3,296 results match your criteria Boreal Environment Research[Journal]


Genomic sequence of a Bohle iridovirus strain isolated from a diseased boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in a North American aquarium.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Genomic sequence analysis of zoo ranavirus (ZRV) suggests it is a strain of Bohle iridovirus (BIV), a virus that was first detected in, and thought to be confined to, Australia. Furthermore, marked sequence similarity and genomic co-linearity among ZRV, BIV, and German gecko ranavirus (GGRV) are consistent with the view that all three are strains  of Frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04244-7DOI Listing

Long-term N and S addition and changed litter chemistry do not affect trembling aspen leaf litter decomposition, elemental composition and enzyme activity in a boreal forest.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 5;250:143-154. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Rural & Biosystems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The effect of long-term nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition on litter mass loss and changes in carbon (C), N, and S composition and enzyme activities during litter decomposition was investigated in a boreal forest. This study included four N × S treatments: control (CK), N application (30 kg N ha yr), S application (30 kg S ha yr), and N plus S application (both at 30 kg ha yr). Two experiments were conducted for 22 months: 1) a common litter decomposition experiment with litter bags containing a common litter (same litter chemistry) and 2) an in-situ litter decomposition experiment with litter from each treatment plot (and thus having different litter chemistry). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.007DOI Listing

The climate sensitivity of carbon, timber, and species richness co-varies with forest age in boreal-temperate North America.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.

Climate change threatens the provisioning of forest ecosystem services and biodiversity (ESB). The climate sensitivity of ESB may vary with forest development from young to old-growth conditions as structure and composition shift over time and space. This study addresses knowledge gaps hindering implementation of adaptive forest management strategies to sustain ESB. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14656DOI Listing

Impact of Climate Change on the Small Mammal Community of the Yukon Boreal Forest.

Integr Zool 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 Canada.

Long-term monitoring is critical to determine stability and sustainability of wildlife populations, and if change has occurred, why. We have followed population density changes in the small mammal community in the boreal forest of the southern Yukon for 46 years with density estimates by live trapping on 3-5 unmanipulated grids in spring and autumn. This community consists of 10 species and was responsible for 9% of the energy flow in the herbivore component of this ecosystem from 1986-96, but this increased to 38% from 2003-2014. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12397DOI Listing

Alphapartitiviruses of Wood Decay Fungi Affect Each Other's Transmission and Host Growth.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 26;9:64. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Forest Health and Biodiversity, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.

spp. root rot fungi are highly destructive forest pathogens of the northern boreal forests, and are known to host a diverse community of partitiviruses. The transmission of these mycoviruses occurs horizontally among host strains via mycelial anastomoses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443826PMC

Revision of the Late Jurassic deep-water teleosauroid crocodylomorph Hulke, 1871 and evidence of pelagic adaptations in Teleosauroidea.

PeerJ 2019 2;7:e6646. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Current affiliation:  Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Teleosauroids were a successful group of semi-aquatic crocodylomorphs that were an integral part of coastal marine/lagoonal faunas during the Jurassic. Their fossil record suggests that the group declined in diversity and abundance in deep water deposits during the Late Jurassic. One of the few known teleosauroid species from the deeper water horizons of the well-known Kimmeridge Clay Formation is '' Hulke, 1871, a poorly studied, gracile longirostrine form. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450380PMC

Ecosystem Services Related to Carbon Cycling - Modeling Present and Future Impacts in Boreal Forests.

Front Plant Sci 2019 26;10:343. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki, Finland.

Forests regulate climate, as carbon, water and nutrient fluxes are modified by physiological processes of vegetation and soil. Forests also provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. Rapid climate warming projected for the boreal zone may change the provision of these ecosystem services. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443878PMC

Boreal marine fauna from the Barents Sea disperse to Arctic Northeast Greenland.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 9;9(1):5799. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

As a result of ocean warming, the species composition of the Arctic seas has begun to shift in a boreal direction. One ecosystem prone to fauna shifts is the Northeast Greenland shelf. The dispersal route taken by boreal fauna to this area is, however, not known. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42097-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456728PMC

Can Protected Areas Mitigate Lyme Disease Risk in Fennoscandia?

