3,966 results match your criteria Bones of the Foot


An Update on Posterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome.

Orthop Rev (Pavia) 2022 31;14(4):35444. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University New Orleans.

Posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome (PTTS) is an entrapment neuropathy due to compression of the tibial nerve or one of its terminal branches within the tarsal tunnel in the medial ankle. The tarsal tunnel is formed by the flexor retinaculum, while the floor is composed of the distal tibia, talus, and calcaneal bones. The tarsal tunnel contains a number of significant structures, including the tendons of 3 muscles as well as the posterior tibial artery, vein, and nerve. Read More

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Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging findings and patterns of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis in a series of Greek pediatric patients.

Acta Radiol Open 2022 Jun 22;11(6):20584601221106701. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Radiology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background: Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is a pediatric autoinflammatory disorder presenting with sterile inflammatory bone lesions. Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) has most recently emerged for disease assessment, but data are limited.

Purpose: The purpose is to evaluate the imaging findings and patterns of CNO on WBMRI in a series of Greek pediatric patients. Read More

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Bone Density by Specific Anatomic Location Using Hounsfield Samples of the Lower Extremity: A Multi-center Retrospective Analysis.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Biostatistician, Department of Plastics Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC.

Understanding bone mineral density and its effects on patient outcomes is a useful tool for lower extremity surgeons. Historically, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans have been the gold standard for quantifying bone mineral density. In this study, we look at an indirect way to measure bone mineral density using Hounsfield units on computed tomography. Read More

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Distributional patterns of subchondral bone density and histopathological features of the first tarsometatarsal joint in hallux valgus feet.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jun 14;23(1):569. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

Background: Hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint is frequently identified in patients with hallux valgus (HV); however, its association with the development of osteoarthritis in the first TMT joint in such patients remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the distribution of subchondral bone density of the first TMT joint via computed tomography (CT) using Hounsfield units (HU).

Methods: Patients were divided into three groups: the osteotomy (20 feet; 20 women, mean age: 61. Read More

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Radiographic Cutoff Values for Predicting Lateral Bony Impingement in Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity.

Foot Ankle Int 2022 Jun 14:10711007221099010. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Lateral bony impingement is a major cause of lateral foot pain in progressive collapsing foot deformity (PCFD). Weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT) provides better sensitivity than standard radiographs for detecting impingement. However, many orthopaedic centers have not yet acquired WBCT imaging. Read More

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Closed isolated anterolateral calcaneal dislocation: a case report.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jun 7;23(1):546. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Complete isolated calcaneal dislocation, defined as dislocation of talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joints with intact talonavicular joint without significant fracture, is an exceedingly rare injury.

Case Presentation: A 49-year-old man, after a motor vehicle collision, presented with a closed isolated anterolateral dislocation of the calcaneus associated with fracture of the sustentaculum tali, cuboid, lateral process of the talus, and avulsion fracture of superior peroneal retinaculum. Urgent successful closed reduction was immediately performed in the emergency room under sedation. Read More

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Combined great toe dorsal nail-skin flap and medial plantar flap for one-stage reconstruction of degloved finger.

Injury 2022 Jul 19;53(7):2588-2594. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Orthopedic Hand Surgery, the Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Chunhui Avenue, Longma Tan District, Luzhou 646000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Historically, the degloved finger with the total loss of nail and skin had been resurfaced with an expanded great toe wrap-around flap transfer for better outcomes. The purpose of this study aims to present our experience with a related modified design, with total preservation of a weight-bearing plantar skin.

Method: From April 2016 to September 2019, nine fingers (5 index and 4 middle fingers) in nine cases, with skin loss to the base of the proximal phalangeal or metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint level, were reconstructed with combined great toe dorsal nail-skin flap and medial plantar artery perforator (MPAP) flap. Read More

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Bizarre Parosteal Osteochondromatous Proliferation (Nora's Lesion) of the Foot: A Case Report and Literature Review of Nora's Lesion of the Foot.

Cureus 2022 Apr 17;14(4):e24197. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Istanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TUR.

Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) or Nora's lesion is a rare, benign, but locally aggressive tumor. We present a case of a 45-year-old patient with progressive swelling of his toe for four years, pain, and difficulty with shoe wear. The lesion was excised after adequate evaluation and the resection histopathology was compatible with Nora's lesion. Read More

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Alternative methods for skeletal maturity estimation with the EOS scanner-Experience from 934 patients.

PLoS One 2022 6;17(5):e0267668. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pécs, Medical School, Pécs, Hungary.

Background: Hand-wrist bone age assessment methods are not possible on typical EOS 2D/3D images without body position modifications that may affect spinal position. We aimed to identify and assess lesser known bone age assessment alternatives that may be applied retrospectively and without the need for extra imaging.

Materials And Methods: After review of 2857 articles, nine bone age methods were selected and applied retrospectively in pilot study (thirteen individuals), followed by evaluation of EOS images of 934 4-24-year-olds. Read More

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[Tuberculous osteomyelitis in the lateral cuneiform bone causing prolonged pain].

Ugeskr Laeger 2022 03;184(13)

Center for Sundhedsforskning i Grønland, Ilisimatusarfik.

Tuberculous osteomyelitis is an uncommon infection. In this case report, a 29-year-old Greenlandic male with increasing pain, swelling and discolouring of his left foot for four months was admitted to the hospital. He had no systemic symptoms. Read More

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Mechanical Axis Method to Determine First Intermetatarsal Angle and Tibial Sesamoid Position.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2022 Apr 4. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Residency Director, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Binghamton, NY; Director Emeritus, Geisinger-Community Medical Center, Scranton, PA; Professor of Surgery, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA.

Utilizing the mechanical axis can decrease load on the joint and be beneficial when analyzing bony deformities and planning surgical correction with osteotomies. The aim of this study was to identify the normal mechanical axes of the first and second metatarsals and use them to obtain the first/second mechanical intermetatarsal angle (mIMA). The mechanical axis of the first metatarsal was used to obtain the mechanical tibial sesamoid position (mTSP), which provides a mechanical relationship with the sesamoid apparatus. Read More

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Does the sesamoid rotation angle change differently in subjects with hallux valgus considering foot position during assumed walking? A pilot study.

Foot (Edinb) 2022 May 11;51:101911. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Sports Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan. Electronic address:

Hallux valgus (HV) entails changes in the alignment of the rotating sesamoids and a shift of the abductor hallucis muscle (ABH) in the plantar direction, decreasing the abductor force. Load on the foot while walking may change the sesamoid rotation angle (SRA). Nevertheless, no study has investigated the relationship between the change in SRA during assumed walking and ABH muscle size. Read More

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Endoscopic curettage and allografting of simple bone cysts of the calcaneus in young soccer players: Report of three cases.

Foot (Edinb) 2022 May 25;51:101868. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Thessaloniki Minimally Invasive Surgery (The-MIS) Orthopaedic Center, St. Luke's Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Open curettage with bone graft has been the traditionally suggested surgical treatment for the symptomatic simple (or unicameral as they used to be called) calcaneal bone cyst. Less invasive endoscopically assisted treatment with curettage and bone grafting with allograft have recently provided less postoperative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to present our experience with this method in young soccer athletes. Read More

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Anatomical parameters of sustentaculum Tali screw placement in the Asian population: A retrospective radio-anatomical study.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2022 Jan-Apr;30(1):10225536221082343

Department of TCM Orthopedics and Traumatology, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 70570Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

This study aimed to determine the anatomical parameters of successful Sustentaculum Tali (ST) screw placement in the Asian population. CT scans of unilateral feet of 110 participants were reviewed, retrospectively. The 3 D reconstruction of the calcaneus and morphometric measurements were performed by Mimics Research 19. Read More

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Diagnostic imaging of foot mycetomas: A report on two cases.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 May 29;17(5):1817-1823. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Anatomopathology Service, Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Casablanca, Casablanca, 20100, Morocco.

