3,681 results match your criteria Boreal Environment Research[Journal]


Climate change induces multiple risks to boreal forests and forestry in Finland: a literature review.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.

Climate change induces multiple abiotic and biotic risks to forests and forestry. Risks in different spatial and temporal scales must be considered to ensure preconditions for sustainable multifunctional management of forests for different ecosystem services. For this purpose, the present review article summarizes the most recent findings on major abiotic and biotic risks to boreal forests in Finland under the current and changing climate, with the focus on windstorms, heavy snow loading, drought and forest fires, and major insect pests and pathogens of trees. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15183DOI Listing

Responses of soil-grown Scots pine seedlings to experimental warming, moderate nitrogen addition and bark herbivory in a three-year field experiment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 11;733:139110. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Increased soil nitrogen (N), warming and bark herbivory all are expected to affect boreal forests in the future. We studied the effects of warming (0.5 °C and 4. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139110DOI Listing

Experimental nitrogen addition alters structure and function of a boreal poor fen: Implications for critical loads.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 5;733:138619. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Geography and the Environment, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA; Texas Tech University, Climate Science Center, Lubbock, TX 79409-3131, USA.

Bogs and fens cover 6 and 21%, respectively, of the 140,329 km Oil Sands Administrative Area in northern Alberta. Regional background atmospheric N deposition is low (<2 kg N ha yr), but oil sands development has led to increasing N deposition (as high as 17 kg N ha yr). To examine responses to N deposition, over five years, we experimentally applied N (as NHNO) to a poor fen near Mariana Lake, Alberta, unaffected by oil sands activities, at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha yr, plus controls (no water or N addition). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138619DOI Listing

Global validation of the collection 6 MODIS burned area product.

Remote Sens Environ 2019 Dec 9;235. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20740, USA.

This paper presents a Stage 3 validation of the recently released Collection 6 NASA MCD64A1 500 m global burned area product. The product is validated by comparison with Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image pairs acquired 16 days apart that were visually interpreted. These independent reference data were selected using a stratified random sampling approach that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in both time and in space. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241595PMC
December 2019

Fine spatial-scale variation in scavenger activity influences avian mortality assessments on a boreal island.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(5):e0233427. Epub 2020 May 21.

Environmental Science Program, Memorial University of Newfoundland-Grenfell Campus, Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

Bird-window collisions are the second leading cause of human-related avian mortality for songbirds in Canada. Our ability to accurately estimate the number of fatalities caused by window collisions is affected by several biases, including the removal of carcasses by scavengers prior to those carcasses being detected during surveys. We investigated the role of scavenger behavior in modifying perceived carcass removal rate while describing habitat-specific differences for the scavengers present in a relatively scavenger-depauperate island ecosystem. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233427PLOS

Predictive and reactive changes in antioxidant defence system in a heterothermic rodent.

J Comp Physiol B 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Ecology, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Lwowska 1, 87-100, Toruń, Poland.

Living in a seasonal environment requires periodic changes in animal physiology, morphology and behaviour. Winter phenotype of small mammals living in Temperate and Boreal Zones may differ considerably from summer one in multiple traits that enhance energy conservation or diminish energy loss. However, there is a considerable variation in the development of winter phenotype among individuals in a population and some, representing the non-responding phenotype (non-responders), are insensitive to shortening days and maintain summer phenotype throughout a year. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00360-020-01280-7DOI Listing

Lake characteristics influence how methanogens in littoral sediments respond to terrestrial litter inputs.

