59,301 results match your criteria Boundary Value Problems[Journal]


Salivary lubricity (ex vivo) enhances upon moderate exercise: A pilot study.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 May 7;116:104743. Epub 2020 May 7.

Food Colloids and Bioprocessing Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: This study sought to examine the effects of moderate intensity exercise on lubrication performance of saliva. We hypothesized that exercise would result in enhanced salivary lubricity by direct sympathetic stimulation of the salivary proteins.

Study Design: In total, 11 healthy young pre-menopausal female participants (mean age: 24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104743DOI Listing

WGAN domain adaptation for the joint optic disc-and-cup segmentation in fundus images.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Petuum Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, 15222, USA.

Purpose: The cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), a clinical metric of the relative size of the optic cup to the optic disc, is a key indicator of glaucoma, a chronic eye disease leading to loss of vision. CDR can be measured from fundus images through the segmentation of optic disc and optic cup . Deep convolutional networks have been proposed to achieve biomedical image segmentation with less time and more accuracy, but requires large amounts of annotated training data on a target domain, which is often unavailable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-020-02144-9DOI Listing

Variation of Microbial Diversity in Catastrophic Oil Spill Area in Marine Ecosystem and Hydrocarbon Degradation of UCMs (Unresolved Complex Mixtures) by Marine Indigenous Bacteria.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Ming-Shung, Chiayi County, 62102, Taiwan.

The study targeted an assessment of microbial diversity during oil spill in the marine ecosystem (Kaohsiung port, Taiwan) and screened dominant indigenous bacteria for oil degradation, as well as UCM weathering. DO was detected lower and TDS/conductivity was observed higher in oil-spilled area, compared to the control, where a significant correlation (R = 1; P < 0.0001) was noticed between DO and TDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-020-03335-5DOI Listing

A Report On Fluctuating Free Convection Flow Of Heat Absorbing Viscoelastic Dusty Fluid Past In A Horizontal Channel With MHD Effect.

Sci Rep 2020 May 22;10(1):8523. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Science, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Al-Dawaser, 11991, Saudi Arabia.

The free convective unsteady fluctuating, MHD flow of electrically conducting viscoelastic dusty fluid in a channel-driven with the impact of oscillating pressure gradient and the motion of the upper plate has been studied in this article. The noteworthy heat generation/absorption has also taken into account, the heat generation established the mechanism of heat transfer by both the momentum of fluid and the motion of dust particle and absorption of heat by the dust particle is because of conduction. The coupled governing partial differential equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equation through the assumed periodic solutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65252-1DOI Listing

Effect of SWCNT and MWCNT on the flow of micropolar hybrid nanofluid over a curved stretching surface with induced magnetic field.

Sci Rep 2020 May 22;10(1):8488. Epub 2020 May 22.

Mathematics and its Applications in Life Sciences Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

We considered the magnetized micro polar fluid with hybrid nanomaterial flow over a curved stretching surface. We discussed the effects of single wall carbon nanotube and multiwall carbon nanotube with base fluids (water and propylene glycol). Under the flow assumptions, we developed the mathematical model and applied the boundary layer approximations to reduce the system of partial differential equations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65278-5DOI Listing

DCU-Net: Multi-scale U-Net for brain tumor segmentation.

J Xray Sci Technol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

College of Information Science and Technology, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in assisting diagnosis of disease, treatment plan planning, and surgical navigation.

Objective: This study aims to improve the accuracy of tumor boundary segmentation using the multi-scale U-Net network.

Methods: In this study, a novel U-Net with dilated convolution (DCU-Net) structure is proposed for brain tumor segmentation based on the classic U-Net structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/XST-200650DOI Listing

Patterning and mechanics of somite boundaries in zebrafish embryos.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

École Polytechnique Fédérale Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The body axis of vertebrates is subdivided into repetitive compartments called somites, which give rise primarily to the segmented architecture of the musculoskeletal system in the adult body. Somites form in a sequential and rhythmic manner in embryos and a physical boundary separates each somite from the rest of the unsegmented tissue and adjoining somites. Precise positioning of somite boundaries and determination of boundary cell fate in a select group of cells is thought to be driven by gene expression patterns and morphogen gradients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.04.014DOI Listing

Microstructural Study of a Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Hot Compressed at a High Strain Rate.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 20;13(10). Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

Understanding the correlation of plasticity with deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors, in magnesium (Mg) alloys deformed under high-strain-rate conditions, is increasingly important for wrought Mg processing. In the present study, a ZK30 (Mg-2.61%Zn-0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13102348DOI Listing

An embodied energy perspective of urban economy: A three-scale analysis for Beijing 2002-2012 with headquarter effect.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 6;732:139097. Epub 2020 May 6.

