532 results match your criteria BoneKEy reports[Journal]


Repeated irradiation from micro-computed tomography scanning at 2, 4 and 6 months of age does not induce damage to tibial bone microstructure in male and female CD-1 mice.

Bonekey Rep 2017 13;6:855. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada; Centre for Bone and Muscle Health, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada; Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Long-term effects of repeated i micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning at key stages of growth and bone development (ages 2, 4 and 6 months) on trabecular and cortical bone structure, as well as developmental patterns, have not been studied. We determined the effect of repetitive μCT scanning at age 2, 4 and 6 months on tibia bone structure of male and female CD-1 mice and characterized developmental changes. At 2, 4 and 6 months of age, right tibias were scanned using μCT (Skyscan 1176) at one of three doses of radiation per scan: 222, 261 or 460 mGy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://mr.crossref.org/iPage?doi=10.1038%2Fbonekey.2016.87
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.87DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5234264PMC
January 2017
7 Reads

Role of cortical bone in hip fracture.

Authors:
Jonathan Reeve

Bonekey Rep 2017 13;6:867. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

NIHR Musculo-skeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences , Oxford, UK.

In this review, I consider the varied mechanisms in cortical bone that help preserve its integrity and how they deteriorate with aging. Aging affects cortical bone in two ways: extrinsically through its effects on the individual that modify its mechanical loading experience and 'milieu interieur'; and intrinsically through the prolonged cycle of remodelling and renewal extending to an estimated 20 years in the proximal femur. Healthy femoral cortex incorporates multiple mechanisms that help prevent fracture. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5234263PMC
January 2017

Protein/amino-acid modulation of bone cell function.

Bonekey Rep 2016 10;5:827. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Institute for Regenerative and Reparative Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Departments of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Departments of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Departments of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Nutrients (protein, carbohydrates and fats) have traditionally been thought of as fuels simply providing the energy for cellular metabolic activity. According to the classic view, if nutrients are available, then anabolic pathways are activated, and if nutrients are not available, catabolic pathways are activated. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that nutrient effects on bone cells (stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) are complex, some nutrients promote bone formation, whereas others interfere with bone formation or actually promote bone break down. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5238414PMC
August 2016
1 Read

Prophylactic augmentation of the osteoporotic proximal femur-mission impossible?

Bonekey Rep 2016 7;5:854. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

AO Research Institute Davos , Davos Platz, Switzerland.

The high incidence of secondary hip fractures and the associated markedly increased mortality call for preventive actions that could help to avoid these injuries. By providing immediate strengthening and not relying on patient compliance, internal prophylactic augmentation of the osteoporotic proximal femur may overcome the main limitations of systemic bone drugs and wearable protective pads. However, such a method would have to provide sufficient and reliable strengthening effect with minimal risks and side effects to justify the need of an invasive treatment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.86DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5141600PMC
December 2016
1 Read

Parathyroid hormone reflects adiposity and cardiometabolic indices but not bone density in normal men.

Bonekey Rep 2016 7;5:852. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Department of Medicine, Bone & Joint Research Group, University of Auckland , Auckland, New Zealand.

Hyperparathyroidism may be associated with skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities, but it is unclear whether these associations exist for high-normal levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We assessed relationships between PTH and anthropometric, skeletal and cardiometabolic indices in normal men. Body composition, blood pressure, biochemistry and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in 151 healthy men. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.85DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5141601PMC
December 2016
1 Read

Confocal/two-photon microscopy in studying colonisation of cancer cells in bone using xenograft mouse models.

Bonekey Rep 2016 7;5:851. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, The Mellanby Centre for Bone Research, The University of Sheffield , Sheffield, UK.

Confocal and two-photon microscopy has been widely used in bone research to not only produce high quality, three-dimensional images but also to provide valuable structural and quantitative information. In this article, we describe step-by-step protocols for confocal and two-photon microscopy to investigate earlier cellular events during colonisation of cancer cells in bone using xenograft mouse models. This includes confocal/two-photon microscopy imaging of paraformaldehyde fixed thick bone sections and frozen bone samples. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.portico.org/Portico/article?article=phx24t343bs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.84DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5141599PMC
December 2016
5 Reads

Ibandronate for the prevention of bone loss after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies: a randomized-controlled trial.