ISME J 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Vale Living with Lakes Centre, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Shallow lake sediments harbor methanogen communities that are responsible for large amounts of CH flux to the atmosphere. These communities play a major role in degrading in-fluxed terrestrial organic matter (t-OM)-much of which settles in shallow near-shore sediments. Little work has examined how sediment methanogens are affected by the quantity and quality of t-OM, and the physicochemical factors that shape their community. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-020-0680-9DOI Listing

Global reconstruction reduces the uncertainty of oceanic nitrous oxide emissions and reveals a vigorous seasonal cycle.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095;

Assessment of the global budget of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide ([Formula: see text]O) is limited by poor knowledge of the oceanic [Formula: see text]O flux to the atmosphere, of which the magnitude, spatial distribution, and temporal variability remain highly uncertain. Here, we reconstruct climatological [Formula: see text]O emissions from the ocean by training a supervised learning algorithm with over 158,000 [Formula: see text]O measurements from the surface ocean-the largest synthesis to date. The reconstruction captures observed latitudinal gradients and coastal hot spots of [Formula: see text]O flux and reveals a vigorous global seasonal cycle. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1921914117DOI Listing

Strong overestimation of water-use efficiency responses to rising CO in tree-ring studies.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Centre d'étude de la forêt, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada.

The carbon isotope ratio (δ C) in tree rings is commonly used to derive estimates of the assimilation-to-stomatal conductance rate of trees, i.e. intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15166DOI Listing

Effects of nitrogen addition on soil methane uptake in global forest biomes.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 8;264:114751. Epub 2020 May 8.

Wageningen University and Research, Environmental Research, PO Box 47, NL-6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Wageningen University and Research, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, PO Box 47, NL-6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Nitrogen (N) deposition has been conventionally thought to decrease forest soil methane (CH) uptake, while the biome specific and dose dependent effect is poorly understood. Based on a meta-analysis of 63 N addition trials from 7 boreal forests, 8 temperate forests, 13 subtropical and 4 tropical forests, we evaluated the effects of N addition on soil CH uptake fluxes across global forest biomes. When combining all N addition levels, soil CH uptake was insignificantly decreased by 7% in boreal forests, while N addition significantly decreased soil CH uptake by 39% in temperate forests and by 21% in subtropical and tropical forests, respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114751DOI Listing

How does climate variability affect water quality dynamics in Canada's oil sands region?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 29;732:139062. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1, Canada.

In Canada's oil sands region, classic boreal hydrology (i.e., winter low flow followed by peaks during spring freshet and then summer flow recession) combined with erosion of both natural and anthropogenically-exposed bitumen results in seasonal and inter-annual variability in stream water chemistry. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139062DOI Listing

Sources of atmospheric metal(loid) pollution recorded in Thompson Manitoba lake sediment cores within the Canadian boreal biome.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 3;732:139043. Epub 2020 May 3.

Watershed Hydrology Ecology Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 3H5, Canada.

Global atmospheric emissions and subsequent deposition of numerous metal(loid)s has increased markedly since the industrial revolution. Due to a paucity of long-term metal(loid) flux measurements, the magnitude and timing of change are largely unknown, resulting in limited ability to predict time-scales of ecosystem recovery in response to emission decreases. In the absence of long-term data, palaeo-reconstructions provide continuous records of atmospheric metal(loid) deposition on an ecosystem, and landscape, scale. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139043DOI Listing

Are there environmental or agricultural benefits in using forest residue biochar in boreal agricultural clay soil?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 28;731:138955. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Tietotie 4, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland.

Short-term agronomic and environmental benefits are fundamental factors in encouraging farmers to use biochar on a broad scale. The short-term impacts of forest residue biochar (BC) on the productivity and carbon (C) storage of arable boreal clay soil were studied in a field experiment. In addition, rain simulations and aggregate stability tests were carried out to investigate the potential of BC to reduce nutrient export to surface waters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138955DOI Listing

High-frequency measured turbidity as a surrogate for phosphorus in boreal zone rivers: appropriate options and critical situations.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 May 15;192(6):366. Epub 2020 May 15.

Finnish Environment Institute, Latokartanonkaari 11, FI-00790, Helsinki, Finland.

