88 results match your criteria Botulinum Toxin BOTOX R Dystonia Treatment


The cost-effectiveness of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) and onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®) for managing spasticity of the upper and lower limbs, and cervical dystonia.

J Med Econ 2022 Jun 22:1-30. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Ipsen Slough, London, UK.

Objective: To evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the use of abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A) and onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) for lower limb spasticity in children, upper and lower limb spasticity in adults, and cervical dystonia in adults.

Methods: This pharmacoeconomic analysis compared aboBoNT-A with onaBoNT-A. A decision tree model with a one-year time horizon was conducted from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from a variety of sources: randomised controlled trials (RCTs), network meta-analysis (NMA), an observational study, and a physician survey investigating treatment patterns and resource utilization. Read More

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Significant Long-Lasting Improvement after Switch to Incobotulinum Toxin in Cervical Dystonia Patients with Secondary Treatment Failure.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 01 6;14(1). Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Under continuous long-term treatment with abo- or onabotulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A), ~10 to 15% of patients with cervical dystonia (CD) will develop neutralizing antibodies and reduced responsiveness over an ~10-year treatment period. Among the botulinum neurotoxin type A preparations so far licensed for CD, incobotulinum toxin A (incoBoNT/A; Xeomin) is the only one without complex proteins. Whether CD patients with treatment failure under abo- or onaBoNT/A may still respond to incoBoNT/A is unknown. Read More

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January 2022

[Safety and Efficacy of Rimabotulinumtoxin B in Patients with Cervical Dystonia in Observational Study].

Brain Nerve 2022 Jan;74(1):93-104

National Hospital Organization Utano National Hospital.

This post-marketing observational study was conducted on botulinum toxin type B (NerBloc 2500 units) in 1537 patients with cervical dystonia, a sample size larger than the previous studies. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 12.6% (188/1487 patients); the most common adverse drug reactions were dysphagia, thirst, injection site pain, and dry mouth, which were similar to those reported previously and no new problems were found. Read More

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January 2022

Dose conversion ratio, comparative efficacy, and adverse events after switching from onabotulinum toxin A to abobotulinum toxin A for neurological conditions.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 10 13;209:106889. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Neurology, Ankara University Medical School, İbni Sina Hospital, Sıhhıye, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objectives: Onabotulinum toxin A (ONA, Botox®) and abobotulinum toxin A (ABO, Dysport®) are most frequently used in the treatment of movement disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the dose conversion ratio (ABO dose:ONA dose), comparative efficacy, and adverse events in patients who switched from ONA to ABO.

Methods: There were 64 patients with cervical dystonia (39), hemifacial spasm (16), oromandibular dystonia (5), blepharospasm (3), and extremity dystonia (1) who switched from ONA to ABO. Read More

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October 2021

Lantox-The Chinese Botulinum Toxin Drug-Complete English Bibliography and Comprehensive Formalised Literature Review.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 05 22;13(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

Neurotoxin research Center of Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury Repair and Regeneration of Ministry of Education, Tongji University School of Medicine, 389 Xincun Road, Shanghai 200065, China.

In 1997, lanbotulinumtoxinA (LAN) was introduced in China. It is now available in Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe under various brand names including Hengli, Lantox, Prosigne, Lanzox, Redux, Liftox, HBTX-A and CBTX-A. The literature on LAN is mostly published in Chinese language, restricting its international accessibility. Read More

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Sustained functional benefits after a single set of injections with abobotulinumtoxinA using a 2-mL injection volume in adults with cervical dystonia: 12-week results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3b study.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(2):e0245827. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, United States of America.

Cervical dystonia (CD) is primarily treated with botulinum toxin, at intervals of ≥ 12 weeks. We present efficacy, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and safety in adults with CD at the last available visit after a single set of abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A) injections versus placebo using 500 U in a 2-mL injection volume. In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, patients were ≥ 18 years of age with primary idiopathic CD, had a Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total score ≥ 20, and TWSTRS-Severity subscale score > 10 at baseline. Read More

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An Update on Botulinum Toxin in Neurology.

