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    Electromyographic and Joint Kinematic Patterns in Runner's Dystonia.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Functional and Applied Biomechanics Laboratory, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD. Read More

    Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis reactivation after lacrimal gland botulinum toxin injection.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 May;66(5):697-699
    Cornea Services, LJ Eye Institute, Ambala, Haryana, India.
    Botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections into lacrimal gland are being used for refractory epiphora due to intractable lacrimal disorders with success rates reported from 18% to 86%. Most common side effects are transient ptosis and diplopia. We report a case of a 59-year-old female injected with 2. Read More

    Phenol Versus Botulinum Toxin A Injection in Ambulatory Cerebral Palsy Spastic Diplegia: A Comparative Study.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2017 Oct-Dec;12(4):338-343
    Assistant Professor, Departments of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.
    The aim of this study is to compare the treatment effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) and phenol blocks in the management of lower limb spasticity and to measure improvement in gross motor functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a hospital-based prospective, noncontrolled randomized study that took place in a tertiary care center. A total of 61 ambulatory children with CP spastic diplegia, aged from 4 to 10 years, were randomly divided into two groups and included in this study. Read More

    Wedge-shaped polydioxanone threads in a folded configuration ("Solid fillers"): A treatment option for deep static wrinkles on the upper face.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Facial wrinkles are key signs of aging which affect one's quality of life and psychological well-being. Absorbable wedge-shaped polydioxanone (PDO) sutures are popular in the esthetic clinics of Korea and may be a treatment option for static wrinkles on the upper face.

    Objective: To describe a novel technique applicable to deep static wrinkles on the upper face and to assess its safety and efficacy. Read More

    Lumbar Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A and Type B for the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Apr 19;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.
    A lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSB) is a therapeutic method for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) affecting the lower limbs. Recently, LSB with botulinum toxin type A and B was introduced as a novel method to achieve longer duration of analgesia. In this study, we compared the botulinum toxin type A (BTA) with botulinum toxin type B (BTB) in performing LSB on patients with CRPS. Read More

    Analgesic Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Children with CP.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Apr 19;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Orthopedics, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre 2650, Denmark.
    Experiencing pain is the greatest contributor to a reduced quality of life in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The presence of pain is quite common (~60%) and increases with age. This leads to missed school days, less participation, and reduced ambulation. Read More

    Current Prophylactic Medications for Migraine and Their Potential Mechanisms of Action.
    Neurotherapeutics 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Headache Science Centre, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100, Pavia, Italy.
    A relatively high number of different medications is currently used for migraine prevention in clinical practice. Although these compounds were initially developed for other indications and differ in their mechanisms of action, some general themes can be identified from the mechanisms at play. Efficacious preventive drugs seem to either suppress excitatory nervous signaling via sodium and/or calcium receptors, facilitate GABAergic inhibition, reduce neuronal sensitization, block cortical spreading depression and/or reduce circulating levels of CGRP. Read More

    Long-term outcome of selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis.
    Laryngoscope 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effect and treatment stability of selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated with highly selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis between August 2009 and August 2015. Primary outcome was time to recommencing treatment for periocular synkinesis. Read More

    Shrink that frown! Botulinum toxin therapy is lifting the face of psychiatry.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Treating glabellar frown lines with injections of botulinum toxin is the most frequently applied procedure in aesthetic medicine. In addition to its cosmetic effect, botulinum toxin may also positively modulate mood and affect, which may contribute to its popularity. A series of clinical studies has shown that this modulation can be used in the treatment of major depression. Read More

    The Feasibility of Using the BrightHearts Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation Application for the Management of Pediatric Procedural Pain: A Pilot Study.
    Pain Pract 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Faculty of Art & Design, University of New South Wales Sydney, Paddington, New South Wales, Australia.
    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of using BrightHearts, a biofeedback-assisted relaxation application (app), in children undergoing painful procedures.

