16,762 results match your criteria Botanical Review[Journal]


Honey and obesity-related dysfunctions: a summary on health benefits.

J Nutr Biochem 2020 Apr 17;82:108401. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:

Honey is a natural product, containing flavonoids and phenolic acids, appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Although the bioactive potential is linked to the composition, that is variable depending on mainly the botanical origin, honey has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might result useful in the management of chronic diseases that are commonly associated with oxidative stress and inflammation state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108401DOI Listing

Detection of toxic methylenecyclopropylglycine and hypoglycin A in litchi aril of three Chinese cultivars.

Food Chem 2020 May 11;327:127013. Epub 2020 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, Key Laboratory of Post-harvest Handling of Fruits of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; Center of Economic Botany, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China. Electronic address:

As a subtropical fruit with high commercial values, litchi is also a source of methylenecyclcopropylglycine (MCPG) and hypoglycin A (HGA), which could cause hypoglycemia and fatal encephalopathy in human. In this work, a quantitative method was developed well to detect MCPG and HGA present in litchi aril of different cultivars. Method validation was evaluated well by linearity, recovery, precision and sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127013DOI Listing

Cysteine protease RD21A regulated by E3 ligase SINAT4 is required for drought-induced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

J Exp Bot 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.

Plants can be simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses. The interplay of abiotic and biotic stresses may result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on plant development and health. Temporary drought stress can stimulate plant immunity; however, the molecular mechanism of drought-induced immunity is largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa255DOI Listing

Climate and land use interactively shape butterfly diversity in tropical rainforest and savanna ecosystems of southwestern China.

Insect Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Human-induced habitat conversion and degradation, along with accelerating climatic change, have resulted in considerable global biodiversity loss. Nevertheless, how local ecological assemblages respond to the interplay between climate and land-use change remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of climate and land-use interactions on butterfly diversity in different ecosystems of southwestern China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12824DOI Listing

Efficacy of bioactive compounds and their association with different cowpea cultivars against their major stored pest.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Agronomy - Entomology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, 52171-900, Recife, Prince Edward Island, Brazil.

Background: Stored grain insects are controlled with fumigant insecticides which can select resistant insect populations and cause environmental and applicator contamination. Thus, resistant cultivars and chemical constituents of essential oils are an alternative to the use almost exclusive of these insecticides. The effects of the combination of cowpea cultivars Vigna unguiculata (L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5926DOI Listing

Detrimental sublethal effects hamper the effective use of natural and chemical pesticides in combination with a key natural enemy of Bemisia tabaci on tomato.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

University Côte d'Azur, INRAE, CNRS, UMR ISA, 06000, Nice, France.

Background: Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) represents one of the greatest threats to agricultural crops. Chemical control is the primary tool used in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes. However, the release of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in tomato plants is highly recommended as a control tactic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5927DOI Listing

A combination of morphological and photosynthetic functional traits maintains the vertical distribution of bryophytes in a subtropical cloud forest.

Am J Bot 2020 May;107(5):761-772

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650031, China.

Premise: The distribution and performance of bryophyte species vary with vertical gradients, as a result of changes in environmental factors, especially light. However, the morphological and physiological drivers of bryophyte distribution along forest vertical gradients are poorly understood.

Methods: For 18 species of mosses and liverworts distributed among three vertical microhabitats (ground, tree trunk, and branch, variance in 28 morphological and photosynthetic functional traits was comparatively analyzed among the microhabitats and bryophyte life-forms in a subtropical cloud forest in Ailao Mountain, Yunnan, southwestern China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1474DOI Listing

CRISPR-Cas9-mediated induction of heritable chromosomal translocations in Arabidopsis.

