4,352 results match your criteria Botulism

Spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of dipicolinic acid and its salt photoproducts - A UVc effect study on DPA in solution and in bacterial spores.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Jun 17;280:121502. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

UMR Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques, L'Institut Agro Dijon, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 1, Esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon, France; Dimacell Imaging Facility, L'Institut Agro Dijon, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 1 Esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Bacterial spores can cause significant problems such as food poisoning (like neurotoxin or emetic toxin) or serious illnesses (like anthrax or botulism). This dormant form of bacteria, made of several layers of barriers which provide extreme resistance to many abiotic stresses (radiation, temperature, pressure, etc.), are difficult to investigate in situ. Read More

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Regulatory Networks Controlling Neurotoxin Synthesis in and .

Toxins (Basel) 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

and are Gram-positive, spore-forming, and anaerobic bacteria that produce the most potent neurotoxins, botulinum toxin (BoNT) and tetanus toxin (TeNT), responsible for flaccid and spastic paralysis, respectively. The main habitat of these toxigenic bacteria is the environment (soil, sediments, cadavers, decayed plants, intestinal content of healthy carrier animals). can grow and produce BoNT in food, leading to food-borne botulism, and in some circumstances, can colonize the intestinal tract and induce infant botulism or adult intestinal toxemia botulism. Read More

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Inadequate Refrigeration of Some Commercial Foods Is a Continued Cause of Foodborne Botulism in the United States, 1994-2021.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2022 Jun;19(6):417-422

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Foodborne botulism is a rapidly progressive potentially fatal paralyzing illness caused by the consumption of botulinum neurotoxin, which is most commonly produced by Refrigeration is the primary barrier to botulinum neurotoxin production in many processed foods. toxin production has occurred and caused botulism in the United States when foods that were not processed to destroy spores of were stored in an anaerobic environment and not properly refrigerated. We identified 37 cases, including 4 deaths, that occurred during 1994-2021 in the United States from 13 events associated with inadequate refrigeration of commercially produced products. Read More

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Synergistic interaction between pH and NaCl in the limits of germination and outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes and Group I Clostridium botulinum vegetative cells and spores after heat treatment.

Food Microbiol 2022 Sep 4;106:104055. Epub 2022 May 4.

Centre Technique pour la Conservation des Produits Agricoles, Unité Expertise dans la Maîtrise du Risque Industriel en Thermorésistants Sporulés (EMaiRIT'S), UMT Qualiveg 2, 449 Avenue Clément-Ader, 84911, Avignon, France.

Group I Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes are physiologically and genetically closely related. Both are widely distributed in the environment and can cause foodborne botulism. In this work, a physiological study was conducted with 37 isolates from spoiled canned food and five referenced strains of C. Read More

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September 2022

Antidotal treatment of botulism in rats by continuous infusion with 3,4-diaminopyridine.

Mol Med 2022 06 3;28(1):61. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Gunpowder, MD, 21010, USA.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent, select agent toxins that inhibit neurotransmitter release at motor nerve terminals, causing muscle paralysis and death by asphyxiation. Other than post-exposure prophylaxis with antitoxin, the only treatment option for symptomatic botulism is intubation and supportive care until recovery, which can require weeks or longer. In previous studies, we reported the FDA-approved drug 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) reverses early botulism symptoms and prolongs survival in lethally intoxicated mice. Read More

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Infant botulism: Report of a misleading case and important key messages.

Arch Pediatr 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, APHP University Hospital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Infant botulism is a rare and life-threatening disease caused by the inhalation of Clostridium botulinum spores and differs from adult forms. We report the case of infant botulism in a 4-month-old boy who was exclusively breastfed without any consumption of honey. He presented with severe and acute encephalo-myelo-radiculitis. Read More

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Glenthmycins A-M: Macrocyclic Spirotetronate Polyketide Antibacterials from the Australian Pasture Plant-Derived sp. CMB-PB041.

J Nat Prod 2022 Jun 31;85(6):1641-1657. Epub 2022 May 31.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Chemical investigation of Australian pasture plant-derived sp. CMB-PB041, supported by miniaturized cultivation profiling and molecular network analysis, led to the isolation and characterization of 13 new macrocyclic spirotetronates, glenthmycins A-M (-), with structures assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, chemical degradation and derivatization, and mechanistic and biosynthetic considerations. Hydrolysis of glenthmycin B () yielded the aglycone , whose structure and absolute configuration were secured by X-ray analysis, along with the unexpected amino sugar residues glenthose lactams A () and B (), with Mosher analysis of facilitating assignment of absolute configurations of the amino sugar. Read More

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Conservation and Evolution of the Sporulation Gene Set in Diverse Members of the .

J Bacteriol 2022 Jun 31;204(6):e0007922. Epub 2022 May 31.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Healthgrid.94365.3d, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The current classification of the phylum (new name, ) features eight distinct classes, six of which include known spore-forming bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves up to 500 genes, many of which do not have orthologs in other bacilli and/or clostridia. Previous studies identified about 60 sporulation genes of B. Read More

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Recent Developments in Botulinum Neurotoxins Detection.

