1,659 results match your criteria Body Fluid Exposures

Modulation of Pulmonary Toxicity in Metabolic Syndrome Due to Variations in Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Biocorona Composition.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Nanoparticles (NPs) interact with biomolecules by forming a biocorona (BC) on their surface after introduction into the body and alter cell interactions and toxicity. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent condition and enhances susceptibility to inhaled exposures. We hypothesize that distinct NP-biomolecule interactions occur in the lungs due to MetS resulting in the formation of unique NP-BCs contributing to enhanced toxicity. Read More

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Urine Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Metabolites Are Independently Related to Body Fluid Status in Adults: Results from a U.S. Nationally Representative Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 7;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, En Chu Kong Hospital, New Taipei City 237, Taiwan.

Purpose: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been utilized in many daily products for decades. Previous studies have reported that DEHP exposure could induce renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation and increase epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which contributes to extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion. However, there is also no previous study to evaluate the association between DEHP exposure and body fluid status. Read More

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Associations Between Handgrip Strength and Dementia Risk, Cognition, and Neuroimaging Outcomes in the UK Biobank Cohort Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2218314. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: The associations between muscle strength and cognitive outcomes have sparked interest in interventions that increase muscle strength for prevention of dementia, but the associations between muscle strength and cognitive aging are unclear, particularly among middle-aged adults.

Objective: To evaluate the association between handgrip strength (HGS) and dementia, reduced cognition, and poorer neuroimaging outcomes in a UK population of middle-aged adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study evaluated UK Biobank participants aged 39 to 73 years enrolled from 2006 to 2010 with measured HGS and prospectively followed up for dementia diagnosis. Read More

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Changes in Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Morphology During Spaceflight and Acute Fluid Shift Reversal.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

KBR, Houston, Texas.

Importance: Countermeasures that reverse the headward fluid shift experienced in weightlessness have the potential to mitigate spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome. This study investigated whether use of the countermeasure lower-body negative pressure during spaceflight was associated with changes in ocular structure.

Objective: To determine whether changes to the optic nerve head and retina during spaceflight can be mitigated by brief in-flight application of 25-mm Hg lower-body negative pressure. Read More

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Design and proof-of-concept evaluation of a touchless connector system for preventing peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis.

BMJ Innov 2022 Apr 28;8(2):98-104. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Bakken Medical Devices Center, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: In this paper, we describe the design of a touchless peritoneal dialysis connector system and how we evaluated its potential for preventing peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis, in comparison to the standard of care. The unique feature of this system is an enclosure within which patients can connect and disconnect for therapy, protecting their peritoneal catheters from touch or aerosols.

Methods: We simulated a worst-case contamination scenario by spraying 40mL of a standardized inoculum [ 1×10 colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter] of test organisms, ATCC1228 and ATCC39327, while test participants made mock connections for therapy. Read More

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Needlestick and sharps injuries at a German university hospital: epidemiology, causes and preventive potential - a descriptive analysis.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Protestant Hospital Ginsterhof, Rosengarten, Germany (Psychosomatic Clinic).

Objectives: To analyze the number, epidemiology and circumstances of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSSI) and exposures to body fluids and to identify further preventive measures to improve the occupational safety of health care workers (HCW).

Material And Methods: Setting: German university tertiary-care referral center. Retrospective study based on injury documentation sheets of the hospital's staff and faculty health service and, if given, on reports by continuity doctors and by the accident and emergency department in January 2014-June 2016. Read More

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Blood serum levels of selected biomarkers of oxidative stress among printing workers occupationally exposed to low-levels of toluene and xylene.

Toxicol Ind Health 2022 May 24;38(5):299-307. Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of health, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, 48538Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Printing workers (PWs) are exposed to a mixture of solvents, yet the health risks associated with such exposuer are unknown. This study aimed to compare the serum levels of selected biomarkers of oxidative stress among occupationally exposed PWs to low-level of toluene and xylenes and unexposed controls. Associations between levels of such biomarkers and occupational exposures to toluene and xylene were also investigated. Read More

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as a causative agent of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 22;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Division of Hospital Medicine, Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and abdominal ascites, usually caused by organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family. A woman in her 40s with a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis presented to the hospital with dyspnoea, abdominal distention and diffuse abdominal pain. She was found to have sepsis and abdominal ascites, with elevated ascitic fluid neutrophil counts consistent with SBP. Read More

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The microbiome in reproductive health: protocol for a systems biology approach using a prospective, observational study design.

