23,745 results match your criteria Botulinum Toxin


A Study of Combination Unilateral Subcutaneous Botulinum Toxin A Treatment for Androgenetic Alopecia.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Objective: To observe the efficacy of unilateral subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin A combined with finasteride and minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

Methods: Thirty-seven patients with androgenic alopecia were treated with finasteride and minoxidil as standard therapy and were randomly assigned to subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin A in one hemisphere of the head at the beginning of a 6-month treatment. Before treatment, 3 months after treatment and 6 months after treatment, the patient's head hair growth was photographed and evaluated. Read More

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Reduction of neuronal hyperexcitability with modulation of T-type calcium channel or SK channel in essential tremor.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2022 2;163:335-355. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Neurology, Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Essential tremor is one of the most prevalent movement disorders. Propranolol and primidone are the first-line pharmacological therapies. They provide symptomatic control in less than 50% of patients. Read More

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Assessment of Electromyographic Changes in a Patient with Masseter Hypertrophy and Muscle Pain after Botulinum Injections: A Case Report and 5 Months Follow-up.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2022 Feb 1;23(2):226-231. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Aim: To determine if botulinum injections in masseters could be an option to avoid surgery and prolonged treatment with occlusal splints and/or drugs to care for both painful bruxism and cosmetic improvement in a patient with a square jaw, bruxism, and orofacial pain.

Background: Masseter muscle hypertrophy (MMH) is a benign, unilateral, or bilateral, painless enlargement in the lower face. It presents as a symmetrical or asymmetrical increase in the masseter muscle. Read More

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February 2022

Botulinum Toxin Use for Modulating Neuroimmune Cutaneous Activity in Psoriasis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jun 16;58(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine-"Elias" Emergency University Hospital, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

Psoriasis is a complex immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that generates enormous interest within the scientific communities worldwide, with new therapeutic targets being constantly identified and tested. Despite the numerous topical and systemic medications available for the treatment of psoriasis, alternative therapies are still needed for the optimal management of some patients who present with localized, resistant lesions. Novel insights into the contribution of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation in the pathogenesis of psoriasis have yielded exciting new potential roles of nerve-targeting treatments, namely botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), for the management of this disease. Read More

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The Patho-Neurophysiological Basis and Treatment of Focal Laryngeal Dystonia: A Narrative Review and Two Case Reports Applying TMS over the Laryngeal Motor Cortex.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 15;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia.

Focal laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a rare, idiopathic disease affecting the laryngeal musculature with an unknown cause and clinically presented as adductor LD or rarely as abductor LD. The most effective treatment options include the injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into the affected laryngeal muscle. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the patho-neuro-physiological and genetic background of LD, as well as the standard recommended therapy (BoNT) and pharmacological treatment options, and to discuss possible treatment perspectives using neuro-modulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and vibrotactile stimulation. Read More

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Effect of Intragastric Botulinum Type A Injection Combined with a Low-Calorie High-Protein Diet in Adults with Overweight or Obesity.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 10;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan.

(1) Background/aims: Intragastric botulinum toxin A injection (IGBI) combined with diet control is a new and effective weight loss method for grade 2 obese patients. However, the application of IGIB on overweight or obese adults still needs further research to confirm its efficacy. (2) Methods: We retrospectively collected medical data from 1 July 2021 to 1 January 2022 from a total of 71 patients without diabetes who participated in the bariatric clinic with a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m. Read More

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Neurectomy and Myomectomy for Treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia.

J Voice 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Senior Associate Dean for Clinical Academic Specialties, Drexel University College of Medicine, Director of Otolaryngology, and Communication Sciences Research, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting the muscles of voice production. Sudden involuntary movements of the vocal folds lead to phonatory breaks and to forced, strained, and strangled voice quality in adductor SD, or breathy breaks in abductor SD. There is currently no cure for spasmodic dysphonia, and the gold standard for treatment is the injection of botulinum toxin in small amounts to the intrinsic laryngeal musculature. Read More

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[Involuntary movements of the stump after transtibial amputation: Jumping stump syndrome].

Rehabilitacion (Madr) 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Servicio de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Toledo, Toledo, España.

45-year-old woman with history of hallux valgus surgery and torpid evolution, which led to transtibial amputation. Six months after surgery, she began to experience involuntary movements of the stump such as myoclonus, that were triggered by touch or hip extension, associating worsening of the previous stump and phantom limb pain. During the following year, concurring with change of prosthesis, symptoms progressively worsened, which limited walking. Read More

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Botulinum Toxin and Smile Design.

Authors:
Mario Polo

Dent Clin North Am 2022 Jul 31;66(3):419-429. Epub 2022 May 31.

Private Practice, Orthodontics and Facial Esthetics, San Juan, PR, USA; Department of Orthodontics, University of Puerto Rico School of Dental Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA. Electronic address:

Smiles with excessive gingival display exceeding 3 mm are considered unattractive. Excessive muscular contraction of lip elevator muscles is the etiology in most cases, and other factors, such as excessive vertical dimension of the maxilla and altered passive dental eruption resulting in the presence of excessive gingival tissue, account for the etiologic factors in others. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) blocks muscular contraction by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine in muscles' endplates. Read More

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Elucidation of critical pH-dependent structural changes in Botulinum Neurotoxin E.