Authors:
Julien Terraube

Ecohealth 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Global Change and Conservation Lab, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Program, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

This Forum article synthesizes the current evidence on the links between predator-prey interactions, protected areas and spatial variations in Lyme disease risk in Fennoscandia. I suggest key research directions to better understand the role of protected areas in promoting the persistence of diverse predator guilds. Conserving predators could help reducing host populations and Lyme disease risk in northern Europe. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-019-01408-4DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Vertical Redistribution of Soil Organic Carbon Pools After Twenty Years of Nitrogen Addition in Two Temperate Coniferous Forests.

Ecosystems 2019 26;22(2):379-400. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

1Institute of Soil Research, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), 1190 Vienna, Austria.

Nitrogen (N) inputs from atmospheric deposition can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in temperate and boreal forests, thereby mitigating the adverse effects of anthropogenic CO emissions on global climate. However, direct evidence of N-induced SOC sequestration from low-dose, long-term N addition experiments (that is, addition of < 50 kg N ha y for > 10 years) is scarce worldwide and virtually absent for European temperate forests. Here, we examine how tree growth, fine roots, physicochemical soil properties as well as pools of SOC and soil total N responded to 20 years of regular, low-dose N addition in two European coniferous forests in Switzerland and Denmark. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-018-0275-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423314PMC

Wildfire severity reduces richness and alters composition of soil fungal communities in boreal forests of western Canada.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Wildfire is the dominant disturbance in boreal forests and fire activity is increasing in these regions. Soil fungal communities are important for plant growth and nutrient cycling post-fire but there is little understanding of how fires impact fungal communities across landscapes, fire severity gradients, and stand types in boreal forests. Understanding relationships between fungal community composition, particularly mycorrhizas, and understory plant composition is therefore important in predicting how future fire regimes may affect vegetation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14641
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14641DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

The unique photosynthetic apparatus of Pinaceae - Analysis of photosynthetic complexes in Norway spruce (Piceaabies).

J Exp Bot 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Pinaceae are predominant photosynthetic species in boreal forests, but so far no detailed description of the protein components of the photosynthetic apparatus of these gymnosperms has been available. In this study we report a detailed characterization of the thylakoid photosynthetic machinery of Norway spruce (Piceaabies (L.) Karst). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erz127DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Means and Long-Term Trends of Global Coastal Zone Precipitation.

Authors:
Scott Curtis

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 1;9(1):5401. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Distinguished Professor in Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Geography, Planning, and Environment, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27858, USA.

Precipitation in the coastal zone is important to the socio-economic and ecological well-being of the world. Meteorologically, precipitation is generated by unique mechanisms at the land-sea interface, which is why coastal zone precipitation is not well resolved by global climate models. Yet, to date, much more effort has been placed in analyzing global precipitation over the oceans and land. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41878-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443665PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Real-World Outcomes with Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Visual Impairment due to Diabetic Macular Edema: 12-Month Results from the 36-Month BOREAL-DME Study.

Ophthalmic Res 2019 Mar 29:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Bordeaux PharmacoEpi, INSERM CIC1401, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: To report the real-world effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME).

Methods: This is a French, 36-month, multicenter, observational cohort study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497406DOI Listing

Variable responses of dissolved organic carbon to precipitation events in boreal drinking water lakes.

Water Res 2019 Jun 21;156:315-326. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Climate Change Institute and School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04468, USA. Electronic address:

In boreal regions, increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been linked to extreme wet years; however, less is known about the extent to which precipitation events are altering DOC concentration and quality. We assessed the effects of rain events on a suite of six lakes in Maine, U.S. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.03.036DOI Listing

Obscure soil microbes and where to find them.

ISME J 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipán Sin Número, 28933, Móstoles, Spain.

Many soil bacteria and fungi remain unclassified at the highest taxonomic ranks (e.g. phyla level), which hampers our ability to assess the ecology and functional capabilities of these soil organisms in terrestrial ecosystems globally. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-019-0405-0DOI Listing

Functional trait evolution in Sphagnum peat mosses and its relationship to niche construction.

New Phytol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Biology, Campus Box 90338, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Species in the genus Sphagnum create, maintain, and dominate boreal peatlands through 'extended phenotypes' that allow these organisms to engineer peatland ecosystems and thereby impact global biogeochemical cycles. One such phenotype is the production of peat, or incompletely decomposed biomass, that accumulates when rates of growth exceed decomposition. Interspecific variation in peat production is thought to be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of ecological gradients, such as the microtopographic hummock-hollow gradient, along which sympatric species sort within communities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15825DOI Listing

Species-rich boreal forests grew more and suffered less mortality than species-poor forests under the environmental change of the past half-century.