Bonekey Rep 2016 19;5:843. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center , Houston, TX, USA.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ibandronate on bone loss following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). A single-centered, open-label prospective randomized-controlled study following allo-SCT. The treatment group received 3 mg of intravenous ibandronate quarterly starting within 45 days of allo-SCT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.72DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5154364PMC
October 2016
10 Reads

Periosteum mechanobiology and mechanistic insights for regenerative medicine.

Bonekey Rep 2016 30;5:857. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

TissuTex Pty. Ltd. , Wentworth Falls, NSW, Australia.

Periosteum is a smart mechanobiological material that serves as a habitat and delivery vehicle for stem cells as well as biological factors that modulate tissue genesis and healing. Periosteum's remarkable regenerative capacity has been harnessed clinically for over two hundred years. Scientific studies over the past decade have begun to decipher the mechanobiology of periosteum, which has a significant role in its regenerative capacity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129676PMC
November 2016
5 Reads

Lessons on skeletal cell plasticity from studying jawbone regeneration in zebrafish.

Bonekey Rep 2016 16;5:853. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine , Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Three major mesenchymal cell types have important roles in determining the shapes of vertebrate animals: bone-producing osteoblasts, cartilage-producing chondrocytes, and fat-producing adipocytes. Although often considered discrete cell types, accumulating evidence is revealing mesenchymal cells of intermediate identities and interconversion of cell types. Such plasticity is particularly evident during adult skeletal repair. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.81DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111230PMC
November 2016
2 Reads

Bone muscle crosstalk targets muscle regeneration pathway regulated by core circadian transcriptional repressors DEC1 and DEC2.

Bonekey Rep 2016 16;5:850. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

School of Biological Sciences University of Missouri-Kansas City , Kansas City, MO, USA.

Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.80DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111231PMC
November 2016
1 Read

Murine models of breast cancer bone metastasis.

Bonekey Rep 2016 11;5:804. Epub 2016 May 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA.

Bone metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in late-stage breast cancer patients and are currently considered incurable. Investigators rely on translational models to better understand the pathogenesis of skeletal complications of malignancy in order to identify therapeutic targets that may ultimately prevent and treat solid tumor metastasis to bone. Many experimental models of breast cancer bone metastases are in use today, each with its own caveats. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108088PMC
May 2016
20 Reads

The clinical contribution of cortical porosity to fragility fractures.

Bonekey Rep 2016 26;5:846. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Cortical bone is not compact; rather it is penetrated by many Haversian and Volkmann canals for blood supply. The lining of these canals are the intracortical bone surfaces available for bone remodeling. Increasing intracortical bone remodeling increases cortical porosity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.77DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5081000PMC
October 2016

Methodological considerations when studying the skeletal response to glucose intolerance using the diet-induced obesity model.

Bonekey Rep 2016 26;5:845. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University , Stillwater, OK, USA.

The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to rise, and as a result, research aimed at understanding the molecular basis for the co-morbidities has become an area of much scientific interest. Among the more recently recognized chronic complications of T2DM is the increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture, that has been reported independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A widely used animal model to study how the development and progression of impaired glucose tolerance affect the skeleton has been the diet-induce obesity (DIO) model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5081001PMC
October 2016
1 Read

Tissue-engineered 3D cancer-in-bone modeling: silk and PUR protocols.

Bonekey Rep 2016 19;5:842. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, ME, USA; Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Cancers that metastasize or grow in the bone marrow are typically considered incurable and cause extensive damage to the bone and bone marrow. The bone is a complex, dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment composed of a plethora of cells that may contribute to, or constrain, the growth of tumor cells and development of bone disease. The development of safe and effective drugs is currently hampered by pre-clinical two-dimensional (2D) models whose poor predictive power does not accurately predict the success or failure of therapeutics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070496PMC
October 2016
2 Reads

How rare bone diseases have informed our knowledge of complex diseases.

Authors:
Mark L Johnson

Bonekey Rep 2016 21;5:839. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry , Kansas City, MO, USA.

Rare bone diseases, generally defined as monogenic traits with either autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance, have provided a rich database of genes and associated pathways over the past 2-3 decades. The molecular genetic dissection of these bone diseases has yielded some major surprises in terms of the causal genes and/or involved pathways. The discovery of genes/pathways involved in diseases such as osteopetrosis, osteosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and many other rare bone diseases have all accelerated our understanding of complex traits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5030722PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.69DOI Listing
October 2016
6 Reads

Osteocyte isolation and culture methods.