Nat Plants 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Botanical Institute-Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Plants, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology has been applied in plant breeding mainly on genes for improving single or multiple traits. Here we show that this technology can also be used to restructure plant chromosomes. Using the Cas9 nuclease from Staphylococcus aureus, we were able to induce reciprocal translocations in the Mbp range between heterologous chromosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0663-xDOI Listing

Genus Ziziphus: A comprehensive review on ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 May 22:112950. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Biology, University of Hassan I, BP 577, 26000, Settat, Morocco. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Ziziphus (Rhamnaceae) contains 58 accepted species that are extensively used by local people and medicinal practitioners in arid and semi-arid regions for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, diabetic, hypertension, inflammation, intestinal spasm, liver, malaria and other diseases. Aims of this review: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about botanical traits, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological effects of Ziziphus species.

Methods: Information was collected systematically from electronic scientific databases including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, ACS Publications, Elsevier, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library and CNKI, as well as other literature sources (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112950DOI Listing

Report on the Emergence Time of a Species of Thitarodes Ghost Moth (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Host of the Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycota: Ophiocordycipitaceae) in Uttarakhand, India.

J Econ Entomol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Ghost moths in the genus Thitarodes Viette, 1968, are hosts of the economically important caterpillar fungus, which is harvested in high mountain meadows across the Hengduan mountains and the Himalayas. In northwestern India, although caterpillar fungus has been collected in the state of Uttarakhand, no adults of Thitarodes species have been recorded. We report the sighting of a female pupa of Thitarodes sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa096DOI Listing

C grasses adapted to low precipitation habitats show traits related to greater mesophyll conductance and lower leaf hydraulic conductance.

Plant Cell Environ 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

In habitats with low water availability, a fundamental challenge for plants will be to maximize photosynthetic C-gain whilst minimizing transpirational water-loss. This tradeoff between C-gain and water-loss can in part be achieved through the coordination of leaf-level photosynthetic and hydraulic traits. To test the relationship of photosynthetic C-gain and transpirational water-loss we grew under common growth conditions 18 C grasses adapted to habitats with different mean annual precipitation (MAP) and measured leaf-level structural and anatomical traits associated with mesophyll conductance (g ) and leaf hydraulic conductance (K ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13807DOI Listing

Insecticidal activity of triterpenoids and volatile oil from the stems of Tetraena mongolica.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Jun 28;166:104551. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, PR China; Key Laboratory of Herbage and Endemic Crop Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, PR China. Electronic address:

Tetraena mongolica Maxim is a species of Zygophyllaceae endemic to China. Because few insect pests affect its growth and flowering, we speculated that this plant produces defensive chemicals that are insect repellents or antifeedants. The effects of different fractions from crude stem and leaf extracts on Pieris rapae were examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.02.017DOI Listing

Drivers of bird beta diversity in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot are scale dependent: roles of land use, climate, and distance.

Oecologia 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation, College of Forestry, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

In the last 50 years, intensive agriculture has replaced large tracts of rainforests. Such changes in land use are driving niche-based ecological processes that determine local community assembly. However, little is known about the relative importance of these anthropogenic niche-based processes, in comparison to climatic niche-based processes and spatial processes such as dispersal limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04671-3DOI Listing

Arabidopsis JMJ29 is involved in trichome development by regulating the core trichome initiation gene GLABRA3.

Plant J 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan.

Plant trichomes are large single cells organized in a regular pattern and play multiple biological functions. In Arabidopsis, trichome development is mainly governed by the core trichome initiation regulators including the R2R3 type MYB transcript factor GLABRA 1 (GL1), bHLH transcript factors GLABRA 3/ ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (GL3/EGL3), and the WD-40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) as well as the downstream trichome regulator GLABRA 2 (GL2). GL1, GL3/EGL3 and TTG1 can form a trimeric activation complex to activate GL2, which is required for the trichome initiation and maintenance during cell differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14858DOI Listing

Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used for Treating Cough Associated with Respiratory Conditions in Ede South Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 20;9(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Indigenous Knowledge Systems Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa.

In many developing countries, community members depend on their local flora for treating diverse ailments including those affecting the respiratory system. This is often attributed to the high cost and limited access to health care facilities. This present study focused on the documentation of plant species used against cough associated with the respiratory diseases in Ede South Local Government Area of Osun State. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9050647DOI Listing

Fish-based Bioactives as Potent Nutraceuticals: Exploring the Therapeutic Perspective of Sustainable Food from the Sea.

