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    1 OF 369

    Therapeutic efficacy of equine botulism antitoxin in Rhesus macaques.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(11):e0186892. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America.
    Background: There are currently no licensed vaccines available for prevention of botulism in humans. The vaccination is not desirable due to expanding therapeutic indications of botulinum toxins. The only available specific treatment for botulism is antitoxin to remove circulating toxin, thus, preventing further neuronal damage. Read More

    Botulinum toxin injection versus topical nitrates for chronic anal fissure- an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
    Colorectal Dis 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Connolly Hospital, Blanchardstown, Ireland.
    Background: Chronic anal fissures (CAF) are frequently encountered in coloproctology clinics. Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first-line therapy. Topical nitrates (TN) heal CAF effectively but recurrences are common. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Is Syringe Type Related to Cost-Effectiveness?
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Introduction: Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference. Read More

    Interventions for managing skeletal muscle spasticity following traumatic brain injury.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Nov 22;11:CD008929. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Cochrane Australia, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, L4 551 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3004.
    Background: Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other clinical populations because of the added complexity of behavioural and cognitive issues associated with TBI. Read More

    Successful treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis patients with botulinum toxin B injection: Assessment of peripheral vascular disorder by angiography and dermoscopic image of nail fold capillary.
    J Dermatol 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.
    We recently identified the efficacy and safety of a botulinum toxin (BTX)-A/B in Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and digital ulcers (DU) in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Detailed assessments of peripheral vascular disorder using angiography and dermoscopic images of nail fold capillaries have not been performed previously. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BTX-B on SSc-associated peripheral vascular disorder. Read More

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of effectiveness and safety of therapy for overactive bladder using botulinum toxin A at different dosages.
    Oncotarget 2017 Oct 7;8(52):90338-90350. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Center for Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Research, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China.
    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at different dosages for overactive bladder (OAB).

    Materials And Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases were searched through November 3, 2016 to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

    Results: Eleven studies were identified in this meta-analysis. Read More

    Botulinum toxin for treating unilateral apraxia of eyelid opening in a patient with congenital myotonia.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Sep-Oct;80(5):330-331
    Department of Ophthalmology, Rio Hortega University Hospital, Dulzaina St, Valladolid, Spain.
    A 37-year-old female presented with severe apraxia of lid opening (ALO) affecting the right upper lid associated with Becker congenital myotonia (MC). The patient had a history of right upper lid ptosis for 25 years that was exacerbated over the previous month with severe incapacity to open her right eye. No other associated neurological or ophthalmic symptoms were observed. Read More

    Botulinum toxin treatment for hypersalivation in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2017 Nov 26;4(11):830-834. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of NeurologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulSouth Korea.
    Hypersalivation is one of the intractable symptoms of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. While anticholinergic medications partially improve the hypersalivation, they can aggravate the autonomic dysfunctions associated with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Thus, we investigated the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A injection on hypersalivation refractory to anticholinergics in six patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Read More

    Use-dependent potentiation of voltage-gated calcium channels rescues neurotransmission in nerve terminals intoxicated by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 20;7(1):15862. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Neuroscience, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Gunpowder, MD, 21010, USA.
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins that cleave neuronal SNARE proteins required for neurotransmission, causing flaccid paralysis and death by asphyxiation. Currently, there are no clinical treatments to delay or reverse BoNT-induced blockade of neuromuscular transmission. While aminopyridines have demonstrated varying efficacy in transiently reducing paralysis following BoNT poisoning, the precise mechanisms by which aminopyridines symptomatically treat botulism are not understood. Read More

    Structural basis for the unique ganglioside and cell membrane recognition mechanism of botulinum neurotoxin DC.
    Nat Commun 2017 Nov 21;8(1):1637. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most potent toxins known, are potential bioterrorism agents. It is well established that all seven serotypes of BoNTs (BoNT/A-G) require complex gangliosides as co-receptors. Here, we report that BoNT/DC, a presumed mosaic toxin between BoNT/D and BoNT/C1, binds and enters efficiently into neurons lacking complex gangliosides and shows no reduction in toxicity in mice deficient in complex gangliosides. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections as Monotherapy for Upper Limb Essential Tremor Using Kinematics.
    Can J Neurol Sci 2017 Nov 21:1-12. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    1Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences,London Health Sciences Centre,Lawson Health Research Institute,London,Ontario,Canada.
    Background: There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters. Read More

    Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Site for the Medial Approach to Tibialis Posterior Muscle in Chronic Stroke Patients with Spastic Equinovarus Foot: An Observational Study.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Nov 18;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 18.
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Section, "OORR Hospital", University of Foggia, Foggia 71122, Italy.
    The tibialis posterior muscle is a frequent target for injection of botulinum toxin during the management of spastic equinovarus foot in adults with post-stroke spasticity. Although it is deep-seated, the needle insertion into the tibialis posterior muscle is usually performed using anatomical landmarks and safety information obtained from healthy subjects and cadavers. Our aim was to evaluate the botulinum toxin injection site for the medial approach to the tibialis posterior muscle in chronic stroke patients with spastic equinovarus foot. Read More

    BTX-A has notable effects contradicting some treatment aims in the rat triceps surae compartment, which are not confined to the muscles injected.
    J Biomech 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Biomedical Engineering Institute, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA.
    Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) is widely used in treating gastrocnemius medial (GM) and lateral (GL) muscles in cerebral palsy to improve joint motion. However, recent animal experiments indicate inferior BTX-A effects beyond the injected muscle. The goal was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model. Read More

    First bite syndrome following transcervical arterial ligation after transoral robotic surgery.
    Laryngoscope 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
    Objective: To assess the incidence of first bite syndrome (FBS) in transoral robotic surgical (TORS) patients undergoing transcervical arterial ligation.

    Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients diagnosed with FBS following prophylactic transcervical arterial ligation of branches of the external carotid system between March 2010 and December 2016 at a single academic center.

    Results: Six patients with FBS after TORS with transcervical arterial ligation were evaluated, representing 7% of all patients who underwent neck dissection with concomitant transcervical arterial ligation (6 of 83). Read More

    Cerebral Palsy: An Overview.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Child Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, and is attributed to injury to the developing brain. The clinical features of this entity evolve over time and the specific CP syndrome may be recognizable only after 3-5 y of age; although suggestive signs and symptoms may be present at an earlier age. The management involves neurological rehabilitation (addressing muscle tonal abnormalities, and devising physical and occupational therapies) and diagnosis and management of co-morbidities (including epilepsy, impairment of cognition, vision, hearing, and disturbances of growth and gastrointestinal function). Read More

    Foodborne Botulism, I Only Had Nacho Cheese: A Case Report.
    Cureus 2017 Sep 8;9(9):e1666. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Intermountain Healthcare.
    A 32-year-old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of diplopia, followed by dyspnea, chest tightness, congestion, and dysphagia. The patient was resuscitated and initial investigations were done. Within a few hours of the admission, she started developing signs of respiratory failure and was intubated and placed on the mechanical ventilator. Read More

    Prolonged stretching of the ankle plantarflexors elicits muscle-tendon adaptations relevant to ankle gait kinetics in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Nov 28;109:65-69. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle - Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Tissue related ankle hyper-resistance has been reported to contribute to equinus gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, ankle plantarflexor stretching programs have been developed in order to restore passive ankle dorsiflexion. Despite high quality evidence on the limited effects of stretching on passive joint mobility, further muscle-tendon adaptations have been reported which may impact gait performance. Read More

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of changes in the muscle architecture of the gastrocnemius with botulinum toxin treatment for lower extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.
    J Orthop Sci 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan.
    Background: Botulinum toxin A treatment involves injecting botulinum toxin A to relax muscle spasticity. Using ultrasonography, this study examined changes in the muscle architecture before and after treatment to evaluate the influence of botulinum toxin A injection on muscles.

    Methods: The participants included 18 children (mean age, 6. Read More

    Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Muscle Healing and its Implications in Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery.
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Head and Neck Reconstruction Unit, Burn Unit, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Department of Pathology, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.
    Background: Muscle activity contributes to the enhancement of facial aging deformity, blepharospasm, cerebral palsy spasticity, trismus, torticollis, and other conditions. Myotomy of the involved muscles in order to reduce the deformity has variable success rates due to muscle healing and regeneration of activity.