J Struct Biol 2022 Jun 20:107876. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Biochemical Engineering, Bernard Katz Building, University College London, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH, U.K. Electronic address:

Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent toxins currently known. However, they also have therapeutic applications for an increasing number of motor related conditions due to their specificity, and low diffusion into the system. Although the start- and end- points for the BoNT mechanism of action are well-studied, a critical step remains poorly understood. Read More

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A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Botulinum Toxin Treatment Combined with Robot-Assisted Therapy, Mirror Therapy, or Active Control Treatment in Patients with Spasticity Following Stroke.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Occupational Therapy and Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

Effects of the combined task-oriented trainings with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection on improving motor functions and reducing spasticity remains unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of 3 task-oriented trainings (robot-assisted therapy (RT), mirror therapy (MT), and active control treatment (AC)) in patients with stroke after BoNT-A injection. Thirty-seven patients with chronic spastic hemiplegic stroke were randomly assigned to receive RT, MT, or AC following BoNT-A injection over spastic upper extremity muscles. Read More

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Subcutaneous BoNT/A Injection for Intractable Pain and Disability in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Report.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Clinical Neurology Unit, Udine University Hospital, Piazzale Santa Maria della Misericordia 15, 33100 Udine, Italy.

We treated a 51-year-old woman with refractory Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I) involving her left hand and forearm with subcutaneous injections of BoNT/A. The injections were performed every 3 months, with a total of six treatments. Each treatment was able to effectively improve pain and motor impairment; however, the duration of the effect was limited to only a few months. Read More

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Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Skin Ulcers: A Review Article.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Jun 14;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The normal biological wound healing process consists of three precisely and highly programmed phases that require optimal conditions including internal and external factors. Any negative factors that disrupt the sequence or time frame of the healing mechanism can result in a non-healing wound or chronic ulcers. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) which is generally known as anti-contraction of muscles has been reported as a successful treatment in various types of chronic ulcers. Read More

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Treatment of Depression with Botulinum Toxin.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, George Washington School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

Injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into the glabellar region of the face is a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression. This treatment method has several advantages, including few side effects and a long-lasting, depot-like effect. Here we review the clinical and experimental evidence for the antidepressant effect of BoNT injections as well as the theoretical background and possible mechanisms of action. Read More

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Can Botulinum Toxin-A Contribute to Reconstructing the Physiological Homeostasis of the Masticatory Complex in Short-Faced Patients during Occlusal Therapy? A Prospective Pilot Study.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 May 28;14(6). Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China.

The physiological homeostasis of the masticatory complex in short-faced patients is too robust to be disintegrated and reconstructed due to the powerful masseter muscle. This study innovatively introduced the botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) into the field of dental occlusal treatment, providing a novel and minimally invasive therapy perspective for the two major clinical problems in these patients (low treatment efficiency and high rates of complications). In total, 10 adult patients with skeletal low angle seeking occlusal treatment (age: 27. Read More

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Botulinum Toxin Type A for Treatment of Forehead Hyperhidrosis: Multicenter Clinical Experience and Review from Literature.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 May 27;14(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Dermatological Clinic, Polytechnic Marche University, 60200 Ancona, Italy.

Among the forms of idiopathic hyperhidrosis, those involving the forehead have the greatest impact on patients' quality of life, as symptoms are not very controllable and are difficult to mask for patients. Although the local injection therapy with Incobotulinum toxin type A (IncoBTX-A therapy) can be considered a rational treatment, data from the literature describing both efficacy and safety of the treatment over the long term are poor. The aim of this report is to describe the single-center experience of five patients seeking treatment, for forehead hyperhidrosis with IncoBTX-A. Read More

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Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Three Different Botulinum Toxin Type A Preparations following Repeated Intramuscular Administration in Mice.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 May 25;14(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Medytox Gwanggyo R&D Center, 114 Central town-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si 16506, Korea.

Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) causes muscle paralysis by blocking cholinergic signaling at neuromuscular junctions and is widely used to temporarily correct spasticity-related disorders and deformities. The paralytic effects of BoNT/A are time-limited and require repeated injections at regular intervals to achieve long-term therapeutic benefits. Differences in the level and duration of effectivity among various BoNT/A products can be attributed to their unique manufacturing processes, formulation, and noninterchangeable potency units. Read More

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Regulatory Networks Controlling Neurotoxin Synthesis in and .

Toxins (Basel) 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

and are Gram-positive, spore-forming, and anaerobic bacteria that produce the most potent neurotoxins, botulinum toxin (BoNT) and tetanus toxin (TeNT), responsible for flaccid and spastic paralysis, respectively. The main habitat of these toxigenic bacteria is the environment (soil, sediments, cadavers, decayed plants, intestinal content of healthy carrier animals). can grow and produce BoNT in food, leading to food-borne botulism, and in some circumstances, can colonize the intestinal tract and induce infant botulism or adult intestinal toxemia botulism. Read More

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Solifenacin Treatment After Intradetrusor Injections With Botulinum Toxin in Patients With Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity.