Mar Drugs 2020 May 18;18(5). Epub 2020 May 18.

School of Forensic and Applied Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK.

Recent developments in nutraceuticals and functional foods have confirmed that bioactive components present in our diet play a major therapeutic role against human diseases. Moreover, there is a huge emphasis on food scientists for identifying and producing foods with better bioactive activity, which can ultimately provide wellness and well-being to human health. Among the several well-known foods with bioactive constituents, fish has always been considered important, due to its rich nutritional values and by-product application in food industries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18050265DOI Listing
May 2020
2.853 Impact Factor

Ethanol Extract of Inhibits Influenza Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo.

Viruses 2020 May 18;12(5). Epub 2020 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 100864, Hubei, China.

Influenza virus infections can lead to viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, causing significant morbidity and mortality and posing a great threat to human health. Because of the diversity of influenza virus strains and drug resistance to the current direct antiviral agents, there have been no effective drugs as yet to cure all patients infected by influenza viruses. Natural products from plants contain compounds with diverse structures that have the potential to interact with multiple host and virus factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050557DOI Listing

Museomics for reconstructing historical floristic exchanges: Divergence of stone oaks across Wallacea.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(5):e0232936. Epub 2020 May 22.

Biodiversity Genomics Team, Plant Ecophysiology & Evolution Group, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation, College of Forestry, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Natural history collections and tropical tree diversity are both treasure troves of biological and evolutionary information, but their accessibility for scientific study is impeded by a number of properties. DNA in historical specimens is generally highly fragmented, complicating the recovery of high-grade genetic material. Furthermore, our understanding of hyperdiverse, wide-spread tree assemblages is obstructed by extensive species ranges, fragmented knowledge of tropical tree diversity and phenology, and a widespread lack of species-level diagnostic characters, prohibiting the collecting of readily identifiable specimens which can be used to build, revise or strengthen taxonomic frameworks. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232936PLOS

(Oleaceae), a new species from southern Yunnan, China.

PhytoKeys 2020 8;146:109-115. Epub 2020 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, China South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangdong China.

(Oleaceae), a new species from tropical limestone habitats in Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated here. The new species is similar to and , but can be distinguished by its linear calyx lobes, dry calyces without ridges, terminal 1 (or 3)-flowered cymes and axillary solitary flowers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.146.49625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228929PMC

(Gesneriaceae), a new lithophilous dwelling genus and species with zigzag corolla tube from southern Vietnam.

PhytoKeys 2020 8;146:89-107. Epub 2020 May 8.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guilin Botanical Garden, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin 541006, China.

, a new genus from southern Vietnam is described with a single species, . The new genus is morphologically most similar to and but it differs from the latter two by having four fertile stamens. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and plastid intron spacer () DNA sequence data from the new genus and eighty-seven species representing 42 genera within tribe Didymocarpeae are used to resolve its generic placement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.146.49731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228932PMC

Linkages between soil organic carbon fractions and carbon-hydrolyzing enzyme activities across riparian zones in the Three Gorges of China.

Sci Rep 2020 May 21;10(1):8433. Epub 2020 May 21.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan, 430074, P.R. China.

The effect of flooding on soil enzyme activities and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remains a widely debated topic. Here, we investigated spatial variations in C-hydrolyzing enzyme activities, soil C contents in different fractions [i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65200-zDOI Listing

Preparation and characterization of C-phycocyanin coated with STMP/STPP cross-linked starches from different botanical sources.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia, Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Campus Universitário de Ondina, 40.170-115 Salvador, BA, Brazil.

