203 results match your criteria Bone reports[Journal]


Calcium isotope ratios in blood and urine: A new biomarker for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 16;10:100200. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Clinical Research Center Kiel GmbH, Schauenburgerstraße 116, 24118 Kiel, Germany.

We assessed the potential of Calcium (Ca) isotope fractionation measurements in blood (δCa) and urine (δCa) as a new biomarker for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. One hundred post-menopausal women aged 50 to 75 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the gold standard for determination of bone mineral density. After exclusion of women with kidney failure and vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/l) 80 women remained in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453776PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Higher dose but not low dose proton pump inhibitors are associated with increased risk of subsequent hip fractures after first hip fracture: A nationwide observational cohort study.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 1;10:100204. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, Hanusch Hospital of the WGKK and AUVA Trauma Center, 1 Medical Department at Hanusch Hospital, Heinrich Collin Str. 30, 1140 Vienna, Austria.

Aim: To examine the association of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use with subsequent hip fracture incidence in hip fracture patients, accounting for gender, age, PPI doses, PPI initiation before or after first fracture, and year from first fracture in which the first subsequent fracture occurred.

Methods: Data from 31,668 Austrian patients ≥50 years with the first hip fracture between July 2008 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. After exclusion of patients on anti-osteoporotic medication, incidence of subsequent hip fractures was compared between users and non-users of PPIs using regression models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451165PMC
June 2019
1 Read

PI3K activation increases SDF-1 production and number of osteoclast precursors, and enhances SDF-1-mediated osteoclast precursor migration.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 22;10:100203. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Farmington, CT, USA.

Our previous studies showed that in a mouse model in which PI3K-AKT activation was increased (YF mice), osteoclast numbers and levels of SDF-1, a chemokine, were augmented. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of PI3K activation in regulating SDF-1 production and examine whether SDF-1 can stimulate differentiation and/or migration of osteoclast precursors. Using flow cytometric analysis, we demonstrated that compared to wild type mice, bone marrow of YF mice had increased numbers of CXCL12 abundant reticular (CAR) cells, that are a major cell type responsible for producing SDF-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449702PMC

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor tirabrutinib suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 15;10:100201. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Osaka, Japan.

Osteoclasts are responsible for bone erosion in osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both Btk and Tec kinases have essential functions in osteoclast differentiation. Tirabrutinib is a highly potent and dual oral Btk/Tec inhibitor with an IC in the nmol/L range and significantly inhibits the M-CSF and RANKL-driven osteoclast differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431727PMC

Relaxin 2 carried by magnetically directed liposomes accelerates rat midpalatal suture expansion and subsequent new bone formation.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 14;10:100202. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Maxillofacial Orthognathics, Department of Maxillofacial Reconstruction and Function, Division of Maxillofacial/Neck Reconstruction, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

Relaxin (RLN) is an insulin-like peptide hormone that enables softening and lengthening of the pubic symphysis and uterine cervix. Here, we analyzed the effects of RLN2 on the expansion of rat midpalatal suture (MPS) using a magnetically directed liposome-based drug delivery system. Thirty-six male rats were divided into three groups: control (MPS was not expanded), lipo (expanded for 1 week with vehicle liposomes encapsulating ferric oxide and Cy5. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430079PMC
June 2019
9 Reads

Activation of cancer-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in human mature osteoblasts isolated from patients with type 2 diabetes.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 21;10:100199. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease of glucose metabolism, and it adversely affects bone metabolism and increases the risk of cancer development. Previously, we reported a method for the direct isolation of human mature osteoblasts and indicated that osteoblasts were associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus-related signaling pathways. In addition, a recent report suggested that osteoblasts are involved in glucose metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406057PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Targeted sequencing of in familial Paget's disease of bone.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 21;10:100198. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) has a strong genetic component. Variants in are found in up to 40% of patients with a family history of the disease, where a pattern of autosomal dominance with incomplete penetrance is apparent. By contrast, variants are only found in up to 10% of patients with sporadic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403439PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Insulin Receptor deletion in S100a4-lineage cells accelerates age-related bone loss.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 5;10:100197. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, United States of America.

