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    PTH (1-34) and growth hormone in prevention of disuse osteopenia and sarcopenia in rats.
    Bone 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Osteopenia and sarcopenia develops rapidly during disuse. The study investigated whether intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) and growth hormone (GH) administered alone or in combination could prevent or mitigate disuse osteopenia and sarcopenia in rats. Disuse was achieved by injecting 4 IU botulinum toxin A (BTX) into the right hindlimb musculature of 12-14-week-old female Wistar rats. Read More

    Long-term surgical outcomes for large-angle, infantile esotropia.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To report the long-term surgical outcomes for a cohort of children with large-angle, infantile esotropia.

    Design: Multicenter, non-randomized clinical study METHODS: SETTING: Two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals.

    Study Population: 88 children with large-angle (≥ 55 prism diopters), infantile esotropia. Read More

    Rapid method for purification of Clostridium botulinuh type C neurotoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC ).
    Eur J Epidemiol 1986 Dec;2(4):265-271
    Department of Tuberculosis Research I, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases Osaka University, 3-1, Yamadaoka, 565, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    The culture supernatant of Clostridium botulinum type C, concentrated by addition of RNA, acid precipitation and subsequent protamine treatment was used as starting material for rapid purification of L toxin (mol. wt. ca. Read More

    Radiation-Induced Painful Neurogenic Hypertrophy Treated With Botulinum Toxin A.
    J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2018 Mar;19(3):135-137
    Neuromuscular Medicine, St. Luke's Rehabilitation Institute, Spokane, WA.
    Painful neurogenic hypertrophy is a rare complication of radiation therapy. We report a 27-year-old woman with a history of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland presented with painful twitching of her left shoulder. Electrodiagnostic studies were consistent with a diagnosis of radiation-induced spinal accessory nerve hyperactivity. Read More

    A Single Tri-Epitopic Antibody Virtually Recapitulates the Potency of a Combination of Three Monoclonal Antibodies in Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Feb 15;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco Rm 3C-38, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Ave, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.
    The standard of treatment for botulism, equine antitoxin, is a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin and makes it a less-than-optimal therapeutic. Due to these limitations, a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product is preferable. It has been shown that combining three mAbs that bind non-overlapping epitopes leads to highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) neutralization. Read More

    The Global Spine Care Initiative: applying evidence-based guidelines on the non-invasive management of back and neck pain to low- and middle-income communities.
    Eur Spine J 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Division of General Medical Rehabilitation, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Purpose: The purpose of this review was to develop recommendations for the management of spinal disorders in low-income communities, with a focus on non-invasive pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for non-specific low back and neck pain.

    Methods: We synthesized two evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of low back and neck pain. Our recommendations considered benefits, harms, quality of evidence, and costs, with attention to feasibility in medically underserved areas and low- and middle-income countries. Read More

    Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Trigeminal Neuralgia in a South Asian Cohort.
    J Neurosci Rural Pract 2018 Jan-Mar;9(1):100-105
    National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka.
    Introduction: The antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) in trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described. We evaluated effects of BTX-A in relieving pain in patients with refractory TN at National Hospital of Sri Lanka.

    Materials And Methods: Pain in patients with TN was assessed using a visual analog from 0 to 10. Read More

    Updating the recommendations for treatment of tardive syndromes: A systematic review of new evidence and practical treatment algorithm.
    J Neurol Sci 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Background: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013.

    Objective: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy?

