248 results match your criteria Botulinum Toxin Overview

Insights into the endoscopic management of esophageal achalasia.

Ther Adv Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Jan-Dec;14:26317745211014706. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, The University of Iowa, 4612 JCP, Iowa City, IA 52241, USA.

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the loss of inhibitory neurons in the myenteric plexus, resulting in impaired relaxation of the esophagogastric junction. Achalasia is an incurable disease, and the treatment modalities are aimed at disruption of the esophagogastric junction and vary widely from pharmacological to endoscopic to surgical. Traditional endoscopic therapy includes pneumatic dilation, botulinum toxin injection, and peroral endoscopic myotomy. Read More

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Electrical Stimulation of Injected Muscles to Boost Botulinum Toxin Effect on Spasticity: Rationale, Systematic Review and State of the Art.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, 37100 Verona, Italy.

Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) represents a first-line treatment for spasticity, a common disabling consequence of many neurological diseases. Electrical stimulation of motor nerve endings has been reported to boost the effect of BoNT-A. To date, a wide range of stimulation protocols has been proposed in the literature. Read More

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Coordination of the upper and lower extremities during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

Gait Posture 2021 May 24;86:251-255. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Background: Children with cerebral palsy indicate poor continuous gait inter-limb coordination compared to typically developing children. Limited research exists in the understanding of the coordinative relationship between the arms and legs of these children and if the phasing relationships between limbs can be improved.

Research Question: Which motor control factors impact coordination in children with cerebral palsy and can coordination improve with intervention?

Methods: This literature review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of continuous coordination in a pediatric, pathologic population with an emphasis on inter-limb coordination. Read More

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The whole truth about botulinum toxin - a review.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2020 Dec 5;37(6):853-861. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Oral Surgery and Periodontology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Treatment with botulinum toxin is widely viewed as safe, effective and largely devoid of serious side effects. There are two classes of Botox-related adverse events - transient and benign events, and potentially serious events. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of Botox-related side effects and advise potential management and preventive strategies. Read More

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December 2020

Gastrointestinal dysfunction in movement disorders.

Ryuji Sakakibara

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 4;42(4):1355-1365. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura, 285-8741, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of the clinical presentation, investigations, and treatment options for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other movement disorders.

Recent Findings: GIT dysfunction commonly appears as constipation and fecal incontinence (mostly overflow, accompanied with sphincter failure in multiple system atrophy [MSA]). Bowel dysfunction (underactive) occurs irrespectively from the site of the neurologic lesion, which is in contrast to site-dependent bladder dysfunction (brain, overactive; periphery, underactive). Read More

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Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 14;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences Kolkata, Kolkata 700017, India.

Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are currently available for diverse labelled indications. The toxo-pharmacological properties of these formulations are not uniform and thus should not be used interchangeably. Read More

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January 2021


Acta Clin Croat 2020 Jun;59(2):377-381

1Faculty of Medicine in Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia; 2Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Osijek University Hospital Centre, Osijek, Croatia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Osijek University Hospital Centre, Osijek, Croatia.

Blepharospasm is an idiopathic condition characterized by involuntary eyelid closure mainly caused by bilateral tonic-clonic contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscle. It results in patient inability to open their eyes, thus significantly impairing their ability to perform activities of daily living. First-line treatment for blepharospasm are primarily botulinum toxin type A injections. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Animal Models of Disuse-Induced Bone Loss.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 May 1;108(5):561-575. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: Several different animal models are used to study disuse-induced bone loss. This systematic review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the animal models of disuse-induced bone loss and provide a detailed narrative synthesis of each unique animal model.

Methods: PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for animal models of disuse from inception to November 30, 2019. Read More

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Modern Management of Facial Nerve Disorders.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):277-285. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Facial paralysis is a devastating condition, encompassing a spectrum of disorders, with resultant psychosocial, functional, and aesthetic sequelae. With this in mind, an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of palsy is necessary. Treatment options include pharmacologic agents, corneal protective interventions, physical therapy, and surgical procedures. Read More

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November 2020

Interventions for Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Int J Gen Med 2020 7;13:1411-1426. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Rehabilitation, Aged and Extended Care, Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Shoulder pain following stroke leads to poorer quality of life and daily functioning. Whilst many treatment approaches exist, there is currently no systematic overview of the evidence base for these. This review addressed the question "What is the evidence for interventions for treating hemiplegic shoulder pain?"

Methods: An overview of systematic reviews was performed according to PROSPERO protocol (CRD42020140521). Read More

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December 2020

Developments and challenges in dermatology: an update from the Interactive Derma Academy (IDeA) 2019.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020 12;34 Suppl 7:3-18

Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Augsburg, Germany.