Bonekey Rep 2016 14;5:838. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam , Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The aim of this paper is to present several popular methods for in vitro culture of osteocytes and osteocyte cell lines. Osteocytes are located extremely suitably within the calcified bone matrix to sense mechanical signals, and are equipped with a multitude of molecular features that allow mechanosensing. However, osteocytes are more than specialized mechanosensing cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5022138PMC
September 2016
12 Reads

Intramembranous bone regeneration and implant placement using mechanical femoral marrow ablation: rodent models.

Bonekey Rep 2016 7;5:837. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Rush University Medical Center , Chicago, IL, USA.

In this paper, we provide a detailed protocol for a model of long bone mechanical marrow ablation in the rodent, including surgical procedure, anesthesia, and pre- and post-operative care. In addition, frequently used experimental end points are briefly discussed. This model was developed to study intramembranous bone regeneration following surgical disruption of the marrow contents of long bones. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5013711PMC
September 2016
1 Read

Osteoporosis drug effects on cortical and trabecular bone microstructure: a review of HR-pQCT analyses.

Bonekey Rep 2016 31;5:836. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Hospital University Geneve , Geneve, Switzerland.

With the development of new non-invasive analytical techniques and particularly the advent of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) it is possible to assess cortical and trabecular bone changes under the effects of ageing, diseases and treatments. In the present study, we reviewed the treatment-related effects on bone parameters assessed by HRpQCT imaging. We identified 12 full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals describing treatment-induced changes assessed by HRpQCT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://mr.crossref.org/iPage?doi=10.1038%2Fbonekey.2016.59
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006234PMC
September 2016
2 Reads

Post-yield and failure properties of cortical bone.

Bonekey Rep 2016 24;5:829. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures , Thun, Switzerland.

Ageing and associated skeletal diseases pose a significant challenge for health care systems worldwide. Age-related fractures have a serious impact on personal, social and economic wellbeing. A significant proportion of physiological loading is carried by the cortical shell. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996317PMC
August 2016
1 Read

Skeletal implications and management of cystinosis: three case reports and literature review.

Bonekey Rep 2016 17;5:828. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

INSERM, Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, site Laennec, Lyon, France; Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Hypophosphatemic rickets and short stature are observed in nephropathic cystinosis, an orphan autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease due to a deficiency of cystinosin (CTNS gene). Although bone impairment is not common, it nevertheless appears to be more and more discussed by experts, even though the exact underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Four hypotheses are currently discussed to explain such impairment: copper deficiency, bone consequences of severe hypophosphatemic rickets during infancy, cysteamine toxicity and abnormal thyroid metabolism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.55DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4988218PMC
August 2016
8 Reads

Effects of myokines on bone.

Authors:
Hiroshi Kaji

Bonekey Rep 2016 20;5:826. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Department of Physiology and Regenerative Medicine, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine , Osakasayama, Japan.

The links between muscle and bone have been recently examined because of the increasing number of patients with osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Myokines are skeletal muscle-derived humoral cytokines and growth factors, which exert physiological and pathological functions in various distant organs, including the regulation of glucose, energy and bone metabolism. Myostatin is a crucial myokine, the expression of which is mainly limited to muscle tissues. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4954587PMC
August 2016
34 Reads

Genetics of pediatric bone strength.

Bonekey Rep 2016 20;5:823. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia , Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic forms of disability in postmenopausal women and represents a major health burden around the world. Bone fragility is affected by bone mineral density (BMD), and, one of the most important factors in preventing osteoporosis is optimizing peak bone mass, which is achieved during growth in childhood and adolescence. BMD is a complex trait resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4954586PMC
August 2016
11 Reads

Role of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 in osteoimmunology.

Bonekey Rep 2016 20;5:820. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Department of Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Bone Diseases, Technische Universität Dresden , Dresden, Germany.

Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed in various tissues and has a pivotal role in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. However, MFG-E8 has also gained significant attention because of its wide range of functions in autoimmunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. More recently, MFG-E8 has been identified as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis, being expressed in both, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.52DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4954605PMC
August 2016
3 Reads

Models of ex vivo explant cultures: applications in bone research.

