34 results match your criteria Botulinum Toxin BOTOX R Dystonia Treatment

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Evidence on botulinum toxin in selected disorders.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 3;147:134-140. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Neuromuscular Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that has become widely used for various neurologic indications. The four toxin formulations currently available for use in the United States (approved by the Food and Drug Administration) are onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc). While the FDA-approved labels indicate that potency conversions should not be done, literature supports relative dose equivalents of approximately 1:1:2-4:50-100, respectively. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.01.019DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

The Regions on the Light Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Recognized by T Cells from Toxin-Treated Cervical Dystonia Patients. The Complete Human T-Cell Recognition Map of the Toxin Molecule.

Immunol Invest 2018 Jan 11;47(1):18-39. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

We have recently mapped the in vitro proliferative responses of T cells from botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A)-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients with overlapping peptides encompassing BoNT/A heavy chain (residues 449-1296). In the present study, we determined the recognition profiles, by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from the same set of patients, of BoNT/A light (L) chain (residues 1-453) by using 32 synthetic overlapping peptides that encompassed the entire L chain. Profiles of the T-cell responses (expressed in stimulation index, SI; Z score based on transformed SI) to the peptides varied among the patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2017.1368544DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Antibody responses to botulinum neurotoxin type A of toxin-treated spastic equinus children with cerebral palsy: A randomized clinical trial comparing two injection schedules.

J Neuroimmunol 2017 May 21;306:31-39. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

We have conducted a 26-month-long comparative study involving young patients (2-6years old) with a clinical diagnosis of spastic equinus secondary to cerebral palsy who have been treated with BoNT/A (BOTOX®, Allergan) tri-annually or annually. Serum samples were obtained to determine the presence or absence of blocking antibodies (Abs) by a mouse protection assay (MPA) and levels of anti-BoNT/A Abs by radioimmune assay (RIA). HLA DQ alleles were typed using blood samples to determine the possible association of certain HLA type(s) with the disease or with the Ab status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.02.014DOI Listing
May 2017
4 Reads

Predicting Improvement in Writer's Cramp Symptoms following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Therapy.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2016 3;6:410. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Writer's cramp is a specific focal hand dystonia causing abnormal posturing and tremor in the upper limb. The most popular medical intervention, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy, is variably effective for 50-70% of patients. BoNT-A non-responders undergo ineffective treatment and may experience significant side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D82Z15Q5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5013165PMC
September 2016
6 Reads

Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Feb 6;274(2):909-917. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Neurosciences Department, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse Neuroimaging Center, University of Toulouse, Inserm UPS, Toulouse, France.

Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-016-4289-6DOI Listing
February 2017
4 Reads

Cost-Effectiveness of Incobotulinumtoxin-A with Flexible Treatment Intervals Compared to Onabotulinumtoxin-A in the Management of Blepharospasm and Cervical Dystonia.

Value Health 2016 Mar-Apr;19(2):145-52. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Thema Consulting Pty Ltd., Pyrmont, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Incobotulinumtoxin-A (Xeomin(®), Merz Pharmaceuticals, Sydney, New South Wales) is a formulation of botulinum neurotoxin type A that is free of complexing proteins.

Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of incobotulinumtoxin-A administered with flexible treatment intervals compared to onabotulinumtoxin-A (Botox(®), Sydney, New South Wales) in blepharospasm and cervical dystonia from the perspective of Australian health care providers.

Methods: A Markov state transition model was developed to perform a cost-utility analysis to compare the cost and health benefits of incobotulinumtoxin-A to that of onabotulinumtoxin-A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2015.11.009DOI Listing
August 2016
41 Reads

Conversion Ratio between Botox®, Dysport®, and Xeomin® in Clinical Practice.

Toxins (Basel) 2016 Mar 4;8(3). Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Department of Oncology and Onco-Hematology, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy.