Ecol Lett 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

Climate and other global environmental changes are major threats to ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. However, the importance of plant diversity in mitigating the responses of functioning of natural ecosystems to long-term environmental change remains unclear. Using inventory data of boreal forests of western Canada from 1958 to 2011, we found that aboveground biomass growth increased over time in species-rich forests but decreased in species-poor forests, and importantly, aboveground biomass loss from tree mortality was smaller in species-rich than species-poor forests. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13259DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The genome and mRNA transcriptome of the cosmopolitan calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana improve the understanding of copepod genome size evolution.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.

Members of the crustacean subclass Copepoda are likely the most abundant metazoans worldwide. Pelagic marine species are critical in converting planktonic microalgae to animal biomass, supporting oceanic food webs. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, only five copepod genomes are publicly available, owing to a number of factors including large genome size, repetitiveness, GC-content, and small animal size. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz067DOI Listing

Targeting Modified Lipids during Routine Lipidomics Analysis using HILIC and C30 Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 25;9(1):5048. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

School of Science and the Environment/Boreal Ecosystem Research Initiative, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, Newfoundland, A2H 5G4, Canada.

Lipids are important biomolecules in all biological systems and serve numerous essential cellular functions. The global analysis of complex lipids is very challenging due to the extreme diversity in lipid structures. Variation in linkages and positions of fatty acyl chain(s) on the lipid backbone, functional group modification, occurrence of the molecular species as isomers or isobars are among some of the greatest challenges to resolve in lipidomics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41556-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41556-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433904PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Effects of vertical hydrodynamic mixing on photomineralization of dissolved organic carbon in arctic surface waters.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2019 Apr;21(4):748-760

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Photomineralization, the transformation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to CO2 by sunlight, is an important source of CO2 in arctic surface waters. However, quantifying the role of photomineralization in inland waters is limited by the understanding of hydrologic controls on this process. To bridge this gap, this study evaluates mixing limitations, i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8em00455bDOI Listing

Basin-wide sea level coherency in the tropical Indian Ocean driven by Madden-Julian Oscillation.

Nat Commun 2019 03 19;10(1):1257. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Pragathi Nagar, Hyderabad, 500090, India.

Changes in sea level may be attributed either to barotropic (involving the entire water column) or baroclinic processes (governed by stratification). It has been widely accepted that barotropic sea level changes in the tropics are insignificant at intraseasonal time scales (periods of 30-80 days). Based on bottom pressure records, we present evidence for significant basin-wide barotropic sea level variability in the tropical Indian Ocean during December-April with standard deviations amounting to ∼30-60% of the standard deviation in total intraseasonal sea level variability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09243-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425029PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Global mismatches in aboveground and belowground biodiversity.

Conserv Biol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Human activities are accelerating global biodiversity change and have resulted in severely threatened ecosystem services. A large proportion of terrestrial biodiversity is harbored by soil, but soil biodiversity has been neglected from many global biodiversity assessments and conservation actions, and our understanding of global patterns of soil biodiversity remains limited. In particular, the extent to which hotspots and coldspots of aboveground and soil biodiversity overlap is not clear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13311DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Warming impacts on boreal fen CO exchange under wet and dry conditions.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Mar 10. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.

Northern peatlands form a major soil carbon (C) stock. With climate change, peatland C mineralization is expected to increase, which in turn would accelerate climate change. A particularity of peatlands is the importance of soil aeration, which regulates peatland functioning and likely modulates the responses to warming climate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14617DOI Listing

Interannual and Seasonal Dynamics of Volatile Organic Compound Fluxes From the Boreal Forest Floor.

Front Plant Sci 2019 22;10:191. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.

