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    Regulation of Botulinum Neurotoxin Synthesis and Toxin Complex Formation by Arginine and Glucose in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1510 Linden Drive, Madison. WI, 53706
    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation are not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation was affected by arginine and glucose in C. Read More

    Transposition of Both Oblique Muscles Combined With Lateral Rectus Botulinum Toxin Injection and Globe Fixation Suture in the Treatment of Congenital Cranial Nerve III Palsy.
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2017 Apr 28;54:e13-e17. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    The authors report a new technique to treat complete cranial nerve III palsy. A 15-year-old girl underwent botulinum toxin injection into the lateral rectus muscle, nasal transposition of both the superior and inferior oblique muscles to the medial rectus insertion, and absorbable suture globe fixation to the nasal orbital periosteum. Six months postoperatively, her primary position eye deviation was within 12 prism diopters of orthotropia with limitation of ductions in all directions. Read More

    A new treatment for frostbite sequelae; Botulinum toxin.
    Int J Circumpolar Health 2017 ;76(1):1273677
    e Department of Radiology , University Hospital North Norway, Tromsø , Norway.
    Frostbite sequelae are a relevant occupational injury outcome for soldiers in arctic environments. A Caucasian male soldier suffered frostbite to both hands during a military winter exercise. He developed sensory-motor disturbances and cold hypersensitivity. Read More

    Assessment and treatment of spastic equinovarus foot after stroke: Guidance from the Mont-Godinne interdisciplinary group.
    J Rehabil Med 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Université catholique de Louvain, Cliniques universitaires de Mont-Godinne, , BE-5530 Yvoir, Belgium.
    Objective: To present interdisciplinary practical guidance for the assessment and treatment of spastic equinovarus foot after stroke.

    Results: Clinical examination and diagnostic nerve block with anaesthetics determine the relative role of the factors leading to spastic equinovarus foot after stroke: calf spasticity, triceps surae - Achilles tendon complex shortening and dorsiflexor muscles weakness and/or imbalance. Diagnostic nerve block is a mandatory step in determining the cause(s) of, and the most appropriate treatment(s) for, spastic equinovarus foot. Read More

    Characterization of a Dual Rac/Cdc42 Inhibitor MBQ-167 in Metastatic Cancer.
    Mol Cancer Ther 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus
    The Rho GTPases Rac (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate) and Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42 homolog) regulate cell functions governing cancer malignancy, including cell polarity, migration, and cell cycle progression. Accordingly, our recently developed Rac inhibitor EHop-016 (IC50, 1,100 nM) inhibits cancer cell migration and viability, and reduces tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in vivo. Herein, we describe MBQ-167, which inhibits Rac and Cdc42 with IC50s of 103 nM and 78 nM respectively, in metastatic breast cancer cells. Read More

    Pan-genome analysis of Clostridium botulinum reveals unique targets for drug development.
    Gene 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Biotechnology, TERI University, 10, Industrial area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070, India. Electronic address:
    Clostridium botulinum, a formidable pathogen is responsible for the emerging cause of food poisoning cases on the global canvas. The endemicity of bacterium Clostridium botulinum is reflected by the sudden hospital outbreaks and increased resistance towards multiple drugs. Therefore, a combined approach of in-silico comparative genomic analysis with statistical analysis was applied to overcome the limitation of bench-top technologies. Read More

    Optimization of SNAP-25-derived peptide substrate for improved detection of botulinum A in the Endopep-MS assay.
    Anal Biochem 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Biotechnology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Israel. Electronic address:
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins in nature. Endopeptidase-mass-spectrometry (Endopep-MS) is used as a specific and rapid in-vitro assay to detect BoNTs. In this assay, immunocaptured toxin cleaves a serotype-specific-peptide-substrate, and the cleavage products are then detected by MS. Read More

    Protective Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A Against Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    *Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; †Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea; ‡Institute of Dermatological Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea; §Department of Dermatology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) A possesses various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antipruritic actions. Human and animal studies have shown that BTX is effective in treating histamine-induced itch, lichen simplex chronicus, psoriasis, rosacea, allergic rhinitis, and scar prevention. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been studied yet. Read More

    Can we create a valid treatment algorithm for patients with drug resistant overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome or detrusor overactivity (DO)? Results from a think tank (ICI-RS 2015).
    Neurourol Urodyn 2017 Apr;36(4):882-893
    Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennesse.
    Aims: To review and assess the definitions of drug resistance and the evidence supporting treatment for drug resistant overactive bladder/detrusor overactivity (OAB/DO).