Bonekey Rep 2016 29;5:818. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Academic Unit of Bone Biology, Department of Oncology and Metabolism, Mellanby Centre for Bone Research, Medical School, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; Oral and Biomedical Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Ex vivo explant culture models are powerful tools in bone research. They allow investigation of bone and cartilage responses to specific stimuli in a controlled manner that closely mimics the in vivo processes. Because of limitations in obtaining healthy human bone samples the explant growth of animal tissue serves as a platform to study the complex physico-chemical properties of the bone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926536PMC
July 2016
4 Reads

High osteoporosis risk among East Africans linked to lactase persistence genotype.

Bonekey Rep 2016 29;5:803. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Department of History, University of North Texas , Denton, TX, USA.

This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926535PMC
July 2016
10 Reads

Diagnostic performance of osteocalcin measurements in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome.

Bonekey Rep 2016 15;5:815. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Department of Preventative and Family Medicine, Neuroendocrinology and Bone Disease, The National Research Centre for Endocrinology , Moscow, Russia.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of osteocalcin (OC), as measured by automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), in identifying Cushing's syndrome (CS) in two separate populations: among obese and overweight subjects and among women of postmenopausal age with osteoporosis. Among the 106 referral patients with obesity, CS was confirmed in 42 cases. The patients of the referred population provided late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC), underwent low-dose dexamethasone suppression testing (DST) and were further evaluated until CS was pathologically confirmed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909045PMC
June 2016
22 Reads

In vivo evaluation of bone microstructure in humans: Clinically useful?

Authors:
Roland Chapurlat

Bonekey Rep 2016 15;5:813. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

INSERM UMR 1033, Université de Lyon, Hôpital E Herriot , Lyon, France.

In vivo evaluation of bone microstructure with high-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HRpQCT) has been used for a decade in research settings. In this review, we examine the value this technique could have in clinical practice. Bone microstructure parameters obtained with HRpQCT are associated with prevalent fracture in men and women. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909044PMC

The case for genome-wide association studies of bone acquisition in paediatric and adolescent populations.

Bonekey Rep 2016 25;5:796. Epub 2016 May 25.

University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Level 5 Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Joint senior authors.

Peak bone mass, the maximum amount of bone accrued at the end of the growth period, is an important predictor of future risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Hence, the contribution of genetic factors influencing bone accrual is of considerable interest to the osteoporosis research community. In this article, we review evidence that genetic factors play an important role in bone growth, describe the genetic loci implicated so far and briefly discuss lessons learned from the application of genome-wide association studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4879864PMC
June 2016
19 Reads

Osteoimmunology: from mice to humans.

Bonekey Rep 2016 18;5:802. Epub 2016 May 18.

Department of Medical Science-Section of Gerontology-University of Torino , Torino, Italy.

The immune system has been recognized as one of the most important regulators of bone turnover and its deregulation is implicated in several bone diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory bone loss; recently it has been suggested that the gut microbiota may influence bone turnover by modulation of the immune system. The study of the relationship between the immune system and bone metabolism is generally indicated under the term 'osteoimmunology'. The vast majority of these studies have been performed in animal models; however, several data have been confirmed in humans as well: this review summarizes recent data on the relationship between the immune system and bone with particular regard to the data confirmed in humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870940PMC
May 2016
2 Reads

How to interpret epigenetic association studies: a guide for clinicians.

Bonekey Rep 2016 4;5:797. Epub 2016 May 4.

Department of Medicine and Psychiatry, University of Cantabria, and Services of Neurology (JR) and Internal Medicine (JAR), Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL , Santander, Spain.

Epigenetic mechanisms are able to alter gene expression, without altering DNA sequence, in a stable manner through cell divisions. They include, among others, the methylation of DNA cytosines and microRNAs and allow the cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In recent years, epigenetic association studies are providing new insights into the pathogenesis of complex disorders including prevalent skeletal disorders. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856000PMC

Periostin-deficient mice, a relevant animal model to investigate periodontitis or not?

Bonekey Rep 2016 6;5:794. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

INSERM, U791, LIOAD, Nantes, France; Université de Nantes, UMR-S 791, LIOAD, UFR Odontologie, Nantes, France; ONIRIS, UMR-S 791, LIOAD, Nantes, France; CHU Nantes, PHU 4 OTONN, Nantes, France.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822343PMC
April 2016
1 Read

Fam3c modulates osteogenic cell differentiation and affects bone volume and cortical bone mineral density.