    Objectives: The goal of this study was to investigate whether blocking striated muscle activity with Botulinum toxin (BtxA) during the healing time after myotomy alters the healing process and reduces long-term muscle activity. Read More

    Brueghel Syndrome or Meige Syndrome? Two Sides of a Same Disease.
    Front Neurol Neurosci 2018 16;41:98-103. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Different eponyms such as "Wood syndrome," Meige syndrome, "Brueghel syndrome," "Blepharospasm plus syndrome" have been used to describe segmental craniocervical dystonias. These facial and/or oromandibular movement disorders are characterized by muscle contractions and spasms involving eyes, facial region, and sometimes pharynx, jaw, floor of the mouth, and tongue. The pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia is poorly understood, but abnormal plasticity and impaired inhibition are suspected. Read More

    Are paraspinous intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin a (BoNT-A) efficient in the treatment of chronic low-back pain? A randomised, double-blinded crossover trial.
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2017 Nov 15;18(1):454. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Service de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076, Bordeaux, France.
    Background: Treatment for patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP) is a public health issue. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) have shown an analgesic effect on LBP in two previous randomized controlled studies. The objective of the study was to verify the efficacy of paravertebral injections of BoNT-A in patients with LBP. Read More

    A mutated recombinant subunit vaccine protects mice and guinea pigs against botulinum type A intoxication.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    a Agency for Defense Development , Yuseong , P.O.Box 35, Daejeon , 34188 , Republic of Korea.
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins to mammals. A toxoid vaccine was previously used for prevention of botulinum intoxication; however, this vaccine is no longer available. Currently, no approved botulinum vaccines are available from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More

    Evidence to Use Botulinum Toxin Injections in Tension-Type Headache Management: A Systematic Review.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Nov 15;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Experimental Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-425 Wroclaw, Poland.
    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of chronic recurring head pain. It can occur twice as often in women as in men. It is the most common type of headache. Read More

    Pharmacologic management of chronic neuropathic pain: Review of the Canadian Pain Society consensus statement.
    Can Fam Physician 2017 Nov;63(11):844-852
    Assistant Professor in the Department of Anesthesia and in the Transitional Pain Service of the Toronto General Hospital at the University of Toronto.
    Objective: To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) revised consensus statement on the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain.

    Quality Of Evidence: A multidisciplinary interest group within the CPS conducted a systematic review of the literature on the current treatments of neuropathic pain in drafting the revised consensus statement.

    Main Message: Gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the first-line agents for treating neuropathic pain. Read More

    Ultrasound finding of ischiofemoral impingement syndrome and novel treatment with botulinum toxin chemodenervation: a case report.
    PM R 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    MDDepartment of Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Ischiofemoral impingement syndrome (IFIS) is a rare and poorly understood condition that leads to deep gluteal pain, groin, and/or medial thigh pain. It has unique diagnostic challenges, with limited non-operative treatment options. It is caused by the impingement of the quadratus femoris by the lesser trochanter and the ischium. Read More

    Role of central versus peripheral opioid system in antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of botulinum toxin type A in trigeminal region.
    Eur J Pain 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Croatia.
    Background: Although botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) is approved for chronic migraine treatment, its site and mechanism of action are still elusive. Recently our group discovered that suppression of CGRP release from dural nerve endings might account for antimigraine action of pericranially injected BT-A. We demonstrated that central antinociceptive effect of BT-A in sciatic region involves endogenous opioid system as well. Read More

    The relationship between the physical cost index and knee extensor strength in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
    J Phys Ther Sci 2017 Oct 21;29(10):1784-1787. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo University of Technology, Japan.
    [Purpose] Lower extremity strength is a contributing factor to energy efficiency of gait. However, this contribution has not previously been evaluated in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between energy consumption, measured by the physical cost index (PCI), and strength of lower extremity, measured by the maximum knee extensor strength (MKES), in children with hemiplegic CP. Read More

    Canonical germinant receptor is dispensable for spore germination in Clostridium botulinum group II strain NCTC 11219.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 13;7(1):15426. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic sporeforming bacterium that is notorious for producing a potent neurotoxin. Spores of C. botulinum can survive mild food processing treatments and subsequently germinate, multiply, produce toxin and cause botulism. Read More

    Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.
    J Voice 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
    Introduction: Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. Read More

    Influence of the neural microenvironment on prostate cancer.
    Prostate 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health Sciences Center Medical School, Houston, Texas.
    Background: Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease.