The 2019 Interactive Derma Academy (IDeA) meeting was held in Lisbon, Portugal, 10-12 May, bringing together leading dermatology experts from across Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Over three days, the latest developments and challenges in relation to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of dermatological conditions were presented, with a particular focus on acne, atopic dermatitis (AD) and actinic keratosis (AK). Interesting clinical case studies relating to these key topics were discussed with attendees to establish current evidence-based best practices. Read More

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December 2020

An Update on Botulinum Toxin in Neurology.

Neurol Clin 2021 02 7;39(1):209-229. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, 3009 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. Electronic address:

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is an effective treatment for many neurologic disorders. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the clinical applications of BoNT across the field of neurology. Read More

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February 2021

The Safety of Medications used to Treat Peripheral Neuropathic Pain, Part 2 (Opioids, Cannabinoids and Other Drugs): review of Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trials.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Jan 4;20(1):51-68. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Université Clermont Auvergne,CHU Clermont-Ferrand, INSERM U1107, NEURO-DOL , Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Introduction: Peripheral neuropathic pain is a disabling condition for patients and a challenge for physicians. Although many drugs have been assessed in scientific studies, few have demonstrated clear clinical efficacy against neuropathic pain. Moreover, the paucity of data regarding their safety raises the question of the benefit-risk ratio when used in patients experiencing peripheral neuropathies. Read More

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January 2021

The Current Trend in Management of Bruxism and Chronic Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

J Pain Res 2020 30;13:2413-2421. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Postgraduate Program in Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana De Santos (UNIMES), Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Bruxism, specifically sleep bruxism (SB), is a worldwide discussed topic in the literature; however, there is insufficient evidence to define and support a standard approach for the treatment of SB. The purpose of this overview was to map the evidence from systematic reviews (SR), examining the effects of interventions to improve chronic pain related to bruxism. The methodological quality of SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR-2 tool. Read More

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September 2020

A practical guide to optimizing the benefits of post-stroke spasticity interventions with botulinum toxin A: An international group consensus.

J Rehabil Med 2021 Jan 1;53(1):jrm00134. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center McGovern Medical School and TIRR Memorial Hermann, Houston, TX 77030, USA. E-mail:

This consensus paper is derived from a meeting of an international group of 19 neurological rehabilitation specialists with a combined experience of more than 250 years (range 4-25 years; mean 14.1 years) in treating post-stroke spasticity with botulinum toxin A. The group undertook critical assessments of some recurring practical challenges, not yet addressed in guidelines, through an exten-sive literature search. Read More

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January 2021

Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis-An Overview and Future Perspectives.

Brain Sci 2020 Oct 12;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Service de Physiologie-Explorations Fonctionnelles, Henri Mondor Hospital, AP-HP, 94010 Créteil, France.

Tremor is an important and common symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It constituted one of the three core features of MS triad described by Charcot in the last century. Tremor could have a drastic impact on patients' quality of life. Read More

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October 2020

Impact and Management of Dysphagia in Inflammatory Myopathies.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2020 08 28;22(10):74. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Neurology, Muscle Immunobiology Group, Neuromuscular Center, University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Sr. 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Dysphagia is a common symptom in inflammatory myopathies. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, clinical impact, and management of dysphagia in myositis. Relevant diagnostic tools and treatment strategies are discussed. Read More

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The Overactive Pelvic Floor (OPF) and Sexual Dysfunction. Part 2: Evaluation and Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction in OPF Patients.

Sex Med Rev 2021 Jan 4;9(1):76-92. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Physio Works Muskoka, Huntsville, ON, Canada.

Introduction: The assessment of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) overactivity is part of a comprehensive evaluation including a detailed history (medical, gynecological history/antecedent), appraisal of the psychosocial contexts of the patient, as well as a musculoskeletal and a neurological examination.

Objectives: The aims of this article are to review (i) the assessment modalities evaluating pelvic floor function in women and men with disorders associated with an overactive pelvic floor (OPF), and (ii) therapeutic approaches to address OPF, with particular emphases on sexual pain and function.

Methods: We outline assessment tools that evaluate psychological and cognitive states. Read More

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January 2021

Lower urinary tract dysfunction in common neurological diseases.

Turk J Urol 2020 Nov 30;46(Supp. 1):S70-S78. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Urology/General Surgery, Areteion Hospital, Athens, Greece.

The lower urinary tract has the main function of urine storage and voiding. The integrity of the lower urinary tract nerve supply is necessary for its proper function. Neurological disorders can lead to lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Read More

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November 2020

Perspectives for the use of therapeutic Botulinum toxin as a multifaceted candidate drug to attenuate COVID-19.

Mahesh Kandasamy

Med Drug Discov 2020 Jun 29;6:100042. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neuroregeneration, Department of Animal Science, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620024, Tamil Nadu, India.