HAAM Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

As the typical characteristic of globalization, large-scale agglomeration of headquarters in urban economies exerts extensive cross-border trade links, and inevitably generates energy use outside their boundary. Therefore, studies about urban economies' energy use profiles should pay special attention to the tremendous energy transfers embodied in their trade connections along the whole supply chain. In this regard, a three-scale input-output model which distinguishes local, domestic and foreign activities is devised to reflect cross border embodied energy perspective for urban economies, with an intensive case study for Beijing during 2002-2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139097DOI Listing

Direct Observation of Flatband Loop States Arising from Nontrivial Real-Space Topology.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 May;124(18):183901

The MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics Institute and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457, China.

Topological properties of lattices are typically revealed in momentum space using concepts such as the Chern number. Here, we study unconventional loop states, namely, the noncontractible loop states (NLSs) and robust boundary modes, mediated by nontrivial topology in real space. While such states play a key role in understanding fundamental physics of flatband systems, their experimental observation has been hampered because of the challenge in realizing desired boundary conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.183901DOI Listing

First-Order Magnetic Phase Transition of Mobile Electrons in Monolayer MoS_{2}.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 May;124(18):187602

Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Evidence is presented for a first-order magnetic phase transition in a gated two-dimensional semiconductor, monolayer-MoS_{2}. The phase boundary separates a ferromagnetic phase at low electron density and a paramagnetic phase at high electron density. Abrupt changes in the optical response signal an abrupt change in the magnetism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.187602DOI Listing

Estimating New Zealand's harvested wood products carbon stocks and stock changes.

Carbon Balance Manag 2020 May 21;15(1):10. Epub 2020 May 21.

Scion-New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited, Rotorua, New Zealand.

Background: Reducing net greenhouse gas emissions through conserving existing forest carbon stocks and encouraging additional uptake of carbon in existing and new forests have become important climate change mitigation tools. The contribution of harvested wood products (HWPs) to increasing carbon uptake has been recognised and approaches to quantifying this pool developed. In New Zealand, harvesting has more than doubled since 1990 while log exports have increased by a factor of 11 due to past afforestation and comparatively little expansion in domestic processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13021-020-00144-5DOI Listing

Thecodont tooth attachment and replacement in bolosaurid parareptiles.

PeerJ 2020 13;8:e9168. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

Permian bolosaurid parareptiles are well-known for having complex tooth crowns and complete tooth rows in the jaws, in contrast to the comparatively simple teeth and frequent replacement gaps in all other Paleozoic amniotes. Analysis of the specialized dentition of the bolosaurid parareptiles from North America and from Russia, utilizing a combination of histological and tomographic data, reveals unusual patterns of tooth development and replacement. The data confirm that bolosaurid teeth have thecodont implantation with deep roots, the oldest known such example among amniotes, and independently evolved among much younger archosauromorphs (including dinosaurs and crocodilians) and among synapsids (including mammals). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229766PMC

Boundary condition controls on the high-sand-flux regions of Mars.

Geology 2019 May 11;47(5):427-430. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.

Wind has been an enduring geologic agent throughout the history of Mars, but it is often unclear where and why sediment is mobile in the current epoch. We investigated whether eolian bed-form (dune and ripple) transport rates are depressed or enhanced in some areas by local or regional boundary conditions (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/g45793.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241575PMC

Magnetic Dipole Impact on the Hybrid Nanofluid Flow over an Extending Surface.

Sci Rep 2020 May 21;10(1):8474. Epub 2020 May 21.

KMUTT Fixed Point Research Laboratory, Room SCL 802 Fixed Point Laboratory, Science Laboratory Building, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bang Mod, Thrung Khru, Bangkok, 10140, Thailand.

The main features of present numerical model is to explore and compare the behavior of simple and hybrid nanoparticles, which were allowed to move on a spreading sheet. The effect of magnetic dipole on hybrid nanofluid flow is considered. A magnetic dipole combined with hybrid nanofluid plays a vital role in controlling the momentum and thermal boundary layers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65298-1DOI Listing

Cell-fate plasticity, adhesion and cell sorting complementarily establish a sharp midbrain-hindbrain boundary.