    Methods: Thirty children 7 to 18 years of age undergoing a medical procedure (peripheral blood collection, botulinum toxin injection, or intravenous cannula insertion) participated. Participants used BrightHearts, a heart rate-controlled biofeedback-assisted relaxation training app delivered via an iPad with heart rate measured through a pulse oximeter worn on the ear or thumb. Read More

    Intraoperative Pyloric Interventions during Oesophagectomy: a Multicentre Study.
    J Gastrointest Surg 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, University College Hospital, University College London Hospitals, 250 Euston Road, London, NW1 2PG, UK.
    Background: Denervation of the pylorus after oesophagectomy is considered the principal factor responsible for delayed gastric emptying. Several studies have attempted to delineate whether surgical or chemical management of the pylorus during oesophagectomy is of benefit, but with conflicting results. The aim of this multicentre study was to assess whether there was any difference in outcomes between different approaches to management of the pylorus. Read More

    Idiopathic Toe-Walking: Prevalence and Natural History from Birth to Ten Years of Age.
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Apr;100(8):640-647
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Children with idiopathic toe-walking, a common pediatric condition, walk some or all of the time on their toes. This condition often causes parental concern, with repeated medical contacts and a range of interventions including stretching, casts, injection of botulinum toxin A, and surgical procedures. The purpose of this cohort study was to document the natural history of this condition. Read More

    A comparison of the treatment recommendations for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in the national institute for health and care excellence, European Association of Urology and international consultations on incontinence guidelines.
    Neurourol Urodyn 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Aims: Healthcare guidelines are an important vehicle in establishing up-to-date evidence based medicine (EBM) in clinical practice. Due to varying development processes, clinical guidelines created by different institutions can often contain contrasting recommendations. This can have implications for optimal and standardized patient care across management settings. Read More

    Effect of therapeutic exercise on knee osteoarthritis after intra-articular injection of botulinum toxin type A, hyaluronate or saline: A randomized controlled trial.
    J Rehabil Med 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yue Bei People's Hospital, , 512000 ShaoGuan, China.
    Objective: To study the effect of therapeutic exercise on knee osteoarthritis after injection of botulinum toxin type A, hyaluronate or saline.

    Methods: Sixty participants with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to 3 groups: injection of saline (control) (group A), botulinum toxin type A (group B), or hyaluronate (group C). All participants received therapeutic exercise. Read More

    A comparative trial of ice application versus EMLA cream in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis.
    Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2018 3;11:137-140. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Dermatology, King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Botulinum toxin is a safe and effective therapy for palmar hyperhidrosis, but the associated pain from injections limits the usefulness of this method of treatment.

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) cream versus ice application in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Methods: In this prospective study, 23 patients underwent palm Botox injections to treat their excessive sweating. Read More

    Office-based endoscopic botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal movement disorders.
    Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Clinique universitaire d'ORL, CHU Grenoble Alpes, BP 217, 38043 Grenoble cedex 09, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, CS 40700, 38058 Grenoble cedex 9, France; UGA, UMR, CNRS 5309 Inserm 1209, Albert-Bonniot Institute, 38700 La Tronche, France; Division of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BDB 5631720, 2nd avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294-0012, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Botulinum toxin injection is widely used for the treatment of laryngeal movement disorders. Electromyography-guided percutaneous injection is the technique most commonly used to perform intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection.

    Objective: We describe an endoscopic approach for intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection under local anaesthesia without using electromyography. Read More

    Topical Botulinum Toxin Type A Liposomal Cream for Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Split-Site, Vehicle-Controlled Study.
    Dermatol Surg 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Despite its effectiveness in treating primary axillary hyperhidrosis (PAH), topical botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is highly resistant to transdermal absorption. Topical BTX-A liposomal cream is recommended as a novel, noninvasive modality to enhance skin penetration.

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical BTX-A liposomal cream in comparison with liposomal vehicle cream alone in the treatment of PAH. Read More

    Use of Botulinum Toxin for the Correction of Mild Ptosis.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2018 Apr 1;11(4):49-51. Epub 2018 Apr 1.
    Drs. Mustak, Goldberg, and Rootman and Mr. Rafaelof are with the Stein Eye Institute, Division of Orbital and Oculoplastic Surgery at the University of California, Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California.
    Lid margin asymmetry and its associated compensatory mechanisms might cause patients to seek treatment to improve aesthetics. Surgery might not be indicated and can potentially worsen the asymmetry in these cases. A case series of three patients was organized to illustrate the use of botulinum toxin administered to the pre-tarsal orbicularis for the correction of micro-ptosis and improved symmetry. Read More

    Chemodenervation for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Purpose: To review the medical literature on the outcomes and complications of various Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxins for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).

    Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in February 2017 in PubMed for articles published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without language limitations; studies published before 2000 were excluded. The combined searches yielded 127 citations. Read More

    Inconsistency in the definition of urinary tract infection after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection: a systematic review.
    J Urol 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA, 1100 9(th) Ave, C7-URO, Seattle, WA 98101.
    Purpose: In order to more accurately examine the rate of urinary tract infection following onabotulinumtoxinA injection of the bladder, we systematically reviewed the literature for definitions of urinary tract infection utilized in series that reported on onabotulinumtoxinA injections and assessed them for consistency with guideline statements defining urinary tract infections.

