1,510 results match your criteria Body Fluid Exposures


Longitudinal assessment of mycotoxin co-exposures in exclusively breastfed infants.

Environ Int 2020 Sep 17;142:105845. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

University of Vienna, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Währinger Straße 38, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Early-life development of infants may be critically affected by man-made or natural contaminants including mycotoxins. However, data on the occurrence of food contaminants in breast milk is scarce and prohibits a comprehensive exposure and risk assessment for mothers and their infants. Here, we present a longitudinal exposure assessment over the first 211 days of a single newborn girl (studyA) by measuring multiple mycotoxins in milk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105845DOI Listing
September 2020

Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among primary healthcare workers in Johannesburg health district: High rate of underreporting.

S Afr Fam Pract (2004) 2020 May 14;62(1):e1-e7. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Family Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of bloodborne infections from sharp instrument injuries and skin and mucous membrane exposures to contaminated blood and body fluids (BBF). While these have clinical and occupational health implications, little is known about BBF exposure and its reporting pattern in South African primary healthcare (PHC). The aim of this study was to determine the rate of BBF exposure, the extent of reporting and the reasons for not reporting among HCWs in PHC facilities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/safp.v62i1.5027DOI Listing

Exacerbation of Nanoparticle-Induced Acute Pulmonary Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2020 7;11:818. Epub 2020 May 7.

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Nanotechnology has the capacity to revolutionize numerous fields and processes, however, exposure-induced health effects are of concern. The majority of nanoparticle (NP) safety evaluations have been performed utilizing healthy models and have demonstrated the potential for pulmonary toxicity. A growing proportion of individuals suffer diseases that may enhance their susceptibility to exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221136PMC

Post-treatment with a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor prevents chronic lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, following acute exposure of mice to HCl.

Exp Lung Res 2020 May - Aug;46(6):203-216. Epub 2020 May 13.

Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

Exposure to high levels of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is associated with severe lung injury including both acute inflammation and chronic lung disease, which leads to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents for HCl-induced lung injury. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01902148.2020.1764148DOI Listing

Comparability of the small RNA secretome across human biofluids concomitantly collected from healthy adults.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(4):e0229976. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Cincinnati Cancer Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States of America.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) are nano-sized (40-150 nm), membrane-encapsulated vesicles that are released by essentially all cells into the extracellular space and function as intercellular signaling vectors through the horizontal transfer of biologic molecules, including microRNA (miRNA) and other small non-coding RNA (ncRNA), that can alter the phenotype of recipient cells. sEV are present in essentially all extracellular biofluids, including serum, urine and saliva, and offer a new avenue for discovery and development of novel biomarkers of various disease states and exposures. The objective of this study was to systematically interrogate similarities and differences between sEV ncRNA derived from saliva, serum and urine, as well as cell-free small ncRNA (cf-ncRNA) from serum. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229976PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147728PMC

CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults - United States, 2020.

MMWR Recomm Rep 2020 Apr 10;69(2):1-17. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. HCV is transmitted primarily through parenteral exposures to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood, most commonly through injection drug use. No vaccine against hepatitis C exists and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6902a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147910PMC

Occupational exposure to HIV among healthcare workers in PMTCT sites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

BMC Public Health 2020 Apr 6;20(1):451. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (NFELTP), 50 Haile Selassie Street, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Rivers State is among the states with high HIV prevalence in Nigeria. Occupational exposure to HIV through blood or body fluids of HIV/AIDS patients is a recognised risk factor of HIV infections among healthcare workers. We identified the determinants of occupational exposures to HIV among healthcare workers in Prevention of Maternal to Child Transmission (PMTCT) sites within Port Harcourt metropolis in Rivers State. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08528-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132882PMC
April 2020
2.264 Impact Factor

Maternal and fetal exposures to fluoride during mid-gestation among pregnant women in northern California.

Environ Health 2020 Apr 6;19(1):38. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Orofacial Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Previous studies have shown a correlation between fluoride concentrations in urine and community water fluoride concentrations. However, there are no studies of the relationship between community water fluoridation, urine, serum, and amniotic fluid fluoride concentrations in pregnant women in the US. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal urine fluoride (MUF), maternal urine fluoride adjusted for specific gravity (MUF), maternal serum fluoride (MSF), amniotic fluid fluoride (AFF) concentrations during pregnancy, and community water fluoridation in Northern California. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00581-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132865PMC

Human thermoregulation during prolonged exposure to warm and extremely humid environments expected to occur in disabled submarine scenarios.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2020 05 1;318(5):R950-R960. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Center for Research and Education in Special Environments, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Military and civilian emergency situations often involve prolonged exposures to warm and very humid environments. We tested the hypothesis that increases in core temperature and body fluid losses during prolonged exposure to warm and very humid environments are dependent on dry bulb temperature. On three occasions, 15 healthy males (23 ± 3 yr) sat in 32. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00018.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272764PMC

The dog as a sentinel species for environmental effects on human fertility.