Botulinum neurotoxin has revolutionized the treatment of spasticity and is now administered worldwide. There are currently three leading botulinum neurotoxin type A products available in the Western Hemisphere: onabotulinum toxin-A (ONA) Botox(®), abobotulinum toxin-A (ABO), Dysport(®), and incobotulinum toxin A (INCO, Xeomin(®)). Although the efficacies are similar, there is an intense debate regarding the comparability of various preparations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins8030065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4810210PMC
March 2016
6 Reads

A mixed treatment comparison to compare the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin treatments for cervical dystonia.

J Neurol 2016 Apr 25;263(4):772-80. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 6-181B, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

A systematic pair-wise comparison of all available botulinum toxin serotype A and B treatments for cervical dystonia (CD) was conducted, as direct head-to-head clinical trial comparisons are lacking. Five botulinum toxin products: Dysport(®) (abobotulinumtoxinA), Botox(®) (onabotulinumtoxinA), Xeomin(®) (incobotulinumtoxinA), Prosigne(®) (Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A) and Myobloc(®) (rimabotulinumtoxinB) have demonstrated efficacy for managing CD. A pair-wise efficacy and safety comparison was performed for all toxins based on literature-reported clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-016-8050-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4826665PMC
April 2016
7 Reads

Botulinum toxin therapy for cervical dystonia: the science of dosing.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2014 12;4:273. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

Merz North America, Inc., Greensboro, NC, USA.

The first-line treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), which has been established as a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy. However, this treatment is also complex and challenging to apply in clinical practice. Approximately 20% of patients discontinue therapy due to treatment failure, adverse effects, and other reasons. Read More

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http://www.tremorjournal.org/index.php/tremor/article/view/2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D84X56BFDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233211PMC
November 2014
4 Reads

Botulinum toxin therapy of cervical dystonia: duration of therapeutic effects.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2015 Feb 23;122(2):297-300. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Movement Disorders Section, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany,

We sought to explore the therapeutic effect of botulinum toxin (BT) therapy by analysing the time between the BT application and the onset of its decrease (treatment duration, TD), the inter-injection interval (II), and the excess time (ET, ET = II-TD). For this we studied 59 patients (37 females, 22 males, age 52.6 ± 10. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00702-014-1253
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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00702-014-1253-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-014-1253-8DOI Listing
February 2015
9 Reads

Relationship of laryngeal botulinum toxin dosage to patient age, vitality, and socioeconomic issues.

J Voice 2014 Sep 18;28(5):614-7. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address:

Objective: Chemical denervation with botulinum toxin A is the current standard of treatment for spasmodic dysphonia, but dosage is determined individually after a titration period that can take months to years. The objective of this study was to determine if age, body mass index (BMI), overall health, and socioeconomic factors were associated with a patient's optimal dose of botulinum toxin.

Study Design And Methods: This retrospective chart review looked at 32 patients with stabilized doses of botulinum toxin. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08921997140005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2013.10.024DOI Listing
September 2014
10 Reads

[Cost analysis of the use of botulinum toxin type A in Spain].

Farm Hosp 2014 May 1;38(3):193-201. Epub 2014 May 1.

Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research Iberia, Madrid.

Objective: To estimate treatment costs of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia(CD), upper limb spasticity (ULS) and spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (SCCP) with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) in Spain.

Method: Annual BoNT-A treatment costs were calculated (2013 ex-factory price () applying RDL 8/2010 and RDL 9/2011 deductions), based on initial dose (id), average dose (ad) and maximum dose (md) according to Summary of Product Characteristics of Botox® (100U/50U), Dysport®(500U) and Xeomin® (100U) and considering the use of complete vials.In addition, annual treatment costs were calculated considering the useof vials in more than one patient and also patient population annual treatment costs based on diseases' prevalence. Read More

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http://www.aulamedica.es/fh/pdf/1163.pdf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7399/fh.2014.38.3.1163DOI Listing
May 2014
3 Reads

Botulinum toxin therapy of cervical dystonia: comparing onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin (®)).

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2014 Jan 4;121(1):29-31. Epub 2013 Aug 4.