    Methods: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines. Articles were classified according to an AAN 4-tiered evidence-rating scheme. Read More

    Systematic review of botulinum toxin treatment for oromandibular dystonia.
    Toxicon 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, United States. Electronic address:
    Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is an isolated focal dystonia that affects the muscles of the jaw, lower face and tongue. It is a rare disorder but is associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Treatment with oral medications has not been successful. Read More

    To switch from Botox to Dysport in children with CP, a real world, dose conversion, cost-effectiveness study.
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Pediatric Orthopedic Unit Q102, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden; Neuropediatric Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Q207, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Background And Objectives: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are routinely treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). Two non dose-equivalent and differently priced products, Botox and Dysport are used. Depending on the conversion one of the products is considerably cheaper. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Cyclic Strabismus in Children: Three Case Reports.
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
    Cyclic strabismus is a rare disease of unknown origin. If untreated, it leads to manifest strabismus with the risk of amblyopia in children. Treatment is generally surgical. Read More

    Severity of cerebral palsy and likelihood of adverse events after botulinum toxin A injections.
    Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, Australia.
    Aim: To determine the incidence of common adverse events after botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify whether the severity of CP influences the incidence of adverse events.

    Method: This was an observational study of patients attending a BoNT-A clinic at a tertiary paediatric hospital (2010-2014). Data examined included procedural adverse events at the time of injection and at follow-up. Read More

    Preoperative combination of progressive pneumoperitoneum and botulinum toxin type A in patients with loss of domain hernia.
    Surg Endosc 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Surgical Unit of Abdominall wall, Departament of Digestive Surgery, "La Fe" Universitary Hospital, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Introduction: Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) and botulinum toxin type A (BT) are tools in the surgical preparation of patients with loss of domain hernias (LODH). The aim of this paper is to report our experience with these preoperative techniques in 70 patients with LODH.

    Methods: Observational study of 70 consecutive patients with LODH was conducted between May 2010 and May 2016. Read More

    Shot by a Gun … Missed by a Provider.
    J Emerg Med 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey.
    Background: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. Read More

    Botulinum toxin type A relieves sternocleidomastoid muscle fibrosis in congenital muscular torticollis.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, 1st Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 287 Changhuai Road, Bengbu, Anhui 233000, PR China. Electronic address:
    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a neck deformity that involves shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) characterized by muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. To investigate wheatear Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has anti-fibrotic effects in CMT, we established acquired muscular torticollis that mimetics CMT in rabbit by intra-SCM injection of anhydrous alcohol. The treatment groups received BTA (2. Read More

    Modified approach for pediatric external cricopharyngeal myotomy.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Feb 15;105:111-114. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Pediatric cricopharyngeal achalasia is an uncommon but important cause of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Failure of upper esophageal sphincter relaxation is the currently understood pathophysiology. Therapies include balloon dilation, botulinum toxin injection, and endoscopic or open cricopharyngeal myotomy (CPM). Read More

    Intramuscular Distribution of the Abducens Nerve in the Lateral Rectus Muscle for the Management of Strabismus.
    Curr Eye Res 2018 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    b Department of Anatomy, Research Institute of Medical Science , Konkuk University School of Medicine , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
    Aims: To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections.

    Methods: Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated. Read More

    Emerging therapies for neuropathic pain: new molecules or new indications for old treatments?
    Pain 2018 Mar;159(3):576-582
    Neuropathic pain represents a highly unmet medical need because most of the available treatments have a modest efficacy or dose-limiting side effects. Hence, novel therapeutic perspectives are warranted. Many compounds acting on new pain targets are in preclinical or early clinical development. Read More

    Numbers on injectable treatments in the Netherlands in 2016.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Erasmus Medisch Centrum, Department of Dermatology, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Objective data on the number of cosmetic injectable treatments (Botulinum Toxin A and fillers) performed annually is lacking. These numbers would be helpfull in establishing the importance of this area in medicine from a medico-social perspective and to determine the incidence of side-effect. Numbers on the number of treatments or global volumes used provided by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) and the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery are erestricted to their members. Read More

    Focal achalasia - case report and review of the literature.
    Clujul Med 2018 15;91(1):120-128. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Gastroenterology Department, Tiefenauspital, Inselgruppe, Bern, Switzerland.
    Esophageal achalasia is a primary smooth muscle motility disorder specified by aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus in combination with a poorly relaxing and occasionally hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES). These changes occur secondary to the destruction of the neural network coordinating esophageal peristalsis and LES relaxation (plexus myentericus). There are limited data on segmental involvement of the esophagus in adults. Read More