This work aimed to use sodium trimetaphosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate cross-linked potato, banana, corn, cassava, and breadfruit starches as wall materials for C-phycocyanin encapsulation, characterize them and evaluate their in vivo pharmacological effects in an inflammation model. The cross-linked starches were successfully obtained, characterized, and submitted to C-phycocyanin encapsulation by freeze-drying. The characterization of cross-linked starches-C-phycocyanin composites by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the C-phycocyanin was encapsulated between amorphous chains of cross-linked starches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.111DOI Listing

The identification of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Primulina swinglei flowers.

Gene 2020 May 18:144788. Epub 2020 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China. Electronic address:

Primulina genus is an ideal wild ornamental flower and emerging model for studying biosynthesis, diversity, and evolution of flower pigment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in Primulina remains unknown. Here, changes in anthocyanin content and the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic structural genes were examined in developing Primulina swinglei flowers and three other organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144788DOI Listing

Foliar Application of Bio-Stimulants Enhancing the Production and the Toxicity of Essential Oils Against Four Rice Seed-Borne Fungi.

Molecules 2020 May 19;25(10). Epub 2020 May 19.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present study, the enhancement of the production of essential oils (EOs) was studied by treating plants with ascorbic acid (AA) and tryptophan (Trp) at concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L and leaf extract (MLE) at 2.5%, 5% and 10% as foliar applications during the seasons 2018-2019. The toxicities of the EOs were assayed against four seed-borne fungi (, , and ) isolated from rice grains (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102363DOI Listing

Cytochalasans from endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. SC-J0138.

Fitoterapia 2020 May 11;145:104611. Epub 2020 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xingke Road 723, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510650, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Digital Botanical Garden / Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xingke Road 723, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510650, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Five new cytochalasans, diaporthichalasins D-H (1-5), along with five known cytochalasans (6-10) were isolated from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. SC-J0138 isolated from the leaves of Cyclosorus parasiticus. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism spectra. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104611DOI Listing

High water use in desert plants exposed to extreme heat.

Ecol Lett 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, 427 E Tyler Mall, Tempe, AZ, 85821, USA.

Many plant water use models predict leaves maximize carbon assimilation while minimizing water loss via transpiration. Alternate scenarios may occur at high temperature, including heat avoidance, where leaves increase water loss to evaporatively cool regardless of carbon uptake; or heat failure, where leaves non-adaptively lose water also regardless of carbon uptake. We hypothesized that these alternative scenarios are common in species exposed to hot environments, with heat avoidance more common in species with high construction cost leaves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13516DOI Listing

Experience-Driven Semantic Differentiation: Effects of a Naturalistic Experience on Within- and Across-Domain Differentiation in Children.

Child Dev 2020 May;91(3):733-742

Carnegie Mellon University.

Organized semantic networks reflecting distinctions within and across domains of knowledge are critical for higher-level cognition. Thus, understanding how semantic structure changes with experience is a fundamental question in developmental science. This study probed changes in semantic structure in 4-6 year-old children (N = 29) as a result of participating in an enrichment program at a local botanical garden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13369DOI Listing

Higher carbon sequestration potential and stability for deep soil compared to surface soil regardless of nitrogen addition in a subtropical forest.

PeerJ 2020 11;8:e9128. Epub 2020 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Background: Labile carbon input could stimulate soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization through priming effect, resulting in soil carbon (C) loss. Meanwhile, labile C could also be transformed by microorganisms in soil as the processes of new C sequestration and stabilization. Previous studies showed the magnitude of priming effect could be affected by soil depth and nitrogen (N). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224229PMC

The R2R3-MYB transcription factor GhMYB1a regulates flavonol and anthocyanin accumulation in .

Hortic Res 2020 20;7:78. Epub 2020 May 20.

2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Plant Development, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631 China.

Anthocyanins and flavonols have vital roles in flower coloration, plant development, and defense. Because anthocyanins and flavonols share the same subcellular localization and common biosynthetic substrates, these pathways may compete for substrates. However, the mechanism regulating this potential competition remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0296-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237480PMC

Anthropometric and blood data on a hand-reared captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calf: a retrospective case report.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine.