In situ high-frequency measured turbidity can potentially be used as a surrogate for riverine phosphorus (P) concentrations to better justify the effectiveness of nutrient loss mitigation measures at agricultural sites. We explore the possibilities of using turbidity as a surrogate for total phosphorus (TP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) in four snowmelt-driven rivers draining agricultural clayey catchments. Our results suggest slightly stronger relationship between in situ measured turbidity and PP than between turbidity and TP. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08335-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228995PMC

CO Elevation and Photoperiods North of Seed Origin Change Autumn and Spring Phenology as Well as Cold Hardiness in Boreal White Birch.

Front Plant Sci 2020 28;11:506. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada.

The distribution of tree species is expected to shift toward the pole in response to the climate change associated with the elevation of atmospheric CO concentration [CO]. The shift will expose trees to a new photoperiod regime and other environmental conditions. The changes in these factors will likely have interactive effects on the ecophysiological traits of plants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199052PMC

Invertebrates are declining in boreal aquatic habitat: The effect of brownification?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 25;724:138199. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Vanajavesi Center, Perttulantie 84, FI-13430 Hämeenlinna, Finland. Electronic address:

Surface water browning affects boreal lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. This process is expected to increase with global warming. Boreal lakes are the most numerous lakes on Earth. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138199DOI Listing

Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems utilized by Minnesota tribal communities.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 19;724:138057. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, 1988 Fitch Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, United States of America. Electronic address:

Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and other chemicals lacking water quality standards are frequently found in surface water. While evidence is growing that these contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) - those previously unknown, unrecognized, or unregulated - can affect the behavior and reproduction of fish and wildlife, little is known about the distribution of these chemicals in rural, tribal areas. Therefore, we surveyed the presence of CECs in water, sediment, and subsistence fish species across various waterbodies, categorized as undeveloped (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138057DOI Listing

A genetic framework for regulation and seasonal adaptation of shoot architecture in hybrid aspen.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden;

Shoot architecture is critical for optimizing plant adaptation and productivity. In contrast with annuals, branching in perennials native to temperate and boreal regions must be coordinated with seasonal growth cycles. How branching is coordinated with seasonal growth is poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004705117DOI Listing

Late-spring frost risk between 1959 and 2017 decreased in North America but increased in Europe and Asia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

Late-spring frosts (LSFs) affect the performance of plants and animals across the world's temperate and boreal zones, but despite their ecological and economic impact on agriculture and forestry, the geographic distribution and evolutionary impact of these frost events are poorly understood. Here, we analyze LSFs between 1959 and 2017 and the resistance strategies of Northern Hemisphere woody species to infer trees' adaptations for minimizing frost damage to their leaves and to forecast forest vulnerability under the ongoing changes in frost frequencies. Trait values on leaf-out and leaf-freezing resistance come from up to 1,500 temperate and boreal woody species cultivated in common gardens. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1920816117DOI Listing

Drainage increases CO and N O emissions from tropical peat soils.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Centre for Agriculture and the Bioeconomy, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, 4000, Australia.

Tropical peatlands are vital ecosystems that play an important role in global carbon storage and cycles. Current estimates of greenhouse gases from these peatlands are uncertain as emissions vary with environmental conditions. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of managed and natural tropical peatland GHG fluxes: heterotrophic (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15147DOI Listing

Arctic and boreal paleofire records reveal drivers of fire activity and departures from Holocene variability.

Ecology 2020 May 9:e03096. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Boreal forest and tundra biomes are key components of the Earth system because the mobilization of large carbon stocks and changes in energy balance could act as positive feedbacks to ongoing climate change. In Alaska, wildfire is a primary driver of ecosystem structure and function, and a key mechanism coupling high-latitude ecosystems to global climate. Paleoecological records reveal sensitivity of fire regimes to climatic and vegetation change over centennial-millennial time scales, highlighting increased burning concurrent with warming or elevated landscape flammability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3096DOI Listing

Archaea in boreal Swedish lakes are diverse, dominated by Woesearchaeota and follow deterministic community assembly.

Environ Microbiol 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Limnology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 75234, Uppsala, Sweden.