Movement Disorders Section, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany,

Several botulinum toxin (BT) drugs are licensed for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). We wanted to compare the efficacy and the potency labelling of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) and onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) by analysing the duration of their therapeutic effect in a cross-over study. For this we studied 40 CD patients (26 females, 14 males, age at therapy onset 52. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-013-1076-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889804PMC
January 2014
5 Reads

The rat Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay: a physiological model for assessing botulinum neurotoxin-induced skeletal muscle paralysis.

Toxicon 2013 Sep 23;71:18-24. Epub 2013 May 23.

Allergan, Inc., LLC, 2525 Dupont Drive, Irvine, CA 92612-1599, USA.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are approved for a number of therapeutic indications, including blepharospasm, cervical dystonia and hyperhidrosis, and have also shown efficacy in a variety of pain disorders. The potency of any given BoNT preparation can be routinely assessed by using the Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay, which measures the local muscle weakening efficacy of BoNT following injection into mouse hindlimb muscle. While most studies have employed mice to assess BoNT efficacy in the DAS, few have utilized rats. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101130018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.05.004DOI Listing
September 2013
33 Reads

A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial of two botulinum toxin type a in patients with spasticity.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(2):e56479. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Botulinum toxin type A (btxA) is one of the main treatment choices for patients with spasticity. Prosigne® a new released botulinum toxin serotype A may have the same effectiveness as Botox® in focal dystonia. However, there are no randomized clinical trials comparing these formulations in spasticity treatment. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0056479PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3585303PMC
August 2013
9 Reads

Concurrent onabotulinumtoxinA treatment of cervical dystonia and concomitant migraine.

Headache 2012 Sep 18;52(8):1219-25. Epub 2012 May 18.

Palm Beach Headache Center, West Palm Beach, FL 33407, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical benefits of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) treatment on the symptoms of cervical dystonia and the frequency, severity, and associated symptoms of migraine in patients with cervical dystonia and concurrent migraine.

Background: Botulinum toxin is established as first-line treatment of cervical dystonia. Recent clinical trials have shown onabotulinumtoxinA to be an effective prophylactic therapy for patients with chronic migraine, and onabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for use in this patient population by the Food and Drug Administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02164.xDOI Listing
September 2012
5 Reads

A guide to dosing in the treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm with Xeomin®: a new botulinum neurotoxin A.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012 Jun 9;18(5):441-5. Epub 2012 Mar 9.

Georgetown University Hospital, GUH 7PHC, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

Xeomin(®) (incobotulinumtoxinA; Merz Pharmaceuticals, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) was first introduced in Germany for movement disorders in 2005. In 2010, it was approved for use in the United States by the FDA for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD) and blepharospasm. It is a unique botulinum type A formulation free of any complexing proteins and contains only the pure 150 kD neurotoxin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.02.008DOI Listing
June 2012
4 Reads

A new treatment for focal dystonias: incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®), a botulinum neurotoxin type A free from complexing proteins.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2012 23;8:13-25. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Dystonia is a movement disorder of uncertain pathogenesis that is characterized by involuntary and inappropriate muscle contractions which cause sustained abnormal postures and movements of multiple or single (focal) body regions. The most common focal dystonias are cervical dystonia (CD) and blepharospasm (BSP). The first-line recommended treatment for CD and BSP is injection with botulinum toxin (BoNT), of which two serotypes are available: BoNT type A (BoNT/A) and BoNT type B (BoNT/B). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S16085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3261649PMC
August 2012
2 Reads

Rationale and design of a prospective study: Cervical Dystonia Patient Registry for Observation of OnaBotulinumtoxinA Efficacy (CD PROBE).

BMC Neurol 2011 Nov 4;11:140. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: A registry of patients with cervical dystonia (Cervical Dystonia Patient Registry for Observation of onaBotulinumtoxinA Efficacy [CD PROBE]) was initiated to capture data regarding physician practices and patient outcomes with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA). Methods and baseline demographics from an interim analysis are provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-11-140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3220636PMC
November 2011
10 Reads

Five-year experience with incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®) ): the first botulinum toxin drug free of complexing proteins.