In the northern hemisphere, boreal forests are a major source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which drive atmospheric processes and lead to cloud formation and changes in the Earth's radiation budget. Although forest vegetation is known to be a significant source of BVOCs, the role of soil and the forest floor, and especially interannual variations in fluxes, remains largely unknown due to a lack of long-term measurements. Our aim was to determine the interannual, seasonal and diurnal dynamics of boreal forest floor volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes and to estimate how much they contribute to ecosystem VOC fluxes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395408PMC
February 2019

The future depends on what we do today - Projecting Europe's surface water quality into three different future scenarios.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 21;668:470-484. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. Electronic address:

There are infinite possible future scenarios reflecting the impacts of anthropogenic multiple stress on our planet. These impacts include changes in climate and land cover, to which aquatic ecosystems are especially vulnerable. To assess plausible developments of the future state of European surface waters, we considered two climate scenarios and three storylines describing land use, management and anthropogenic development ('Consensus', 'Techno' and 'Fragmented', which in terms of environmental protection represent best-, intermediate- and worst-case, respectively). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.251DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Severe wildfire exposes remnant peat carbon stocks to increased post-fire drying.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 6;9(1):3727. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.

The potential of high severity wildfires to increase global terrestrial carbon emissions and exacerbate future climatic warming is of international concern. Nowhere is this more prevalent than within high latitude regions where peatlands have, over millennia, accumulated legacy carbon stocks comparable to all human CO emissions since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Drying increases rates of peat decomposition and associated atmospheric and aquatic carbon emissions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40033-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403377PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Coherent Response of Vietnam and Sumatra-Java Upwellings to Cross-Equatorial Winds.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 6;9(1):3650. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Upwelling off Vietnam in the South China Sea (SCS) and the Sumatra-Java upwelling in the Indian Ocean significantly modulate regional variation in climate. Although located in different hemispheres, these upwellings nearly concur during the boreal summer; both are the result of wind-induced Ekman divergence. Beyond seasonal time scales, the two upwellings were not synchronous in 1998. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40246-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403322PMC

Source apportionment of an epiphytic lichen biomonitor to elucidate the sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 12;654:1241-1257. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Atmospheric Research & Analysis, Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

The sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) atmospheric deposition in the boreal forests surrounding bitumen production operations in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada were investigated as part of a 2014 passive in-situ bioindicator source apportionment study. Epiphytic lichen species Hypogymnia physodes samples (n = 127) were collected within a 150 km radius of the main surface oil sand production operations and analyzed for total sulfur, total nitrogen, forty-three elements, twenty-two PAHs, ten groups of C1-C2-alkyl PAHs and dibenzothiophenes (polycyclic aromatic compounds; PACs), five C1- and C2-alkyldibenzothiophenes, and retene. The ΣPAH + PAC in H. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.131DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Estimating the intensity of use by interacting predators and prey using camera traps.

J Anim Ecol 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Matrix Solutions Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Understanding how organisms distribute themselves in response to interacting species, ecosystems, climate, human development and time is fundamental to ecological study and practice. A measure to quantify the relationship among organisms and their environments is intensity of use: the rate of use of a specific resource in a defined unit of time. Estimating the intensity of use differs from estimating probabilities of occupancy or selection, which can remain constant even when the intensity of use varies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1365-2656.12960
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12960DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Effects of narrow linear clearings on movement and habitat use in a boreal forest mammal community during winter.

PeerJ 2019 25;7:e6504. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

School of Environment and Science, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia.

Linear clearings for human activities cause internal fragmentation of otherwise intact native forest, with many potential impacts on wildlife. Across a boreal forest region of some 4,000 km, we investigated how movements and habitat use of ecologically different mammal species are affected by narrow (about eight m) seismic line (SL) clearings associated with fossil fuel extraction, which form extensive networks many kilometers long. We conducted nine repeat snow track surveys during three winters at 14 pairs of one-kilometer transects, each comprising one transect along the SL and a second running perpendicular into adjacent forest. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394345PMC
February 2019

Owls lack UV-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see UV light at night: Retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance.

Vision Res 2019 Mar 7;158:109-119. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (SWS2), M cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2) and L cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS). Double cones (D) express LWS but do not contribute to colour vision. Each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in UV/V cones, but pigmented by carotenoids: galloxanthin in S, zeaxanthin in M, astaxanthin in L and a mixture in D cones. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2019.02.005DOI Listing

On the emerging relationship between the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial oscillation and the Madden-Julian oscillation.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 27;9(1):2981. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

A strong relationship between the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of equatorial stratospheric winds and the amplitude of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) during the boreal winter has recently been uncovered using observational data from the mid-1970s to the present. When the QBO is in its easterly phase in the lower stratosphere, it favors stronger MJO activity during boreal winter, while the MJO tends to be weaker during the westerly phase of the QBO. Here we show using reconstructed indices of the MJO and QBO back to 1905 that the relationship between enhanced boreal winter MJO activity and the easterly phase of the QBO has only emerged since the early 1980s. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40034-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393487PMC
February 2019

Voles and weasels in the boreal Fennoscandian small mammal community: What happens if the least weasel disappears due to climate change?