Microorganisms 2022 May 10;10(5). Epub 2022 May 10.

Institut Pasteur, Université de Paris, Unité Toxines Bactériennes, F-75015 Paris, France.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced as protein complexes by bacteria of the genus that are Gram-positive, anaerobic and spore forming (, , and spp.). BoNTs show a high immunological and genetic diversity. Read More

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Structural Features of Neurotoxin Subtype A2 Cell Binding Domain.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 05 19;14(5). Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are a group of clostridial toxins that cause the potentially fatal neuroparalytic disease botulism. Although highly toxic, BoNTs are utilized as therapeutics to treat a range of neuromuscular conditions. Several serotypes (BoNT/A-/G, /X) have been identified with vastly differing toxicological profiles. Read More

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Evaluation and Optimization of Microdrop Digital PCR for Detection of Serotype A and B .

Front Microbiol 2022 9;13:860992. Epub 2022 May 9.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

is the causative pathogen of botulism. Laboratory detection of is essential for clinical therapy treatment of botulism due to the difficulty in diagnosis, especially in infant botulism. The extreme toxicity of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) requires a sensitive detection method. Read More

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α-toxin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by engaging GPI-anchored proteins.

Sci Immunol 2022 05 20;7(71):eabm1803. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Immunity, Inflammation and Infection, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

species are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that cause diseases in humans, such as food poisoning, botulism, and tetanus. Here, we analyzed 10 different species and identified that , a pathogen that causes sepsis and gas gangrene, activates the mammalian cytosolic inflammasome complex in mice and humans. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that α-toxin secreted by binds to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins on the host plasma membrane, oligomerizing and forming a membrane pore that is permissive to efflux of magnesium and potassium ions. Read More

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Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Group II Strains Carrying Phage-Like Plasmids.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2022 Jun 18;11(6):e0009122. Epub 2022 May 18.

Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Clostridium botulinum is responsible for botulism, a potentially lethal foodborne intoxication. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of C. botulinum group II strains 202F (serotype F) and Hazen (serotype E). Read More

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Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from an Infant Botulism Case Suggests Adaptation Signatures to the Gut.

mBio 2022 May 2:e0238421. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinkigrid.7737.4, Helsinki, Finland.

In early life, the immature human gut microbiota is prone to colonization by pathogens that are usually outcompeted by mature microbiota in the adult gut. Colonization and neurotoxin production by a vegetative Clostridium botulinum culture in the gut of an infant can lead to flaccid paralysis, resulting in a clinical outcome known as infant botulism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Beside host factors, little is known of the ecology, colonization, and adaptation of C. Read More

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Pauci-symptomatic foodborne botulism due to Clostridium botulinum type B with predominant ophthalmologic presentation possibly after consumption of honey.

Anaerobe 2022 Jun 27;75:102578. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Infectious Diseases Department, Nord Franche-Comté Hospital, France.

Foodborne botulism, a toxin-mediated illness caused by Clostridium botulinum, is a public health emergency, and rarely reported in France. We report herein the case of two family members (a father and his son) from Franche-Comté, France, presented with ophthalmological symptoms which occurred after non-specific gastro-intestinal symptoms after a trip to Serbia with a recent consumption of artisanal honey, and suggestive of botulism. The suspected intoxication appeared to be caused by a type B strain of C. Read More

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Exposure-Response Modeling and Simulation to Support Human Dosing of Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent Product.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2022 Jul 16;112(1):171-180. Epub 2022 May 16.

Emergent BioSolutions Inc., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Botulism antitoxin heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G - Equine; BAT) product is a sterile solution of F(ab') and F(ab') -related antibody fragments prepared from plasma obtained from horses that have been immunized with a specific serotype of botulinum toxoid and toxin. BAT product is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic botulism following documented or suspected exposure to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A to G in adults and pediatric patients. Pharmacokinetic and exposure-response models were used to explore the relationship between BAT product exposure and the probability of survival, and the occurrence of relevant moderate clinical signs observed during the preclinical development of BAT product to justify the clinical dose. Read More

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Identification of Slow-Binding Inhibitors of the BoNT/A Protease.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2022 Apr 8;13(4):742-747. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Departments of Chemistry and Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, Worm Institute of Research and Medicine (WIRM), The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.

Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is a lethal toxin, which causes botulism, and is categorized as a bioterrorism threat, which causes flaccid paralysis and death. Botulinum A neurotoxicity is governed through its light chain (LC), a zinc metalloprotease. Pharmacological investigations aimed at negating BoNT/A's LC have typically looked to inhibitors that have been shown to inhibit the light chain's activity by reversible zinc chelation within its active site. Read More

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Serotype Features of 17 Suspected Cases of Foodborne Botulism in China 2019-2022 Revealed by a Multiplex Immuno-Endopep-MS Method.

Front Microbiol 2022 5;13:869874. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China.

