262 results match your criteria Botulinum Toxin Overview

Spasmodic dysphonia: An overview of clinical features and treatment options.

Tetsuji Sanuki

Auris Nasus Larynx 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-Cho, Mizuho-Ku, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is considered a rare focal laryngeal dystonia characterized by task-specific voice dysfluency resulting from selective intrinsic laryngeal musculature hyperfunction. Symptoms may be attenuated by a sensory trick. Although SD can be seen at times in generalized dystonia syndrome, it is typically a sporadic phenomenon, and the involvement of the laryngeal adductor muscles is more common than that of the abductor muscles. Read More

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The Multispecialty Toxin: A Literature Review of Botulinum Toxin.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Apr 6;10(4):e4228. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Surgery, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a potent biological exotoxin produced from . Although it was first used therapeutically to treat strabismus, its clinical role has since expanded rapidly over the years to include treatment of a variety of head and neck, gastrointestinal, urogenital, musculoskeletal, neurological, dermatological, and cosmetic disorders. The main purpose of this review is to provide a brief updated overview of the history, mechanism of action, and clinical applications of BoNT therapy across multiple medical specialties, including the most common adverse effects and recommended Botox dosages. Read More

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A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Palmar Hyperhidrosis.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Mar 7;10(3):e4172. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Palmar hyperhidrosis (PH), a condition characterized by excess sweating of the palms, is a common concern that presents to the plastic surgeon, which can have major impacts on patient confidence and quality of life. While several studies summarize treatment options for hyperhidrosis in general, few outline the therapeutic options available specifically for PH.

Method: The authors reviewed the current literature specific to the diagnostic workup and treatment of PH. Read More

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Application of Nonsurgical Modalities in Improving Facial Aging.

Int J Dent 2022 24;2022:8332631. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

The Conversationalist Club, School of Stomatology, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Tai'an, Shandong 271036, China.

Objective: This review aims to summarize different kinds of applications of minimally invasive surgery in improving facial aging to provide a comprehensive and accurate introduction on the issue of esthetic treatment of facial skin. . In the twentieth century, facial rejuvenation has become a new beauty trend. Read More

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February 2022

Botulinum Toxin Type A Immunogenicity across Multiple Indications: An Overview Systematic Review.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Apr;149(4):837-848

From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, University College London; Samarpit Hospital; and Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Allied Health Sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Lahore College for Women University.

Background: Botulinum toxin type A has been used to treat a wide array of neurologic, medical, and aesthetic indications. Several factors contribute to the formation of neutralizing antibodies, such as shorter intervals of treatment, higher dosage, amounts of antigenic proteins, serotypes, and storage of formulations.

Method: This overview followed the Cochrane guideline for overview reviews. Read More

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Botulinum Neurotoxins in Central Nervous System: An Overview from Animal Models to Human Therapy.

Siro Luvisetto

Toxins (Basel) 2021 10 22;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

National Research Council of Italy-CNR, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (IBBC), Via Ercole Ramarini 32, Monterotondo Scalo, 00015 Roma, Italy.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle fusion and transmitter release. The natural target of BoNTs is the peripheral neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where, by blocking the release of acetylcholine (ACh), they functionally denervate muscles and alter muscle tone. This leads them to be an excellent drug for the therapy of muscle hyperactivity disorders, such as dystonia, spasticity, and many other movement disorders. Read More

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October 2021

Overview of DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection: A Novel Formulation of Botulinum Toxin Type A.

Drugs 2021 Dec 17;81(18):2091-2101. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Revance Therapeutics, Inc., 7555 Gateway Boulevard, Newark, CA, 94560, USA.

Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) products are widely used for therapeutic and aesthetic indications, but there is a need for longer-lasting treatments that maintain symptom relief between injections and reduce the frequency of re-treatment. DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection (DAXI) is a novel BoNTA product containing highly purified 150-kDa core neurotoxin and is the first to be formulated with a proprietary stabilizing excipient peptide (RTP004) instead of human serum albumin. The positively charged RTP004 has been shown to enhance binding of the neurotoxin to neuronal surfaces, which may enhance the likelihood of neurotoxin internalization. Read More

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December 2021

Evaluation and Management of Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome with an Overview of Surgical Approaches: A Comprehensive Review.

J Pain Res 2021 5;14:3085-3095. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) represents a disorder believed to involve compression of one or more neurovascular elements as they exit the thoracic outlet. This comprehensive literature review will focus on the occurrence, classification, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic measures, and both nonoperative and operative therapies for NTOS. NTOS represents the most common subtype of thoracic outlet syndrome and can significantly impair quality of life. Read More

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October 2021

Utilities of Botulinum Toxins in Dermatology and Cosmetology.

Piyu Parth Naik

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2021 21;14:1319-1330. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Dermatology, Saudi German Hospital and Clinic, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium with a well-known efficacy and safety profile in the focal idiopathic hyperhidrosis treatment. BoNT comprises seven different neurotoxins; however, only toxins A and B are clinically employed. BoNT is lately practiced in off-label therapies for a variety of skin diseases. Read More

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September 2021

AbobotulinumtoxinA Versus OnabotulinumtoxinA in Adults with Upper Limb Spasticity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study Protocol.

Adv Ther 2021 11 25;38(11):5623-5633. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Kansas Institute of Research, Overland Park, KS, 66211, USA.

Introduction: The safety and efficacy of both abobotulinumtoxinA and onabotulinumtoxinA for upper limb spasticity are well established, but head-to-head comparisons are lacking.

Methods: DIRECTION is an international, randomized, double-blind, crossover study comparing the safety and efficacy of abobotulinumtoxinA with onabotulinumtoxinA in the management of upper limb spasticity at doses at or near maximum recommended in product labelling. Participants (18-75 years) will be randomized (1:1) to either one cycle of abobotulinumtoxinA (900U) followed by onabotulinumtoxinA (360U) or vice versa. Read More

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November 2021

Beyond chronic migraine: a systematic review and expert opinion on the off-label use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A in other primary headache disorders.

Expert Rev Neurother 2021 08 18;21(8):923-944. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

: Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNTA) is licensed for the treatment of chronic migraine (CM), but it has been tested off-label as a therapeutic choice in other primary headaches (PHs). We aimed to provide a systematic review and expert opinion on BoNTA use in PHs, beyond CM.: After providing an overview on PHs and mechanism of BoNTA action, we report the results of a systematic review, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations, of BoNTA therapeutic trials in PHs beyond CM. Read More

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First bite syndrome treated with onabotulinumtoxin A injections.

J Am Dent Assoc 2022 Mar 16;153(3):284-289. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Background And Overview: First bite syndrome (FBS) is an orofacial pain condition characterized by moderate to severe unilateral facial pain associated with the first bite or taste of food. It is important that dentists and physicians be aware of patient history and examination findings commonly associated with FBS, as well as treatment options available for managing this condition.

Case Description: Described here is a case of FBS arising in a 43-year-old man after partial parotidectomy for the treatment of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Read More

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CGRP-antibodies, topiramate and botulinum toxin type A in episodic and chronic migraine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cephalalgia 2021 10 15;41(11-12):1222-1239. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: The approval of monoclonal antibodies for prevention of migraine has revolutionized treatment for patients. Oral preventatives are still considered first line treatments as head-to-head trials comparing them with antibodies are lacking.

Methods: The main purpose of this study was to provide a comparative overview of the efficacy of three commonly prescribed migraine preventative medication classes. Read More

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October 2021

Insights into the endoscopic management of esophageal achalasia.

Ther Adv Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Jan-Dec;14:26317745211014706. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, The University of Iowa, 4612 JCP, Iowa City, IA 52241, USA.