Despite their key role in biogeochemical processes, particularly the methane cycle, archaea are widely underrepresented in molecular surveys because of their lower abundance compared to bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we use parallel high-resolution small subunit rRNA gene sequencing to explore archaeal diversity in 109 Swedish lakes and correlate archaeal community assembly mechanisms to large-scale latitudinal, climatic (nemoral to arctic), and nutrient (oligotrophic to eutrophic) gradients. Sequencing with universal primers showed the contribution of archaea was on average 0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15058DOI Listing

CH oxidation in a boreal lake during the development of hypolimnetic hypoxia.

Aquat Sci 2020 28;82(2):19. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

1Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1 E, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.

Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant natural source of methane (CH). CH produced through anaerobic decomposition of organic matter (OM) in lake sediment and water column can be either oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO) by methanotrophic microbes or emitted to the atmosphere. While the role of CH oxidation as a CH sink is widely accepted, neither the magnitude nor the drivers behind CH oxidation are well constrained. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00027-019-0690-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181431PMC
December 2019

Virus population structure in the ectomycorrhizal fungi Lactarius rufus and L. tabidus at two forest sites in Southern Finland.

Virus Res 2020 Apr 30;285:197993. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.

Lactarius fungi belong to the Russulaceae family and have an important ecological role as ectomycorrhizal symbionts of coniferous and deciduous trees. Two Lactarius species, L. tabidus and L. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.197993DOI Listing

Moderate disturbances accelerate forest transition dynamics under climate change in the temperate-boreal ecotone of eastern North America.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Several temperate tree species are expected to migrate northward and colonise boreal forests in response to climate change. Tree migrations could lead to transitions in forest types, but these could be influenced by several non-climatic factors, such as disturbances and soil conditions. We analysed over 10,000 forest inventory plots, sampled from 1970 to 2018 in meridional Québec, Canada to identify what environmental conditions promote or prevent regional-scale forest transitions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15143DOI Listing

Fire deficit increases wildfire risk for many communities in the Canadian boreal forest.

Nat Commun 2020 May 1;11(1):2121. Epub 2020 May 1.

Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, 790 E Beckwith Ave., Missoula, MT, USA.

The top priority of fire management agencies in Canada is to protect human life and property. Here we investigate if decades of aggressive fire suppression in the boreal biome of Canada has reduced the proportion of recently burned forests (RBF; <30 years) near human communities, and thereby inadvertently increased the risk of wildfire. We measured the percentage of RBF, which are usually less flammable than older forests, up to a 25-km radius around communities compared to that in the surrounding regional fire regime zone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15961-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195457PMC

Yearling proportion correlates with habitat structure in a boreal forest landbird community.

PeerJ 2020 24;8:e8898. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

The Institute for Bird Populations, Petaluma, CA, USA.

Landbird vital rates, such as productivity and adult survivorship, can be estimated by modeling mist-netting capture data. The proportion in which an adult breeding bird is 1 year of age (a "yearling"), however, has been studied only minimally in a few landbird species. Here we relate yearling proportion to habitat-structure covariates, including reclamation age, in a boreal forest landbird community. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185041PMC

Caribou in the cross-fire? Considering terrestrial lichen forage in the face of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) expansion.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(4):e0232248. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Caribou Program, fRI Research, Hinton, Alberta, Canada.

Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has become an invasive forest pest of mature pine in western North America as it spreads beyond its former endemic range. Management actions such as timber harvest can reduce the spread of MPB but may affect species of conservation concern like woodland caribou. Our goal was to inform MPB management within caribou ranges by exploring the impacts of MPB on caribou habitat-focusing on terrestrial lichens, an important winter food for caribou. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232248PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192387PMC

Arctic avian predators synchronise their spring migration with the northern progression of snowmelt.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 29;10(1):7220. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Department of Migration, Am Obstberg 1, Radolfzell, 78315, Germany.

