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    The resurgence of botulinum toxin injection for strabismus in children.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 24. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    aGeorgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia bDivision of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey cWills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The present review discusses recent advances in the use of botulinum toxin for the management of strabismus in children.

    Recent Findings: Botulinum toxin injection produces similar results compared to surgery for certain subtypes of strabismus, especially acute onset esotropia. It may be more effective in many subtypes of esotropia where surgery has been less reliable, including partially accommodative esotropia, esotropia associated with cerebral palsy, and thyroid eye disease. Read More

    [Effects of botulinum toxin type A injection for pathological characteristic of calf in rats with spinal cord injure].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jun;97(23):1809-1814
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China.
    Objective: To explore the effect of BoTN-A on pathological characteristics of calf (GM) and motor function of ankle dorsiflexors in SCI model rats. Methods: Thirty-six SD male rats (weight 260-280 g) were randomly allocated into normal control group and 12w-control group, NS-injection group and BT-injection group in this study.NS/BT-injection groups were divided into two subgroups separately (2w-NS, 2w-BT, 8w-NS, 8w-BT). Read More

    Management of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder: intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A versus posterior tibial nerve stimulation.
    Can J Urol 2017 Jun;24(3):8838-8846
    Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.
    Introduction: To compare the safety and efficacy of posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus an intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) 100 U in the management of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB).

    Materials And Methods: We randomized 60 patients with refractory idiopathic OAB to receive an intradetrusor injection of BTX-A 100 U or PTNS. We assessed the patients at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months, and determined their clinical symptoms, overall OAB symptom score, urgency score, quality-of-life score, and urodynamic study parameters. Read More

    Can UK undergraduate dental programmes provide training in non-surgical facial aesthetics?
    Br Dent J 2017 Jun;222(12):949-953
    Department of Oral &Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Oral &Dental Sciences, Bristol Dental Hospital, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Aim Recently, more and more dentists have found themselves engaging in the delivery of non-surgical facial aesthetics (NSFA) as part of their regular practice routine. NSFA is a growing field in aesthetic medicine that is practised by a range of clinicians including doctors, dentists and registered prescriber nurses and is an industry estimated to be worth over £3 billion in the UK alone. In the past few years, several public scandals in aesthetic medicine have prompted reactions by several bodies including the Government and Royal Colleges. Read More

    Subcutaneous Botulinum Toxin Injection for Post-Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome in Palliative Care: A Case Report.
    Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2017 Jan 1:1049909117716460. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Wellmont Health System, Kingsport, TN, USA.
    Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is a traumatic neuropathy that can affect as many as 50% of patients undergoing thoracotomy. Patients are often refractory to conservative management and may require multiple analgesics for adequate pain control. Botulinum toxin, derived from Clostridium botulinum, has many uses in treating conditions involving spasticity, dystonia, chronic migraine, and a variety of pain disorders including neuropathies. Read More

    Botulinum toxin: State of the art.
    Mov Disord 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Botulinun neurotoxin (BoNT) has emerged as one of the most multipurpose therapeutic agents in modern medicine with more clinical applications than any other drug currently on the market. Initially developed in the treatment of strabismus and neurologic movement disorders, the use of botulinun neurotoxin has been expanding during the past 3 decades to include the treatment of a variety of ophthalmologic, gastrointestinal, urologic, orthopedic, dermatologic, dental, secretory, painful, cosmetic, and other conditions. In addition to onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), and RimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc or NeuroBloc) there are other novel botulinun neurotoxin products currently in development. Read More

    First case of anaphylaxis after botulinum toxin type A injection.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Bright and Clear Dermatology Clinic, Seoul, Korea.
    Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) (also known as onabotulinum toxin A) injection is widely used in the field of cosmetic dermatology. Although a few adverse events related to intramuscular BTA injection have been reported, no life-threatening adverse reaction has been documented to date. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by intramuscular BTA injection into the masseter muscles of a 35-year-old woman. Read More

    Successful management of refractory diabetic gastroparesis with long-term Aprepitant treatment.
    Diabet Med 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Guy's and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust London, UK.
    Background: People with gastroparesis who develop treatment-resistant (refractory) disease pose a difficult challenge, especially in the setting of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or post pancreas transplant. Aprepitant (a neurokinin-receptor antagonist) is licensed for the short-term treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea. There is lack of information on its long-term efficacy and safety in people with diabetic gastroparesis. Read More