Neurol Clin 2021 02 7;39(1):209-229. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, 3009 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. Electronic address:

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is an effective treatment for many neurologic disorders. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the clinical applications of BoNT across the field of neurology. Read More

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February 2021

Botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 11 12;11:CD003633. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia, and is a highly disabling movement disorder, characterised by involuntary, usually painful, head posturing. Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. Read More

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November 2020

The Effectiveness and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections for the Treatment of Congenital Muscular Torticollis.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov/Dec;31(8):2160-2166

Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou Province.

Objective: Botulinum toxin have been used to treat congenital muscular torticollis for the last 25 years; however, few studies have been published with only limited cases and short-term follow-up. The aim of the present study is to systematically review the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin injections for congenital muscular torticollis by analyzing these relevant literatures.

Methods: The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China Biology Medicine, for all articles about botulinum toxin injections for the congenital muscular torticollis. Read More

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Effective long-term treatment with incobotulinumtoxin (Xeomin®) without neutralizing antibody induction: a monocentric, cross-sectional study.

J Neurol 2020 May 20;267(5):1340-1347. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Among the spectrum of licensed botulinum neurotoxin preparations incobotulinumtoxin (incoBoNT/A; Xeomin®) is the only one which does not contain complex proteins. Therefore, incoBoNT/A has been suggested to have a low antigenicity, but precise estimations on incidence and prevalence of neutralizing antibody formation during long-term treatment are outstanding so far.

Methods: For the present cross-sectional study, 59 patients having exclusively been treated with incoBoNT/A (mono group) and 32 patients having been treated with other BoNT/A preparations less than nine times and who were then switched to at least 14 sessions of incoBoNT/A treatment (switch group) were recruited from one botulinum toxin outpatient clinic. Read More

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Sensorimotor Perceptive Rehabilitation Integrated (SPRInt) program: exercises with augmented movement feedback associated to botulinum neurotoxin in idiopathic cervical dystonia-an observational study.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jan 2;41(1):131-138. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

U. O. di Recupero e Rieducazione Funzionale, I.R.C.C.S. Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi Onlus, via Alfonso Capecelatro 66, 20148, Milan, Italy.

Background: Idiopathic cervical dystonia (ICD) is a focal dystonia affecting neck muscles. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the first-line treatment of ICD and different physical therapies (including exercise) are often proposed as adjunct treatments. However, the actual effectiveness of exercise in ICD is unclear. Read More

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January 2020

Adverse Event Profiles of High Dose Botulinum Toxin Injections for Spasticity.

PM R 2020 04 1;12(4):349-355. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Background: Botulinum toxin injections are effective in relieving focal spasticity resulting from upper motor neuron injuries. Doses approved in the United States for onabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA are up to 400 units, yet higher doses are often used.

Objective: To determine differences in risk of adverse events when using higher (>600 units) as compared to lower doses within clinically applicable categories; the difference in adverse events between types of botulinum toxin-A, and any association of the injection of cervical muscles with increased risk for adverse events. Read More

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Effectiveness of botulinum neurotoxin type A injections in naïve and previously-treated patients suffering from Torti- or Laterocollis or -caput: Results from a German-Austrian open-label prospective post-marketing surveillance study.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Apr 10;399:44-50. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

AbobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A; Dysport®) is an effective treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) with a well-established safety profile. In this prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study (NCT01840462) the primary objective was effectiveness (Tsui score) of aboBoNT-A in botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment-naïve and previously-treated (>2 yrs) patients after two injection cycles (at visit 3). Secondary objectives included the effectiveness of aboBoNT-A overall visits and quality of life (CDQ-24) in different CD subtypes. Read More

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High prevalence of neutralizing antibodies after long-term botulinum neurotoxin therapy.

Neurology 2019 01 21;92(1):e48-e54. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

From the Department of Neurology (P.A., A.J., J.-I.L., M.M., M.R., O.A., H.-P.H., H.H.), Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf; and Toxogen GmbH (D.R., H.B.), Hannover, Germany.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) during long-term BoNT/A treatment in different neurologic indications.

Methods: In this monocentric, observational cross-sectional study, 596 outpatients treated with BoNT/A for different indications were tested for BoNT/A binding antibodies by ELISA. Positive samples were investigated for NAbs with the mouse hemidiaphragm test. Read More

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January 2019

OnabotulinumtoxinA for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD): Functional results and the role of dosage.