    Methods: Evidence review of the extant literature and consensus of opinion was used to derive the summary recommendations.

    Results: Drug resistance or drug refractory status has been inconsistently defined and reported in current evident sources. Read More

    Insights into the mechanisms by which clostridial neurotoxins discriminate between gangliosides.
    Biochemistry 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. Entry of toxins into neurons is mediated through initial interactions with gangliosides, followed by binding to a protein co-receptor. Herein we aimed to understand the mechanism through which individual neurotoxins recognize the carbohydrate motif of gangliosides. Read More

    [Therapy of Hemifacial Spasm with Botulinum Toxin].
    Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2017 Apr 24;85(4):194-198. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Abt. für Neurologie, Hamburg.
    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a frequent disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles innervated by the facialis nerve on one side of the face. The symptoms can appear as tonic or clonic, intermittent or permanent. Diagnosis is based purely on clinical observation. Read More

    Evaluation of the protective effect of Botulinum toxin type A injection on otitis media with effusion().
    Acta Otolaryngol 2017 Apr 22:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    a Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Faculty , Bezmialem Vakif University , Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Objective: This study makes an analysis of the effect of Botulinum toxin type A on otitis media with effusion in rats.

    Method: As part of the study, 24 male Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Group 1: Botulinum toxin Type A and Histamıne (intratympanic 0.2 ml = 20 unit BTA); Group 2: Saline and Histamine (intratympanic 0. Read More

    Symptomatic treatment of neurologic symptoms in Wilson disease.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;142:211-223
    Second Department of Neurology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:
    Wilson disease (WD) is a potentially treatable neurodegenerative disorder. In the majority of cases, treatment with drugs that induce a negative copper balance (usually chelators or zinc salts) leads to improvements in liver function and neurologic signs. However, some patients show severe neurologic symptoms at diagnosis, such as tremor, dystonia, parkinsonism, and chorea. Read More

    Multicenter observational study of abobotulinumtoxinA neurotoxin in cervical dystonia: The ANCHOR-CD registry.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 May 21;376:84-90. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: The ANCHOR-CD prospective observational registry study evaluated the effectiveness of abobotulinumtoxinA in adult idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) in clinical practice.

    Methods: Adults with CD were eligible. Treating physicians determined abobotulinumtoxinA dose and treatment interval. Read More

    Apraclonidine in the treatment of ptosis.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 May 16;376:129-132. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Transient ptosis is a known complication of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection due to inadvertent migration of toxin into the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Currently there is no treatment available for BoNT induced ptosis. Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a topical ophthalmic solution with selective alpha-2 and weak alpha-1 receptor agonist activity that has the ability to elevate the eye lid. Read More

    Switch to Abobotulinum toxin A may be useful in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity when intradetrusor injections of Onabotulinum toxin A failed.
    Neurourol Urodyn 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Urology, University Hospital of Marseille, Marseille, France.
    Aims: To assess the outcomes of switching to a different brand of botulinum toxin A (BTA, from Botox® to Dysport®) in case of failure of intradetrusor injections (IDI) of Botox® in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).

    Methods: The charts of all patients who underwent a switch to IDI of Dysport® after failure of an IDI of Botox® at six departments of neurourology were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcomes of interest were the bladder diary data and four urodynamic parameters: maximum cystometric capacity (MCC), maximum detrusor pressure (PDET max), and volume at first uninhibited detrusor contraction (UDC). Read More

    Evidence-based Recommendations for Pediatric Orthopaedic Practice.
    J Pediatr Orthop 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    *Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, BC Children's Hospital †Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada ‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Vic., Australia §Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital ∥Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ¶Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY #Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI.
    Background: Evidence-based medicine has become the cornerstone to guide clinical practice decision-making. Evidence-based medicine integrates the strongest available evidence with clinical expertise to make decisions about clinical care. The quality of the evidence depends upon the soundness of the study methodology to allow for meaningful interpretation of the clinical results. Read More