Development 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Center for Regenerative Therapies TU Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 105, 01307 Dresden, Germany

The formation and maintenance of sharp boundaries between groups of cells play a vital role during embryonic development as they serve to compartmentalize cells with similar fates. Some of these boundaries also act as organizers, with the ability to induce specific cell fates and morphogenesis in the surrounding cells. The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is such an organizer that also acts as a lineage restriction boundary to prevent the intermingling of cells with different developmental fates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.186882DOI Listing

Visualizing Phase Boundaries with Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Reactivity at phase boundaries is central to many areas of chemistry, from synthesis to heterogeneous catalysis. New tools are necessary to gain a more detailed understanding of processes occurring at these boundaries. We describe a series of experiments to visualize phase boundaries using electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) on glassy carbon electrodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01207DOI Listing

Attention shifting during the reading of Chinese sentences.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science.

An eye-movement-contingent probe detection task was used to determine the allocation of visual attention during Chinese reading. On a subset of trials, a to-be-detected visual probe replaced visual text when the eyes crossed and landed to the right of an invisible interword boundary. The probe was either near the fixated location or at a more distant location in the right or left visual field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000755DOI Listing

Bidirectional transfer of Engrailed homeoprotein across the plasma membrane requires PIP.

J Cell Sci 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), College de France, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Research University, Paris, France

Homeoproteins are a class of transcription factors sharing the unexpected property of intercellular trafficking that confers to homeoproteins a paracrine mode of action. Homeoprotein paracrine action participates to the control of patterning processes, including axonal guidance, brain plasticity and boundary formation. Internalization and secretion, the two steps of intercellular transfer, rely on unconventional mechanisms but the cellular mechanisms at stake still need to be fully characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.244327DOI Listing

Modelling Free-Living and Particle-Associated Bacterial Assemblages across the Deep and Hypoxic Lower St. Lawrence Estuary.

mSphere 2020 May 20;5(3). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

The Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL) in eastern Canada are among the largest and most productive coastal ecosystems in the world. Very little information on bacterial diversity exists, hampering our understanding of the relationships between bacterial community structure and biogeochemical function in the EGSL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00364-20DOI Listing

The fornix acts as a permissive corridor for septal neuron migration beyond the diencephalic-telencephalic boundary.

Sci Rep 2020 May 20;10(1):8315. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Gross Anatomy and Morphogenesis, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan.

Neuronal migration is essential for constructing functional neural networks. Two posterior septal (PS) nuclei, the triangular septal nucleus and bed nuclei of the anterior commissure, are involved in fear and anxiety. During development, glutamatergic PS neurons undergo long-distance rostrodorsal migration from the thalamic eminence (TE) of the diencephalon, then settle in the caudalmost telencephalon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65284-7DOI Listing

Placental Flattening via Volumetric Parameterization.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2019 Oct 10;11767:39-47. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.

We present a volumetric mesh-based algorithm for flattening the placenta to a canonical template to enable effective visualization of local anatomy and function. Monitoring placental function promises to support pregnancy assessment and to improve care outcomes. We aim to alleviate visualization and interpretation challenges presented by the shape of the placenta when it is attached to the curved uterine wall. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32251-9_5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235151PMC
October 2019

Operating at the extreme: estimating the upper yield boundary of winter wheat production in commercial practice.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Apr 22;7(4):191919. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.

Wheat farming provides 28.5% of global cereal production. After steady growth in average crop yield from 1950 to 1990, wheat yields have generally stagnated, which prompts the question of whether further improvements are possible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211843PMC

Antarctic petrels 'on the ice rocks': wintering strategy of an Antarctic seabird.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Apr 1;7(4):191429. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.

There is a paucity of information on the foraging ecology, especially individual use of sea-ice features and icebergs, over the non-breeding season in many seabird species. Using geolocators and stable isotopes, we defined the movements, distribution and diet of adult Antarctic petrels from the largest known breeding colony, the inland Svarthamaren, Antarctica. More specifically, we examined how sea-ice concentration and free-drifting icebergs affect the distribution of Antarctic petrels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211841PMC

Population epigenetic divergence exceeds genetic divergence in the Eastern oyster in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

Evol Appl 2020 May 7;13(5):945-959. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Biological Sciences Louisiana State University Baton Rouge LA USA.

Populations may respond to environmental heterogeneity via evolutionary divergence or phenotypic plasticity. While evolutionary divergence occurs through DNA sequence differences among populations, plastic divergence among populations may be generated by changes in the epigenome. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide comparison of DNA methylation patterns and genetic structure among four populations of Eastern oyster () in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232765PMC

Mechanical Buckling Analysis of Saturated Porous Functionally Graded Elliptical Plates Subjected to In-Plane Force Resting on Two Parameters Elastic Foundation Based on HSDT.