Migratory species display a range of migration patterns between irruptive (facultative) to regular (obligate), as a response to different predictability of resources. In the Arctic, snow directly influences resource availability. The causes and consequences of different migration patterns of migratory species as a response to the snow conditions remains however unexplored. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63312-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190624PMC

Interactive climate factors restrict future increases in spring productivity of temperate and boreal trees.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland.

Climate warming is currently advancing spring leaf-out of temperate and boreal trees, enhancing net primary productivity (NPP) of forests. However, it remains unclear whether this trend will continue, preventing for accurate projections of ecosystem functioning and climate feedbacks. Several ecophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to regulate the timing of leaf emergence in response to changing environmental cues, but the relative importance of those mechanisms remains unclear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15098DOI Listing

Dataset of tree canopy structure and variation in understory composition in a boreal forest site.

Data Brief 2020 Jun 18;30:105573. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, Aalto 00076, Finland.

A field data set from 301 forest plots was collected during peak-growing season (June 24 - July 17, 2013) around Hyytiälä forestry field station in Southern Finland (61° 50' N, 24° 17' E). For all plots, forest variables were collected following local forest inventory practice, and understory cover fractions were estimated using a traditional sampling quadrat. The understory layer in each plot was classified into four site fertility types: herb-rich, mesic, sub-xeric, and xeric. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182671PMC

Mast seeding patterns are asynchronous at a continental scale.

Nat Plants 2020 May 27;6(5):460-465. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Resource pulses are rare events with a short duration and high magnitude that drive the dynamics of both plant and animal populations and communities. Mast seeding is perhaps the most common type of resource pulse that occurs in terrestrial ecosystems, is characterized by the synchronous and highly variable production of seed crops by a population of perennial plants, is widespread both taxonomically and geographically, and is often associated with nutrient scarcity. The rare production of abundant seed crops (mast events) that are orders of magnitude greater than crops during low seed years leads to high reproductive success in seed consumers and has cascading impacts in ecosystems. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0647-xDOI Listing

Phenological responses of temperate and boreal trees to warming depend on ambient spring temperatures, leaf habit, and geographic range.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 27;117(19):10397-10405. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

Changes in plant phenology associated with climate change have been observed globally. What is poorly known is whether and how phenological responses to climate warming will differ from year to year, season to season, habitat to habitat, or species to species. Here, we present 5 y of phenological responses to experimental warming for 10 subboreal tree species. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1917508117DOI Listing

Stem emissions of monoterpenes, acetaldehyde, and methanol from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) affected by tree water relations and cambial growth.

Plant Cell Environ 2020 Apr 26. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research / Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Latokartanonkaari 7, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Tree stems are an overlooked source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Their contribution to ecosystem processes and total VOC fluxes is not well studied, and assessing it requires better understanding of stem emission dynamics and their driving processes. To gain more mechanistic insight into stem emission patterns, we measured monoterpene, methanol, and acetaldehyde emissions from the stems of mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13778DOI Listing

Decline of the boreal willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) has been accelerated by more frequent snow-free springs.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 24;10(1):6987. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, 80100, Joensuu, Finland.

Climate change has influenced a range of species across the globe. Yet, to state a noted decline in the abundance of a given species as a consequence of a specific environmental change, for instance, spatially explicit long-term data are a prerequisite. This study assessed the extent to which prolonged snow-free periods in autumn and spring have contributed to the decline of the willow grouse, the only forest grouse changing into a white winter plumage. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63993-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181731PMC

Quantitative data from six years (2013-2018) of light trap sampling of macromoths (Lepidoptera) in Mt. Hallasan National Park, South Korea.

Biodivers Data J 2020 7;8:e51490. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Mokpo National University, Muan, South Korea Mokpo National University Muan South Korea.

Background: This paper presents the results of long-term monitoring of macromoth communities in Mt. Hallasan National Park, South Korea. This mountain shows an altitudinal gradient of vegetation from evergreen deciduous to boreal trees, harbouring more than 550 species of vascular plants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.8.e51490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156493PMC

Top-down factors contribute to differences in insect herbivory between saplings and mature trees in boreal and tropical forests.

