4,243 results match your criteria Botulism


Equine Parvovirus Hepatitis.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

University Equine Clinic - Internal Medicine, Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

Equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H) was first described in 2018 in a fatal case of Theiler's disease which followed the administration of an equine-origin biological product. The virus has since been frequently identified in serum and liver tissue of horses affected by Theiler's disease - an acute, severe hepatitis characterised by fulminant hepatic necrosis with a fatal outcome in most cases. EqPV-H is hepatotropic, appears to be associated with subclinical to severe hepatitis in horses, and is a likely cause of Theiler's disease. Read More

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Closing Clostridium botulinum Group III Genomes Using Long-Read Sequencing.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jun 3;10(22):e0136420. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Clostridium botulinum group III is the anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium producing the deadly neurotoxin responsible for animal botulism. Here, we used long-read sequencing to produce four complete genomes from Clostridium botulinum group III neurotoxin types C, D, C/D, and D/C. The protocol for obtaining high-molecular-weight DNA from C. Read More

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Botulinum Toxin: From Poison to Possible Treatment for Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injury.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 5;22(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, 45004 Toledo, Spain.

Botulism has been known for about three centuries, and since its discovery, botulinum toxin has been considered one of the most powerful toxins. However, throughout the 20th century, several medical applications have been discovered, among which the treatment of spasticity stands out. Botulinum toxin is the only pharmacological treatment recommended for spasticity of strokes and cerebral palsy. Read More

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Botulism during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: The importance of differential diagnoses.

Anaerobe 2021 May 26;70:102389. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Pediatrics, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Botulism is a neuroparalytic syndrome caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. We describe a patient with neurological symptoms associated with intoxication by Clostridium botulinum and infection by SARSCoV2. This report underlines that it is mandatory, even in case of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, to investigate all the causes of a clinical pattern. Read More

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Clinical Predictive Values in Botulism: A 10-year Survey.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Apr;25(4):411-415

Department of Statistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Botulism occurs periodically or in outbreaks in Iran. Botulism is lethal and accordingly a considerable issue in environmental health, although it is uncommon. This study was performed to evaluate the potential predictive factors in foodborne botulism in a 10-year span. Read More

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Botulinum neurotoxin inhibitor binding dynamics and kinetics relevant for drug design.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 May 21;1865(9):129933. Epub 2021 May 21.

Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA, USA; Prime Bio Inc., Dartmouth, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A natural product analog, 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one, which is a nitrophenyl psoralen (NPP) was found to be an effective inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A).

Methods: In this work, we performed enzyme inhibition kinetics and employed biochemical techniques such as isothermal calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as molecular modeling to examine the kinetics and binding mechanism of NPP inhibitor with BoNT/A LC.

Results: Studies of inhibition mechanism and binding dynamics of NPP to BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A LC) showed that NPP is a mixed type inhibitor for the zinc endopeptidase activity, implying that at least part of the inhibitor-enzyme binding site may be different from the substrate-enzyme binding site. Read More

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A Case of Pharyngeal-Cervical-Brachial Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome With Bilateral Glossopharyngeal Paralysis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 18;13(4):e14551. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Internal Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, USA.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a rapidly evolving autoimmune inflammatory disease of the peripheral nerves. It classically presents with progressive symmetrical ascending muscle weakness and hyporeflexia. The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant is a rare variant of GBS that is characterized by axonal rather than demyelinating neuropathy and presents with rapidly progressive oropharyngeal (facial palsy, dysarthria) and cervicobrachial weakness, associated upper limb weakness, and hyporeflexia. Read More

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Management of an outbreak of botulism with benign clinical presentation.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jun 13;88:159-162. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, Donostia University Hospital. Paseo Dr. Begiristain, 109, Donostia-San Sebastian, PC 20014, Spain.

Botulism is a life-threatening presynaptic disorder of the neuromuscular transmission produced by the neurotoxin elaborated by the botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia. We describe the management of a case series of 14 patients, members of 5 different families that were exposed to home-canned tuna and developed symptoms compatible with a mild clinical presentation of foodborne botulism. The electrophysiological study of the index case represented a reliable diagnostic test as it demonstrated a slight presynaptic dysfunction of the neuromuscular junction. Read More

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MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry and 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis for the Identification of Foodborne Clostridium Spp.

J AOAC Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Microbiological Sciences Branch, Southeast Food and Feed Laboratory, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, 60 8th Street NE, Atlanta, GA, 30309, USA.

Background: Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria comprising approximately 100 species. Some Clostridium spp. (C. Read More

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A Novel Running Wheel Mouse Model for Botulism and its use for the Evaluation of Post-Symptom Antitoxin Efficacy.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel.