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the loss of inhibitory neurons in the myenteric plexus, resulting in impaired relaxation of the esophagogastric junction. Achalasia is an incurable disease, and the treatment modalities are aimed at disruption of the esophagogastric junction and vary widely from pharmacological to endoscopic to surgical. Traditional endoscopic therapy includes pneumatic dilation, botulinum toxin injection, and peroral endoscopic myotomy. Read More

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Electrical Stimulation of Injected Muscles to Boost Botulinum Toxin Effect on Spasticity: Rationale, Systematic Review and State of the Art.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, 37100 Verona, Italy.

Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) represents a first-line treatment for spasticity, a common disabling consequence of many neurological diseases. Electrical stimulation of motor nerve endings has been reported to boost the effect of BoNT-A. To date, a wide range of stimulation protocols has been proposed in the literature. Read More

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Coordination of the upper and lower extremities during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

Gait Posture 2021 05 24;86:251-255. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Background: Children with cerebral palsy indicate poor continuous gait inter-limb coordination compared to typically developing children. Limited research exists in the understanding of the coordinative relationship between the arms and legs of these children and if the phasing relationships between limbs can be improved.

Research Question: Which motor control factors impact coordination in children with cerebral palsy and can coordination improve with intervention?

Methods: This literature review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of continuous coordination in a pediatric, pathologic population with an emphasis on inter-limb coordination. Read More

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The whole truth about botulinum toxin - a review.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2020 Dec 5;37(6):853-861. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Oral Surgery and Periodontology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Treatment with botulinum toxin is widely viewed as safe, effective and largely devoid of serious side effects. There are two classes of Botox-related adverse events - transient and benign events, and potentially serious events. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of Botox-related side effects and advise potential management and preventive strategies. Read More

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December 2020

Gastrointestinal dysfunction in movement disorders.

Ryuji Sakakibara

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 4;42(4):1355-1365. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura, 285-8741, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of the clinical presentation, investigations, and treatment options for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other movement disorders.

Recent Findings: GIT dysfunction commonly appears as constipation and fecal incontinence (mostly overflow, accompanied with sphincter failure in multiple system atrophy [MSA]). Bowel dysfunction (underactive) occurs irrespectively from the site of the neurologic lesion, which is in contrast to site-dependent bladder dysfunction (brain, overactive; periphery, underactive). Read More

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Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 14;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences Kolkata, Kolkata 700017, India.

Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are currently available for diverse labelled indications. The toxo-pharmacological properties of these formulations are not uniform and thus should not be used interchangeably. Read More

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January 2021


Acta Clin Croat 2020 Jun;59(2):377-381

1Faculty of Medicine in Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia; 2Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Osijek University Hospital Centre, Osijek, Croatia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Osijek University Hospital Centre, Osijek, Croatia.

Blepharospasm is an idiopathic condition characterized by involuntary eyelid closure mainly caused by bilateral tonic-clonic contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscle. It results in patient inability to open their eyes, thus significantly impairing their ability to perform activities of daily living. First-line treatment for blepharospasm are primarily botulinum toxin type A injections. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Animal Models of Disuse-Induced Bone Loss.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 05 1;108(5):561-575. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: Several different animal models are used to study disuse-induced bone loss. This systematic review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the animal models of disuse-induced bone loss and provide a detailed narrative synthesis of each unique animal model.

Methods: PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for animal models of disuse from inception to November 30, 2019. Read More

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Modern Management of Facial Nerve Disorders.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):277-285. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Facial paralysis is a devastating condition, encompassing a spectrum of disorders, with resultant psychosocial, functional, and aesthetic sequelae. With this in mind, an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of palsy is necessary. Treatment options include pharmacologic agents, corneal protective interventions, physical therapy, and surgical procedures. Read More

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November 2020

Interventions for Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Int J Gen Med 2020 7;13:1411-1426. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Rehabilitation, Aged and Extended Care, Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Shoulder pain following stroke leads to poorer quality of life and daily functioning. Whilst many treatment approaches exist, there is currently no systematic overview of the evidence base for these. This review addressed the question "What is the evidence for interventions for treating hemiplegic shoulder pain?"