    Method: We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. Read More

    A survey of the current practice of intramuscular Botulinum toxin injections for hemiplegic shoulder pain in the UK.
    Disabil Rehabil 2017 Nov 10:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    b School of Health Sciences , University of Central Lancashire , Preston , UK.
    Purpose: To describe the current UK practice for the use of intramuscular Botulinum Toxin type A injections to treat hemiplegic shoulder pain.

    Method: A UK-based cross-sectional study using an online survey. Participants (n = 68) were medical and non-medical practitioners recruited via the membership of the British Society for Rehabilitation Medicine and the British Neurotoxin Network. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Neuromuscular Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY 10029, USA.
    Essential tremor is characterized by persistent, usually bilateral and symmetric, postural or kinetic activation of agonist and antagonist muscles involving either the distal or proximal upper extremity. Quality of life is often affected and one's ability to perform daily tasks becomes impaired. Oral therapies, including propranolol and primidone, can be effective in the management of essential tremor, although adverse effects can limit their use and about 50% of individuals lack response to oral pharmacotherapy. Read More

    Treatment of hemifacial spasm in patient with hemifacial atrophy using combination therapy (ultrasound therapy and TENS): a case report.
    Korean J Pain 2017 Oct 29;30(4):304-307. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Oral Medicine and Radiology, ITS Dental College, Muradnagar, India.
    A 19-year-old male patient presented with facial hemi-atrophy with unilateral spasms of the masseter and temporalis muscles. Ultrasound therapy and Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation therapy, known as combination therapy, were given on alternate days for 2 weeks. At the end of 2 weeks of combination therapy the patient reported a drastic reduction in the number of episodes of muscle spasm. Read More

    Total endoscopic and anal irrigation management approach to noncompliant neuropathic bladder and bowel in children: A long-term follow-up.
    Urol Ann 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):362-365
    Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and durability of combined intradetrusor botulinum-A toxin (BTX-A), endoscopic treatment of vesicouerteral reflux and anal irrigation for stool incontinence (SI) via a total endoscopic and anal irrigation management (TEAM(®)) approach in patients with myelomeningocele and neuropathic bladder and bowel who did not respond to conservative measures.

    Materials And Methods: Fourteen myelomeningocele patients with at least 3 years follow-up were included in the study. All patients have urinary and SI not responded to conservative management. Read More

    Does Botulinum Toxin Injection into Masseter Muscles Affect Subcutaneous Thickness?
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is widely used to treat masseter muscle hypertrophy. Changes in the muscle thickness have been found in many studies, but there has been no report on changes in the thickness from the skin surface to the masseter muscle.

    Objectives: We aimed to use ultrasonography to measure not only changes in the muscle thickness but also changes in subcutaneous thickness. Read More

    Botulinum toxin therapy in patients with oral anticoagulation: is it safe?
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Movement Disorders Section, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    When used therapeutically, botulinum toxin (BT) has to be injected into its target tissues. All manufacturers warn not to do so in patients with oral anticoagulation to avoid haematoma. We wanted to study the haematoma frequency (HF) in patients with anticoagulation receiving BT therapy. Read More

    Injection of high dose botulinum-toxin A leads to impaired skeletal muscle function and damage of the fibrilar and non-fibrilar structures.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 7;7(1):14746. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Botulinum-toxin A (BoNT/A) is used for a wide range of conditions. Intramuscular administration of BoNT/A inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction from presynaptic motor neurons causing muscle-paralysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high dose intramuscular BoNT/A injections (6 UI = 60 pg) on muscle tissue. Read More