J Press Vessel Technol 2020 Aug 10;142(4):041302. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran 15847-43311, Iran.

In this paper, mechanical buckling analysis of a functionally graded (FG) elliptical plate, which is made up of saturated porous materials and is resting on two parameters elastic foundation, is investigated. The plate is subjected to in-plane force and mechanical properties of the plate assumed to be varied through the thickness of it according to three different functions, which are called porosity distributions. Since it is assumed that the plate to be thick, the higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) is employed to analyze the plate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4046707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7172871PMC

Large Effective Slip on Lubricated Surfaces Measured with Colloidal Probe AFM.

Langmuir 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Chemistry and the University of Sydney Nano Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

In this work, we study the interfacial boundary conditions at the interface between two immiscible liquids under a laminar flow. We measure the hydrodynamic drainage forces acting on a colloid probe as it approaches a flat and smooth Teflon film coated with silicone oil films, submerged in a sucrose solution using atomic force microscopy. On Teflon substrates, silicone oil films of thickness several hundred nanometers could be stabilized, and we found the effective slip length over these to be of the order of several hundred nanometers which increases with increasing silicone oil film thickness, as expected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02935DOI Listing

Comparing manual and automatic scoring of sleep monitoring data from portable polygraphy.

J Sleep Res 2020 May 20:e13036. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

We used sleep monitoring data from a study that investigated the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and type of sleep apnea (SA) in 579 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Most patients were screened for two nights, resulting in 1,043 sleep recordings that each contained data from one night. SA was diagnosed using the Nox T3 portable sleep monitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13036DOI Listing

Laparoscopic Anatomical Portal Territory Hepatectomy with Cirrhosis by Takasaki's Approach and Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Navigation (with Video).

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Anatomical liver resection has shown advantages in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).1 Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy for some deep lesions remains challenging, especially for anatomical resection.2 Because of many kinds of hepatic venous variations, resection along the hepatic vein may not be a "real" anatomical resection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08592-6DOI Listing

Comparing a global high-resolution downscaled fossil fuel CO emission dataset to local inventory-based estimates over 14 global cities.

Carbon Balance Manag 2020 May 19;15(1). Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Compilation of emission inventories (EIs) for cities is a whole new challenge to assess the subnational climate mitigation effort under the Paris Climate Agreement. Some cities have started compiling EIs, often following a global community protocol. However, EIs are often difficult to systematically examine because of the ways they were compiled (data collection and emission calculation) and reported (sector definition and direct vs consumption). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13021-020-00146-3DOI Listing

Developing a typology of the roles public contributors undertake to establish legitimacy: a longitudinal case study of patient and public involvement in a health network.

BMJ Open 2020 May 18;10(5):e033370. Epub 2020 May 18.

Public contributor, Bristol, UK.

Objective: To identify how public contributors established their legitimacy in the functioning of a patient and public involvement programme at a health network.

Design: A longitudinal case study with three embedded units (projects) involving public contributors. Interviews (n=24), observations (n=27) and documentary data collection occurred over 16 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033370DOI Listing

Oscillating collective motion of active rotors in confinement.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;

Due to its inherent out-of-equilibrium nature, active matter in confinement may exhibit collective behavior absent in unconfined systems. Extensive studies have indicated that hydrodynamic or steric interactions between active particles and boundary play an important role in the emergence of collective behavior. However, besides introducing external couplings at the single-particle level, the confinement also induces an inhomogeneous density distribution due to particle-position correlations, whose effect on collective behavior remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922633117DOI Listing

Characteristics and sources of WSI in North China Plain: A simultaneous measurement at the summit and foot of Mount Tai.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Jun 24;92:264-277. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

To better understand the characteristics and sources of water soluble ions (WSI) in North China Plain (NCP), fine particles (PM) were simultaneously sampled at the summit (SM) and foot (FT) of Mount Tai during May 12th to June 24th, 2017. Ion chromatography analysis showed that concentration of WSI was lower at SM (22.26 ± 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.02.017DOI Listing

Meteorological mechanism for a large-scale persistent severe ozone pollution event over eastern China in 2017.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Jun 27;92:187-199. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

An intensive and persistent regional ozone pollution event occurred over eastern China from 25 June to 5 July 2017. 73 out of 96 selected cities, most located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the surrounding area (BTHS), suffered severe ozone pollution. A north-south contrast ozone distribution, with higher ozone (199 ± 33 μg/m) in the BTHS and lower ozone (118 ± 25 μg/m) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), was found to be dominated by the position of the West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and mid-high latitude wave activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.02.019DOI Listing

Extraction Force Prediction for Male Entrapment Victims with Different Body Types Submerged below the Grain Surface.