    Materials And Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed via query using MEDLINE and EMBASE. We included original studies that reported on adult idiopathic overactive bladder and/or neurogenic detrusor overactivity patients who underwent cystoscopy with injection of onabotulinumtoxinA and had urinary tract infection as a reported outcome. Read More

    Surgical Management of the Drooling Child.
    Curr Otorhinolaryngol Rep 2018 20;6(1):99-106. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    2Paediatric ENT, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL UK.
    Purpose Of Review: Our goal is to present the most up-to-date options in the surgical management of drooling in the paediatric population. While the clinical assessment of the drooling child and conservative management options are discussed, this review focuses on the most recent evidence for surgical interventions to treat drooling in children.

    Recent Findings: In terms of advances in the management of drooling, further experience and outcomes with the use of botulinum toxin injections is discussed. Read More

    Quantitative assessment for flexed-elbow deformity during gait following botulinum toxin A treatment.
    Gait Posture 2018 Apr 6;62:409-414. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Faculty of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Background: The effect of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) injection on flexed-elbow deformity is usually evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), but only with the muscle tone at rest. Some patients show the flexed-elbow deformity during gait despite low muscle tone at rest.

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BoNTA injection on flexed-elbow deformity during gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Read More

    Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin A2 in Complex with the Human Protein Receptor SV2C Reveals Plasticity in Receptor Binding.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Apr 12;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a family of highly dangerous bacterial toxins, with seven major serotypes (BoNT/A-G). Members of BoNTs, BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1, have been utilized to treat an increasing number of medical conditions. The clinical trials are ongoing for BoNT/A2, another subtype of BoNT/A, which showed promising therapeutic properties. Read More

    Noncardiac chest pain: a 2018 update.
    Minerva Cardioangiol 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is defined as recurring, angina-like, chest pain of noncardiac origin. Studies have estimated that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common contributing factor for NCCP. In patients with non-GERD related NCCP, esophageal motility disorders, and functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin are the main underlying mechanisms for symptoms. Read More

    Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm.
    Curr Eye Res 2018 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine , Toon , Japan.
    Objective: To determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on the eyelid pressure in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

    Methods: Twenty normal volunteers (10 men, 10 women; average age 59.7 ± 11. Read More

    Ultrasound Imaging for Muscle Variations: Digastric Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Gastrocnemius Tertius and Supernumerary Fibularis Longus in an Asymptomatic Family - Case Report.
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Anatomical variations of the muscles are seen with different frequencies. Although most of them are asymptomatic; in certain cases, their existence requires attention as regards entrapment syndromes, mass lesions, botulinum toxin injections and tendon transfers. Herein, since ultrasound imaging is a convenient method for muscle imaging, it can easily be used in daily practice for prompt understanding of such muscular variations. Read More

    Management of spasticity with onabotulinumtoxinA: practical guidance based on the italian real-life post-stroke spasticity survey.
    Funct Neurol 2018 Jan/Mar;33(1):37-43
    The present paper provides practical guidance on the management of adult spasticity with OnabotulinumtoxinA. Advisory Board members reviewed the available evidence and discussed their personal experiences in order to address the unmet needs in the management of spasticity with botulinum toxin type A identified by the recent Italian Real-Life Post-Stroke Spasticity Survey. Stroke patients should be referred to spasticity services that have adequate facilities and multidisciplinary teams with the necessary training, competence and expertise. Read More

    Pharmacological differences and clinical implications of various botulinum toxin preparations: a critical appraisal.
    Funct Neurol 2018 Jan/Mar;33(1):7-18
    Three different type A botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTAs) - onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA) - are currently marketed in Europe to treat several conditions. Differences between BoNTA preparations, which depend on their specific biotypes and manufacturing processes, lead to clinically relevant pharmacotherapeutic dissimilarities. All three available products are separately recognized and reviewed in American Academy of Neurology guidelines. Read More