Reproduction 2020 05;159(6):R265-R276

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Leicestershire, UK.

Despite the vast body of evidence that environmental toxicants adversely affect reproductive development and function across species, demonstrating true cause and effect in the human remains a challenge. Human meta-analytical data, showing a temporal decline in male sperm quality, are paralleled by a single laboratory study showing a similar 26-year decline in the dog, which shares the same environment. These data are indicative of a common cause. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-20-0042DOI Listing

Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids and use of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure prophylaxis amongst nurses in a Gauteng province hospital.

Health SA 2020 25;25:1252. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Healthcare facilities in South Africa are confronted by several challenges arising from Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune diseases syndrome infection pandemic. All categories of nurses continue to experience accidental occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs) of patients who are HIV-positive. Studies conducted revealed that nurses fail to report the occurrence of the exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hsag.v25i0.1252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059637PMC
February 2020

Impact of Personal Protective Equipment on the Performance of Emergency Pediatric Tasks.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Feb 24. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn by health care providers (HCPs) to protect against hazardous exposures. Studies of HCPs performing critical resuscitation tasks in PPE have yielded mixed results and have not evaluated performance in care of children. We evaluated the impacts of PPE on timeliness or success of emergency procedures performed by pediatric HCPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002028DOI Listing
February 2020

Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Ceftazidime-Avibactam in the Treatment of Experimental Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Persistently Neutropenic Rabbits.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 03 24;64(4). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Transplantation-Oncology Infectious Diseases Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA.

carbapenemase-producing (KPC-) is an emerging global public health threat that causes life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) represents a promising advance for the treatment of serious infections caused by KPC- We investigated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of experimental KPC- pneumonia in persistently neutropenic rabbits. For single-dose and multidose (administration every 8 h) pharmacokinetics, rabbits received ceftazidime-avibactam intravenous infusions at 60/15, 90/22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02157-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179283PMC
March 2020
4.476 Impact Factor

Integrating Exposure Knowledge and Serum Suspect Screening as a New Approach to Biomonitoring: An Application in Firefighters and Office Workers.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 04 15;54(7):4344-4355. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Firefighters (FF) are exposed to recognized and probable carcinogens, yet there are few studies of chemical exposures and associated health concerns in women FFs, such as breast cancer. Biomonitoring often requires a priori selection of compounds to be measured, and so, it may not detect relevant, lesser known, exposures. The Women FFs Biomonitoring Collaborative (WFBC) created a biological sample archive and conducted a general suspect screen (GSS) to address this data gap. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182169PMC
April 2020
5.330 Impact Factor

Sex Disparity in Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine Related to the Age of Vaccination.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 2;17(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Center for Gender Specific Medicine, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major infectious hazards for health-care workers (HCWs) because of the frequency of percutaneous exposures to blood or body fluids. For this reason, all HCWs should be vaccinated, including students in medicine and health professional degree programs. The aim of this study was to assess the immune coverage to anti-HBV vaccine and long-lasting protective titres of anti-HBs antibodies in female and male students to evaluate gender-related differences in response to HBV vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981715PMC
January 2020

Education and devices to prevent blood and body fluid exposures.

Occup Med (Lond) 2020 Mar;70(1):38-44

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Healthcare workers are at risk of blood and body fluid exposures (BBFE) while delivering care to patients. Despite recent technological advances such as safety-engineered devices (SEDs), these injuries continue to occur in healthcare facilities worldwide.

Aims: To assess the impact of an education and SEDs workplace programme on rates of reported exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqz156DOI Listing

Ingestion and inhalation of metal(loid)s through preschool gardening: An exposure and risk assessment in legacy mining communities.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 22;718:134639. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Sierra Streams Institute, Nevada City, CA, United States.