    [Advances in the research of mechanism in prevention and treatment of scar with botulinum toxin type A and its clinical application].
    Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2017 Apr;33(4):254-256
    Burn Center of PLA, Department of Burns and Cutaneous Surgery, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.
    Scar is a common complication in wound healing process, and how to effectively prevent and treat it is a hot and difficult problem in burns and plastic surgery field. Botulinum toxin type A is a neurotoxin that has been widely and effectively used in the cosmetic surgery field such as anti-wrinkle and thin face. In recent years, botulinum toxin type A has been applied in prevention and treatment of scar, which causes a great concern. Read More

    The Therapeutic Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in Treating Scleroderma-Associated Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Objective To assess the therapeutic efficacy of local injections with Botulinum Toxin Type-A (Btx-A) in improving blood flow to the hands of patients with Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) secondary to scleroderma. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (http://ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02165111), patients with scleroderma-associated RP received Btx-A (50 units in 2. Read More

    Treatment Update of Chronic Migraine.
    Curr Pain Headache Rep 2017 Jun;21(6):26
    Department of Neurology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 1 Singil-ro, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 07441, Republic of Korea.
    Purpose Of Review: Although chronic migraine (CM) is a common disorder that severely impacts patient functioning and quality of life, it is usually underdiagnosed, and treatment responses often remain poor even after diagnosis. In addition, effective treatment options are limited due to the rarity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with CM. In the present review, we discuss updated pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatment options for CM. Read More

    Genetic Characterization of the Exceptionally High Heat Resistance of the Non-toxic Surrogate Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679.
    Front Microbiol 2017 3;8:545. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Biology, Illinois Institute of TechnologyChicago, IL, USA.
    Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a non-toxic endospore former that is widely used as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum by the food processing industry to validate thermal processing strategies. PA 3679 produces spores of exceptionally high heat resistance without botulinum neurotoxins, permitting the use of PA 3679 in inoculated pack studies while ensuring the safety of food processing facilities. To identify genes associated with this heat resistance, the genomes of C. Read More

    Spasticity, Motor Recovery, and Neural Plasticity after Stroke.
    Front Neurol 2017 3;8:120. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. Read More

    Effective treatment of ketamine-associated cystitis with botulinum toxin type a injection combined with bladder hydrodistention.
    J Int Med Res 2017 Apr 8;45(2):792-797. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    1 College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Objective Ketamine-associated cystitis (KAC) has been described in a few case reports, but its treatment in a relatively large number of patients has not been documented. This study aimed to describe our experience of treatment of 36 patients with KAC. Methods Thirty-six patients (30 males and 6 females, aged 19-38 years) with KAC, who had previously taken a muscarinic receptor blocker and/or antibiotics, but without symptomatic relief, were treated with botulinum toxin A injection combined with bladder hydrodistention. Read More

    Clown-care reduces pain in children with cerebral palsy undergoing recurrent botulinum toxin injections- A quasi-randomized controlled crossover study.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(4):e0175028. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    School of Education, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Objective: We investigated the impact of clown-care on pain in 45 children with cerebral palsy who underwent recurrent Botulinum-toxin injections (age 7.04± 4.68 years). Read More

    Cytotoxic and antimigratory effects of Cratoxy formosum extract against HepG2 liver cancer cells.
    Biomed Rep 2017 Apr 10;6(4):441-448. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Microbiology and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand.
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Cratoxylum formosum (CF) Dyer-induced cancer cell death and antimigratory effects in HepG2 liver cancer cells. The cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of CF leaf extract on human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B, colony formation, and wound healing assays. In addition, apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, caspase 3 activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) disruption. Read More

    Long-term anti-itch effect of botulinum neurotoxin A is associated with downregulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the dorsal root ganglia in mice.
    Neuroreport 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    aDepartment of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University bInstitute of Neuroscience cJiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou dSuqian First Hospital, Suqian, China.
    Itch is a common symptom in patients with skin and systemic diseases, but the effective treatment is limited. Here, we evaluated the anti-itch effects of the botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) using acute and chronic dry skin itch mouse models, which were induced by compound 48/80, chloroquine, and a mixture of acetone-diethylether-water treatment, respectively. Pretreatment of intradermal BoNT/A exerted long-term inhibitory effects on compound 48/80-induced and chloroquine-induced acute itch on days 1, 3, 7, and 14, but not on day 21, in mice. Read More