    Consensus Recommendations for Treatment Strategies in Indians Using Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers.
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2017 Dec 28;5(12):e1574. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Anticlock Clinic, Chandigarh, India.; Department of Plastic Surgery, Fortis Hospital, Mohali, India; Delhi Dermatology Group, New Delhi, India; Kosmoderma Skin & Hair Clinics, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, India; RA Skin and Aesthetics, Mumbai, India; Skin Alive Clinics, New Delhi, India; Department of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India; RSV Skin Clinic, Chennai, India; Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India; Dr Jamuna Pai's Skin Lab, Mumbai, Pune, New Delhi, India; Skin Smart Solutions Clinic, Mumbai, India; Skin & Hair Clinics LLP, Mumbai, India.
    Background: Indians constitute one of the largest population groups in the world. Facial anthropometry, morphology, and age-related changes in Indians differ from those of other ethnic groups, necessitating a good understanding of their facial structure and the required aesthetic treatment strategies. However, published recommendations specific to Indians are few, particularly regarding combination treatment. Read More

    Rejuvenation of the Upper Face and Brow: Neuromodulators and Fillers.
    Facial Plast Surg 2018 Apr 9;34(2):119-127. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Division of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
    Facial aging involves a combination of volume loss and descent, loss of skin elasticity, dynamic lines due to facial mimetic muscle action, and development of static rhytids. Although surgery remains an option for treatment, minimally invasive aesthetic procedures continue to gain popularity with the use of neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers being the most sought-after procedures. Although these may be used in isolation to treat specific concerns, they are often combined to address multiple facets of aging. Read More

    A Comparative Study of Botulinum Toxin: A with Triamcinolone Compared to Triamcinolone alone in the treatment of Osteoarthritis of Knee.
    Anesth Essays Res 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):47-49
    Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Introduction: This study compares the efficacy in terms of pain relief and complications of intra-articular Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) with intra-articular Triamcinolone versus Triamcinolone alone in the treatment of osteoarthritic knee pain of severe grade. If effective, BoNT-A may help in reducing the long term adverse effects due to prolonged analgesic consumption and reduce/delay requirement of knee replacement surgeries.

    Materials And Methods: In this prospective study, 30 patients of either sex, aged between 40 to 60 years with physical status ASA classes I or II suffering from knee joint osteoarthritis with knee pain and functional impairment were divided into 2 groups: The OA patients which received Botulinum toxin-A with Triamcinolone (Group A) & OA patients which received only Triamcinolone (Group B). Read More

    AbobotulinumtoxinA Efficacy and Safety in Children With Equinus Foot Previously Treated With Botulinum Toxin.
    Pediatr Neurol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Neurology and Neurotherapeutics Department, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, Texas.
    Background: The effects of botulinum toxin are transient, and repeat injections are required in children with lower-limb spasticity. However, the efficacy of botulinum toxin in patients who have received previous injections has remained largely unexplored.

    Methods: We present subgroup analyses of a phase III study conducted in ambulatory children (aged two to 17) with spastic equinus foot. Read More

    In vitro and in vivo Assessment of Silver Nanoparticles against Clostridium botulinum type A botulinum.
    Curr Drug Discov Technol 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.
    Background: Clostridium botulinum causes botulism, resulting from the ingestion of a botulinal toxin, which is a serious paralytic illness. Due to strong antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles' products, the applications of silver nanoparticles in the field of healthcare in particular are being expanded. Therefore, the objective of current study was to assess a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism toxicity using silver nanoparticles. Read More

    Progress in the Diagnosis and Management of Chorea-acanthocytosis.
    Chin Med Sci J 2018 Mar;33(1):53-59
    Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.
    Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is the most common subtype of neuroacanthocytosis syndrome, characterized by the presence of acanthocytes and neurological disorders. It is thought to be caused by VPS13A mutations. Characteristic movement disorders in ChAc is choreiform movements affecting both trunk and extremities and prominent orolingual dyskinesia is pathognomonic. Read More

    Identification of key genes in non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease progression based on bioinformatics analysis.
    Mol Med Rep 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Department of Infectious Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P.R. China.
    Due to economic development and lifestyle changes, the incidence of non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gradually increased in recent years. However, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is not yet fully understood. To identify candidate genes that contribute to the development and progression of NAFLD, two microarray datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Read More

    An observational study on glabellar wrinkle patterns in Indians.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Cosmetic Dermatology, Kamat Nursing Home, Ponda, Goa; Medicine, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Botulinum A exotoxin is an established treatment for glabellar frown lines, crow's feet, and horizontal furrows of the forehead. The glabella is probably the most common site for botulinum toxin treatment in Asians. Five glabellar contraction patterns have been classified in earlier studies based on eyebrow approximation, depression, and elevation. Read More