    [Salivation after stroke].
    Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2017 ;117(1):85-89
    Kazan State Medical University, Kazan.
    Salivation after stroke (sialorrhea, hypersalivation, ptyalism) can be caused by the overproduction or a lack of utilization of saliva. Patients after stroke often have sialorrhea as a result of dysphagia. Neurogenic dysphagia in acute period after stroke occurs in 25-65% of patients. Read More

    Spasticity Video Challenge: A Look at Methods for Addressing Difficult Cases.
    PM R 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Kansas City Bone and Joint Clinic, Overland Park, Kansas, United States.
    As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://courses.elseviercme.com/spasticity/662e), treatment of patients with spasticity due to upper motor neuron syndromes, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and cerebral palsy, is multifaceted, involving chemodenervation, systemic medications, surgical therapy, rehabilitation efforts, and home care. Read More

    Efficacy of inactivation of viral contaminants in hyperimmune horse plasma against botulinum toxin by low pH alone and combined with pepsin digestion.
    Biologicals 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Department of Biotechnology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness-Ziona, Israel. Electronic address:
    Assuring viral safety of horse plasma-derived products is fundamental for ethical and regulatory reasons. We previously demonstrated the ability of pepsin digestion at low pH to inactivate West Nile and Sindbis viruses in horse plasma. The present study further examined the efficiency of pepsin digestion to inactivate four additional viruses: HSV-1 and BVDV (lipid-enveloped), BPV and Reo-3 (nonenveloped). Read More

    Restoring facial symmetry through non-surgical cosmetic procedures after permanent facial paralxsis: a case report.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2017 Jun;26(2):41-42
    Department of Dermatology, Medical Park Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Facial nerve paralysis can occur due to infection, inflammation, trauma, surgery, and tumors. It leads to facial asymmetry, impaired oral competence, articulation deficits, and psychological problems. Treatment options include physical therapy, static slings, nerve and muscle transfers, blepharoplasty, brow lift, and chemodenervation with botulinum toxin. Read More

    [Objective tympanophonia caused by myoclonus of the auricular muscles].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017 ;82(3):80-83
    Rostov State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 344000.
    The objective of the present literature review was to systematize the available data on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostics, and treatment of muscular tympanophonia. The commonest source of muscular tympanophonia is the tremor (myoclonus) of the soft palate or the middle ear; sometimes this condition can be a consequence of myoclonus of the external ear muscles or head muscles. Pharmacotherapy of muscular tympanophonia does not invariably result in the favourable outcome. Read More

    Prevalence of Bleeding Complications Following Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patiens on Anticoagulation or Antiplatelet Therapy.
    PM R 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    R.R. University of Virginia, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 545 Ray C. Hunt Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22908. Electronic address:
    Background: Patients on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy may be at higher risk of bleeding complications following intramuscular chemodenervation injections. Musculoskeletal ultrasound may be able to reduce the risk of bleeding complications by providing real time visualization of vascular structures and post-injection monitoring. Limited data exist addressing risk of bleeding complications following ultrasound-guided botulinum neurotoxin intramuscular chemodenervation procedures in the setting of anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. Read More

    Evaluating the effects of Botulinum Toxin A on tear metrics in patients with hemifacial spasm.
    Orbit 2017 Jun 19:1-4. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    c Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery , Lions Eye Institute, Albany Medical College , Slingerlands , New York , USA.
    Hemifacial spasm has been previously shown to result in dry eye and ocular surface diseases. This study was performed to assess the impact of chemodenervation with botulinum toxin on clinically-relevant metrics of tears. Tear osmolarity and lipid layer thickness were measured in patients with hemifacial spasm after they achieved relief from hemifacial spasm via botulinum toxin injections. Read More

    The safety of intra-articular injections for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a critical narrative review.
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    a Hopital Cochin Reeducation fonctionnelle Readaptation Ringgold standard institution , Paris , Île-de-France 75679 , France.
    Introduction: International guidelines recommend that the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) combine both nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Intra-articular (IA) therapies are considered part of this multimodal approach and are well-established Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved treatments. Areas covered. Read More

    [Study on Rac1/MAPK/ERK pathway mediated mechanism and role in rats with ventilator induced lung injury].
    Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017 Mar;29(3):249-254
    Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China. Corresponding author: Pan Linghui, Email:
    Objective: To investigate the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Rac1/MAPK/ERK) signal pathway in rats with ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) and its mechanism.

    Methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into spontaneous respiration group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and high VT group with 10 rats in each group. The rats in spontaneous respiration group were kept their spontaneous breathing. Read More

    The cognitive features of idiopathic and DYT1 dystonia.
    Mov Disord 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Cognitive Motor Neuroscience Group, Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience & Movement Disorders, University College London (UCL) Institute of Neurology, The National Hospital for Neurology & Neurosurgery, London, UK.
    Dystonia is a common movement disorder. In this paper, we review the literature on cognitive function in idiopathic and DYT1 dystonia. In idiopathic or DYT1 dystonia, cognition is largely intact with only isolated executive dysfunction. Read More

    Rac1 Guides Porf-2 to Wnt Pathway to Mediate Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.
    Front Mol Neurosci 2017 2;10:172. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghai, China.
    The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of preoptic regulator factor 2 (Porf-2) on neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unknown. Here, we found that Porf-2 inhibits the activity of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) protein in hippocampus-derived rat NSCs. Reduced Rac1 activity impaired the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, ultimately causing a repression of NSCs proliferation. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) for the treatment of hemiparesis in adults with upper limb spasticity previously treated with botulinum toxin: sub-analysis from a Phase 3, randomized controlled trial.
    PM R 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    EA 7377 BIOTN, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Service de Rééducation Neurolocomotrice, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.
    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity previously treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A).

    Design: A post-hoc analysis from a Phase 3, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study SETTING: 34 neurology or rehabilitation clinics in nine countries.

    Participants: Adults aged 18-80 years with hemiparesis, ≥6 months after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Read More

    AbobotulinumtoxinA: A Review in Pediatric Lower Limb Spasticity.
    Paediatr Drugs 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.
    AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport(®)) is currently the only botulinum toxin A formulation approved by the US FDA for the treatment of lower limb spasticity in pediatric patients aged ≥2 years. Intramuscular abobotulinumtoxinA was approved based on the results of a pivotal phase 3 trial in children with lower limb spasticity due to cerebral palsy. In this trial, a single treatment cycle with abobotulinumtoxinA 10-15 U/kg/leg injected into the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles significantly improved ankle plantar flexor muscle tone (primary endpoint), with abobotulinumtoxinA recipients showing a significant response to treatment relative to placebo. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Gummv Smile.
    J Contemp Dent Pract 2017 Jun 1;18(6):474-478. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Private Dental Clinic, Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin (Botox) injections as a conservative treatment for gummy smile.

    Materials And Methods: An experimental in vivo study was conducted at a dermatology clinic in Riyadh in January 2016. The study included 23 female patients who ranged from 20 to 50 years and were treated with Botox injections due to excessive maxillary gingival display. Read More

    Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: an Update for Stomatologists.
    J Dent (Shiraz) 2017 Jun;18(2):73-81
    Dept. of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a rare focal neurological disorder that affects mouth, face, and jaws. This comprehensive literature review aimed to summarize the current evidence for etiology, diagnosis, and management of OMD and assess the possibility of dental origin of the disease and dental treatment plans for these patients. Different online databases namely PubMed, Google scholar, and Scopus were searched. Read More

    Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Jun 15;9(6). Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
    Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC), alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs) to cause hemagglutination. Read More

    Changes in caveolin-1, caveolin-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression and protein content after botulinum toxin A injection in the right masseter muscle of dystrophin deficient (mdx-) mice.
    J Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Apr;68(2):181-189
    Department of Orthodontics, Carl Gustav Carus Campus Technische Universitaet, Dresden, Germany.
    Progressive muscle wasting, frequently associated with inflammation, muscle fibre degeneration and fibrosis, is a characteristic of DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Its most common used animal model, the mdx mouse, however can overcome muscle degeneration by regeneration processes and is for this reason not suitable to answer all scientific questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in breaking down muscle regeneration in mdx mice. Read More

    Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of Frizzled 6 in the small intestine of pigs (Sus scrofa).
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(6):e0179421. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Key Laboratory for Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Regions, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Frizzled 6 (FZD6) encodes an integral membrane protein that functions in multiple signal transduction pathways, for example, as a receptor in Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway for polarized cell migration and organ morphogenesis. Mutations in FZD6 have been identified in a variety of tumors. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Sus scrofa FZD6 (Sfz6) was cloned and characterized. Read More

    Injectable DaxibotulinumtoxinA for the Treatment of Glabellar Lines: A Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Double-Blind, Multicenter Comparison With OnabotulinumtoxinA and Placebo.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    *Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; †Division of Dermatology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ‡Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; §Faculty of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; ‖Dermetics, Burlington, Ontario, Canada; ¶Division of Dermatology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; #The Westmount Institute of Plastic Surgery, Montreal, Québec, Canada; **Division of Dermatology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; ††Revance Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, California; ‡‡QST Consultations, Ltd., Allendale, Michigan; §§Write on Target Ltd., Leighton Buzzard, United Kingdom; ‖‖Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background: Injectable daxibotulinumtoxinA (RT002) is an investigational botulinum toxin Type A in clinical development. It is formulated with a proprietary peptide and offers the potential of a longer acting neurotoxin therapy.

    Objective: To compare the safety, efficacy, and duration of response of daxibotulinumtoxinA with onabotulinumtoxinA and placebo [www. Read More

    Management of vesicoureteral reflux in neurogenic bladder.
    Investig Clin Urol 2017 Jun 2;58(Suppl 1):S54-S58. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Urology, Section of Pediatric Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a significant risk factor for pyelonephritis and renal scarring. VUR can occur through a defective ureterovesical junction (UVJ) or an overwhelmed normal UVJ mechanism such as in bladder dysfunction of congenital, acquired, or behavioral etiology. There are numerous causes for the development of a neurogenic bladder from spinal dysraphisms to spinal cord trauma and even centrally based abnormalities in children with apparently normal motor function (inappropriately termed nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder). Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Off-Label Use in Dermatology: A Review.
    Skin Appendage Disord 2017 Mar 1;3(1):39-56. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, United Hospital of Ancona, Polytechnic Marche University, Ancona, Italy.
    Background: Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum which causes a flaccid muscle paralysis. It is currently used for aesthetic treatments and in the focal hyperhidrosis. Recently, botulinum toxin has also been used experimentally in many other dermatological conditions with good results. Read More

    Antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin A involves alterations in AMPA receptor expression and glutamate release in spinal dorsal horn neurons.
    Neuroscience 2017 Jun 10;357:197-207. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Neurology Department of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China. Electronic address:
    The use of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for various clinical therapeutic applications is increasing. It is widely believed that peripheral therapeutic or toxic effects of BTX-A are exclusively mediated by SNAP-25 cleavage. There is growing evidence of long-distance retrograde axonal transport of BTX-A on entering the central nervous system, subsequent to a local injection of the toxin. Read More

    Posture-Dependent Dysphagia After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection at Sternocleidomastoid in a Patient With Athetoid Cerebral Palsy.
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    From the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Cervical dystonia is a common issue in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy. Botulinum toxin injection to dystonic cervical muscles is a well-recognized treatment option, but it is known to be associated with dysphagia. Previously reported cases of dysphagia after botulinum toxin injection to the sternocleidomastoid muscle were related to the regional spread of toxin to the pharyngeal muscles. Read More

    Latest advances in the management of facial synkinesis.
    Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: To provide an overview of the treatment options for nonflaccid facial paralysis including physical rehabilitation, botulinum toxin injection and surgical intervention. To also describe recent technique advances regarding facial synkinesis in each zone of facial movement.