Diagnosis of botulism caused by multiple serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is still a challenge due to the lack of a reliable detection method. The present study develops a feasible laboratorial method based on an isotope dilution Immuno-Endopep-MS to detect BoNTs and determine their serotypes and activities in clinical samples. Eleven positive foodborne botulism cases out of a total of 17 suspected cases in China, 2019-2022, were determined by the established method. Read More

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High Cell Density Cultivation Process for the Expression of Botulinum Neurotoxin a Receptor Binding Domain.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 14;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Biotechnology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness-Ziona 7410001, Israel.

The receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin (H fragment), is a promising botulism vaccine candidate. In the current study, fermentation strategies were evaluated to upscale H fragment expression. A simple translation of the growth conditions from shake flasks to a batch fermentation process resulted in limited culture growth and protein expression (OD of 11 and volumetric protein yields of 123 mg/L). Read More

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Development and evaluation of a tetravalent botulinum vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Nov 18;18(5):2048621. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Protein Engineering, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, China.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic known proteins. Naturally occurring botulism in humans is caused by botulinum serotypes A, B, E, and F. Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent botulism. Read More

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November 2022

Foodborne botulism: A brief review of cases transmitted by cheese products (Review).

Biomed Rep 2022 May 15;16(5):41. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

1st Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Food safety constitutes a basic priority for public health. Foodborne botulism occurs worldwide; it is an acute paralytic disease caused by the consumption of food containing the botulinum toxin. Growing consumer demand for cheese products could result in increased exposure of the population to this toxin, and thus the risk of foodborne botulism. Read More

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Botulinum Neurotoxin C Dual Detection through Immunological Recognition and Endopeptidase Activity Using Porous Silicon Interferometers.

Anal Chem 2022 04 6;94(15):5927-5936. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, ARO, Volcani Institute, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins known in nature produced by strains, which can cause life-threatening diseases in both humans and animals. The latter is of serious environmental and economic concern, resulting in high mortality, production losses, and rejection of contaminated animal feed. The available mouse assay is inadequate for real-time and on-site assessment of outbreaks. Read More

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An outbreak of type B botulism in southern Viet Nam, 2020.

Western Pac Surveill Response J 2022 Jan-Mar;13(1):1-7. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

Objective: To investigate the cause of a botulism outbreak in several provinces in Viet Nam in 2020.

Methods: An initial investigation was conducted to confirm the outbreak and to form hypotheses about the potential causes, followed by a case-control assessment of the plausible causative food item. Collected food samples were tested to identify the pathogen, and mouse bioassays were performed. Read More

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Toxicology and pharmacology of botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: an update.

Arch Toxicol 2022 Jun 25;96(6):1521-1539. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131, Padova, Italy.

Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins cause the neuroparalytic syndromes of tetanus and botulism, respectively, by delivering inside different types of neurons, metalloproteases specifically cleaving the SNARE proteins that are essential for the release of neurotransmitters. Research on their mechanism of action is intensively carried out in order to devise improved therapies based on antibodies and chemical drugs. Recently, major results have been obtained with human monoclonal antibodies and with single chain antibodies that have allowed one to neutralize the metalloprotease activity of botulinum neurotoxin type A1 inside neurons. Read More

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First-in-Human Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Single Doses of NTM-1633, a Novel Mixture of Monoclonal Antibodies against Botulinum Toxin E.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2022 04 21;66(4):e0173221. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke Universitygrid.26009.3d School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Available treatments including an equine antitoxin and human immune globulin are given postexposure and challenging to produce and administer. NTM-1633 is an equimolar mixture of 3 human IgG monoclonal antibodies, E1, E2, and E3, targeting BoNT serotype E (BoNT/E). Read More

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Prevalent toxin types of in South Korean cattle farms.

Vet Anim Sci 2022 Mar 21;15:100239. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Digestive and Respiratory Disease Laboratory, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Bacterial and Parasitic Disease Division, Gimcheon 39660, Republic of Korea.

produces neurotoxic substrates that can cause fatal flaccid paralysis called botulism. These neurotoxins are classified into types A-G. Several botulism cases were recorded in 2012-2013 in the Gyeonggi province, South Korea. Read More

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Investigation and Identification of Food Poisoning Caused by Type B1 in Shenzhen, China.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2022 03 28;19(3):226-231. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Shenzhen Major Infectious Disease Control Key Laboratory, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China.

produces botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause people who ingest them to become seriously ill and sometimes die. In recent years, sporadic food poisoning cases associated with have occurred across the world. In 2016, two men were admitted to our hospital in Shenzhen, China, with foodborne botulism. Read More

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Clostridial Diseases of Horses: A Review.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Feb 17;10(2). Epub 2022 Feb 17.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, San Bernardino Lab, University of California-Davis, San Bwernardino, CA 92408, USA.

The clostridial diseases of horses can be divided into three major groups: enteric/enterotoxic, histotoxic, and neurotoxic. The main enteric/enterotoxic diseases include those produced by type C and , both of which are characterized by enterocolitis. The main histotoxic diseases are gas gangrene, Tyzzer disease, and infectious necrotic hepatitis. Read More

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February 2022