    Neuronal adaptor FE65 stimulates Rac1-mediated neurite outgrowth by recruiting and activating ELMO1.
    J Biol Chem 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Neurite outgrowth is a crucial process in developing neurons for neural network formation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of neurite outgrowth is essential for developing strategies to stimulate neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in neurodegenerative disorders. FE65 is a brain-enriched adaptor that stimulates Rac1-mediated neurite elongation. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Type A-A Modulator of Spinal Neuron-Glia Interactions under Neuropathic Pain Conditions.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Apr 2;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Pain Pharmacology Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-343 Krakow, Poland.
    Neuropathic pain represents a significant clinical problem because it is a chronic condition often refractory to available therapy. Therefore, there is still a strong need for new analgesics. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is used to treat a variety of clinical diseases associated with pain. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment Combined with Intensive Rehabilitation for Gait Poststroke: A Preliminary Study.
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.
    Goal: To examine the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment combined with intensive rehabilitation for gait compared with intensive rehabilitation alone in patients with chronic stroke.

    Materials And Methods: A comparative case series design was used. Subjects were 19 patients with chronic stroke and spastic hemiplegia. Read More

    Population-based cohort study of surgical myotomy and pneumatic dilatation as primary interventions for oesophageal achalasia.
    Br J Surg 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Background: The aim of this national population-based cohort study was to compare rates of reintervention after surgical myotomy versus sequential pneumatic dilatation for the primary management of oesophageal achalasia.

    Methods: Patients with oesophageal achalasia diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and without an intervention in the preceding 5 years were identified from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Patients were divided into two groups based on the primary treatment, and propensity score matching was used to compensate for differences in baseline characteristics. Read More

    "Appropriate Treatment" and Therapeutic Window in Spasticity Treatment with IncobotulinumtoxinA: From 100 to 1000 Units.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Mar 28;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Basic Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", G. Cesare Place 11, 70125 Bari, Italy.
    Many neurological diseases (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, multiple sclerosis, infant cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, and other cerebrovascular disorders) may cause muscle spasticity. Different therapeutic strategies have been proposed for the treatment of spasticity. One of the major treatments for tone modulation is botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), performed in addition to other rehabilitation strategies based on individualized multidisciplinary programs aimed at achieving certain goals for each patient. Read More

    From Bedside to Bench: The Effect of Muscular Denervation on Fat Grafting to the Breast by Comparing Take Rate, Quality, and Longevity.
    Aesthet Surg J 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    From University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: Autologous fat grafting (AFG) to the breast is a frequent procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Despite pure volume gain, questions remain regarding the engraftment rate, quality, and longevity. Little is known about the role of recipient tissue or innervation of the grafted area. Read More

    Antipruritic Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxins.
    Toxins (Basel) 2018 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Frederik Bajers Vej 7A2, A2-208, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark.
    This review explores current evidence to demonstrate that botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) exert antipruritic effects. Both experimental and clinical conditions in which botulinum neurotoxins have been applied for pruritus relief will be presented and significant findings will be highlighted. Potential mechanisms underlying antipruritic effects will also be discussed and ongoing challenges and unmet needs will be addressed. Read More

    Efficacy And Non Invasive Treatment Of Sialorrhea In The Goldenhar Syndrome.
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari "A. Moro"-Policlinico of Bari, Bari. Italy.
    Goldenhar syndrome (ocular-auricular-vertebral syndrome), a rare congenital condition arising from defects in the first and second brachial arches, consists in clinical variety of features ranging from facial abnormalities, ear-eye abnormalities, vertebral defects and congenital heart problems and severe obstructive sleep apnea. Due to craniofacial abnormalities, patients presents mechanical obstructive phenomena and sialorrhea that cause prone position, language's fastening, use of nasopharyngeal cannulas and tracheal intubation. In this article, we report a case of a 16 years old child affected by Goldenhar syndrome and sialorrhea to demonstrate improvement of the daily patient management, through inoculations of botulinum toxin type A. Read More

    Effect of the masseter muscle injection of botulinum toxin A on the mandibular bone growth of developmental rats.
    Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Dec 25;40(1). Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    4Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, 24252 South Korea.
    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of masticatory muscle injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) on the growth of the mandibular bone in vivo.

    Methods: Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and BTX-A ( = 6) or saline ( = 5) was injected at 13 days of age. All injections were given to the right masseter muscle, and the BTX-A dose was 0. Read More

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