Antitoxin is currently the only approved therapy for botulinum intoxications. The efficacy of antitoxin preparations is evaluated in animals. However, while in practice antitoxin is administered to patients only after symptom onset, in most animal studies, it is tested in relation to time post intoxication. Read More

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Infant botulism: an underestimated threat.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 May 8:1-14. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Infant botulism (IB) is defined as a potentially life-threatening neuroparalytic disorder affecting children younger than 12 months. It is caused by ingestion of food or dust contaminated by spores, which germinate in the infant's large bowel and produce botulinum neurotoxin. Although the real impact of IB is likely underestimated worldwide, the USA has the highest number of cases. Read More

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Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Botulism, 2021.

MMWR Recomm Rep 2021 05 7;70(2):1-30. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC.

Botulism is a rare, neurotoxin-mediated, life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid descending paralysis that begins with cranial nerve palsies and might progress to extremity weakness and respiratory failure. Botulinum neurotoxin, which inhibits acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, is produced by the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, rarely, by related species (C. baratii and C. Read More

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Mortality of Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis) Associated with Botulism Type A in Coastal Southern California, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, 620 W Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616, USA.

A mortality event involving at least 14 Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis) was observed on 10 October 2019 on Huntington State Beach, Orange County, California, USA. Clinical signs of affected gulls included generalized weakness and difficulty standing and flying. Six additional Western Gulls with similar clinical signs were admitted for rehabilitation between 24 October and 7 November, including birds from Newport Beach and Laguna Beach, south of Huntington Beach. Read More

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Confirmation of botulism diagnosis in Australian bird samples by ELISA and RT rtPCR.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 May 6:10406387211014486. Epub 2021 May 6.

DPIRD Diagnostics & Laboratory Services, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development Western Australia, South Perth, Australia.

We developed a sandwich ELISA that detects C and D toxins and reverse-transcription real-time PCRs (RT-rtPCRs) that detect botulinum C and D toxin genes, respectively, to replace the mouse bioassay. The toxin genes were closely associated with the toxin molecules and used as surrogates for the presence of toxin. Samples (638) from 103 clinical cases of birds (302) with suspected botulinum toxicity came from wild birds and poultry (9 cases). Read More

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Vaccination against pathogenic clostridia in animals: a review.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 23;53(2):284. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Anaerobic Vaccine Research and Production, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Shahid Beheshti Blvd., P.O. Box: 31975/148, Hesarak, Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran.

Clostridium is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, and spore-forming bacterium, which is found in the surrounding environments throughout the world. Clostridium species cause botulism, tetanus, enterotoxaemia, gas gangrene, necrotic enteritis, pseudomembranous colitis, blackleg, and black disease. Clostridium infection causes severe economic losses in livestock and poultry industries. Read More

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A Case Report of Wound Botulism - Rare Disease on the Rise with the Opioid Crisis.

Hawaii J Health Soc Welf 2021 Feb;80(4):88-91

Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI (WH).

Wound botulism is a rare, underrecognized life-threatening illness caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium. Approximately 20 cases are reported in the United States each year, mostly from California. Most wound botulism cases occur in drug injectors, particularly among those using black tar heroin. Read More

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February 2021

Paper-based electrochemical peptide sensor for on-site detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A and C.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jul 1;183:113210. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Tor Vergata University, Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, Via Della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133, Rome, Italy; SENSE4MED, Via Renato Rascel 30, 00133, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by soil bacterium Clostridium botulinum are cause of botulism and listed as biohazard agents, thus rapid screening assays are needed for taking the correct countermeasures in a timely fashion. The gold standard method relies on the mouse lethality assay with a lengthy analysis time, i.e. Read More

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Toxin-associated infectious diseases: tetanus, botulism and diphtheria.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Jun;34(3):432-438

Division of Neurocritical Care, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Purpose Of Review: The incidence rates of the toxin-related infectious diseases, tetanus, diphtheria and botulism declined dramatically over the past decades mainly because of the implementation of immunization programs also in low-and-middle-income countries (LAMICs) and by improving hygiene conditions. But still, single cases occur, and they need fastest possible recognition and management.

Recent Findings: Over the past 20 years, the incidence of neonatal tetanus has declined by more than 90%. Read More

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Cardinal parameter growth and growth boundary model for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum - Effect of eight environmental factors.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 May 17;346:109162. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Food Institute (DTU Food), Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

A new cardinal parameter growth and growth boundary model for non-proteolytic C. botulinum was developed and validated for fresh and lightly preserved seafood and poultry products. 523 growth rates in broth were used to determine cardinal parameter values and terms for temperature, pH, NaCl/water activity, acetic, benzoic, citric, lactic and sorbic acids. Read More

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Genetic Characterization of Isolated from the First Case of Infant Botulism in Korea.

Ann Lab Med 2021 Sep;41(5):489-492

Division of High-risk Pathogens, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju, Korea.

Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by . This study aimed to genetically characterize strain isolated from the first case of infant botulism in Korea reported on June 17, 2019. We isolated strain CB-27 from a stool sample of the patient and analyzed the toxin types and toxin gene cluster compositions of the strain using a mouse bioassay, real-time PCR, and genome sequencing. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of a highly neutralizing single monoclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin type A.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21540

Institut Pasteur, Unité des Toxines Bactériennes, UMR CNRS 2001, Paris, France.

Compared to conventional antisera strategies, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an alternative and safer way to treat botulism, a fatal flaccid paralysis due to botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). In addition, mAbs offer the advantage to be produced in a reproducible manner. We previously identified a unique and potent mouse mAb (TA12) targeting BoNT/A1 with high affinity and neutralizing activity. Read More

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First Case of Bacteraemia Due to Carbapenem-Resistant .

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Bacteriology, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France.

Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasingly observed in nosocomial and community-acquired settings. Anaerobes are no exception to this rule, but there are fewer reports of MDR in the scientific literature on anaerobes than there are for other bacteria. In this short case report, we describe the first case of bacteraemia caused by a multidrug-resistant , which produces a carbapenemase encoded by the gene. Read More

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The Distinctive Evolution of Strains and Their Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A and F Gene Clusters Is Influenced by Environmental Factors and Gene Interactions via Mobile Genetic Elements.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:566908. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.

Of the seven currently known botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of , Group I, is the species associated with the majority of human botulism cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis of these bacteria reveals a diverse species with multiple genomic clades. The neurotoxins they produce are also diverse, with over 20 subtypes currently represented. Read More

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February 2021

Botulism-like Syndrome Following Botulinum-A Injection for Hyperhidrosis and Fluoroquinolone Use.

Can J Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 9:1-3. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

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Occupations at risk of contracting zoonoses of public health significance in Québec.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2021 Jan 29;47(1):47-58. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Biological Risks and Occupational Health Division, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, QC.

Introduction: Climate change plays an important role in the geographic spread of zoonotic diseases. Knowing which populations are at risk of contracting these diseases is critical to informing public health policies and practices. In Québec, 14 zoonoses have been identified as important for public health to guide the climate change adaptation efforts of decision-makers and researchers. Read More

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January 2021

Open Tibial Fracture Complicated by Wound Botulism: A Case Study.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 May-Jun;60(3):600-604. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Residency Director, Highlands-Presbyterian/St. Luke's Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Residency Program, 1719 East 19th Avenue #520, Denver, CO 80218. Electronic address:

Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease most commonly caused by foodborne ingestion of neurotoxin types A, B, and E, and is often fatal if untreated. Clinicians should be able to recognize the classic symptoms of botulinum intoxication (12). Owing to its rarity, there are a limited number of studies evaluating the clinical care of patients with wound botulism (10). Read More

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February 2021

Immunoproteomic analysis of Clostridium botulinum type B secretome for identification of immunogenic proteins against botulism.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 May 25;43(5):1019-1036. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Zoology Department, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Objectives: To identify immunogenic proteins of C. botulinum type B secretome by immunoproteomic analysis.

Results: In the present study, an attempt was made to elucidate the vaccine candidates/diagnostic molecules against botulism using immuno proteomic approach. Read More

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Discovery of Dipeptides as Potent Botulinum Neurotoxin A Light-Chain Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Feb 27;12(2):295-301. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, California State University, Fullerton, California 92831, United States.

The botulinum neurotoxin, the caustic agent that causes botulism, is the most lethal toxin known to man. The neurotoxin composed of a heavy chain (HC) and a light chain (LC) enters neurons and cleaves SNARE proteins, leading to flaccid paralysis, which, in severe occurrences, can result in death. A therapeutic target for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication is the LC, a zinc metalloprotease that directly cleaves SNARE proteins. Read More

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February 2021

The whole truth about botulinum toxin - a review.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2020 Dec 5;37(6):853-861. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Oral Surgery and Periodontology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Treatment with botulinum toxin is widely viewed as safe, effective and largely devoid of serious side effects. There are two classes of Botox-related adverse events - transient and benign events, and potentially serious events. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of Botox-related side effects and advise potential management and preventive strategies. Read More

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December 2020

CRISPR-Cas9-Based Toolkit for Group II Spore and Sporulation Research.

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:617269. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The spores of Group II strains pose a significant threat to the safety of modern packaged foods due to the risk of their survival in pasteurization and their ability to germinate into neurotoxigenic cultures at refrigeration temperatures. Moreover, spores are the infectious agents in wound botulism, infant botulism, and intestinal toxemia in adults. The identification of factors that contribute to spore formation is, therefore, essential to the development of strategies to control related health risks. Read More

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January 2021