    Discovery and characterization of small molecule Rac1 inhibitors.
    Oncotarget 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America.
    Aberrant activation of Rho GTPase Rac1 has been observed in various tumor types, including pancreatic cancer. Rac1 activates multiple signaling pathways that lead to uncontrolled proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Thus, inhibition of Rac1 activity is a viable therapeutic strategy for proliferative disorders such as cancer. Read More

    Exogenous miRNA-146a Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Increasing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion in the Ischemia/Reperfusion-Injured Heart.
    J Vasc Res 2017 Apr 14;54(2):100-108. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Adult stem cells have been studied as a promising therapeutic modality for the functional restoration of the damaged heart. In the present study, a strategy for enhancing the angiogenic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using micro-RNA was examined. We investigated whether micro-RNA-146a (miR-146a) influences the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis of MSCs. Read More

    Preparing for biological threats: Addressing the needs of pregnant women.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Mar;109(5):391-398
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus). Evaluating the potential maternal, fetal, and infant consequences of an intentional release of an infectious agent requires an assessment of several key issues: (1) are pregnant women more susceptible to infection or illness compared to the general population?; (2) are pregnant women at increased risk for severe illness, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population?; (3) does infection or illness during pregnancy place women, the fetus, or the infant at increased risk for adverse outcomes and how does this affect clinical management?; and (4) are the medical countermeasures recommended for the general population safe and effective during pregnancy? These issues help frame national guidance for the care of pregnant women during an intentional release of a biological threat. Read More

    Office-based Electromyography-guided Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Cricopharyngeus Muscle: Optimal Patient Selection and Technique.
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2017 May 23;126(5):349-356. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    3 Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Objectives: This retrospective study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness and safety of office-based electromyography-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the cricopharyngeus muscle of patients who did not show upper esophageal sphincter passage in a swallowing study in spite of maximal swallowing rehabilitation.

    Methods: Thirty-six patients who showed no or limited ability to oral feed after maximum swallowing rehabilitation were enrolled. Video fluoroscopic swallowing study, flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, disability rating scale, penetration aspiration score, and National Institutes of Health swallowing safety scale were used in the evaluation of dysphagia. Read More

    Operative and medical treatment of chronic anal fissures-a review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    J Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Department of Surgery, Cantonal Hospital of St. Gallen, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Anal fissures are a common problem and have a cumulative lifetime incidence of 11%. Previous reviews on anal fissures show inconsistent results regarding post-interventional healing and incontinence rates. In this review our aim was to compare the treatments for chronic anal fissures by incorporating indirect comparisons using network meta-analysis. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin for Burning Mouth Syndrome.
    Ann Intern Med 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    From Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy; Peripheral Neuropathy and Neuropathic Pain Centre, IRCCS Foundation, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy; University of Padova, Padova, Italy; and University of Catania, Garibaldi-Nesima Medical Center, Catania, Italy.

    The Facial Platysma and Its Underappreciated Role in Lower Face Dynamics and Contour.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    *Dermatologic Clinic, Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; †Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background: The platysma is a superficial muscle involved in important features of the aging neck. Vertical bands, horizontal lines, and loss of lower face contour are effectively treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). However, its pars facialis, mandibularis, and modiolaris have been underappreciated. Read More

    Serial Casting as an Adjunct to Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Paraparesis With Scissoring of the Lower Extremities.
    J Child Neurol 2017 Jan 1:883073817701526. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    The purpose of this study was to examine whether combination therapy of serial casting and botulinum toxin type A injection can further enhance the effects of botulinum toxin type A in children with cerebral palsy with scissoring of both legs. This study was a prospective and randomized trial. The children were divided into 2 groups, one of which received serial casting after botulinum toxin type A (n = 40), and the other which only received botulinum toxin type A (n = 40). Read More

    What is the clinical significance of esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction? evaluation of 60 patients at a tertiary referral center.
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017 Apr 9. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Background: Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction (EGJOO) is characterized by impaired EGJ relaxation with intact or weak peristalsis. Our aims were to evaluate: (i) prevalence, (ii) yield of fluoroscopy, endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), (iii) outcomes, and (iv) whether this data differed based on quantitative EGJ relaxation.