    Recent Findings: Physical therapy and neuromodulation with botulinum toxin continues to be the main treatment strategy for facial synkinesis. Read More

    Injected corticosteroids for treating plantar heel pain in adults.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jun 11;6:CD009348. Epub 2017 Jun 11.
    Stroke and Rehabilitation Medicine, Raigmore Hospital (NHS Highland), Inverness, UK, IV2 3UJ.
    Background: Plantar heel pain, commonly resulting from plantar fasciitis, often results in significant morbidity. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), orthoses, physical therapy, physical agents (e.g. Read More

    A rapid qualitative assay for detection of Clostridium perfringens in canned food products.
    Acta Biochim Pol 2017 9;64(2):207-213. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Biotechnology, P D Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-388421, India.
    Clostridium perfringens (MTCC 1349) is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, endospore forming, and rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium produces a variety of toxins under strict anaerobic environment. C. Read More

    Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: use of ultrasound guided Botox injection as a non-surgical treatment option.
    Skeletal Radiol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Queensland X-ray, Greenslopes Private Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
    Objective: To determine whether ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a viable alternative to surgical intervention for the treatment of functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES).

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-seven patients met diagnostic criteria confirming the presence of functional PAES and agreed to go ahead with ultrasound-guided BTX-A injection at the level of artery occlusion. Patients were assessed and treated at baseline and given the option for 'top-up' injections at 6 and 12 months. Read More

    Botulinum Neurotoxins Serotypes A and B induce paralysis of mouse striated and smooth muscles with different potencies.
    Pharmacol Res Perspect 2017 Feb 31;5(1):e00289. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Neurology ResearchIpsen Innovation5 Avenue du Canada91940 Les UlisFrance.
    To address the scarcity of direct comparison of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes activity on smooth versus striatal muscle, we have studied the action of BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 on ex vivo preparations of both muscle types. We have set up and characterized a model of neurogenic contractions in the isolated mouse bladder, and used this model to explore the effects of the two serotypes on contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation. Both toxins were also tested in the mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, to compare their potency in smooth versus striated muscle. Read More

    RimabotulinumtoxinB in sialorrhea: systematic review of clinical trials.
    J Clin Mov Disord 2017 6;4. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, USA.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, safety and dosing practices of rimabotulinumtoxinB (BoNT-B) for the treatment of patients with sialorrhea based on a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of BoNT-B for the treatment of sialorrhea published in English between January 1999 and December 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE) were searched and a total of 41 records were identified. Read More

    Keratoconus progression is not inhibited by reducing eyelid muscular force with botulinum toxin A treatment: a randomized trial.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Mar-Apr;80(2):88-92
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Purpose:: To evaluate whether reducing eyelid muscular force through the administration of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) to the orbicularis oculi muscles of patients with keratoconus affected corneal parameters indicative of disease progression.

    Methods:: In this prospective parallel randomized clinical trial, 40 eyes of 40 patients with keratoconus were randomized into equally sized control and BTX-A groups. Patients in the BTX-A group received subcutaneous BTX-A injections into the orbicularis muscle. Read More

    Effects of repeated abobotulinumtoxinA injections in upper limb spasticity.
    Muscle Nerve 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Ipsen Innovation, Les Ulis, France.
    Introduction: The efficacy of single injections of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) is established in adults with upper limb spasticity. This study aimed to assess the effects of repeated injections of abobotulinumtoxinA over 1 year.

    Methods: Patients (n=258 safety population) received 500U, 1000U or 1500U (1500U dose included 500U shoulder injections) for up to 4 or 5 treatment cycles. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Conjugated With Silk Fibroin and 4-Hexylresorcinol.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jun;28(4):e392-e395
    *Rural Development Administration, Wanju-Gun†Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea.
    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether silk fibroin (SF) incorporated into 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) could increase botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) activity.

    Material And Methods: In total, 30 rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into 6 groups according to the injected materials (SA: saline only; SF; 4HR; B2: 2 units of BTX-A; B2 + SF + 4HR: combination of B2, SF, and 4HR; B5: 5 units of BTX-A). Read More

    The Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 15;2017:1074178. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine and Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, No. 22, Gwanpyeong-ro 170beon-gil, Dongan-gu, Anyang, Gyeonggi-do 14068, Republic of Korea.
    Introduction: While studies using various materials to overcome ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are becoming increasingly common, studies on the effects of botulinum toxin A (BoTA) on IR injury in musculocutaneous flaps are still limited. The purpose of this study was to examine our hypotheses that BoTA provide protection of musculocutaneous flap from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Method: Five days after pretreatment injection (BoTA versus normal saline), a right superior musculocutaneous flap (6 × 1. Read More