Authors:
D Dressler

Eur J Neurol 2012 Mar 28;19(3):385-9. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Movement Disorders Section, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

In 2005, incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®) ), a new botulinum toxin (BT) type A drug without complexing proteins (CPs), became available. This paper reviews the specific features of Xeomin(®) and the experience gathered with it during the last 5 years. Compared with conventional BT drugs, Xeomin(®) 's extended shelf live and its simplified temperature restrictions indicate that CPs are not necessary for BT drug stability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03559.xDOI Listing
March 2012
7 Reads

[Clinical application of botulinum toxin].

Authors:
Takahiro Mezaki

Brain Nerve 2011 Jul;63(7):785-94

Department of Neurology, Sakakibara Hakuho Hospital, Mie, Japan.

The clinical application of botulinum toxin (BoNT) was first proposed by Justinus Kerner in 1822. BoNT was formally accepted as a therapeutic agent in the 1970s, and currently, it is used worldwide for treating diseases as well as for cosmetic conditions. In Japan, Botox® is the only type A formulation that has been officially approved for the treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, cervical dystonia, pes equinus of cerebral palsy, adult spasticity of upper and lower limbs, and Botox Vista® is applied for glabellar frown lines. Read More

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July 2011
3 Reads

[Use of botulinum neurotoxin therapy].

Brain Nerve 2011 Jul;63(7):775-84

Department of Neurology, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by the gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, act on motor nerve endings and induce muscle relaxation. BoNT type A and B are used as therapeutic agents. Several preparations of BoNT type A are commercially available; Botox®, Dysport®, and Xeomin® are popular. Read More

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July 2011
3 Reads

Botulinum Toxin in the management of hitchhiker's toe.

NeuroRehabilitation 2011 ;28(4):395-9

Rehabilitation Medicine, Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Foundation Trust, Wigan, UK.

Introduction: Hyperextension of the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscle is a well recognised disabling sequel of either pyramidal or extrapyramidal lesions causing what is known as striated or hitchhiker's toe. Surgery was the only effective strategy to manage EHL hyperextension before botulinum toxin's use to manage muscular dystonia and spasticity became widely popular.

Methods: A multicentre retrospective study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NRE-2011-0669DOI Listing
November 2011
84 Reads

The broadening application of chemodenervation in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (Part I): muscle afferent block versus botulinum toxin-A in cervical and limb dystonias.

Int J Neurosci 2011 19;121 Suppl 1:35-43. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is an established mainstay treatment for dystonia. However, its use, especially in developing countries, is significantly limited by its cost. Chemodenervation with muscle afferent block (MAB) using lidocaine-ethanol may provide a more cost-effective alternative to traditional BoNT injections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00207454.2010.544435DOI Listing
January 2012
4 Reads

Meta-analysis of neutralizing antibody conversion with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) across multiple indications.

Mov Disord 2010 Oct;25(13):2211-8

Department of Neurology, Klinikum Augsburg Neurologische Klinik, Augsburg, Germany.

This meta-analysis evaluated the frequency of neutralizing antibody (nAb) conversion with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®; Allergan) across five studied indications. The analysis was based on large, controlled or prospective, open-label trials (durations 4 months to ≥2 years). Serum samples were analyzed for nAbs using the Mouse Protection Assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.23254DOI Listing
October 2010
11 Reads

Content of botulinum neurotoxin in Botox®/Vistabel®, Dysport®/Azzalure®, and Xeomin®/Bocouture®.

Authors:
Jürgen Frevert

Drugs R D 2010 ;10(2):67-73

Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is the active substance in preparations used for the highly effective treatment of neurologic disorders such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, or spasticity, as well as other indications such as axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis, and urologic disorders.

Objective: To determine the amount of BoNT/A protein present in pharmaceutical preparations of Botox®, Dysport®, and Xeomin®, which are identical with Vistabel®, Azzalure®, and Bocouture®, respectively.

Methods: Rabbit and guinea pig antibodies raised against the 150 kD BoNT/A neurotoxin purified from Clostridium botulinum type A, strain ATCC 3502 ('Hall strain'), were used in a sensitive sandwich ELISA to determine the overall mean concentration of the 150 kD neurotoxin present in four batches of Botox® (C2344C3, C2384C3, C2419, and C2385), two batches of Dysport® (678F and 689X) and three batches of Xeomin® (61,111, 70,604, and 81,208). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11584780-000000000-00000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586120PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Bach, botox, and butterflies: toward an awareness of musician's dystonia.