Type I and Type II Diabetes dramatically impair skeletal health. Altered Insulin Receptor (IR) signaling is a common feature of both diseases, and insulin has potent bone anabolic functions. Several previous studies have demonstrated that loss of IR in bone cells results in disrupted bone homeostasis during early post-natal growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374520PMC

Regulation of cytoskeleton and adhesion signaling in osteoclasts by tetraspanin CD82.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 30;10:100196. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Center for Cancer and Cell Biology, Program for Skeletal Disease and Tumor Microenvironment, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

We used a myeloid-specific Cre to conditionally delete CD82 in mouse osteoclasts and their precursors. In contrast to global loss of CD82 (gKO), conditional loss of CD82 (cKO) in osteoclasts does not affect cortical bone, osteoblasts, or adipocytes. CD82 loss results in greater trabecular volume and trabecular number but reduced trabecular space in 6-month old male mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369370PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Longitudinal changes in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone area at the lumbar spine and hip in postmenopausal women, and the influence of abdominal aortic calcification.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 27;10:100190. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

Longitudinal studies often report that spine bone mineral density (BMD), measured by DXA, is stable in older adults, which has been attributed to osteophyte development and the presence of aortic calcification. A decline in projected spine area as a result of loss of intervertebral disc height might also contribute to higher BMD. We utilised data from 297 postmenopausal women (mean 73 years) who had DXA measurements of the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck 5 years apart, and abdominal aortic calcification scoring from vertebral morphometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360344PMC

Treadmill running and targeted tibial loading differentially improve bone mass in mice.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 17;10:100195. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Treadmill running and tibial loading are two common modalities used to assess the role of mechanical stimulation on the skeleton preclinically. The primary advantage of treadmill running is its physiological relevance. However, the applied load is complex and multiaxial, with observed results influenced by cardiovascular and musculoskeletal effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348199PMC

Short-term intermittent PTH 1-34 administration and bone marrow blood vessel ossification in Mature and Middle-Aged C57BL/6 mice.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 30;10:100193. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, United States of America.

Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration augments bone and progressive bone marrow blood vessel (BMBV) ossification occurs with advancing age. Since intermittent PTH administration augments bone, it may also serve to increase BMBV ossification. We assessed the influence of 5- and 10-days of intermittent PTH 1-34 administration on trabecular and cortical bone and BMBV ossification in mature (6-8 mon; n = 30) and middle-aged (10-12 mon; n = 30) male and female C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348201PMC

Bone structure is largely unchanged in growing male CD-1 mice fed lower levels of vitamin D and calcium than in the AIN-93G diet.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 30;10:100191. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Kinesiology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Calcium (Ca) and vitamin D (vit D) in the AIN-93G diet may be higher than required for healthy bone development, and mask the potential benefit of a dietary intervention.

Objective: The objective was to determine if lower levels of Ca and vit D than is present in the AIN-93G diet supports bone development in growing male CD-1 mice.

Methods: Weanling male CD-1 mice were randomized to modified AIN-93G diets containing either 100 (Trial 1) or 400 (Trial 2) IU vit D/kg diet within one of two or three Ca levels (0. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324019PMC
June 2019
18 Reads

Rapid onset of hypercalcemia from high-grade lymphoma in the setting of HIV-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 28;10:100194. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, United States of America.

Hypercalcemia in HIV patients has been previously reported, but 1,25-(OH) vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, due to increased activity of extrarenal 1-alpha hydroxylase, is rarely described with HIV-related infections or malignancies. We describe a case of 1,25-(OH) vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia in a patient presenting with progressive cognitive decline and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed a new diagnosis of HIV, for which he was started on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319307PMC
June 2019
16 Reads

Ectopic expression of Klotho in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-producing tumors that cause tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia (TIO).

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 31;10:100192. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Fujii Memorial Institute of Medical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

Tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumors that ectopically express fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that regulates serum phosphate concentrations. Patients with TIO develop hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia due to FGF23 excess and suffer from symptoms such as leg deformities, bone pain, skeletal muscle myopathy, and multiple fractures/pseudofractures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321977PMC
June 2019
4 Reads

The long-term impact of very preterm birth on adult bone mineral density.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 12;10:100189. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, 3175 Chemin de la Côte-Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1C5, Canada.

Introduction: Preterm infants are at increased risk of osteopenia of prematurity due to insufficient bone mineral accretion. Data on long term effects of prematurity on bone health are conflicting. This study aimed to compare bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults born very preterm and full-term controls and to examine factors associated with long-term bone health. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319299PMC
June 2019
19 Reads

Brown tumor diagnosed three years after parathyroidectomy in a patient with nail-patella syndrome: A case report.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 10;10:100187. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Nephrology Center, Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We report a 48-year-old Japanese man with a brown tumor of the right distal tibia. At the age of 25 years, hemodialysis was initiated due to nail-patella syndrome. Severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis progressed over time, so parathyroidectomy was performed at age 45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319327PMC
June 2019
4 Reads

Calcitriol and cancer therapy: A missed opportunity.