Children residing in mining towns are potentially disproportionately exposed to metal(loid)s via ingestion and dust inhalation, thus, increasing their exposure when engaging in school or home gardening or playing outside. This citizen science study assessed preschool children's potential arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) exposure via locally grown produce, water, incidental soil ingestion, and dust inhalation at four sites. Participants were trained to properly collect water, soil, and vegetable samples from their preschools in Nevada County, California. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176541PMC
May 2020
4.099 Impact Factor

Immune repertoire fingerprinting by principal component analysis reveals shared features in subject groups with common exposures.

BMC Bioinformatics 2019 Dec 4;20(1):629. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Chemical & Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235, USA.

Background: Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) of antibody repertoires have led to an explosion in B cell receptor sequence data from donors with many different disease states. These data have the potential to detect patterns of immune response across populations. However, to this point it has been difficult to interpret such patterns of immune response between disease states in the absence of functional data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-3281-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894320PMC
December 2019

Work accidents with biological material: factors associated with abandoning clinical and laboratory follow-up.

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2019 2;53:e03516. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Faculdade de Enfermagem, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem, Goiânia, GO, Brasil.

Objective: To analyze the epidemiology of abandoning clinical and laboratory follow-up among health workers who suffered accidents with biological material.

Method: Cohort study based on reported work accidents with biological material in Goiânia/Goiás. Data were analyzed in Stata with descriptive and analytical statistics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980-220X2018029703516DOI Listing

Association of Obesity With Septic Complications After Major Abdominal Surgery: A Secondary Analysis of the RELIEF Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 11 1;2(11):e1916345. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Importance: Body mass index (BMI) has been the most common obesity measure to assess perioperative risk; however, cardiometabolic risk is associated with the burden of visceral fat. Definitive evidence on the association of visceral fat measures, such as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), with postoperative complications is lacking.

Objective: To compare the value of waist circumference with the value WHR and BMI in predicting adverse outcomes, including major septic complications and persistent disability, following major abdominal surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.16345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902846PMC
November 2019

Radiation Dosimetry of Inhaled Radioactive Aerosols: CFPD and MCNP Transport Simulations of Radionuclides in the Lung.

Sci Rep 2019 11 25;9(1):17450. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Despite extensive efforts in studying radioactive aerosols, including the transmission of radionuclides in different chemical matrices throughout the body, the internal organ-specific radiation dose due to inhaled radioactive aerosols has largely relied on experimental deposition data and simplified human phantoms. Computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) has proven to be a reliable tool in characterizing aerosol transport in the upper airways, while Monte Carlo based radiation codes allow accurate simulation of radiation transport. The objective of this study is to numerically assess the radiation dosimetry due to particles decaying in the respiratory tract from environmental radioactive exposures by coupling CFPD with Monte Carlo N-Particle code, version 6 (MCNP6). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54040-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877642PMC
November 2019

Early-Life Arsenic Exposure, Nutritional Status, and Adult Diabetes Risk.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 11 22;19(12):147. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In utero influences, including nutrition and environmental chemicals, may induce long-term metabolic changes and increase diabetes risk in adulthood. This review evaluates the experimental and epidemiological evidence on the association of early-life arsenic exposure on diabetes and diabetes-related outcomes, as well as the influence of maternal nutritional status on arsenic-related metabolic effects.

Recent Findings: Five studies in rodents have evaluated the role of in utero arsenic exposure with diabetes in the offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1272-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004311PMC
November 2019

Association of Timing of Plasma Transfusion With Adverse Maternal Outcomes in Women With Persistent Postpartum Hemorrhage.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 11 1;2(11):e1915628. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Importance: Early plasma transfusion for women with severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is recommended to prevent coagulopathy. However, there is no comparative, quantitative evidence on the association of early plasma transfusion with maternal outcomes.

Objective: To compare the incidence of adverse maternal outcomes among women who received plasma during the first 60 minutes of persistent PPH vs women who did not receive plasma for similarly severe persistent PPH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.15628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902812PMC
November 2019

Assessment of Jugular Venous Blood Flow Stasis and Thrombosis During Spaceflight.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 11 1;2(11):e1915011. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

Importance: Exposure to a weightless environment during spaceflight results in a chronic headward blood and tissue fluid shift compared with the upright posture on Earth, with unknown consequences to cerebral venous outflow.

Objectives: To assess internal jugular vein (IJV) flow and morphology during spaceflight and to investigate if lower body negative pressure is associated with reversing the headward fluid shift experienced during spaceflight.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study included 11 International Space Station crew members participating in long-duration spaceflight missions . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.15011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902784PMC
November 2019

Associations Between Vascular Risk Across Adulthood and Brain Pathology in Late Life: Evidence From a British Birth Cohort.