    Botulinum toxin A increases allograft tolerance in an experimental transplantation model: A preliminary study.
    Biosci Rep 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, 59 Yatap-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, 13496, Korea (South), Republic of
    Identifying novel and safe immunosuppressants is of crucial importance. Recently, there have been several studies revealing that botulinum toxin A significantly alleviates ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Emerging evidence shows that ischemia-reperfusion injuries contribute to innate immune activation, promoting rejection and inhibiting tolerance. Read More

    The Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Dislocation.
    Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018 Feb;115(5):59-64
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Marburg UKGM GmbH, Marburg, Germany; Department of Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; CMD-Centrum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: The estimated incidence of temporomandibular joint dislocation in Germany is at least 25/100 000 per year. A correct diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment without delay are essential if permanent damage to the joint is to be avoided.

    Methods: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a systematic search in the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and ZB Med databases. Read More

    Discovery of novel bacterial toxins by genomics and computational biology.
    Toxicon 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Hundreds and hundreds of bacterial protein toxins are presently known. Traditionally, toxin identification begins with pathological studies of bacterial infectious disease. Following identification and cultivation of a bacterial pathogen, the protein toxin is purified from the culture medium and its pathogenic activity is studied using the methods of biochemistry and structural biology, cell biology, tissue and organ biology, and appropriate animal models, supplemented by bioimaging techniques. Read More

    A Novel Rabbit Spirometry Model of Type E Botulism and its Use for the Evaluation of Post-symptom Antitoxin Efficacy.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Biotechnology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous substances known in nature, pose significant concern to health authorities. The only approved therapeutic for botulism is antitoxin. While administered to patients only after symptom onset, antitoxin efficacy is evaluated in animals mostly in relation to time post-intoxication regardless of symptoms. Read More

    Percutaneous Salivary Gland Ablation using Ethanol in a Rat Model.
    J Oral Maxillofac Res 2017 Oct-Dec;8(4):e3. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OhioUSA.
    Objectives: Sialorrhea is a common health and psychosocial problem for children with neuromuscular dysfunction secondary to a variety of disorders such as cerebral palsy. Current accepted treatments include the injection of botulinum toxin into the submandibular glands for temporary symptom relief. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous ethanol injection for longer lasting salivary gland ablation in an animal model. Read More

    Non-VMAT2 inhibitor treatments for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.
    J Neurol Sci 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA; Weill Cornell Medical School, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Although VMAT2-inhibitors are now established as first-line treatment for tardive dyskinesia, not all patients respond to, or tolerate them. Numerous other agents have been adopted to treat tardive dyskinesia, but with variable results and generally lower quality methodologic reports. Amantadine is the most promising but benzodiazepines, branched chain neutral amino acids, Vitamin B6, several nutraceuticals, and botulinum toxin injections might help some patients. Read More

    Ipilimumab induced digital vasculitis.
    J Immunother Cancer 2018 Feb 12;6(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Background: Immune check point inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a new therapeutic paradigm for a variety of malignancies including metastatic melanoma. As the use of ICIs expand, immune-mediated adverse events are becoming a common occurrence.

    Case Presentation: We describe the first reported patient with small vessel vasculitis, manifested by digital ischemia, following treatment with high dose Ipilimumab for resected stage IIIB/C melanoma. Read More

    Focal facial hyperhidrosis associated with internal carotid artery dissection successfully treated with botulinum toxin A.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Feb 11. Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    Dermatology department, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse University Hospital.
    Hyperhidrosis affects up to 3% of the population. Secondary hyperhidrosis may be associated with infections, malignancies, endocrine or neurological diseases. We report the first case of localized hyperhidrosis associated to Pourfour du Petit syndrome secondary to internal carotid artery dissection successfully and safely treated with botulinum toxin. Read More