Authors:
Donald L Trump

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 13;9:110-119. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Inova Schar Cancer Institute, Inova Health System, Fairfax, VA 22037, United States of America.

The vitamin D receptor is expressed in most tissues of the body - and the cancers that arise from those tissues. The vitamin D signaling pathway is active in those tissues and cancers. This is at least consistent with the hypothesis that perturbing this signaling may have a favorable effect on the genesis and growth of cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303233PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Vitamin D and kidney disease.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 25;9:93-100. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals required for many critical biologic functions including cell signaling, energy metabolism, skeletal growth and integrity. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis are maintained primarily by regulation of epithelial calcium and phosphate cotransport in the kidney and intestine, processes that are tightly regulated by hormones including 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as renal function declines, disruption of feedback loops between these hormones have adverse consequences on several organ systems, including the skeleton, heart and vascular system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303542PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Juvenile onset IIH and mutations.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 21;9:42-46. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Münster, Germany.

The term Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH) was first introduced almost 70 years ago when symptomatic hypercalcemia developed in children after receiving high doses of vitamin D for the prevention of rickets. The underlying pathophysiology remained unknown until recessive mutations in encoding Vitamin D-24-hydroxylase were discovered. The defect in vitamin D degradation leads to an accumulation of active 1,25(OH)D with subsequent hypercalcemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303532PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Vitamin D deficiency in immigrants.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 11;9:37-41. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Section, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Vitamin D deficiency and rickets are more common in non-western immigrants and refugees than in the native population. Severe vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25 nmol/l) may occur in up to 50% of children and adults of non-western origin. They are not used to sunshine exposure due to the often excessive sunshine in the country of origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303232PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Cortical bone is an extraneuronal site of norepinephrine uptake in adult mice.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 24;9:188-198. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Orthopedics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

The sympathetic nervous system is a major efferent pathway through which the central nervous system controls the function of peripheral organs. Genetic and pharmacologic evidence in mice indicated that stimulation of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in osteoblasts promotes bone loss, leading to the paradigm that high sympathetic nervous activity is deleterious to bone mass. However, considerably less data exist to understand the putative impact of endogenous norepinephrine (NE), released by sympathetic nerves, on bone homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296164PMC
December 2018

Impact of frequent apheresis blood donation on bone density: A prospective, longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial.

Bone Rep 2019 Jun 12;10:100188. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Exercise Science, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881, United States of America.

Background: Blood for transfusion is lifesaving and essential to many elements of modern medical practice. The global blood supply relies on volunteer blood donors. Apheresis is increasingly used to collect blood and requires anticoagulant to prevent extracorporeal coagulation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297840PMC
June 2019
10 Reads

Prevalence of glucocorticoid induced osteonecrosis in the mouse is not affected by treatments that maintain bone vascularity.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 3;9:181-187. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Objective: Determine if LLP2A-Ale or PTH (1-34) affects the prevalence of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) in a mouse model.

Methods: Eight-week-old young adult male BALB/cJ mice were weight-randomized into Control (Con), glucocorticoid (GC)-only, or concurrent treatments with GC and LLP2A-Ale (250 μg/kg or 500 μg/kg, IV, Days 1, 14, 28) or parathyroid hormone hPTH (1-34) (40 μg/kg, 5×/week). Mice were necropsied after 45 days for qualitative evaluation of prevalent ON and quantitative evaluation of vascularity in the distal femoral epiphysis (DFE); and quantitative evaluation of bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength in the distal femoral metaphysis and lumbar vertebral body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260230PMC
December 2018
19 Reads

Glucocorticoids affect bone mineral density and bone remodelling in OVX sheep: A pilot study.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 15;9:173-180. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Tennent Drive, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

The aim of this study was to validate the combination of ovariectomy and glucocorticoid treatment in sheep as a large animal model for osteoporosis by measuring the concentration of specific biomarkers in the blood of the sheep and measuring bone loss over five months. Aged Merino ewes were randomly allocated into four groups: control, ovariectomy (OVX), and two OVX groups receiving glucocorticoids-one group once-monthly for five months (OVXG), and the other for two months followed by no treatment for three months (OVXG2). Parameters measured were biochemical markers of bone turnover, areal bone mineral density, volumetric bone mineral density, and total and trabecular bone parameters. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249392PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