J Agric Saf Health 2019 Apr;25(2):77-90

One contributor to agriculture's high death rate is confined space fatalities caused by entrapment in grain. Over 1,000 grain-related fatalities have been documented by researchers in 43 states, and states with the largest grain storage capacities have been shown to experience a proportionally larger number of suffocation fatalities. Several researchers have measured extraction forces in specific conditions, but a reference standard is needed for estimating the extraction forces for grain suffocation victims in common conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/jash.13155DOI Listing

A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Cooperative Game Theory Combined Multiple Mobile Robot Navigation Algorithm.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 16;20(10). Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Jeonju University, Jeonju 55069, Korea.

This study presents a multi-robot navigation strategy based on a multi-objective decision-making algorithm, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). FAHP analytically selects an optimal position as a sub-goal among points on the sensing boundary of a mobile robot considering the following three objectives: the travel distance to the target, collision safety with obstacles, and the rotation of the robot to face the target. Alternative solutions are evaluated by quantifying the relative importance of the objectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102827DOI Listing

Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in CT images based on 3D-UNET combined with three-dimensional conditional random field optimization.

Med Phys 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Pulmonary nodules are a potential manifestation of lung cancer. In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of lung cancer, it is of great significance to extract the complete boundary of the pulmonary nodules in the CT (computed tomography) scans accurately. It can provide doctors with important information such as tumor size and density, which assist doctors in subsequent diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14248DOI Listing

Roles of Tyrosine Kinases and Phosphatases in the Formation and Dispersal of Acetylcholine Receptor Clusters.

Neurosci Lett 2020 May 16:135054. Epub 2020 May 16.

Division of Life Science, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; College of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

The formation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters at the postsynaptic muscle membrane in response to motor innervation is a key event in the development of the neuromuscular junction. The synaptic AChR clustering process is initiated by motor axon-released agrin, which activates a tyrosine kinase-based signaling pathway to cause AChR aggregation. In cultured muscle cells, AChR clustering is elicited by diverse nonneural signals, and this process is also mediated by tyrosine kinases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135054DOI Listing

Root Development: A Go-Faster Stripe and Spoilers.

Authors:
Tom Bennett

Dev Cell 2020 May;53(4):372-374

School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

Root growth depends on spatially distinct cell division and elongation activities in the root meristem. The correct positioning of a "transition zone" boundary between the division and elongation zones is critical for efficient root growth; new work from Salvi et al. sheds light on how this boundary is established and maintained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.04.017DOI Listing

Unstable twin in body-centered cubic tungsten nanocrystals.

Nat Commun 2020 May 19;11(1):2497. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15261, USA.

Twinning is commonly activated in plastic deformation of low stacking-fault face-centered cubic (Fcc) metals but rarely found in body-centered cubic (Bcc) metals under room temperature and slow strain rates. Here, by conducting in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at atomic scale, we discover that, in stark contrast to those in most Fcc metals, a majority of deformation twins in Bcc metals are unstable and undergo spontaneously detwinning upon unloading. Such unexpected instability of Bcc twins is found to be closely related to the prevalence of the inclined twin boundaries-a peculiar structure where twin boundaries are not parallel to the twinning plane, and the degree of instability is in direct proportion to the fraction of the inclined twin boundary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16349-8DOI Listing

The 'Male Flower' of (Euphorbiaceae) Interpreted as a Multi-Flowered Unit.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 30;8:313. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

One of the most exciting questions in botany refers to the nature of the angiosperm flower. While most flowering structures are easily identified as flowers, there are few examples lying in-between flowers and inflorescences. Such an example is the staminate unit ('male flower') in (Euphorbiaceae) famous for its branched 'staminal trees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204434PMC

and Are Associated With Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease and Its Suspected Sources of Transmission.

Front Microbiol 2020 23;11:681. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL, United States.