    Multidisciplinary management of a partially edentulous patient with oromandibular dystonia: A clinical report.
    J Prosthet Dent 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Professor, Department of Neurology, Istanbul University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is defined as a subset of movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contraction in different parts of the oromandibular region. This clinical report presents a multidisciplinary approach to the management of a patient with OMD. The involuntary movement of her mandible and tongue was improved with a mandibular custom occlusal splint and maxillary modified removable complete denture together with botulinum toxin A injections. Read More

    Occipitalis muscle: using for repetitive facial nerve stimulation in myasthenia gravis.
    Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Neurology, Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine, İstanbul University, 34098, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) is a highly sensitive electrophysiological test used for diagnosing myasthenia gravis (MG). Here, we evaluated electrodiagnostic value of RNS using facial nerve and occipitalis muscle. Patients with generalized MG were included. Read More

    Tardive Dyskinesia Associated with Atypical Antipsychotics: Prevalence, Mechanisms and Management Strategies.
    CNS Drugs 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Psychiatric Centre GGz Centraal, Innova, Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
    All antipsychotics, including the atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible movement disorder, the pathophysiology of which is currently unknown. The prevention and treatment of TD remain major challenges for clinicians. We conducted a PubMed search to review the prevalence and etiology of and management strategies for TD associated with AAPs. Read More

    Defining spasticity: a new approach considering current movement disorders terminology and botulinum toxin therapy.
    J Neurol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders, Hamburg, Germany.
    Spasticity is a symptom occurring in many neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage, traumatic brain injury, tumours and heredodegenerative diseases. It affects large numbers of patients and may cause major disability. So far, spasticity has merely been described as part of the upper motor neurone syndrome or defined in a narrowed neurophysiological sense. Read More

    Evaluating the functional outcomes of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections using the Euro-musculus approach for upper limb spasticity treatment in post-stroke patients; an observational study.
    Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Malatya, Turkey.
    Background: Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injection is an effective treatment for spasticity. Euro-musculus spasticity approach is a new method for administering injections to the correct point of the correct muscle. The clinical outcomes of this practical approach is not yet available in the literature. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Versus Neural Stimulation.
    Eur Urol Focus 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Urology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.
    Botulinum toxin and nerve stimulation are viable options for overactive bladder refractory to pharmacotherapy. Treatment choice depends on multiple factors including associated symptoms, bladder function, and health economics. Decision-making should be individualised to the particular situation taking into account patient preference. Read More

    Yesterday and Today: The Impact of Research Conducted at Camp Detrick on Botulinum Toxin.
    Mil Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 3154 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.
    Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines. Read More

    Characterization and Treatment of Unilateral Facial Muscle Spasm in Linear Scleroderma: A Case Report.
    Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2018 25;8:531. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA.
    Background: Linear scleroderma has been associated with muscle spasms ipsilateral to skin lesions. Typically, spasms are located in trigeminal innervated muscles, leading to hemimasticatory spasm (HMS).

    Case Report: We report a case of linear scleroderma associated with spasm of muscles innervated not only by the trigeminal but also by the facial nerve. Read More

    Macroplastique and Botox are superior to Macroplastique alone in the management of neurogenic vesicoureteric reflux in spinal cord injury population with presumed healthy bladders.
    J Spinal Cord Med 2018 Feb 7:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    a Department of Urology , Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust , Salisbury , UK.
    Context/objective: Vesico-ureteric reflux(VUR) is a known complication of neuropathic bladder in spinal cord injury(SCI) population. Bulking agents such as Macroplastique are new minimally-invasive treatment option for VUR with good results. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of Macroplastique alone or in combination with Botox(BTX-A), in managing VUR in SCI population with presumed healthy bladders and correlate the pre-and post-injection urodynamic findings with the outcome. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Type A: Assessing The Effects on The Brain Stem.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Building the Academic Deanship, 4th Floor. Besevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: In this study, our aim is to investigate the possible effects of Botulinum toxin type A administrations in the early and late periods on the brain stem.