Toxicon 2018 Dec 10;155:38-42. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Aging, Neuroscience, Orthopedics and Head and Neck Sciences, UOC of Otorhinolaryngology, Istituto di Otorinolaringoiatria "Fondazione Policlinico Univeristario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore", Italy.

Objective: To report the results of functional outcome, dose trend and relationship between onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) dosage and the severity of disease or time between therapy sessions in patients affected by adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD).

Patients And Methods: Thirty-two patients underwent 193 EMG-guided intracordal injections of a starting dose of 2 MU of onabotA. At enrollment, each subject was administered the VHI. Read More

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December 2018

Long-term outcome of flexible onabotulinum toxin A treatment in facial dystonia.

Eye (Lond) 2019 03 10;33(3):349-352. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Corneo Plastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, UK.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of onabotulinum used to treat facial dystonia and compare a flexible and fixed treatment regimen.

Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study looking at benign essential blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and aberrant facial nerve regeneration synkinesis (AFR) treatment with onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) over a minimum of 10 years. Fifty-one patients were recruited into the study, with each dystonia subgroup having 17 patients. Read More

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Quality of life improvements in patients with cervical dystonia following treatment with a liquid formulation of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport ).

Eur J Neurol 2019 06 30;26(6):943-e65. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background And Purpose: In patients with cervical dystonia, abobotulinumtoxinA solution for injection (ASI) has been shown to be similarly effective to freeze-dried abobotulinumtoxinA in reducing Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total scores. In this secondary analysis, quality of life data as evaluated with the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58) are presented.

Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, active and placebo-controlled study followed by an open-label extension (NCT01261611). Read More

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Iatrogenic Botulism Outbreak in Egypt due to a Counterfeit Botulinum Toxin A Preparation - A Descriptive Series of Patient Features and Outcome.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Nov 21;123(5):622-627. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Medical and Toxicological Critical Care, Lariboisière Hospital, INSERM UMRS-1144, Paris-Diderot University, Paris, France.

Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N = 7), spastic dystonia (N = 1) and hyperhidrosis (N = 1). Read More

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November 2018

Evidence on botulinum toxin in selected disorders.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 3;147:134-140. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Neuromuscular Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that has become widely used for various neurologic indications. The four toxin formulations currently available for use in the United States (approved by the Food and Drug Administration) are onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc). While the FDA-approved labels indicate that potency conversions should not be done, literature supports relative dose equivalents of approximately 1:1:2-4:50-100, respectively. Read More

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A 500 U/2 mL dilution of abobotulinumtoxinA vs. placebo: randomized study in cervical dystonia.

Int J Neurosci 2018 Jul 17;128(7):619-626. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

h Methodist Neurological Institute , Houston , TX , USA.

Purpose/aim: AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®, Ipsen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Basking Ridge, NJ, USA) is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent. The United States prescribing information for abobotulinumtoxinA previously indicated only one dilution for cervical dystonia: 500 U/1 mL. Read More

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The Regions on the Light Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Recognized by T Cells from Toxin-Treated Cervical Dystonia Patients. The Complete Human T-Cell Recognition Map of the Toxin Molecule.

Immunol Invest 2018 Jan 11;47(1):18-39. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

We have recently mapped the in vitro proliferative responses of T cells from botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A)-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients with overlapping peptides encompassing BoNT/A heavy chain (residues 449-1296). In the present study, we determined the recognition profiles, by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from the same set of patients, of BoNT/A light (L) chain (residues 1-453) by using 32 synthetic overlapping peptides that encompassed the entire L chain. Profiles of the T-cell responses (expressed in stimulation index, SI; Z score based on transformed SI) to the peptides varied among the patients. Read More

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January 2018

Spectral EMG Changes in Cervical Dystonia Patients and the Influence of Botulinum Toxin Treatment.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 08 23;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections in the dystonic muscles is the preferred treatment for Cervical Dystonia (CD), but the proper identification of the dystonic muscles remains a challenge. Previous studies showed decreased 8-14 Hz autospectral power in the electromyography (EMG) of splenius muscles in CD patients. Cumulative distribution functions (CDF's) of dystonic muscles showed increased CDF values, representing increased autospectral powers between 3 and 10 Hz, relative to power between 3 and 32 Hz. Read More

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Ixcellence Network®: an international educational network to improve current practice in the management of cervical dystonia or spastic paresis by botulinum toxin injection.