Med Health R I 2007 Aug;90(8):238-9

Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Roger Williams Medical Center, USA.

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August 2007
3 Reads

Botulinum neurotoxin type A free of complexing proteins (XEOMIN) in focal dystonia.

Drugs 2007 ;67(5):669-83

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Deutsche Klinik für Diagnostik, Wiesbaden, Germany.

Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BTX-A) weakens voluntary muscle strength and is an effective therapy for focal dystonia, including cervical dystonia (CD) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). It is also known to relieve hemifacial spasm and focal spasticity in children and adults. In addition, BTX-A has been shown to be effective in a wide range of other indications, such as gastrointestinal disorders, hyperhidrosis and cosmetic wrinkle correction (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200767050-00003DOI Listing
July 2007
4 Reads

Botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Jan 25(1):CD003633. Epub 2005 Jan 25.

Instituto de Farmacologia e Terapêutica Geral, Faculdade de Medicina Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Lisboa, Portugal, 1649-028.

Background: Cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary posturing of the head and frequently is associated with neck pain. Disability and social withdrawal are common. In recent years, Botulinum toxin Type A (BtA) has become the first line therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003633.pub2DOI Listing
January 2005
3 Reads

Myobloc.

Dermatol Clin 2004 Apr;22(2):207-11, vii

Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA.

Myobloc is the currently available commercial formulation of type B botulinum toxin. Released in the United States in 2000, it is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cervical dystonia. The most commonly used botulinum toxins, the type A toxins (Botox and Dysport), affect the SNAP-25 protein, whereas the type B toxin (Myobloc) affects vesicle-associated membrane protein, also known as synaptobrevin. Read More

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April 2004
4 Reads

Role for botulinum toxin in back pain treatment in adults with cerebral palsy: report of a case.

Joint Bone Spine 2004 Jan;71(1):76-8

Service de Médecine Physique et Réadaptation, CHU Pontchaillou, rue Henri le Guillou, 35033 Rennes, France.

Objective: To report a case illustrating the usefulness of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of spinal dystonia responsible for low back pain and postural disorders.

Methods: Critical appraisal of a case report.

Case Report: A young woman with cerebral palsy had lumbar paraspinal muscle dystonia responsible for pain and hyperlordosis unresponsive to oral medications for muscle spasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1297-319X(03)00124-6DOI Listing
January 2004
7 Reads

[Oromandibular dystonia. Clinical forms, diagnosis and examples of therapy with botulinum toxin].

Laryngorhinootologie 2001 Dec;80(12):708-13

Universitäts-Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Klinik Göttingen, Germany.

Background: The present study reports on our experience with clinical aspects and therapy of oromandibular dystonia (OMD) with botulinum toxin A. OMD is a very rare form of focal dystonias. The clinical symptoms can vary considerably, depending on the musculature affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-19572DOI Listing
December 2001
4 Reads

Botulinum toxin therapy: distant effects on neuromuscular transmission and autonomic nervous system.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992 Sep;55(9):844-5

Institute of Neurological and Neurosurgical Sciences, University of Messina, Italy.

To evaluate distant effects of botulinum toxin, single fibre electromyography on the extensor digitorum communis muscle and six tests of cardiovascular reflexes were performed in five patients injected with BoTox (Oculinum(R) 20-130 units) for craniocervical dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Patients underwent two sessions of treatment and the second time the dosage was doubled. Botulinum toxin injection induced an increase of mean jitter value above normal limits in all cases. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1015114PMC
September 1992
2 Reads

Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis.

Neurology 1990 Aug;40(8):1213-8

Dystonia Clinical Research Center, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY.

We enrolled 55 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design study of the effectiveness of botulinum toxin (Botox) injections for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis. Patients received a standard series of injections, either placebo or Botox. We determined the sites of injection and dose per muscle by the nature of head deviation. Read More

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August 1990
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