Integr Zool 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Lammi Biological Station, University of Helsinki, Pääjärventie 320, 16900 Lammi, Finland.

Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats for populations and challenge for individual behavior, interactions, and survival. Predator-prey interactions are modified by climate processes. In the northern latitudes strong seasonality is changing and the main predicted feature is shortening and instability of winter. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12388DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of mesophyll conductance on vegetation responses to elevated CO concentrations in a land surface model.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 05 23;25(5):1820-1838. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Ecosystem Physiology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Mesophyll conductance (g ) is known to affect plant photosynthesis. However, g is rarely explicitly considered in land surface models (LSMs), with the consequence that its role in ecosystem and large-scale carbon and water fluxes is poorly understood. In particular, the different magnitudes of g across plant functional types (PFTs) are expected to cause spatially divergent vegetation responses to elevated CO concentrations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14604DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Temperature sensitivity of biomass-specific microbial exo-enzyme activities and CO efflux is resistant to change across short- and long-term timescales.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 05 20;25(5):1793-1807. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Kansas Biological Survey, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

Accurate representation of temperature sensitivity (Q ) of soil microbial activity across time is critical for projecting soil CO efflux. As microorganisms mediate soil carbon (C) loss via exo-enzyme activity and respiration, we explore temperature sensitivities of microbial exo-enzyme activity and respiratory CO loss across time and assess mechanisms associated with these potential changes in microbial temperature responses. We collected soils along a latitudinal boreal forest transect with different temperature regimes (long-term timescale) and exposed these soils to laboratory temperature manipulations at 5, 15, and 25°C for 84 days (short-term timescale). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14605DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Characterization of the complete chloroplast genomes of five species from the western Sichuan plateau, southwest China: comparative and phylogenetic analyses.

PeerJ 2019 20;7:e6386. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Key Laboratory for Forest Genetic and Tree Improvement & Propagation in Universities of Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Species of the genus , which is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere from subtropical to boreal forests, are among the most commercially exploited groups of forest trees. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes of five species (, , , , and ) were compared. The chloroplast genomes of the five species are very similar. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://peerj.com/articles/6386
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387583PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Vertical stratification of bacteria and archaea in sediments of a small boreal humic lake.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.

Although sediments of small boreal humic lakes are important carbon stores and greenhouse gas sources, the composition and structuring mechanisms of their microbial communities have remained understudied. We analyzed the vertical profiles of microbial biomass indicators (PLFAs, DNA and RNA) and the bacterial and archaeal community composition (sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and qPCR of mcrA) in sediment cores collected from a typical small boreal lake. While microbial biomass decreased with sediment depth, viable microbes (RNA and PLFA) were present all through the profiles. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz044DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Contrasting effects of tree species and genetic diversity on the leaf-miner communities associated with silver birch.

Oecologia 2019 Mar 24;189(3):687-697. Epub 2019 Feb 24.

School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK.

Both species and genetic diversity of plant communities can affect insect herbivores, but a few studies have compared the effects of both diversity levels within the same experimental context. We compared the effects of tree species and genetic diversity on abundance, species richness, and β-diversity of leaf-miner communities associated with silver birch using two long-term forest diversity experiments in Finland where birch trees were planted in monocultures and mixtures of birch genotypes or other trees species. Although both abundance and species richness of leaf miners differed among birch genotypes at the tree level, birch genetic diversity had no significant effect on miner abundance and species richness at the plot level. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04351-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418074PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Protura are unique: first evidence of specialized feeding on ectomycorrhizal fungi in soil invertebrates.

BMC Ecol 2019 02 22;19(1):10. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

J.F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, Animal Ecology, University of Göttingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) play a central role in nutrient cycling in boreal and temperate forests, but their role in the soil food web remains little understood. One of the groups assumed to live as specialised mycorrhizal feeders are Protura, but experimental and field evidence is lacking. We used a combination of three methods to test if Protura are specialized mycorrhizal feeders and compared their trophic niche with other soil invertebrates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-019-0227-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387494PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Complete mitochondrial genome of the Western Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus (Phasianidae, Tetraoninae).