Mycetomas caused by aerobic actinomycetes are called actinomycetomas. It is primarily localized in subcutaneous tissue but it can spread to different tissue planes including the skin, deep tissues and structures and eventually the bones. We report the cases of 2 patients referred for evaluation of soft tissue masses involving the foot. Read More

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Enhancement of evaluating flatfoot on a weight-bearing lateral radiograph of the foot with U-Net based semantic segmentation on the long axis of tarsal and metatarsal bones in an active learning manner.

Comput Biol Med 2022 06 14;145:105400. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Convergence Medicine, Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Robust labeling for semantic segmentation in radiographs is labor-intensive. No study has evaluated flatfoot-related deformities using semantic segmentation with U-Net on weight-bearing lateral radiographs. Here, we evaluated the robustness, accuracy enhancement, and efficiency of automated measurements for flatfoot-related angles using semantic segmentation in an active learning manner. Read More

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Asymptomatic foot and ankle structural injuries: a 3D imaging and finite element analysis of elite fencers.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2022 Mar 27;14(1):50. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Foot Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Sport and Health Science of Fujian Province, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350117, China.

Background: Fencing is a highly asymmetrical combat sport, that imposes high mechanical demands over repeated exposures on the musculoskeletal structures, a primary cause of injuries in fencers. However, there are limited epidemiological studies on the structural injuries of the foot and ankle in fencers. This study aimed to investigate foot and ankle structural injuries, and explore how metatarsophalangeal joint structural changes may affect the mechanisms of foot and ankle injuries in asymptomatic fencers. Read More

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Return-to-sports after minimally invasive stabilization of intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

Sportverletz Sportschaden 2022 Jun 2;36(2):100-110. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Clinic Diakonissen Schladming.

Background:  Evaluation of different factors in patient quality of life after minimally invasive stabilization of intra-articular calcaneal fractures, including the return-to-sports rate.

Patients And Methods:  Patients with minimally invasive stabilization of intra-articular calcaneal fractures were collected from the database of a Level I trauma center and evaluated in a retrospective and explorative way. The clinical and radiological examination have been done immediately after the operation, after 2 and 6 weeks postoperative and after a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Read More

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Epithelioid osteoblastoma. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases.

Hum Pathol 2022 Jul 23;125:68-78. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Pathology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Seventeen cases of epithelioid osteoblastoma were reviewed. The tumors most commonly arose from the vertebrae (7 cases), followed by the mandible (3), sacrum (2), bones of the foot (2), and femur, rib, and scapula (1 each). Patients' ages ranged from 5 to 33 years. Read More

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A historical review of calcaneal fractures: from the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and Don Juan injuries to the current plate osteosynthesis.

Int Orthop 2022 Jun 25;46(6):1413-1422. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Orthopedics and Orthopedic Oncology, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology DiSCOG, University of Padova, via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Purpose: Calcaneal fractures are one of the most challenging injuries to treat and one of the most divisive. The purpose of this historical review is to highlight the evidence of calcaneal fracture and its treatment through history.

Methods: Archaeological, religious, artistic, literary and historical accounts were searched for descriptions of calcaneal fracture to give a thorough overview of the subject. Read More

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A new technique of hindfoot reconstruction in chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis using the Ilizarov apparatus - a case series.

J Pak Med Assoc 2022 Feb;72(2):342-345

Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center for Restorative Traumatology and Orthopedics, Jordan.

Calcaneal osteomyelitis (OM) is a challenging disease. Traditional surgical management has a limited success in preservation of the foot. The surgery proposed with the use of the Ilizarov apparatus for calcaneal OM aims to preserve the function, shape, and stability of the foot. Read More

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February 2022

Workflow assessing the effect of Achilles tendon rupture on gait function and metatarsal stress: Combined musculoskeletal modeling and finite element analysis.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2022 May 19;236(5):676-685. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) incidence has increased among badminton players in recent years. The foot internal stress was hard to obtain through experimental testing. The purpose of the current research is to develop a methodology that could improve the finite element model derived foot internal stress prediction for ATR clinical and rehabilitation applications. Read More

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Orthosis and Foot Structure Affect the Fifth Metatarsal Principal Strains During Simulated Level Walking.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 18;50(6):1659-1667. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone are common injuries in elite athletes and are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion. Structural features of the foot may increase fracture risk in some individuals, emphasizing the need for intervention strategies to prevent fracture. Although orthotic devices have shown promise in reducing fractures of the fifth metatarsal bone, the effect of orthosis on fifth metatarsal strains is not well understood. Read More