    Methods: Eighteen white New Zealand rabbits were used in this study with the subjects being divided into three groups. Group I received 0. Read More

    Silencing Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 Inhibits Growth and Migration of Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via the P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.
    Med Sci Monit 2018 Feb 7;24:768-781. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) is implicated in a variety of cellular functions and is related to tumor growth and metastasis. This study aimed to explore the role of Rac1 in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The Rac1 expression in HSCC tissues was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Read More

    The effectiveness of botulinum toxin A for persistent upper limb pain after breast cancer treatment: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    University Hospitals Leuven, Orthopaedics, Department of Development and Regeneration, and KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Institute for Orthopaedic Research and Training, Leuven, Belgium.
    ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of a single Botulinum Toxin A infiltration in the pectoralis major muscle in addition to a standard physical therapy program for treatment of persistent upper limb pain in breast cancer survivors.

    Design: Double-blinded (patient and assessor) randomized controlled trial SETTING: University Hospital Leuven, Belgium PARTICIPANTS: Fifty breast cancer patients with pain.

    Intervention: The intervention group received a single Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A) infiltration. Read More

    Botulinum toxin treatment of pain syndromes -an evidence based review.
    Toxicon 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:
    This review evaluates the existing level of evidence for efficacy of BoNTs in different pain syndromes using the recommended efficacy criteria from the Assessment and Therapeutic Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. There is a level A evidence (effective) for BoNT therapy in post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and posttraumatic neuralgia. There is a level B evidence (probably effective) for diabetic neuropathy, plantar fasciitis, piriformis syndrome, pain associated with total knee arthroplasty, male pelvic pain syndrome, chronic low back pain, male pelvic pain, and neuropathic pain secondary to traumatic spinal cord injury. Read More

    Evidence on botulinum toxin in selected disorders.
    Toxicon 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Neuromuscular Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA.
    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that has become widely used for various neurologic indications. The four toxin formulations currently available for use in the United States (approved by the Food and Drug Administration) are onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc). While the FDA-approved labels indicate that potency conversions should not be done, literature supports relative dose equivalents of approximately 1:1:2-4:50-100, respectively. Read More

    In vivo study of paraspinal muscle weakness using botulinum toxin in one primate model.
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2018 Jan 29;53:1-6. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: It has been generally speculated that paraspinal muscle weakness is related to the spinal degeneration including intervertebral disc failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of paraspinal muscle weakness induced by the botulinum toxin type-A on the lumbar spine and behavior pattern in an in-vivo primate model which has an upright locomotion similar to that of humans.

    Methods: Botox injections into paraspinal muscle of one cynomolgus monkey were conducted biweekly up to 19 weeks at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5. Read More

    High level expression and immunochemical characterization of botulinum neurotoxin type F light chain.
    Protein Expr Purif 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Biotechnology Division, India. Electronic address:
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic biological substances known. Their potential use as biological warfare agent results in their classification as category A biowarfare agent by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Presently, there are no approved detection system and pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Read More

    Pharmacological and neurosurgical interventions for managing dystonia in cerebral palsy: a systematic review.
    Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Paediatrics, Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Aim: To systematically review evidence for pharmacological/neurosurgical interventions for managing dystonia in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) to inform a care pathway.

    Method: Searches included studies with a minimum of five participants with dystonia in CP receiving oral baclofen, benzodiazepines (clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam), clonidine, gabapentin, levodopa, trihexyphenidyl, botulinum toxin, intrathecal baclofen (ITB), or deep brain stimulation (DBS). Evidence was classified according to American Academy of Neurology guidelines. Read More

    Botulinum toxin: A review of the mode of action in migraine.
    Acta Neurol Scand 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Headache Diagnostic Laboratory, Danish Headache Center and Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark.
    Botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) was originally used in neurology for the treatment of dystonia and blepharospasms, but is now clinically used worldwide for the treatment of chronic migraine. Still, the possible mode of action of BoNT/A in migraine is not fully known. However, the mode of action of BoNT/A has been investigated in experimental pain as well as migraine models, which may elucidate the underlying mechanisms in migraine. Read More

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