Oecologia 2020 May 20;193(1):167-176. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014, Turku, Finland.

Ontogenetic changes in herbivory are generally not consistent with ontogenetic changes in defensive traits of woody plants. This inconsistency suggests that other factors may affect ontogenetic trajectories in herbivory. We tested the hypothesis that top-down factors contribute to differences in foliar losses to insects between juvenile and mature trees in tropical and boreal forests. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04659-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235072PMC

Photoperiod and CO2 elevation influence morphological and physiological responses to drought in trembling aspen: implications to climate change-induced migration.

Tree Physiol 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1.

Past research suggests that climate change will cause the climate envelopes of various tree species to shift higher latitudes and can lead to a northward migration of trees. However, the success and scope of the migration are likely affected by factors that are not contained in the climate envelope, such as photoperiod and interactive effects of multiple environmental factors, and these effects are currently not well understood. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), photoperiod, and soil moisture on the morphological and physiological traits of Populus tremuloides Michx. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpaa044DOI Listing

Potential impact of atmospheric heating over East Europe on the zonal shift in the South Asian high: the role of the Silk Road teleconnection.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 16;10(1):6543. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

It is well recognized that the zonal shift in the South Asian High (SAH) has pronounced influences on weather and climate anomalies over surrounding and teleconnected regions. Hence, it is of great importance to investigate the factors related to the interannual variation in the zonal location of the SAH. This study indicates that the anomalous atmospheric apparent heat source () around East Europe has a close relationship with the interannual variation in the SAH zonal shift during boreal summer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63364-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162852PMC

Experimental assessment of tree canopy and leaf litter controls on the microbiome and nitrogen fixation rates of two boreal mosses.

New Phytol 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Northern Arizona University, Center for Ecosystem Science and Society Flagstaff (AZ), USA, 86011, Flagstaff.

Nitrogen (N )-fixing moss microbial communities play key roles in nitrogen cycling of boreal forests. Forest type and leaf litter inputs regulate moss abundance, but how they control moss microbiomes and N -fixation remains understudied. We examined impacts of forest type and broadleaf litter on microbial community composition and N -fixation rates of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16611DOI Listing

Lake-depth related pattern of genetic and morphological diatom diversity in boreal Lake Bolshoe Toko, Eastern Siberia.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(4):e0230284. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Polar Terrestrial Environmental Systems, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany.

Large, old and heterogenous lake systems are valuable sources of biodiversity. The analysis of current spatial variability within such lakes increases our understanding of the origin and establishment of biodiversity. The environmental sensitivity and the high taxonomic richness of diatoms make them ideal organisms to investigate intra-lake variability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230284PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159240PMC

Drought alters the biogeochemistry of boreal stream networks.

Nat Commun 2020 Apr 14;11(1):1795. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Linnaeus väg 6, 90736, Umeå, Sweden.

Drought is a global phenomenon, with widespread implications for freshwater ecosystems. While droughts receive much attention at lower latitudes, their effects on northern river networks remain unstudied. We combine a reach-scale manipulation experiment, observations during the extreme 2018 drought, and historical monitoring data to examine the impact of drought in northern boreal streams. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15496-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156665PMC

Ensemble projections elucidate effects of uncertainty in terrestrial nitrogen limitation on future carbon uptake.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Biogeochemical Integration Department, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany.

The magnitude of the nitrogen (N) limitation of terrestrial carbon (C) storage over the 21st century is highly uncertain because of the complex interactions between the terrestrial C and N cycles. We use an ensemble approach to quantify and attribute process-level uncertainty in C-cycle projections by analysing a 30-member ensemble representing published alternative representations of key N cycle processes (stoichiometry, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and ecosystem N losses) within the framework of one terrestrial biosphere model. Despite large differences in the simulated present-day N cycle, primarily affecting simulated productivity north of 40°N, ensemble members generally conform with global C-cycle benchmarks for present-day conditions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15114DOI Listing

Cultivating DNA Sequencing Technology After the Human Genome Project.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Boreal Genomics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

When the Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, automated Sanger DNA sequencing with fluorescent dye labels was the dominant technology. Several nascent alternative methods based on older ideas that had not been fully developed were the focus of technical researchers and companies. Funding agencies recognized the dynamic nature of technology development and that, beyond the Human Genome Project, there were growing opportunities to deploy DNA sequencing in biological research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-111919-082433DOI Listing

Convergent evolution of seasonal camouflage in response to reduced snow cover across the snowshoe hare range.