    Response to "Standardised methods must be used to compare the properties of botulinum toxin serotypes".
    Microbiol Immunol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Rinkuouraikita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan.
    First, we would like to provide some further explanation of the potency assay. We used two types of potency assay because the BoNT subtype B6 (BoNT/B6) was purified from strain Osaka05, which was isolated relatively recently (1). To compare the potency of BoNT/B6 with each of the subtypes reported previously, we first investigated its potency in mice using an intraperitoneal bioassay. Read More

    Three-dimensional hydrogel is suitable for targeted investigation of amoeboid migration of glioma cells.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, P.R. China.
    Glioblastoma (GBM) invasion and migration are key biological behaviors leading to refractoriness to current therapies and infiltration into the non‑tumor brain parenchyma. GBM cell migration is strongly dependent on tumor architecture in vivo, which is absent in traditional two‑dimensional (2D) monolayer culture. The present study applied a three‑dimensional (3D) hydrogel model to rebuild the tumor architecture in vitro. Read More

    Building-block architecture of botulinum toxin complex: Conformational changes provide insights into the hemagglutination ability of the complex.
    Biochem Biophys Rep 2017 Mar 19;9:67-71. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493, Japan.
    Clostridium botulinum produces the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Previously, we provided evidence for the "building-block" model of botulinum toxin complex (TC). In this model, a single BoNT is associated with a single nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), yielding M-TC; three HA-70 molecules are attached and form M-TC/HA-70, and one to three "arms" of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer (two HA-33 and one HA-17) further bind to M-TC/HA-70 via HA-17 and HA-70 binding, yielding one-, two-, and three-arm L-TC. Read More

    Simvastatin potentiates doxorubicin activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
    Oncol Lett 2017 Nov 21;14(5):6243-6250. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.
    Simvastatin is a low density lipoprotein-lowering drug that is widely used to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway. Simvastatin also exhibits inhibitory effects on a number of types of cancer. In the present study, the effects of simvastatin on the activity of doxorubicin in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line, and the mechanisms by which this interaction occurs were investigated. Read More

    When movement disorders hurt: Addressing pain in hyperkinetic disorders.
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Referral Center for Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Medical School University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Pain is an important nonmotor symptom in movement disorders. Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by involuntary, sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal movements, postures or both. Contrary to common views the nonmotor symptoms are present in dystonia patients. Read More

    The Use of Neurotoxins in the Male Face.
    Dermatol Clin 2018 Jan;36(1):29-42
    Cosmetic Laser Dermatology, Goldman, Butterwick, Groff, Fabi & Wu, a West Dermatology Company, 9339 Genesee Avenue, Suite 300, San Diego, CA 92121, USA; Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 8899 University Center Lane, San Diego, CA 92122, USA.
    Injection of neurotoxin is the most commonly performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and the total number of male patients seeking botulinum has steadily increased over the years. Because of their unique aesthetic goals, expectations, and anatomy, men require differing botulinum toxin doses and techniques. This article provides an evidence-based approach to botulinum toxin in men. Read More

    Incobotulinum toxin A in Parkinson's disease with foot dystonia: A double blind randomized trial.
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Service de neurologie, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Plantar flexion of toe dystonia is very painful and leads to difficulties in walking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incobotulinum toxin A (Xeomin) in the treatment of this type of dystonia in parkinsonian patients, using a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Methods: 45 parkinsonian patients with painful dystonic plantar flexion of toes were injected either with incobotulinum toxin A (Btx group), or with placebo in two muscle targets: the Flexor digitorum longus and the Flexor digitorum brevis. Read More

    Chemodenervation of the Larynx.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Nov 2;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    New York Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, New York, NY 10019, USA.
    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has existed for thousands of years; however, it was not medically utilized until investigations into its therapeutic use began in sincerity during the late 1970s and 1980s. This, coupled with the reclassification of spasmodic dysphonia as a focal dystonia, led to the use of chemodenervation for this disorder, which has since become a refined technique. Indeed, due to its safety and efficacy, BoNT has been investigated in multiple neurolaryngology disorders, including spasmodic dysphonia, vocal tremor, and muscle tension dysphonia. Read More

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