Bonekey Rep 2016 6;5:787. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku , Turku, Finland.

Fam3c, a cytokine-like growth factor, has been suggested to have a role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor growth and metastasis. A single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting bone mineral density has been found in the first intron of the Fam3c gene in a study analyzing an Asian population cohort. Other independent studies on different population cohorts have found the fam3c locus to be associated with bone mineral density and fractures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822344PMC
April 2016
1 Read

Therapeutic actions of curcumin in bone disorders.

Bonekey Rep 2016 2;5:793. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; INSERM, U791, LIOAD, Nantes, France.

Curcumin is the active component of turmeric extract derived from the Curcuma longa plant. In the last decade, curcumin has raised a considerable interest in medicine owing to its negligible toxicity and multiple therapeutic actions including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. Among the various molecular targets of curcumin, some are involved in bone remodeling, which strongly suggests that curcumin can affect the skeletal system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://mr.crossref.org/iPage?doi=10.1038%2Fbonekey.2016.20
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774085PMC
March 2016
6 Reads

TBS and bone strength.

Bonekey Rep 2016 2;5:792. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Radiologie Ostéo-articulaire, Université Paris VII-Denis-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, Paris, France; B2OA, CNRS UMR 7052, Paris, France.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774083PMC
March 2016
4 Reads

Activation of intracellular calcium signaling in osteoblasts colocalizes with the formation of post-yield diffuse microdamage in bone matrix.

Bonekey Rep 2016 2;5:778. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previous studies demonstrated that extracellular calcium efflux ([Ca(2+)]E) originates from the regions of bone extracellular matrix that are undergoing microdamage. Such [Ca(2+)]E is reported to induce the activation of intracellular calcium signaling ([Ca(2+)]I) in MC3T3-E1 cells. The current study investigated the association between microdamage and local activation of intracellular calcium signaling quantifiably in MC3T3-E1 cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774084PMC

Mouse models for studying prostate cancer bone metastasis.

Bonekey Rep 2016 17;5:777. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Department of Cancer Biology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine , Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Once tumor cells metastasize to the bone, the prognosis for prostate cancer patients is generally very poor. The mechanisms involved in bone metastasis, however, remain elusive, because of lack of relevant animal models. In this manuscript, we describe step-by-step protocols for the xenograft mouse models that are currently used for studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757481PMC
February 2016
5 Reads

Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

Bonekey Rep 2016 3;5:775. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes y Sistémicas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio , Granada, España.

Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747078PMC
February 2016
21 Reads
1 Citation

Glucose: not always the bad guy.

Bonekey Rep 2016 3;5:774. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Clinical Exercise Science Program, Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), Victoria University , Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2016.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747079PMC
February 2016
3 Reads

Preclinical animal models of multiple myeloma.

Bonekey Rep 2016 3;5:772. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine , Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma-cell malignancy characterized by osteolytic bone disease and immunosuppression. Murine models of multiple myeloma and myeloma bone disease are critical tools for an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review will cover commonly used immunocompetent and xenograft models of myeloma, describing the advantages and disadvantages of each model system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747080PMC
February 2016
4 Reads

Value of rare low bone mass diseases for osteoporosis genetics.

Bonekey Rep 2016 6;5:773. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Helsinki, Finland; Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Osteoporosis presents as increased susceptibility to fractures due to bone loss and compromised bone microstructure. Osteoporosis mainly affects the elderly population, but it is increasingly recognized that compromised bone health with low bone mass and increased fractures may have its onset already in childhood. In such cases, genetic component is likely to contribute more than lifestyle factors to disease onset. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704609PMC
January 2016
3 Reads

FGF23 in chronic kidney disease: are we lost in translation?

Bonekey Rep 2016 6;5:770. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Centre de Référence des Maladies Rénales Rares, Service de Néphrologie Rhumatologie Dermatologie Pédiatriques, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France; INSERM 1033, LYOS, Lyon, France; Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704608PMC
January 2016
6 Reads

Skeletal stem cells for bone development, homeostasis and repair: one or many?

Bonekey Rep 2015 23;4:769. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; The Institute for Regenerative and Reparative Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA, USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704464PMC
January 2016

Preclinical mouse models for assessing axial compression of long bones during exercise.