High-precision method for cyclic loading of small-animal vertebrae to assess bone quality.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 27;9:165-172. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

One potentially important bone quality characteristic is the response of bone to cyclic (repetitive) mechanical loading. In small animals, such as in rats and mice, cyclic loading experiments are particularly challenging to perform in a precise manner due to the small size of the bones and difficult-to-eliminate machine compliance. Addressing this issue, we developed a precise method for ex vivo cyclic compressive loading of isolated mouse vertebral bodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222041PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

Cathepsin K inhibition preserves compressive load in lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic monkeys.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 18;9:159-164. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Anti-resorptive drugs treat bone loss by blocking osteoclast activity through a variety of mechanisms of action. Once significant bone loss has occurred, the ability to restore biomechanical function may differ based on the drug chosen. To assess this question, bisphosphonate (alendronate, ALN) and cathepsin K inhibitor (MK-0674, CatKi) were employed in treatment mode to compare the relative changes to cancellous bone microstructure and mechanical properties in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214835PMC
December 2018
17 Reads

Skeletal disease in a father and daughter with a novel monoallelic WNT1 mutation.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 19;9:154-158. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States of America.

Context: Most heritable causes of low bone mass in children occur due to mutations affecting type 1 collagen. We describe two related patients with low bone mass and fracture without mutations in the type 1 collagen genes.

Case Description: We describe the index case of a 10-year-old girl with low-impact fractures in childhood and her 59-year-old father with traumatic fractures in adulthood, both with low bone mineral density. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197702PMC
December 2018
20 Reads

Glucocorticoids cause mandibular bone fragility and suppress osteocyte perilacunar-canalicular remodeling.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 3;9:145-153. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of California San Francisco, United States of America.

Osteocytes support dynamic, cell-intrinsic resorption and deposition of bone matrix through a process called perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR). In long bones, PLR depends on MMP13 and is tightly regulated by PTH, sclerostin, TGFβ, and glucocorticoids. However, PLR is regulated differently in the cochlea, suggesting a mechanism that is anatomically distinct. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176786PMC
December 2018
1 Read

FGF2 crosstalk with Wnt signaling in mediating the anabolic action of PTH on bone formation.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 21;9:136-144. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Medicine, UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06030, USA.

The mechanisms of the anabolic effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in bone are not fully defined. The bone anabolic effects of PTH require fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) as well as Wnt signaling and FGF2 modulates Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. In vivo PTH administration differentially modulated Wnt signaling in bones of wild type (WT) and in mice that Fgf2 was knocked out (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152810PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

A moderate form of osteogenesis imperfecta caused by compound heterozygous mutations.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 15;9:132-135. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for, Children, Wilmington, DE, United States.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder causing skeletal fragility, multiple fractures, and other extraskeletal manifestations. Most cases are caused by mutations in or . Recent investigations have discovered several other autosomal recessive genes responsible for OI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146588PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Ptychographic X-ray CT characterization of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network in a male rat's glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis model.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 29;9:122-131. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Synchrotron Soleil, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT) is a quantitative imaging modality that non-destructively maps the 3D electron density inside an object with tens of nanometers spatial resolution. This method provides unique access to the morphology and structure of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) and nanoscale density of the tissue in the vicinity of an osteocyte lacuna. Herein, we applied PXCT to characterize the lacunae and LCN in a male Wistar rat model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146379PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Associations between trabecular bone score and biochemistry in surgically vs conservatively treated outpatients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A retrospective cohort study.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 9;9:101-109. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark.

Purpose: Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) is a software-based method for indirect assessment of trabecular bone structure of the spine, based on analysis of pixels in dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. Few studies describe the use of TBS in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). This study aimed at further describing this relationship, investigating possible correlations between biochemistry, body mass index (BMI), fracture incidence and TBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092478PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Loss of RANKL in osteocytes dramatically increases cancellous bone mass in the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse (oim).