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) resulting from a distinctive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve in many countries and pose life-threatening clinical issues to global public health. While the lungs are the primary target for the SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathological consequence, the virus appears to invade the brain and cause unpredicted neurological deficits. In the later stage, COVID-19 can progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, neurodegeneration and multi-organ dysfunctions leading to death. Read More

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Treatment of Blepharospasm and Oromandibular Dystonia with Botulinum Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 04 22;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Suite A-1106 MCN, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia are focal dystonias characterized by involuntary and often patterned, repetitive muscle contractions. There is a long history of medical and surgical therapies, with the current first-line therapy, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), becoming standard of care in 1989. This comprehensive review utilized MEDLINE and PubMed and provides an overview of the history of these focal dystonias, BoNT, and the use of toxin to treat them. Read More

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Novel Native and Engineered Botulinum Neurotoxins.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 ;263:63-89

Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by Clostridia and other bacteria, are the most potent toxins known. Their cleavage of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in neurons prevents the release of neurotransmitters, thus resulting in the muscle paralysis that is characteristic of botulism. This mechanism of action has been exploited for a variety of therapeutic and cosmetic applications of BoNTs. Read More

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January 2021

Clinical duration of action of different botulinum toxin types in humans.

Toxicon 2020 May 14;179:84-91. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Neurological Unit 1, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 20133, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) comprises several serotypes with distinct properties, mechanisms of action, sensitivity and duration of effect in different species. The serotype A (BoNT/A) is the prevalent neurotoxin applied in human's disease. In this paper we present an overview of the current knowledge regarding the duration of effect and the neuromuscular sprouting of different BoNT serotypes in humans. Read More

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State of the Evidence Traffic Lights 2019: Systematic Review of Interventions for Preventing and Treating Children with Cerebral Palsy.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 02 21;20(2). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Institute, Discipline of Child & Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine & Health, The University of Sydney, PO Box 6427, Frenchs Forest, Sydney, NSW, 2086, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood, but the rate is falling, and severity is lessening. We conducted a systematic overview of best available evidence (2012-2019), appraising evidence using GRADE and the Evidence Alert Traffic Light System and then aggregated the new findings with our previous 2013 findings. This article summarizes the best available evidence interventions for preventing and managing cerebral palsy in 2019. Read More

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February 2020

Inequalities in pharmacologic treatment of spasticity in Sweden - health economic consequences of closing the treatment gap.

Health Econ Rev 2020 Feb 7;10(1). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background: The Swedish Healthcare Act states that patients should have equal access to healthcare. This study addresses at how this translates to pharmacological treatment of adult spasticity, including injections with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) and pumps for intrathecal baclofen (ITB). To address potential economic incentives for treatment differences, the results are also set into a health economic perspective. Read More

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February 2020

Lower Urinary Tract and Bowel Dysfunction in Neurologic Disease.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2020 02;26(1):178-199

Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of the clinical presentation, investigations, and treatment options for lower urinary tract and bowel dysfunction in patients with neurologic diseases.

Recent Findings: The site of the neurologic lesion influences the pattern of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Antimuscarinic agents are first-line management for urinary incontinence; however, the side effect profile should be considered when prescribing them. Read More

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February 2020

Trigeminal neuralgia: An overview from pathophysiology to pharmacological treatments.

Mol Pain 2020 Jan-Dec;16:1744806920901890

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

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February 2021

Botulinum toxin: Pharmacology and injectable administration for the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Apr 4;82(4):969-979. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Dermatology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Hyperhidrosis is a dermatological condition defined by excessive sweating beyond thermoregulatory needs with significant effects on patients' quality of life. Hyperhidrosis is categorized as primary or secondary: primary hyperhidrosis is mostly focal and idiopathic, whereas secondary hyperhidrosis is commonly generalized and caused by an underlying medical condition or use of medications. Various surgical and nonsurgical therapies exist for primary hyperhidrosis. Read More

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Tone Reduction and Physical Therapy: Strengthening Partners in Treatment of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

Neuropediatrics 2020 04 27;51(2):89-104. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The aim of this paper is to provide a clinically applicable overview of different tone reducing modalities and how these can interact with or augment concurrent physical therapy (PT). Botulinum toxin (BoNT), oral tone-regulating medication, intrathecal baclofen (ITB), and selective dorsal rhizotomy are discussed within a physiotherapeutic context and in view of current scientific evidence. We propose clinical reasoning strategies to identify treatment goals as well as the appropriate and corresponding treatment interventions. Read More

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Botulinum toxin injections after surgery for Hirschsprung disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Jul;25(25):3268-3280

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Reproduction and Development, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, Netherlands.

Background: A large proportion of patients with Hirschsprung disease experience persistent obstructive symptoms after corrective surgery. Persistent obstructive symptoms may result in faecal stasis that can develop into Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis, a potential life-threatening condition. Important treatment to improve faecal passage is internal anal sphincter relaxation using botulinum toxin injections. Read More

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