JAMA Neurol 2019 Nov 4:1-9. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Dementia Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Midlife vascular risk burden is associated with late-life dementia. Less is known about if and how risk exposure in early adulthood influences late-life brain health.

Objective: To determine the associations between vascular risk in early adulthood, midlife, and late life with late-life brain structure and pathology using measures of white matter-hyperintensity volume, β-amyloid load, and whole-brain and hippocampal volumes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.3774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830432PMC
November 2019

The development of a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for mycophenolic mofetil and mycophenolic acid in humans using data from plasma, saliva, and kidney tissue.

Biopharm Drug Dispos 2019 Nov 15;40(9):325-340. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Deparment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan.

Background: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is used widely to prevent graft rejection in kidney-transplant patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in plasma requires an invasive procedure that is inconvenient, especially in pediatric patients. TDM in saliva is a more convenient non-invasive alternative compared with plasma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdd.2206DOI Listing
November 2019

Associations between in utero exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pathophysiological state of fetal growth and placental DNA methylation changes.

Environ Int 2019 12 23;133(Pt B):105255. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (Fudan University), China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental chemicals with harmful effects on pregnancy, but their effects on adverse developmental outcomes are not fully understood. The placental DNA methylation is strongly influenced by prenatal environmental factors and has been linked to fetal growth.

Objective: To evaluate the association between in utero PBDEs exposure, placental DNA methylation changes (growth regulatory genes), and pathophysiology of fetal growth (birth outcomes, fetal growth retardation) in a population-based pregnancy cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105255DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Deciphering the Impact of Early-Life Exposures to Highly Variable Environmental Factors on Foetal and Child Health: Design of SEPAGES Couple-Child Cohort.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 10 14;16(20). Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Inserm, CNRS, Team of Environmental Epidemiology Applied to Reproduction and Respiratory Health, IAB (Institute for Advanced Biosciences) Joint Research Center, University Grenoble Alpes, 38700 Grenoble, France.

In humans, studies based on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept and targeting short half-lived chemicals, including many endocrine disruptors, generally assessed exposures from spot biospecimens. Effects of early-life exposure to atmospheric pollutants were reported, based on outdoor air pollution levels. For both exposure families, exposure misclassification is expected from these designs: for non-persistent chemicals, because a spot biospecimen is unlikely to capture exposure over windows longer than a few days; for air pollutants, because indoor levels are ignored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843812PMC
October 2019

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in cord blood and associations of DNA methylation with sex in newborns.

Mutagenesis 2019 12;34(4):315-322

School of Public Health, Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

DNA methylation has been widely studied for associations with exposures and health outcomes. Both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are epigenetic marks that may function differently to impact gene expression; however, the most commonly used technology to assess methylation for population studies in blood use are the Illumina 450K and EPIC BeadChips, for which the traditional bisulfite conversion does not differentiate 5mC and 5hmC marks. We used a modified protocol originally developed by Stewart et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gez023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922517PMC
December 2019

National Trends in Hepatitis C Infection by Opioid Use Disorder Status Among Pregnant Women at Delivery Hospitalization - United States, 2000-2015.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Oct 4;68(39):833-838. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted primarily through parenteral exposures to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood (e.g., via injection drug use, needle stick injuries) (1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6839a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776372PMC
October 2019
2 Reads

Citrinin biomarkers: a review of recent data and application to human exposure assessment.

Arch Toxicol 2019 11 10;93(11):3057-3066. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Leibniz-Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) at the TU Dortmund, Ardeystr. 67, 44139, Dortmund, Germany.

The mycotoxin citrinin (CIT) deserves attention due to its known toxic effects in mammalian species and a widespread occurrence in food commodities, often along with ochratoxin A, another nephrotoxic mycotoxin. Human exposure, a key element in assessing risks related to these food contaminants, depends upon mycotoxin levels in food and on food consumption. Yet, data available for CIT levels in food are insufficient for reliable intake estimates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-019-02570-yDOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read
5.980 Impact Factor

Systematic evaluation and validation of reference and library selection methods for deconvolution of cord blood DNA methylation data.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 08 27;11(1):125. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, and Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Background: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is commonly used in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposures. Accounting for cell type composition is critical in such studies as it reduces confounding due to the cell specificity of DNA methylation (DNAm). In the absence of cell sorting information, statistical methods can be applied to deconvolve heterogeneous cell mixtures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0717-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712867PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Using Birth Cohort Data to Estimate Prenatal Chemical Exposures for All Births around the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site in Massachusetts.