    Methods: Studies that met criteria for EGJOO were identified. Read More

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A-cleaved SNAP25 is confined to primary motor neurons and localized on the plasma membrane following intramuscular toxin injection.
    Neuroscience 2017 Apr 5;352:155-169. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Allergan plc, Irvine, CA 92612, United States. Electronic address:
    The mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is well characterized, but some published evidence suggests the potential for neuronal retrograde transport and cell-to-cell transfer (transcytosis) under certain experimental conditions. The present study evaluated the potential for these processes using a highly selective antibody for the BoNT/A-cleaved substrate (SNAP25197) combined with 3-dimensional imaging. SNAP25197 was characterized in a rat motor neuron (MN) pathway following toxin intramuscular injections at various doses to determine whether SNAP25197 is confined to MNs or also found in neighboring cells or nerve fibers within spinal cord (SC). Read More

    Botulinum toxin treatment for facial palsy: A systematic review.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Plastic Surgery Department, Queen Victoria Hospital, Holtye Rd, East Grinstead, RH19 3DZ, UK.
    Background: Facial palsy may be complicated by ipsilateral synkinesis or contralateral hyperkinesis. Botulinum toxin is increasingly used in the management of facial palsy; however, the optimum dose, treatment interval, adjunct therapy and performance as compared with alternative treatments have not been well established. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for the use of botulinum toxin in facial palsy. Read More

    The Practical Use of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Aesthetics.
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 May;37(suppl_1):S12-S19
    Dr Kane is a plastic surgeon in private practice in New York, NY. Dr Monheit is a Dermatologist, Departments of Dermatology and Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been approved for aesthetic use since 2002. Since then, clinical studies and expert use have informed our understanding of how BoNT exerts its clinical effect and the practical use of this product across a number of aesthetic applications. This review discusses the clinical properties and characteristics of abobotulinumtoxinA, which patients are suitable for its use, and how it can be utilized to treat facial rhytides. Read More

    AbobotulinumtoxinA: A 25-Year History.
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 May;37(suppl_1):S4-S11
    Dr Monheit is a Dermatologist, Departments of Dermatology and Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Dr Pickett is Director and Founder of Toxin Science Limited, Wrexham, UK; and an Adjunct Professor at the Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA.
    During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Alan Scott showed that intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin (BoNT) corrected nonaccommodative strabismus without resorting to surgery. The UK doctors who trained with Scott soon realized the significant potential offered by BoNT type A as a therapeutic option for several difficult-to-treat diseases. This led to a collaboration between these pioneering clinicians and the Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research at Porton Down, United Kingdom, and, in turn, to the development and commercialization of abobotulinumtoxinA as Dysport (Dystonia/Porton Down; Ipsen Biopharm Ltd. Read More

    Key Parameters for the Use of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Aesthetics: Onset and Duration.
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 May;37(suppl_1):S20-S31
    Dr Nestor is a Voluntary Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Miami Leonard Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL. Dr Ablon is an Associate Clinical Professor of Dermatology, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA. Dr Pickett is Director and Founder of Toxin Science Limited, Wrexham, UK; and an Adjunct Professor at the Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA.
    Time to onset of response and duration of response are key measures of botulinum toxin efficacy that have a considerable influence on patient satisfaction with aesthetic treatment. However, there is no overall accepted definition of efficacy for aesthetic uses of botulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Mechanical methods of assessment do not lend themselves to clinical practice and clinicians rely instead on assessment scales such as the Frontalis Activity Measurement Standard, Frontalis Rating Scale, Wrinkle Severity Scale, and Subject Global Assessment Scale, but not all of these have been fully validated. Read More

    TREATMENT OF VASCULAR LESIONS LOCATED IN THE LIP AND IN THE ORAL CAVITY WITH ND-YAG LASER.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    a Hospital Federal da Lagoa , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Vascular lesions are common complaints reported in clinics and patients seeking treatment for aesthetic or functional issues. Vascular lesions such as hemangiomas can be found in the oral cavity and some therapeutic modalities can be used in the treatment of these lesions, which the Nd: YAG laser shows good results for easy implementation, fewer complications and satisfactory results. This study describes technique and outcome of a case of hemangioma located on the tongue treated with Nd: YAG laser. Read More