Am J Ther 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Background: Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is treated with antimuscarinics as first-line treatment. For patients with contraindications or unresponsive, intradetrusor injections with botulinum toxin (BoNT) are a safe and effective but expensive option.

Study Question: Our study evaluated whether adding solifenacin to the intradetrusor injection of BoNT A could boost the effect of BoNT in patients with NDO due to multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury refractory to antimuscarinics alone and/or lead to less frequent injections. Read More

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Effect of rehabilitation on the long-term efficacy of botulinum toxin-A for spastic cerebral palsy.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022 Jun;26(11):3927-3932

Capital Medical University School of Rehabilitation Medicine, China Rehabilitation Research Centre, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) nerve block on relaxation of spasticity in cerebral palsy.

Patients And Methods: From June 2015 to December 2018, 52 children, aged 20-56 months, with spastic cerebral palsy were treated with BTX-A. The dose of BTX-A was selected based on the weight of the child and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). Read More

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The cost-effectiveness of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) and onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®) for managing spasticity of the upper and lower limbs, and cervical dystonia.

J Med Econ 2022 Jun 22:1-30. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Ipsen Slough, London, UK.

Objective: To evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the use of abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A) and onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) for lower limb spasticity in children, upper and lower limb spasticity in adults, and cervical dystonia in adults.

Methods: This pharmacoeconomic analysis compared aboBoNT-A with onaBoNT-A. A decision tree model with a one-year time horizon was conducted from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from a variety of sources: randomised controlled trials (RCTs), network meta-analysis (NMA), an observational study, and a physician survey investigating treatment patterns and resource utilization. Read More

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Repeated botulinum treatment of rabbit masseter causes cumulative tissue damage.

Arch Oral Biol 2022 Jun 11;141:105480. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are used in masticatory muscles for pain relief, unloading of the mandible, and cosmetic facial contouring. Treatment is often repeated every few months as function returns. This study assessed masticatory function and musculoskeletal structure after multiple BoNT treatment of the rabbit masseter. Read More

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Heterogeneous crow's feet line patterns and customized botulinum toxin rejuvenating treatment.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Clinical Pharmacology Consultant in Aesthetic Medicine, Milan and Sanremo, Italy.

Background: From early dynamic lines in smiling and squinting young people, crow's feet lines in the lateral canthal region evolve through prolonged tissue remodeling into mature, stable rhytids after the mid-to-late thirties and requests for rejuvenating treatment. Because of the heterogeneous fanning behavior of crow's feet lines, individualizing neuromodulation with botulinum toxin injections might be a sound strategy to maximize aesthetic outcomes.

Aims: To investigate the prevalence of variable crow's feet line patterns at maximum contracture and while smiling and comment on the relative distribution of such patterns and the influence of ageing. Read More

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Commentary on: Is It Worth Using Botulinum Toxin Injections for the Management of Mild to Moderate Blepharoptosis?

Aesthet Surg J 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Scripps MD Anderson Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA.

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It Is Time to Liberalize the Administration of Botulinum Toxin in the Pediatric Urology Clinic!

J Urol 2022 Jun 20:101097JU0000000000002815. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Absence of P2Y Receptor Does Not Prevent Bone Destruction in a Murine Model of Muscle Paralysis-Induced Bone Loss.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 26;13:850525. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark.

Increased incidence of bone fractures in the elderly is associated with gradual sarcopenia. Similar deterioration of bone quality is seen with prolonged bed rest, spinal cord injuries or in astronauts exposed to microgravity and, preceded by loss of muscle mass. Signaling mechanisms involving uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) regulate bone homeostasis P2Y receptors on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, whilst dictating the bone cells' response to mechanical loading. Read More

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The Effect of Botulinum Toxin-A on Chronic Muscle-Related Pain in Cerebral Palsy.

Authors:
Christian Wong

Front Neurol 2022 3;13:936625. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.

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The Tricky Diagnosis of Nummular Headaches: Description of Two Cases and Literature Review.

Cureus 2022 May 16;14(5):e25043. Epub 2022 May 16.

Neurology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, USA.

Nummular headaches are a rare and relatively newly characterized primary headache disorder. The epidemiology is largely unknown due to likely underdiagnosis and a small population of all headache patients in outpatient presentation. Though our understanding of nummular headaches continues to evolve, they remain a diagnostic challenge for physicians and the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Read More

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Subjective Outcome after Discontinuation of Botulinum Toxin-A Detrusor Injection for Lower Urinary Tract Disorders: The Majority Suffers!

Urol Int 2022 Jun 17:1-10. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Urology, Charité - University Hospital Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: According to the EAU guidelines, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) detrusor injections are one of the last options in the management of overactive bladder before opting for invasive surgery. So far, there have been no studies dedicated exclusively to such patients who have undergone this treatment and in whom this treatment has presumably failed. From the patient's point of view, there are questions regarding what reasons led to discontinuation, how patients perceive their BoNT-A treatment in hindsight, what further treatment do these patients receive, and how satisfied such patients are with their current situation. Read More

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