Funct Neurol 2017 Apr/Jun;32(2):103-110

Botulinum toxin is a well-established treatment for a number of conditions involving muscle hyperactivity, such as focal dystonia and spastic paresis. However, current injection practice is not standardized and there is a clear need for structured training. An international group of experts in the management of patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and spastic paresis created a steering committee (SC). Read More

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January 2018

Antibody responses to botulinum neurotoxin type A of toxin-treated spastic equinus children with cerebral palsy: A randomized clinical trial comparing two injection schedules.

J Neuroimmunol 2017 05 21;306:31-39. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

We have conducted a 26-month-long comparative study involving young patients (2-6years old) with a clinical diagnosis of spastic equinus secondary to cerebral palsy who have been treated with BoNT/A (BOTOX®, Allergan) tri-annually or annually. Serum samples were obtained to determine the presence or absence of blocking antibodies (Abs) by a mouse protection assay (MPA) and levels of anti-BoNT/A Abs by radioimmune assay (RIA). HLA DQ alleles were typed using blood samples to determine the possible association of certain HLA type(s) with the disease or with the Ab status. Read More

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OnabotulinumtoxinA for Lower Limb Spasticity: Guidance From a Delphi Panel Approach.

PM R 2017 Oct 7;9(10):960-968. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY(§§).

Background: OnabotulinumtoxinA is approved for the treatment of upper and lower limb spasticity in adults. Guidance on common postures and onabotulinumtoxinA injection paradigms for upper limb spasticity has been developed via a Delphi Panel; however, similar guidance for lower limb spasticity has not been established.

Objective: To define a clinically recommended treatment paradigm for the use of onabotulinumtoxinA for each common posture among patients with poststroke lower limb spasticity (PSLLS) and to identify the most common PSLLS aggregate postures. Read More

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October 2017

Safety of botulinum toxin short interval therapy using incobotulinumtoxin A.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2017 04 17;124(4):437-440. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Movement Disorders Section, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

The therapeutic efficacy of botulinum toxin (BT) can be completely blocked by formation of BT antibodies (BTAB), thus producing antibody-induced therapy failure (ABTF). One of the risk factors for this is the interval between two subsequent injection series. To prevent BTAB formation it is universally recommended not to use interinjection intervals of less than 12 weeks. Read More

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Predicting Improvement in Writer's Cramp Symptoms following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Therapy.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2016 3;6:410. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Writer's cramp is a specific focal hand dystonia causing abnormal posturing and tremor in the upper limb. The most popular medical intervention, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy, is variably effective for 50-70% of patients. BoNT-A non-responders undergo ineffective treatment and may experience significant side effects. Read More

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September 2016

Use of Alleviating Maneuvers for Periocular Facial Dystonias.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;134(11):1247-1252

Adnexal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England.

Importance: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm are known to use botulinum toxin injections and alleviating maneuvers to help control their symptoms. The clinical correlates between the use of botulinum toxin injections and the use of alleviating maneuvers are not well established.

Objective: To determine whether the use of alleviating maneuvers for benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm correlates with disease severity or botulinum toxin treatment. Read More

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November 2016

Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Feb 6;274(2):909-917. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Neurosciences Department, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse Neuroimaging Center, University of Toulouse, Inserm UPS, Toulouse, France.

Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. Read More

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February 2017

IncobotulinumtoxinA: A Review in Upper Limb Spasticity.

Drugs 2016 Sep;76(14):1373-9

Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, 0754, Auckland, New Zealand.

Intramuscular incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) is indicated for the treatment or improvement of adult patients with upper limb spasticity (featured indication), cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and glabellar lines. It is a highly purified formulation of botulinum toxin type A that inhibits acetylcholine signalling at neuromuscular junctions, reducing muscle hypertonia. This narrative review discusses the clinical use of incobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity and summarizes its pharmacological properties. Read More

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September 2016