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Investigation of the Relationships Among Clinical Measures of Foot Posture in Individuals with and Without Pronated Foot.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2021 Dec 15;111(6). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Background: Many indirect clinical techniques have been developed to assess foot posture; however, there is relatively little research investigating the relationships among these techniques. We investigated the relationships among the most commonly used clinical measures of foot posture-Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6), navicular drop (NDP), navicular drift (NDT), and static and dynamic arch indices (SAI and DAI)-in individuals with normal foot posture and those with pronated foot.

Methods: Sixty-three individuals with FPI-6 scores of 0 to 12 were included. Read More

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December 2021

Total calcanectomy in calcaneal osteomyelitis: An alternative to major amputation.

Foot (Edinb) 2022 May 23;51:101896. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Orthopedics Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal; Surgery and Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; CUF Porto Hospital, Porto, Portugal; i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Biomédica, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Hindfoot ulcers associated with chronic calcaneus osteomyelitis are very difficult to manage and many patients need a limb amputation for resolution. Total calcanectomy can be a salvage procedure for these patients. The purpose of this study is to present our results of total calcanectomy. Read More

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Hindfoot Fractures: Injury Patterns and Relevant Imaging Findings.

Radiographics 2022 May-Jun;42(3):661-682. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

From the Department of Radiology, UCSD Health System, 408 Dickinson St, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (E.S.); and Department of Radiology, UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, Tex (M.D.).

The hindfoot consists of the talus and calcaneus, spans the tibiotalar to transverse tarsal joints, and is critical for support of body weight and absorption and transfer of physiologic loads during bipedal movements. Hindfoot fractures account for approximately 17% of foot and ankle fractures, with calcaneal fractures being more common than talar fractures. Hindfoot fractures are usually caused by high-impact axial loads such as falls from heights and motor vehicle accidents, and understandably, they are often seen in patients with polytrauma. Read More

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Agreement Between Sagittal Foot and Tibia Angles During Running Derived From an Open-Source Markerless Motion Capture Platform and Manual Digitization.

J Appl Biomech 2022 04 10;38(2):111-116. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Several open-source platforms for markerless motion capture offer the ability to track 2-dimensional (2D) kinematics using simple digital video cameras. We sought to establish the performance of one of these platforms, DeepLabCut. Eighty-four runners who had sagittal plane videos recorded of their left lower leg were included in the study. Read More

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A new classification for Freiberg's disease.

Foot (Edinb) 2022 May 24;51:101901. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust, Foot and Ankle Unit, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Freiberg's osteochondrosis is an uncommon cause of foot pain. Following a national survey circulated by the British Foot and Ankle Society it was found that no classification is used to guide surgical treatment. This study aimed to create a simple, reproducible CT based classification to preoperatively plan whether an osteotomy is required. Read More

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Is bilateral hallux valgus chevron osteotomy a safe procedure for ambulatory surgery?

Foot (Edinb) 2022 May 23;51:101891. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Orthopedics, Central Lisbon University Center, 8 Beneficiência Street, 1069-166 Lisbon, Portugal.

Introduction: Several osteotomies of the first metatarsal have been described for treatment of hallux valgus but chevron osteotomy is one of the most common and well-established procedure for treating this deformity. Although there is a trend towards considering bilateral surgery there is lack of publications addressing bilateral treatment in ambulatory units. The aim of this study is to analyze results of bilateral and unilateral distal chevron osteotomies associated with lateral soft tissue release as ambulatory procedures. Read More

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Effect of the manual stretching maneuver for hallux valgus.

Foot (Edinb) 2022 May 23;51:101900. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Hallux valgus (HV), which is one of the most common musculoskeletal abnormalities of the foot, is defined as the medial deviation of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and the lateral deviation of the great toe.

Objects: This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of a manual stretching maneuver (MSM) in subjects with HV.

Methods: Twenty-five subjects with a total of 25 feet with mild HV participated in the study. Read More

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