    Evaluation of anti-botulinum neurotoxin single domain antibodies with additional optimization for improved production and stability.
    Toxicon 2017 Jun 3;135:51-58. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    US Naval Research Laboratory, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC, 20375, USA. Electronic address:
    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a highly potent and lethal toxin, which even in minute quantities can lead to death. BoNT occurs in seven well described serotypes, A-G, and it is critical to not only detect the presence of BoNT, but also to determine the serotype to which a person has been exposed, as the degree of toxicity and persistence of symptoms varies greatly between the various types. Recently, Conway et al. Read More

    Clinical study of botulinum toxin A injection combined with spasmodic muscle therapeutic instrument on lower limb spasticity in patients with stroke.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Jun 24;13(6):3319-3326. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Xiangyang, Hubei 441000, P.R. China.
    The clinical effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection combined with spasmodic muscle therapeutic instrument with simple BTX-A injection was compared. Eighty patients with stroke were randomly divided into the treatment and control groups of 41 and 39 cases, respectively. The two groups of patients were given routine rehabilitation therapy. Read More

    Long-term tremor therapy for Parkinson and essential tremor with sensor-guided botulinum toxin type A injections.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(6):e0178670. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    London Health Sciences Centre - Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Objective: Current pharmacological agents used to treat Parkinson disease (PD) tremor and essential tremor (ET) provide suboptimal benefit and are commonly associated with significant adverse effects. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been shown to be effective for wrist tremor though functionally bothersome muscle weakness frequently occurs. This is the longest study to date demonstrating that BoNT-A therapy coupled with kinematic guidance can provide efficacious outcomes for upper limb tremor with minimized unwanted weakness. Read More

    Side effects and potential risk factors of botulinum toxin type A intramuscular injections in knee flexion contractures of hemophiliacs.
    Expert Rev Hematol 2017 Jun 19:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    b Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , La Paz University Hospital , Madrid , Spain.
    Introduction: Knee flexion contracture (KFC) is a common complication of recurrent hemarthrosis in children and young adults with hemophilia. If the KFC is not prevented (by means of primary prophylaxis) and treated properly and early (be means of physical medicine and rehabilitation), it will become fixed. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the potential role of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) intramuscular injections for the treatment of KFC in people with hemophilia (PWH). Read More

    Deubiquitinating enzyme VCIP135 dictates the duration of botulinum neurotoxin type A intoxication.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Jun 5. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Laboratory of Protein Dynamics and Signaling, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702;
    Botulism is characterized by flaccid paralysis, which can be caused by intoxication with any of the seven known serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), all of which disrupt synaptic transmission by endoproteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins. BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) has the most prolonged or persistent effects, which can last several months, and exerts its effects by specifically cleaving and inactivating SNAP25. A major factor contributing to the persistence of intoxication is the long half-life of the catalytic light chain, which remains enzymatically active months after entry into cells. Read More

    The effect of botulinum toxin A (Botox) injections used to treat limb spasticity on speech patterns in children with dysarthria and cerebral palsy: A report of two cases.
    J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2017 May;10(2):137-143
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA.
    Botulinum toxin A (Btx-A) injections are used to treat limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) resulting in improved gross and fine motor control. This treatment has also been reported to have additional functional effects, but the effect of treatment on speech has not been reported. This report presents results of longitudinal speech evaluation of two children with CP given injections of Btx-A for treatment of limb spasticity. Read More

    Hsp70 facilitates trans-membrane transport of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins into the cytosol of mammalian cells.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 2;7(1):2724. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ulm Medical Center, 89081, Ulm, Germany.
    Binary enterotoxins Clostridium (C.) botulinum C2 toxin, C. perfringens iota toxin and C. Read More

    Further optimization of peptide substrate enhanced assay performance for BoNT/A detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
    Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA.
    Rapid and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause botulism, is essential in a public health emergency or bioterrorism event. We have previously developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based functional method, Endopep-MS assay, for the fast detection and differentiation of all BoNT serotypes by affinity enriching the toxin and detecting the serotype-specific cleavage products of peptide substrates derived from the in vivo targets. To improve the performance of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the further optimization of the peptide substrate for the detection of serotype A botulinum neurotoxins. Read More

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