In 2014, Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease (SCTLD) was first detected off the coast of Miami, FL, United States, and continues to persist and spread along the Florida Reef Tractr (FRT) and into the Caribbean. SCTLD can have up to a 61% prevalence in reefs and has affected at least 23 species of scleractinian corals. This has contributed to the regional near-extinction of at least one coral species, . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212369PMC

Don't Be Afraid to Fail Because You Can Learn From It! How Intrinsic Motivation Leads to Enhanced Self-Development and Benevolent Leadership as a Boundary Condition.

Front Psychol 2020 16;11:699. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.

Employee learning from failures is key to effective employee functioning and long-term sustainable development. Although failure is an essential part of the learning process, it is less certain of why individuals would learn from failures and the benefits associated with it. Thus, it is significant to explore the cause and the consequence of learning from failures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212472PMC

Histologic examination of the shoulder capsule shows new layer of elastic fibres between synovial and fibrous membrane.

J Orthop 2020 Nov-Dec;22:251-255. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

University of Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Institute for Anatomy I, Universitätsstr. 1, D-40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Purpose: In the present study, a systematic histological analysis of the glenohumeral joint capsule was conducted.

Materials And Methods: 12 cadaveric shoulders were examined. Inclusion criteria were: 1) intact joint capsule and 2) fixation in neutral position. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2020.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226680PMC

Mechanical characterization of porcine liver properties for computational simulation of indentation on cancerous tissue.

Math Med Biol 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Institute of Biomechanics, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16-II, 8010 Graz, Austria and Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

An accurate characterization of soft biological tissue properties is essential for a realistic simulation of surgical procedures. Unconfined uniaxial compression tests with specimens affixed to the fixtures are often performed to characterize the stress-stretch curves of soft biological tissues, with which the material parameters can be obtained. However, the constrained boundary condition causes non-uniform deformation during the uniaxial test, posing challenges for accurate measurement of tissue deformation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/dqaa006DOI Listing

Wall entrapment of peritrichous bacteria: a mesoscale hydrodynamics simulation study.

Soft Matter 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Theoretical Soft Matter and Biophysics, Institute of Complex Systems and Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich and JARA, D-52425 Jülich, Germany.

Microswimmers such as E. coli bacteria accumulate and exhibit an intriguing dynamics near walls, governed by hydrodynamic and steric interactions. Insight into the underlying mechanisms and predominant interactions demand a detailed characterization of the entrapment process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sm00571aDOI Listing

Switching of band inversion and topological surface states by charge density wave.

Nat Commun 2020 May 18;11(1):2466. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

Topologically nontrivial materials host protected edge states associated with the bulk band inversion through the bulk-edge correspondence. Manipulating such edge states is highly desired for developing new functions and devices practically using their dissipation-less nature and spin-momentum locking. Here we introduce a transition-metal dichalcogenide VTe, that hosts a charge density wave (CDW) coupled with the band inversion involving V3d and Te5p orbitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16290-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235022PMC

Slip rates along the narrow Magallanes Fault System, Tierra Del Fuego Region, Patagonia.

Sci Rep 2020 May 18;10(1):8180. Epub 2020 May 18.

Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas (FCFM), Universidad de Chile, Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago, RM, Chile.

The up to 1000 km-long Magallanes Fault System (MFS) is the southernmost onshore strike-slip plate boundary and located between the South American and Scotia Plates. Slip-rates, a key factor for understanding neotectonics and seismic hazard are only available there from geodetic models. In this study, we present the first direct geologic evidence of MFS slip rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64750-6DOI Listing

Transcriptomic network analyses shed light on the regulation of cuticle development in maize leaves.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Plant Biology Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;

Plant cuticles are composed of wax and cutin and evolved in the land plants as a hydrophobic boundary that reduces water loss from the plant epidermis. The expanding maize adult leaf displays a dynamic, proximodistal gradient of cuticle development, from the leaf base to the tip. Laser microdissection RNA Sequencing (LM-RNAseq) was performed along this proximodistal gradient, and complementary network analyses identified potential regulators of cuticle biosynthesis and deposition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004945117DOI Listing

Thermogenic carbon release from the Central Atlantic magmatic province caused major end-Triassic carbon cycle perturbations.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo, Norway.

The Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP), the end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE), and associated major carbon cycle perturbations occurred synchronously around the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary (201 Ma). Negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) recorded in marine and terrestrial sediments attest to the input of isotopically light carbon, although the carbon sources remain debated. Here, we explore the effects of mantle-derived and thermogenic carbon released from the emplacement of CAMP using the long-term ocean-atmosphere-sediment carbon cycle reservoir (LOSCAR) model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000095117DOI Listing