Bonekey Rep 2015 23;4:768. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Division of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, Geneva University Hospitals & Faculty of Medicine , Geneva, Switzerland.

The aim of this laboratory method is to describe two approaches for the investigation of bone responses to mechanical loading in mice in vivo. The first is running exercise, because it is easily translatable clinically, and the second is axial compression of the tibia, because it is precisely controllable. The effects of running exercise, and in general physical activity, on bone tissue have been shown to be both direct through mechanical loading (ground impact and muscle tension) and indirect through metabolic changes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704463PMC
January 2016
11 Reads

Role of Irisin on the bone-muscle functional unit.

Bonekey Rep 2015 23;4:765. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Department of Basic Medical Science, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari , Bari, Italy.

Irisin was originally recognized as a hormone-like myokine secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise both in mice and humans. The first role attributed to Irisin was its ability to induce trans-differentiation of white adipose tissue into brown, but we recently demonstrated that Irisin also has a central role in the control of bone mass, even at lower concentration than required to induce the browning response. Considering how physical exercise is important for the development of an efficient load-bearing skeleton, we can now consider this myokine as one of the molecules responsible for the positive correlation between exercise and healthy bone, linking to the well-established relationship between muscle and bone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704465PMC
January 2016
1 Read

Treatment of bone marrow lesions (bone marrow edema).

Authors:
Erik F Eriksen

Bonekey Rep 2015 25;4:755. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital , Oslo, Norway.

Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or using older terminology 'Bone marrow edema' is characterised by excessive water signals in the marrow space on magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound; BMLs constitute a central component of a wide variety of inflammatory and non-inflammatory rheumatologic conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system: BMLs are not only considered significant sources of pain but also linked to increased disease activity in many musculoskeletal conditions (for example, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis). The purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge about the treatment of BMLs, with an emphasis on the clinical and histological features of this entity in inflammatory and non-inflammatory disease. We also try to pair this hypothesis with the apparent beneficial effects of various treatment regimens, mainly within the group of bone antiresorptive drugs (calcitonin, bisphosphonates) on symptoms associated with BMLs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4662576PMC
December 2015

Bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

Bonekey Rep 2015 11;4:758. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Medical Education and Metabolic Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Brighton , Brighton, UK.

It has been suggested that osteoporosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) have overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms and related risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between several traditional cardiovascular risk factors and measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with and without clinically significant CAD defined angiographically. A case-control study was undertaken of 180 postmenopausal women (aged between 48 and 88 years) who were recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4644069PMC
November 2015
7 Reads

Sclerostin inhibits osteoblast differentiation without affecting BMP2/SMAD1/5 or Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling but through activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling in vitro.

Bonekey Rep 2015 4;4:757. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland.

Sclerostin inhibits bone formation mostly by antagonizing LRP5/6, thus inhibiting Wnt signaling. However, experiments with genetically modified mouse models suggest that a significant part of sclerostin-mediated inhibition of bone formation is due to interactions with other binding partners. The objective of the present work was to identify signaling pathways affected by sclerostin in relation with its inhibitory action on osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635862PMC
November 2015

Genetics of Paget's disease of bone.

Authors:
Omar Me Albagha

Bonekey Rep 2015 4;4:756. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, UK.

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common metabolic bone disease characterised by focal areas of increased bone turnover, which primarily affects people over the age of 55 years. Genetic factors have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of PDB and are probably the main predisposing factor for the disease. The genetic contribution to PDB susceptibility ranges from rare pathogenic mutations in the single gene SQSTM1 to more common, small effect variants in at least seven genetic loci that predispose to the disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635861PMC
November 2015
2 Reads

Mechanisms of osteolytic and osteoblastic skeletal lesions.

Bonekey Rep 2015 28;4:753. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Department of Medicine, Hematology, Oncology, Indiana University , Indianapolis, IN, USA.

The bone is a frequent site for tumor metastasis, and cancer in the bone results in marked disturbances of bone remodeling that can be lytic, blastic or a combination of the two. Patients with advanced malignancies that have metastasized to the bone frequently suffer from debilitating skeletal-related events, including pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression syndromes, disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and severe cancer-related pain. This review will discuss recent studies on the mechanisms responsible for osteolytic and osteoblastic metastasis and how their identification has resulted in the development of new agents for patients with metastatic bone disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2015.122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4625391PMC
November 2015
1 Read