Environ Health Perspect 2019 08 26;127(8):87008. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Environmental Health Sciences Graduate Program, Susan and Henry Samueli College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

Background: Children born near New Bedford, Massachusetts, have been prenatally exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, in part due to an older housing stock, maternal diet, and proximity to the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) Superfund site. Chemical exposure measures are not available for all births, limiting epidemiologic investigations and potential interventions.

Objective: We linked biomonitoring data from the New Bedford Cohort (NBC) and birth record data to predict prenatal exposures for all contemporaneous area births. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP4849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6792387PMC
August 2019
1 Read
7.977 Impact Factor

Negligible exposure to nifurtimox through breast milk during maternal treatment for Chagas Disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 08 15;13(8):e0007647. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Parasitology and Chagas Service, Buenos Aires Children´s Hospital "Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez", Multidisciplinary Institute for Research in Pediatric Diseases (IMIPP), Buenos Aires Argentina.

Background: Treatment with nifurtimox (NF) for Chagas disease is discouraged during breast-feeding because no information on NF transfer into breast milk is available. NF is safe and effective for paediatric and adult Chagas disease. We evaluated the degree of NF transfer into breast milk in lactating women with Chagas disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711540PMC
August 2019
3 Reads

Prevalence of needlestick injury among healthcare workers in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Health Prev Med 2019 Aug 14;24(1):52. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Unit of Quality Assurance and Laboratory Management, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Health facilities can provide diagnostic, curative, and prognostic services for the community. While providing services, healthcare workers can be exposed to needlestick injuries that can transmit pathogenic organisms through body fluids.

Objective: The aim was to establish the pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-019-0807-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693183PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Obese Individuals with and without Type 2 Diabetes Show Different Gut Microbial Functional Capacity and Composition.

Cell Host Microbe 2019 08 6;26(2):252-264.e10. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Biostatistics Department, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.07.004DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Human biomonitoring to evaluate exposure to toxic and essential trace elements during pregnancy. Part A. concentrations in maternal blood, urine and cord blood.

Environ Res 2019 10 22;177:108599. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201, Reus, Catalonia, Spain; Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament D'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain.

Exposures to toxic elements or deficiencies of essential elements during pregnancy may be associated to various birth complications or even diseases in early life. The aim of this paper was to assess the concentrations of selected toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb) and essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Mn, Se and Zn) in blood and urine samples of delivering women at different periods of gestation and cord blood, as well as to evaluate the placental permeability for these elements. A total of 53 women participating in the HEALS-EXHES study were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108599DOI Listing
October 2019

Occupational Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

J Cancer Prev 2019 Jun 30;24(2):91-111. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. There are many occupational factors that have been suggested to cause prostate cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the evidence for causality by a literature review of occupational factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2019.24.2.91DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6619854PMC
June 2019
2 Reads

Benefits of cooperation among large-scale cohort studies and human biomonitoring projects in environmental health research: An exercise in blood lead analysis of the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 09 18;222(8):1059-1067. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon, France.

A number of prospective cohort studies are ongoing worldwide to investigate the impact of foetal and neonatal exposures to chemical substances on child health. To assess multiple exposure (mixture) effects and low prevalence health outcomes it is useful to pool data from several studies and conduct mega-data-analysis. To discuss a path towards data harmonization, representatives from several large-scale birth cohort studies and a biomonitoring programme formed a collaborative group, the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group (ECHIBCG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732228PMC
September 2019
5 Reads

Associations of prenatal exposures to low levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) with thyroid hormones in cord plasma and neurobehavioral development in children at 2 and 4 years.

Environ Int 2019 10 18;131:105010. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

NHC Key Lab. of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neurotoxic effects of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) at low levels have not been well studied in human population, and whether the associations can be explained by thyroid hormones (THs) remains unclear.

Objectives: We examined the associations of prenatal PBDE exposures with THs in cord plasma and neurobehavior of children at 2 and 4 years among general population in China.

