalent in southern Europe, Africa and central Asia. The disease usually has a benign course and is characterized by fever, myalgia and a characteristic papular rash with an inoculation eschar ('tache noir') at the site of the tick bite. Read More

    [South African tick bite fever in a group of Russian tourists].
    Ter Arkh 2014 ;86(11):82-3
    The paper describes a clinical case of South African tick bite fever in a group of Russian tourists. The group of 5 people who had been ill with this disease after a tourist trip to the South African Republic (the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern province of Mpumalanga) were followed up. During their trip, all of them were bitten by different insects many times. Read More

    Unlocking proteomic heterogeneity in complex diseases through visual analytics.
    Proteomics 2015 Apr;15(8):1405-18
    Institute for Translational Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Despite years of preclinical development, biological interventions designed to treat complex diseases such as asthma often fail in phase III clinical trials. These failures suggest that current methods to analyze biomedical data might be missing critical aspects of biological complexity such as the assumption that cases and controls come from homogeneous distributions. Here we discuss why and how methods from the rapidly evolving field of visual analytics can help translational teams (consisting of biologists, clinicians, and bioinformaticians) to address the challenge of modeling and inferring heterogeneity in the proteomic and phenotypic profiles of patients with complex diseases. Read More

    Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.
    PLoS One 2015 21;10(1):e0116658. Epub 2015 Jan 21.
    Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. Read More

    Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.
    BMJ Case Rep 2015 Jan 7;2015. Epub 2015 Jan 7.
    Department of Pediatric, Hospital Dona Estefania, Lisboa, Portugal.
    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Read More

    Incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever in Sicilian children: a clinical-epidemiological observational retrospective study from 1987 to 2010.
    Int J Infect Dis 2015 Feb 6;31:35-40. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
    Acute and Emergency Paediatric and General Paediatric Operative Unit, Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele Hospital, University of Catania, Italy.
    Background: Zoonoses are human infectious diseases caused by pathogens that primarily infect animals. Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) represents one such example, affecting the Mediterranean region, in which household animals can be immune-carriers of infected ticks.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analysed the incidence and the clinical and laboratory features of MSF caused by R. Read More

    [A 2-month-old baby with Mediterranean spotted fever].
    Arch Pediatr 2014 Jul 13;21(7):772-5. Epub 2014 Jun 13.
    Service de pédiatrie, centre hospitalier de Perpignan, 20, avenue du Languedoc, 66046 Perpignan cedex 9, France.
    Introduction: Mediterranean spotted fever is an endemic rickettsiosis in southern France. We report here the case of a 2-month-old baby who developed rickettsiosis after a tick bite.

    Clinical Fact: A 2-month-old baby was hospitalized in the pediatric ward for fever with maculopapular rash extending to the palms and plantar surfaces and an eschar after a tick bite. Read More

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