The anthropometric and blood data of an unsuccessfully hand-reared Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calf were retrospectively compared with the data for calves raised by their real mothers or allomothers, to identify potential reasons for poor outcomes in the hand-reared case. The hand-reared calf grew normally in terms of body weight and withers height. However, blood biochemical data suggested reduced bone metabolism, low immune status, and malnutrition during its life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.19-0666DOI Listing

Characterization of Maca (Lepidium meyenii/Lepidium peruvianum) Using a Mass Spectral Fingerprinting, Metabolomic Analysis, and Genetic Sequencing Approach.

Planta Med 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Methods and Application of Food Composition Lab, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, USA.

Maca (, synonym ) was analyzed using a systematic approach employing principal component analysis of flow injection mass spectrometry fingerprints (no chromatographic separation) to guide the selection of samples for metabolite profiling and DNA next generation sequencing. Samples consisted of 39 commercial maca supplements from 11 manufacturers, 31 unprocessed maca tubers grown in Peru and China, and a historic non-tuber maca sample from Peru. Principal component analysis of flow injection mass spectrometry fingerprints initially placed all the maca samples in three classes with similar chemical composition: commercial maca samples, tubers grown in Peru, and tubers grown in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1161-0372DOI Listing

Independent allopatric polyploidizations shaped the geographical structure and initial stage of reproductive isolation in an allotetraploid fern, Lepisorus nigripes (Polypodiaceae).

PLoS One 2020 20;15(5):e0233095. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Although polyploidy is pervasive and its evolutionary significance has been recognized, it remains unclear how newly formed polyploid species become established. In particular, the impact of multiple origins on genetic differentiation among populations of a polyploid species and whether lineages of independent origins have different evolutionary potentials remain open questions. We used population genetic and phylogenetic approaches to identify genetic differentiation between lineages with independent origins within an allotetraploid fern, Lepisorus nigripes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233095PLOS

Diversity, distribution, development, and evolution of medullary bundles in Nyctaginaceae.

Am J Bot 2020 May 20;107(5):707-725. Epub 2020 May 20.

Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 277, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Premise: Medullary bundles, i.e., vascular units in the pith, have evolved multiple times in vascular plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1471DOI Listing

Georeferencing the Natural History Museum's Chinese type collection: of plateaus, pagodas and plants.

Biodivers Data J 2020 5;8:e50503. Epub 2020 May 5.

The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom The Natural History Museum London United Kingdom.

The digitising efforts of herbaria aim to increase access to and impact of scientific collections, by making the data digitally accessible to the global community. Digitising the NHMUK's botanical collection of around 5.1 million specimens is an ongoing process, but the majority of the type collections have already been imaged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.8.e50503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217978PMC

Plant-based stearidonic acid as sustainable source of omega-3 fatty acid with functional outcomes on human health.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 May 20:1-13. Epub 2020 May 20.

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute (CSIR-CFTRI), Mysuru, India.

Dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) are known to be potent biological regulators with therapeutic and preventive effects on human health. Many global health organizations have recommended consuming marine based omega-3 sources for neonatal brain development and reducing the risk of various chronic diseases. However, due to concerns regarding the origin, sustainable supply and safety of the marine sources, alternative n-3 PUFA sources are being explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1765137DOI Listing

Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genes and pathways involved in terminal drought tolerance in pearl millet.

Plant Mol Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

CSIR- National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001, India.

Pearl millet is a widely cultivated grain and forage crop in areas frequented with hot and dry weather, and high temperature. Being cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions, the crop often encounters intermittent water stress either at early stages of development or flowering stage or both. However, its asynchronous tillering behavior and fast growth rate helps recovering from drought stress at vegetative stages while there is no such reprieve under terminal stress (flowering through grain filling). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-020-01015-wDOI Listing

Risks and Safety of Extended Auricular Therapy: A Review of Reviews and Case Reports of Adverse Events.

Pain Med 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Family Medicine, Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Washington, USA.