Zootaxa 2019 Jan 29;4550(4):585-593. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Animal and Plant Biology and Ecology, Jaén University, Campus Las Lagunillas, E-23071, Jaén, Spain..

The Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is a galliform bird of boreal climax forests from Scandinavia to eastern Siberia, with a fragmented population in southwestern Europe. We extracted the DNA of T. urogallus aquitanicus and obtained the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence by combining Illumina and Sanger sequencing sequence data. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4550.4.9DOI Listing
January 2019

Role of forest regrowth in global carbon sink dynamics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

Although the existence of a large carbon sink in terrestrial ecosystems is well-established, the drivers of this sink remain uncertain. It has been suggested that perturbations to forest demography caused by past land-use change, management, and natural disturbances may be causing a large component of current carbon uptake. Here we use a global compilation of forest age observations, combined with a terrestrial biosphere model with explicit modeling of forest regrowth, to partition the global forest carbon sink between old-growth and regrowth stands over the period 1981-2010. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1810512116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410874PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Can mowing restore boreal rich-fen vegetation in the face of climate change?

PLoS One 2019 19;14(2):e0211272. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Natural History, NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Low-frequency mowing has been proposed to be an effective strategy for the restoration and management of boreal fens after abandonment of traditional haymaking. This study investigates how mowing affects long-term vegetation change in both oceanic and continental boreal rich-fen vegetation. This will allow evaluation of the effectiveness of mowing as a management and restoration tool in this ecosystem in the face of climate change. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211272PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380559PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Short photoperiod reduces the temperature sensitivity of leaf-out in saplings of Fagus sylvatica but not in horse chestnut.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 05 19;25(5):1696-1703. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Leaf phenology is one of the most reliable bioindicators of ongoing global warming in temperate and boreal zones because it is highly sensitive to temperature variation. A large number of studies have reported advanced spring leaf-out due to global warming, yet the temperature sensitivity of leaf-out has significantly decreased in temperate deciduous tree species over the past three decades. One of the possible mechanisms is that photoperiod is limiting further advance to protect the leaves against potential damaging frosts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14599DOI Listing

Variability in the expansion of trees and shrubs in boreal Alaska.

Ecology 2019 Feb 15:e02660. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, Montana, 59812, USA.

The expansion of shrubs and trees across high-latitude ecosystems is one of the most dramatic ecological manifestations of climate change. Most of the work quantifying these changes has been done in small areas and over relatively recent time scales. These land-cover transitions are highly spatially variable, and we have limited understanding of the factors underlying this variation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2660DOI Listing
February 2019

Carbon flux from decomposing wood and its dependency on temperature, wood N fixation rate, moisture and fungal composition in a Norway spruce forest.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 05 20;25(5):1852-1867. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Helsinki, Finland.

Globally 40-70 Pg of carbon (C) are stored in coarse woody debris on the forest floor. Climate change may reduce the function of this stock as a C sink in the future due to increasing temperature. However, current knowledge on the drivers of wood decomposition is inadequate for detailed predictions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14594DOI Listing

Half a century of multiple anthropogenic stressors has altered northern forest understory plant communities.

Ecol Appl 2019 Feb 14:e01874. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden.

Boreal forests form the largest and least disturbed forest biome in the northern hemisphere. However, anthropogenic pressure from intensified forest management, eutrophication, and climate change may alter the ecosystem functions of understory vegetation and services boreal forests provide. Swedish forests span long gradients of climate, nitrogen deposition, and management intensity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/eap.1874
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1874DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads

N fixation associated with the bryophyte layer is suppressed by low levels of nitrogen deposition in boreal forests.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 29;653:995-1004. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland.

Biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by bryophyte-associated cyanobacteria is an important source of plant-available N in the boreal biome. Information on the factors that drive biological N fixation (BNF) rates is needed in order to understand the N dynamics of forests under a changing climate. We assessed the potential of several cryptogam species (the feather mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, a group of Dicranum bryophytes, two liverworts, and Cladina lichens) to serve as associates of cyanobacteria or other N-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs) using acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.364DOI Listing
February 2019