Evolution 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, 59812.

Determining how different populations adapt to similar environments is fundamental to understanding the limits of adaptation under changing environments. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) typically molt into white winter coats to remain camouflaged against snow. In some warmer climates, hares have evolved brown winter camouflage-an adaptation that may spread in response to climate change. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13976DOI Listing

Remote sensing tracks daily radial wood growth of evergreen needleleaf trees.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Apr 12. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Natural Resources and Society, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.

Relationships between gross primary productivity (GPP) and the remotely sensed photochemical reflectance index (PRI) suggest that time series of foliar PRI may provide insight into climate change effects on carbon cycling. However, because a large fraction of carbon assimilated via GPP is quickly returned to the atmosphere via respiration, we ask a critical question-can PRI time series provide information about longer term gains in aboveground carbon stocks? Here we study the suitability of PRI time series to understand intra-annual stem-growth dynamics at one of the world's largest terrestrial carbon pools-the boreal forest. We hypothesized that PRI time series can be used to determine the onset (hypothesis 1) and cessation (hypothesis 2) of radial growth and enable tracking of intra-annual tree growth dynamics (hypothesis 3). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15112DOI Listing

Plant nutrient-acquisition strategies drive topsoil microbiome structure and function.

New Phytol 2020 Apr 12. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, 40 Lai St, 51005, Tartu, Estonia.

Plant nutrient-acquisition strategies drive soil processes and vegetation performance, but their effect on the soil microbiome remains poorly understood. This knowledge is important to predict the shifts in microbial diversity and functions due to increasing changes in vegetation traits under global change. Here we documented the topsoil microbiomes of 145 boreal and temperate terrestrial sites in the Baltic region that broadly differed in vegetation type and nutritional traits, such as mycorrhizal types and symbiotic nitrogen-fixation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16598DOI Listing

Nitrogen acquisition from mineral-associated proteins by an ectomycorrhizal fungus.

New Phytol 2020 Apr 12. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Biology, Microbial Ecology Group, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.

In nitrogen (N)-limited boreal forests, trees depend on the decomposing activity of their ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal symbionts to access soil N. A large fraction of this N exists as proteinaceous compounds associated with mineral particles. However, it is not known if ECM fungi can access these mineral-associated proteins; accordingly, possible acquisition mechanisms have not been investigated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16596DOI Listing

Soil sealing causes substantial losses in C and N storage in urban soils under cool climate.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 2;725:138369. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti, Finland. Electronic address:

Urban soil can store large amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). To accurately estimate C and N storage in urban soils, C and N contents underneath impervious surfaces - the most prevalent land cover type in cities - should be taken into account. To date, however, only few studies have reported urban soil C and N content underneath impervious surfaces, and no data exist for cities under cold/cool climates, such as the Boreal zone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138369DOI Listing

Long-range transported North American wildfire aerosols observed in marine boundary layer of eastern North Atlantic.

Environ Int 2020 Apr 6;139:105680. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Center for Aerosol Science and Engineering, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, USA; Environmental and Climate Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Wildfire is a major source of biomass burning aerosols, which greatly impact Earth climate. Tree species in North America (NA) boreal forests can support high-intensity crown fires, resulting in elevated injection height and longer lifetime (on the order of months) of the wildfire aerosols. Given the long lifetime, the properties of aged NA wildfire aerosols are required to understand and quantify their effects on radiation and climate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105680DOI Listing