    Antibody responses to botulinum neurotoxin type A of toxin-treated spastic equinus children with cerebral palsy: A randomized clinical trial comparing two injection schedules.
    J Neuroimmunol 2017 May 21;306:31-39. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:
    We have conducted a 26-month-long comparative study involving young patients (2-6years old) with a clinical diagnosis of spastic equinus secondary to cerebral palsy who have been treated with BoNT/A (BOTOX®, Allergan) tri-annually or annually. Serum samples were obtained to determine the presence or absence of blocking antibodies (Abs) by a mouse protection assay (MPA) and levels of anti-BoNT/A Abs by radioimmune assay (RIA). HLA DQ alleles were typed using blood samples to determine the possible association of certain HLA type(s) with the disease or with the Ab status. Read More

    Sonographic guide for botulinum toxin injections of the lower limb: euro-musculus/USPRM spasticity approach.
    Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.
    The pertinent literature lacks overt technical data for optimal lower limb muscle botulinum toxin injections using ultrasound (US) imaging. Therefore, this guide is prepared for the commonly injected muscles of the lower limb and the pelvic girdle mainly in spasticity. It includes clinical information, anatomical description and explanation regarding the ultrasound imaging of several muscles. Read More

    Molecular Evolutionary Constraints that Determine the Avirulence State of Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin.
    J Mol Evol 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Molecular Systems Engineering Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620 024, India.
    Clostridium botulinum (group-III) is an anaerobic bacterium producing C2 toxin along with botulinum neurotoxins. C2 toxin is belonged to binary toxin A family in bacterial ADP-ribosylation superfamily. A structural and functional diversity of binary toxin A family was inferred from different evolutionary constraints to determine the avirulence state of C2 toxin. Read More

    Botulinum toxin in the management of chronic migraine: clinical evidence and experience.
    Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2017 Feb 16;10(2):127-135. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Neurology, Movement Disorder Section, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.
    Chronic migraine (CM) is a severely disabling neurological condition characterized by episodes of pulsating unilateral or bilateral headache. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) for the prophylactic treatment of CM in 2010. It has been shown that onabotulinumtoxinA is effective in the reduction of headache frequency and severity in patients with CM. Read More

    IncobotulinumtoxinA for Aesthetic Indications: A Systematic Review of Prospective Comparative Trials.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    *Prager & Partner Dermatologische Praxis, Hamburg, Germany; †Global Medical Affairs, Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; ‡4Clinics, Paris, France.
    Background: IncobotulinumtoxinA is a botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) indicated for temporary improvement in the appearance of upper facial lines with well-established efficacy and safety profiles. Whether incobotulinumtoxinA and other BoNTAs are equipotent is subject of debate.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA and other BoNTAs for aesthetic applications. Read More

    Do intraoperative pyloric interventions predict the need for postoperative endoscopic interventions after minimally invasive esophagectomy?
    Dis Esophagus 2017 Apr;30(4):1-8
    Department of Surgery.
    Intraoperative pyloric procedures are often performed during esophagectomies to reduce the rates of gastric conduit dysfunction. They include pyloroplasty (PP), pyloromyotomy (PM), and pylorus botulinum toxin type-A injections (BI). Despite these procedures, patients frequently warrant further endoscopic interventions. Read More

    [The features of botulinum therapy for different patterns of poststroke spasticity].
    Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2017 ;117(2):42-48
    Kazan State Medical University of the Ministry of Healse of the Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia.
    Aim: To assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy for different patterns of poststroke spasticity.

    Material And Methods: Thirty-nine patients with poststroke spasticity were examined. Rehabilitation included 4 treatment courses of inpatient rehabilitation during 9 month usinga multidisciplinary team approach. Read More

    [Foodborne botulism - a re-emerging public health challenge].
    Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2017 ;66(1):39-48
    Human foodborne botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) of serotypes A, B, E, and rarely also serotype F, produced in contaminated food by anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum group I, group II, or by toxigenic strains of C. butyricum and C. baratii. Read More

    Botulinum toxin injection in the patients with Duane syndrome type 1.
    J Curr Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 12;29(1):50-53. Epub 2016 Nov 12.
    Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin injection in the patients with type 1 Duane syndrome and identify the predictive factors for success.

    Methods: Sixteen patients with esotropic type 1 Duane syndrome without history of ocular surgery were selected for this interventional case series. The botulinum toxin was injected in the medial rectus of all patients. Read More

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