Objective: Auricular acupuncture (AA) and extended auricular therapy (AT) are a part of acupuncture practice shown to benefit patients with pain, anxiety, and other conditions, with cost-effective access enhanced when given in a group setting. Yet there are safety concerns and risks, perhaps unnecessary risks, that attend embedded, indwelling needles applied to the ear as a means of extended AT.

Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for "auriculotherapy," "auricular acupuncture" or "auricular acupressure," "safety," "adverse events," "chondritis," and "perichondritis," with additional manual review of titles, links, and reference lists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnz379DOI Listing

The Influence of Palmatine Isolated from on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Zebrafish.

Cells 2020 May 16;9(5). Epub 2020 May 16.

Chemical Neuroscience Group, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, University of Oslo, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway.

Palmatine (PALM) and berberine (BERB) are widely identified isoquinoline alkaloids among the representatives of the Berberidaceae botanical family. The antiseizure activity of BERB was shown previously in experimental epilepsy models. We assessed the effect of PALM in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure assay in zebrafish, with BERB as an active reference compound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051233DOI Listing

Genome Sequencing of the Endangered Kingdonia uniflora (Circaeasteraceae, Ranunculales) Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Evolutionary Specialization.

iScience 2020 May 1;23(5):101124. Epub 2020 May 1.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China; Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Kingdonia uniflora, an alpine herb, has an extremely narrow distribution and represents a model for studying evolutionary mechanisms of species that have adapted to undisturbed environments for evolutionarily long periods of time. We assembled a 1,004.7-Mb draft genome (encoding 43,301 genes) of K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232092PMC

Allele-aware chromosome-level genome assembly and efficient transgene-free genome editing for the autotetraploid cultivated alfalfa.

Nat Commun 2020 May 19;11(1):2494. Epub 2020 May 19.

School of Ecology and Environment, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi'an, China.

Artificially improving traits of cultivated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most important forage crops, is challenging due to the lack of a reference genome and an efficient genome editing protocol, which mainly result from its autotetraploidy and self-incompatibility. Here, we generate an allele-aware chromosome-level genome assembly for the cultivated alfalfa consisting of 32 allelic chromosomes by integrating high-fidelity single-molecule sequencing and Hi-C data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16338-xDOI Listing

Selective Chlorophyll Removal Method to "Degreen" Botanical Extracts.

J Nat Prod 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Center for Natural Product Technologies, Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences (PCRPS) and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, United States.

Chlorophylls are present in all extracts from the aerial parts of green plant materials. Chlorophylls may act as in vitro bioassay nuisance compounds, possibly preventing the reproducibility and accurate measurement of readouts due to their UV/vis absorbance, fluorescence properties, and tendency to precipitate in aqueous media. Despite the diversity of methods used traditionally to remove chlorophylls, details about their mode of operation, specificity, and reproducibility are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00005DOI Listing

Genomic insights into adaptation to heterogeneous environments for the ancient relictual Circaeaster agrestis (Circaeasteraceae, Ranunculales).

New Phytol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei, China.

Investigating the interaction between environmental heterogeneity and local adaptation is critical to understand the evolutionary history of a species, providing the premise for studying the response of organisms to rapid climate change. However, for most species how exactly the spatial heterogeneity promotes population divergence and how genomic variations contribute to adaptive evolution remain poorly understood. We examine the contributions of geographical and environmental variables to population divergence of the relictual, alpine herb Circaeaster agrestis, as well as genetic basis of local adaptation using RAD-seq and plastome data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16669DOI Listing

Visible-light driven synthesis of polycyclic benzo[d][1,3]oxazocine from 2-aminochalcone.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xinong Road, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. and Key Laboratory of Botanical Pesticide R&D in Shaanxi Province, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Herein, we report a tandem cycloisomerization/nucleophilic addition/cyclization of 2-amino chalcone with bifunctional nucleophiles driven by visible light. This cascade process is realized by the irradiation of a blue LED at room temperature, which provides a concise route to structurally diverse benzo[d][1,3]oxazocine scaffolds. Mechanistic studies show that the reaction is initiated with the E to Z isomerization of a C-C double bond upon the irradiation of visible light, followed by cyclization/rearomatization to generate a transient quinolinium intermediate, which is trapped by the nucleophile and cyclized to produce the polycyclic benzo[d][1,3]oxazocine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc02416cDOI Listing

Microwave-Induced Combustion in Disposable Vessels: A Novel Perspective for Sample Digestion.