Methods: Participants were mother-child pairs in the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105010DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices relevant to zoonotic disease reporting and infection prevention practices among veterinarians - Arizona, 2015.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Aug 18;169:104711. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Arizona Department of Health Services, 150 N 18th Ave Suite 140, Phoenix, AZ, 85007, USA; Career Epidemiology Field Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA. Electronic address:

Veterinarians play a crucial role in zoonotic disease detection in animals and prevention of disease transmission; reporting these zoonoses to public health officials is an important first step to protect human and animal health. Evidence suggests veterinarians and their staff are at higher risk for exposure to zoonoses because of possible interactions with infected animals. We examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of veterinarians regarding zoonotic disease reporting to public health agencies and associated infection prevention (IP) practices such as personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and the need for targeted education and outreach for veterinarians in Arizona. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01675877183052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652217PMC
August 2019
4 Reads

Toward safer thanatopraxy cares: formaldehyde-releasers use.

J Anat 2019 11 11;235(5):863-872. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Swiss Human Institute of Forensic Taphonomy, University Centre of Legal Medicine Lausanne-Geneva, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Human cadavers constitute very useful educational tools to teach anatomy in medical scholarship and related disciplines such as physiology, for example. However, as biological material, human body is subjected to decay. Thanatopraxy cares such as embalming have been developed to slow down and inhibit this decay, but the formula used for the preservation fluids are mainly formaldehyde (FA)-based. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13047DOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read

Prediction of maternal and foetal exposures to perfluoroalkyl compounds in a Spanish birth cohort using toxicokinetic modelling.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2019 09 26;379:114640. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Modèles pour l'Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, France.

Prenatal exposures to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been associated with child health outcomes, but many of these associations remain poorly characterized. The aim of this work was to provide new indicators of foetal exposure for the Spanish INMA birth cohort. First, a pregnancy and lactation physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was calibrated in a population framework to provide quantitative estimates for the PFOA and PFOS placental transfers in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2019.114640DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Human Transcriptomic Response to Mixed Neutron-Photon Exposures Relevant to an Improvised Nuclear Device.

Radiat Res 2019 08 25;192(2):189-199. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

a Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York 10032.

In the possible event of a detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND), the immediate radiation would consist of both photons (gamma rays) and neutrons. Since neutrons generally have a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for most physiological end points, it is important to understand the effect that neutrons would have on the biodosimetry methods that are being developed for medical triage purposes. We previously compared the transcriptomic response in human blood after neutron and photon irradiation. Read More

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https://bioone.org/journals/radiation-research/volume-192/is
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15281.1DOI Listing
August 2019
7 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Determination of human urinary metabolites of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) by online-SPE-HPLC-MS/MS.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 Aug 17;1124:239-246. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) is a plasticizer and phthalate substitute used in various consumer products. Relevant population exposures have to be assumed. In this study we describe the determination of three specific side chain-oxidized monoester metabolites of DEHA, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl adipate (5OH-MEHA), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl adipate (5oxo-MEHA), and mono-5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl adipate (5cx-MEPA) in human urine as potential biomarkers of DEHA exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.06.019DOI Listing
August 2019
16 Reads
2.729 Impact Factor

Occupational blood and body fluid exposures and human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure prophylaxis amongst intern doctors.

South Afr J HIV Med 2019 22;20(1):958. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are constantly vulnerable to occupational blood and body fluid exposures (OBBFEs). Exposed HCWs experience emotional, physical and psychological trauma. Less experienced HCWs, such as intern doctors, are more prone to OBBFEs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/HIVMED.v20i1.958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6561641PMC
May 2019
5 Reads

Pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide during the initial phase of tuberculous meningitis treatment.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2019 Sep 14;54(3):371-374. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 GA (route 864), Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a pivotal antituberculous drug, but its dose has not been optimised for TBM. The aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetics of PZA during TBM treatment, to identify predictors of PZA exposure and to assess relationships between PZA dose and exposures in plasma and CSF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.06.010DOI Listing
September 2019
12 Reads

Maternal, placental and cord blood cytokines and the risk of adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women infected with Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 06 12;13(6):e0007371. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States of America.

Background: The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the influence of treatment with praziquantel on the inflammatory milieu in maternal, placental, and cord blood, 2) assess the extent to which proinflammatory signatures in placental and cord blood impacts birth outcomes, and 3) evaluate the impact of other helminths on the inflammatory micro environment.

Methods/findings: This was a secondary analysis of samples from 369 mother-infant pairs participating in a randomized controlled trial of praziquantel given at 12-16 weeks' gestation. We performed regression analysis to address our study objectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590831PMC
June 2019
5 Reads