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 2;9:61-73. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States of America.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by osteopenia and bone fragility, and OI patients during growth often exhibit high bone turnover with the net result of low bone mass. Recent evidence shows that osteocytes significantly affect bone remodeling under physiological and pathological conditions through production of osteoclastogenic cytokines. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) produced by osteocytes for example, is a critical mediator of bone loss caused by ovariectomy, low-calcium diet, unloading and glucocorticoid treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077550PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Polyethylene particles inserted over calvarium induce cancellous bone loss in femur in female mice.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 4;9:84-92. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Focal bone resorption (osteolysis) induced by wear particles contributes to long-term orthopedic joint failure. However, the impact of focal osteolysis on remote skeletal sites has received less attention. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of polyethylene particles placed over calvaria on representative axial and appendicular skeletal sites in female mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073052PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Characteristics of bone strength and metabolism in type 2 diabetic model Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes mice.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 21;9:74-83. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Graduate School of Health Science Suzuka University of Medical Science, 1001-1 Kishioka, Suzuka, Mie 510-0293, Japan.

Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and complications such as obesity and osteoporosis. The Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mouse is an animal model of spontaneous obese T2DM. However, bone metabolism in TSOD mice is yet to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073051PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Bones in human CYP26B1 deficiency and rats with hypervitaminosis A phenocopy overexpression.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 21;9:27-36. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-14152 Huddinge, Sweden.

Angulated femurs are present prenatally both in CYP26B1 deficient humans with a reduced capacity to degrade retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A), and mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor a (Vegfa). Since excessive ingestion of vitamin A is known to induce spontaneous fractures and as the Vegfa-induced femur angulation in mice appears to be caused by intrauterine fractures, we analyzed bones from a deficient human and rats with hypervitaminosis A to further explore Vegfa as a mechanistic link for the effect of vitamin A on bone. We show that bone from a human with mutations displayed periosteal osteoclasts in piles within deep resorption pits, a pathognomonic sign of hypervitaminosis A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039751PMC
December 2018
11 Reads

Expression of pro-apoptotic markers is increased along the osteochondral junction in naturally occurring osteochondrosis.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 21;9:19-26. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a naturally occurring disease of the articular-epiphyseal cartilage and subchondral bone layers, leading to pain and decreased mobility. The objective of this study was to characterize gene and protein expression of apoptotic markers in chondrocytes surrounding cartilage canals and along the osteochondral junction of osteochondrosis (OC)-affected and normal cartilage, using naturally occurring disease in horses. Paraffin-embedded osteochondral samples (6 OC, 8 normal controls) and cDNA from chondrocytes captured with laser capture microdissection (4 OC, 6 normal controls) were obtained from the lateral trochlear ridge of femoropatellar joints in 14 immature horses (1-6 months of age). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038796PMC
December 2018
38 Reads

Bisphosphonate conjugation for bone specific drug targeting.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 3;9:47-60. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

MBC Pharma Inc., 12635 East Montview Blvd., Aurora, CO 80045-0100, United States of America.

Bones provide essential functions and are sites of unique biochemistry and specialized cells, but can also be sites of disease. The treatment of bone disorders and neoplasia has presented difficulties in the past, and improved delivery of drugs to bone remains an important goal for achieving effective treatments. Drug targeting strategies have improved drug localization to bone by taking advantage of the high mineral concentration unique to the bone hydroxyapatite matrix, as well as tissue-specific cell types. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037665PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Effect of a cathepsin K inhibitor on arthritis and bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 30;9:1-10. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan.

Objectives: Cathepsin K is expressed by osteoclasts and synovial fibroblasts and degrades key components of bone and cartilage. Inhibition of cathepsin K protease activity may be beneficial for the prevention of bone erosion and cartilage degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model is well established for studying the pathology and treatment of RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.05.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034140PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of extra renal CYP27b1: Case report and review.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 26;8:255-267. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Medicine, Endocrine Research Unit, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, United States.

Although the kidney was initially thought to be the sole organ responsible for the production of 1,25(OH)D via the enzyme CYP27b1, it is now appreciated that the expression of CYP27b1 in tissues other than the kidney is wide spread. However, the kidney is the major source for circulating 1,25(OH)D. Only in certain granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis does the extra renal tissue produce sufficient 1,25(OH)D to contribute to the circulating levels, generally associated with hypercalcemia, as illustrated by the case report preceding the review. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021194PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Distal radius microstructure and finite element bone strain are related to site-specific mechanical loading and areal bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 14;8:187-194. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, United States.