Methods: An overview of systematic reviews was performed according to PROSPERO protocol (CRD42020140521). Read More

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December 2020

Developments and challenges in dermatology: an update from the Interactive Derma Academy (IDeA) 2019.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020 12;34 Suppl 7:3-18

Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Augsburg, Germany.

The 2019 Interactive Derma Academy (IDeA) meeting was held in Lisbon, Portugal, 10-12 May, bringing together leading dermatology experts from across Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Over three days, the latest developments and challenges in relation to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of dermatological conditions were presented, with a particular focus on acne, atopic dermatitis (AD) and actinic keratosis (AK). Interesting clinical case studies relating to these key topics were discussed with attendees to establish current evidence-based best practices. Read More

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December 2020

An Update on Botulinum Toxin in Neurology.

Neurol Clin 2021 02 7;39(1):209-229. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, 3009 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. Electronic address:

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is an effective treatment for many neurologic disorders. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the clinical applications of BoNT across the field of neurology. Read More

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February 2021

The Safety of Medications used to Treat Peripheral Neuropathic Pain, Part 2 (Opioids, Cannabinoids and Other Drugs): review of Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trials.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Jan 4;20(1):51-68. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Université Clermont Auvergne,CHU Clermont-Ferrand, INSERM U1107, NEURO-DOL , Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Introduction: Peripheral neuropathic pain is a disabling condition for patients and a challenge for physicians. Although many drugs have been assessed in scientific studies, few have demonstrated clear clinical efficacy against neuropathic pain. Moreover, the paucity of data regarding their safety raises the question of the benefit-risk ratio when used in patients experiencing peripheral neuropathies. Read More

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January 2021

The Current Trend in Management of Bruxism and Chronic Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

J Pain Res 2020 30;13:2413-2421. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Postgraduate Program in Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana De Santos (UNIMES), Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Bruxism, specifically sleep bruxism (SB), is a worldwide discussed topic in the literature; however, there is insufficient evidence to define and support a standard approach for the treatment of SB. The purpose of this overview was to map the evidence from systematic reviews (SR), examining the effects of interventions to improve chronic pain related to bruxism. The methodological quality of SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR-2 tool. Read More

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September 2020

A practical guide to optimizing the benefits of post-stroke spasticity interventions with botulinum toxin A: An international group consensus.

J Rehabil Med 2021 Jan 1;53(1):jrm00134. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center McGovern Medical School and TIRR Memorial Hermann, Houston, TX 77030, USA. E-mail:

This consensus paper is derived from a meeting of an international group of 19 neurological rehabilitation specialists with a combined experience of more than 250 years (range 4-25 years; mean 14.1 years) in treating post-stroke spasticity with botulinum toxin A. The group undertook critical assessments of some recurring practical challenges, not yet addressed in guidelines, through an exten-sive literature search. Read More

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January 2021

Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis-An Overview and Future Perspectives.

Brain Sci 2020 Oct 12;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Service de Physiologie-Explorations Fonctionnelles, Henri Mondor Hospital, AP-HP, 94010 Créteil, France.

Tremor is an important and common symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It constituted one of the three core features of MS triad described by Charcot in the last century. Tremor could have a drastic impact on patients' quality of life. Read More

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October 2020

Impact and Management of Dysphagia in Inflammatory Myopathies.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2020 08 28;22(10):74. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Neurology, Muscle Immunobiology Group, Neuromuscular Center, University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Sr. 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Dysphagia is a common symptom in inflammatory myopathies. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, clinical impact, and management of dysphagia in myositis. Relevant diagnostic tools and treatment strategies are discussed. Read More

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