Anal Chem 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

A novel system for sample digestion was proposed based on the microwave-induced combustion in disposable vessels (MIC-DV) for metals determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). As a proof of concept, botanical samples were digested by MIC-DV for further determination of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn. The system consists of a quartz holder (a modified version of conventional MIC) placed inside a disposable polypropylene (PP) vessels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01017DOI Listing

Efficacy of a collagen hydrolysate and antioxidants-containing nutraceutical on metrics of skin health in Indian women.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

CLAIMS Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India.

Background: The skin's aging process involves a decreased biosynthesis of extracellular matrix proteins (predominantly collagen) compounded by damage from environmental and intrinsic stressors. The Indian population is susceptible to skin damage given its geography and increasing urbanization or a genetic disposition. Previous studies have investigated nutrients such as collagen peptides, vitamins and phytonutrient-rich botanical extracts for their individual benefits on skin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13404DOI Listing

Toxicities of acetogenin-based bioacaricides against two-spotted spider mite and selectivity to its phytoseiid predators.

Exp Appl Acarol 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Plant Protection, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Tetranychus urticae is the main pest of strawberry crops and can cause up to 80% of productivity losses under high infestations. Aiming to search T. urticae management alternatives compatible with eco-friendly or organic-based food production systems, this study evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicities of formulated derivatives from Annonaceae (rich in acetogenins) against this pest species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-020-00501-6DOI Listing

Ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and food benefits of Thymus capitatus.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 May 11;259:112925. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratory of Physiology, Pharmacology & Environmental Health, Faculty of Science, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez, Morocco. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Thymus capitatusHoffm. et Link. is an endemic medicinal plant to the Mediterranean region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112925DOI Listing

Identification and Validation of Aerobic Adaptation QTLs in Upland Rice.

Life (Basel) 2020 May 14;10(5). Epub 2020 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology/Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

The aerobic adaptation of upland rice is considered as the key genetic difference between upland rice and lowland rice. Genetic dissection of the aerobic adaptation is important as the basis for improving drought tolerance and terrestrial adaptation by using the upland rice. We raised BC-BC introgression lines (ILs) in lowland rice Minghui 63 (MH63) background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10050065DOI Listing

Distribution Pattern of Gymnosperms' Richness in Nepal: Effect of Environmental Constrains along Elevational Gradients.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 14;9(5). Epub 2020 May 14.

Ministry of Forest and Environment, Department of Plant Resources, National Botanical Garden, Godavari, Lalitpur 44709, Nepal.

Understanding the pattern of species distribution and the underlying mechanism is essential for conservation planning. Several climatic variables determine the species diversity, and the dependency of species on climate motivates ecologists and bio-geographers to explain the richness patterns along with elevation and environmental correlates. We used interpolated elevational distribution data to examine the relative importance of climatic variables in determining the species richness pattern of 26 species of gymnosperms in the longest elevation gradients in the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9050625DOI Listing

The miR319-Targeted GhTCP4 Promotes the Transition from Cell Elongation to Wall Thickening in Cotton Fiber.

Mol Plant 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular genetics; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China; Plant Science Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Resources, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602, China. Electronic address:

Plant cell growth involves a complex interplay among cell wall expansion, biosynthesis, and in specific tissues secondary cell wall (SCW) deposition, yet their coordination remains elusive. The cotton fiber cells are developmentally synchronous, highly elongated and contain nearly pure cellulose when mature. Here, we report that the transcription factor GhTCP4 plays an important role in balancing the cotton fiber cell elongation and wall synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2020.05.006DOI Listing