While weight-bearing and resistive exercise modestly increases aBMD, the precise relationship between physical activity and bone microstructure, and strain in humans is not known. Previously, we established a voluntary upper-extremity loading model that assigns a person's target force based on their subject-specific, continuum FE-estimated radius bone strain. Here, our purpose was to quantify the inter-individual variability in radius microstructure and FE-estimated strain explained by site-specific mechanical loading history, and to determine whether variability in strain is captured by aBMD, a clinically relevant measure of bone density and fracture risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021193PMC
June 2018
14 Reads

Vitamin D and muscle.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 18;8:163-167. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Centre for Diabetes, Obesity and Endocrinology Research, The Westmead Institute of Medical Research, Westmead, Sydney, Australia.

Vitamin D is increasingly recognised to play an important role in normal muscle function. Low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of falls and proximal weakness. Since vitamin D deficiency is very common, and the signs are non-specific, it is important to maintain a high index of suspicion of vitamin D deficiency in patients with muscle pain and weakness, and it is simple to measure serum 25(OH) vitamin D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021354PMC
June 2018
1 Read

The effect of oral dabigatran etexilate on bone density, strength, and microstructure in healthy mice.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 18;8:9-17. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Thrombin is a key component in the coagulation cascade where it converts factor V, VIII, XI, and fibrinogen. In addition to the abundant production of thrombin in the liver, osteoclasts synthesize and secrete thrombin as well. Osteoblasts express thrombin receptors, and it has been reported that thrombin stimulates the expression of RANKL relatively to OPG, resulting in greater osteoclast activation and bone degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2017.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021300PMC
June 2018
6 Reads

Metabolomics-based profiles predictive of low bone mass in menopausal women.

Bone Rep 2018 Dec 18;9:11-18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fracture. Low bone mass and/or pre-existing bone fragility fractures serve as diagnostic criteria in deciding when to start medication for osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder, metabolic markers to predict reduced bone mass are unknown. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23521872183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019687PMC
December 2018
20 Reads

10 years of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D testing by LC-MS/MS-trends in vitamin-D deficiency and sufficiency.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 23;8:268-273. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

In early 2000's vitamin-D deficiency was shown to be prevalent in several countries including the United States (US). Studies exploring the role of vitamin-D metabolism in diverse disease pathways generated an increased demand for vitamin-D supplementation and an immense public interest in measurement of vitamin-D metabolite levels. In this report, we review the role of vitamin-D metabolism in disease processes, clinical utility of measuring vitamin-D metabolites including 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D and discuss vitamin-D assay methodologies including immunoassays and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020395PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of the long-term skeletal effect induced by teratogen 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine on offspring of high (C3H/HeJ) and low (C57BL/6J) bone mass phenotype mice.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 29;8:239-243. Epub 2018 May 29.

The Musculoskeletal Genetics Laboratory, Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar Ilan University, Safed, Israel.

The long term skeletal effects of antenatal exposure to teratogen 5-deoxy-2'-cytidine (5-AZA) were studied using two inbred strains, C3H/HeJ (C3H, with inherently stronger bones) and C57Bl/6J (C57, with weaker bones). We previously reported that exposure to 5-AZA resulted in loss of bone quality in 3- and 6-mo-old C3H offspring. In this study, we further examined whether the long-term effects of an acute teratogenic exposure are still evident in older mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020399PMC
June 2018
22 Reads

Bone development in growing female mice fed calcium and vitamin D at lower levels than is present in the AIN-93G reference diet.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 19;8:229-238. Epub 2018 May 19.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The AIN-93G reference (REF) diet is used to allow the comparison within and between studies of different research groups but its levels of vitamin D (vit D) and calcium (Ca) may be higher than required for healthy bone structure and bone mineral density (BMD).

Objective: To determine if lower dietary levels of Ca (3.5, 3 or 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020397PMC
June 2018
14 Reads

A methodology for the generation and non-destructive characterisation of transverse fractures in long bones.

Bone Rep 2018 Jun 25;8:221-228. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.

Long bone fractures are common and although treatments are highly effective in most cases, it is challenging to achieve successful repair for groups such as open and periprosthetic fractures. Previous biomechanical studies of fracture repair, including computer and experimental models, have simplified the fracture with a flat geometry or a gap, and there is a need for a more accurate fracture representation to mimic the situation . The aims of this study were to develop a methodology for generating repeatable transverse fractures in long bones and to characterise the fracture surface using non-invasive computer tomography (CT) methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020270PMC
June 2018
1 Read