Hum Reprod Open 2022 23;2022(2):hoac015. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

The Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Unit, The Capital Region, The Fertility Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospitals Rigshospitalet and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Study Question: What is the microbiome profile across different body sites in relation to the normal menstrual cycle (with and without hormonal contraception), recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) (before and during pregnancy, pregnancy loss or birth) and endometriosis (before, during and after surgery)? How do these profiles interact with genetics, environmental exposures, immunological and endocrine biomarkers?

What Is Known Already: The microbiome is a key factor influencing human health and disease in areas as diverse as immune functioning, gastrointestinal disease and mental and metabolic disorders. There is mounting evidence to suggest that the reproductive microbiome may be influential in general and reproductive health, fertility and pregnancy outcomes.

Study Design Size Duration: This is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study using a systems biology approach in three cohorts totalling 920 participants. Read More

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Early Blood Transfusion After Kidney Transplantation Does Not Lead to dnDSA Development: The BloodIm Study.

Front Immunol 2022 31;13:852079. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Nephrology, Hemodialysis, Apheresis and Kidney Transplantation Department, University Hospital Grenoble, Grenoble, France.

Outcomes after kidney transplantation are largely driven by the development of donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA), which may be triggered by blood transfusion. In this single-center study, we investigated the link between early blood transfusion and dnDSA development in a mainly anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-induced kidney-transplant cohort. We retrospectively included all recipients of a kidney transplant performed between 2004 and 2015, provided they had >3 months graft survival. Read More

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Assessment of Patient-Specific Human Leukocyte Antigen Genomic Loss at Relapse After Antithymocyte Globulin-Based T-Cell-Replete Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 04 1;5(4):e226114. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Importance: Patient-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genomic loss (HLA loss) is one of the reputed mechanisms of leukemia immune escape and relapse after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). However, clinical characteristics and prognosis of this distinct relapse type in the setting of haploidentical HSCT based on antithymocyte globulin (ATG) T-cell-replete conditioning are still unknown, especially for patients with lymphoid leukemia.

Objective: To identify the incidence of and patient characteristics associated with HLA loss at hematologic cancer relapse after ATG-based haploidentical HSCT and to assess overall survival after HLA loss at relapse. Read More

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MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Ionizing Radiation Injury.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 3;10:861451. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Radiobiology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Radiobiology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China.

Accidental radiation exposures such as industrial accidents and nuclear catastrophes pose a threat to human health, and the potential or substantial injury caused by ionizing radiation (IR) from medical treatment that cannot be ignored. Although the mechanisms of IR-induced damage to various organs have been gradually investigated, medical treatment of irradiated individuals is still based on clinical symptoms. Hence, minimally invasive biomarkers that can predict radiation damage are urgently needed for appropriate medical management after radiation exposure. Read More

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DNA methylation changes in cord blood and the developmental origins of health and disease - a systematic review and replication study.

BMC Genomics 2022 Mar 19;23(1):221. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Population Health Research Institute, David Braley Cardiac, Vascular and Stroke Research Institute, 237 Barton Street East, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Environmental exposures in utero which modify DNA methylation may have a long-lasting impact on health and disease in offspring. We aimed to identify and replicate previously published genomic loci where DNA methylation changes are attributable to in utero exposures in the NutriGen birth cohort studies Alliance.

Methods: We reviewed the literature to identify differentially methylated sites of newborn DNA which are associated with the following five traits of interest maternal diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), diet during pregnancy, smoking, and gestational age. Read More

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Radon-222 Brain Dosimetry.

Health Phys 2022 05;122(5):575-578

Edith S. Robbins, New York University School of Medicine, Department of Cell Biology, (retired).

Abstract: The human brain dose from radon-222 (222Rn) exposure is calculated here using 222Rn tissue solubility data. A fraction of 222Rn inhaled dissolves in blood and cellular fluids and circulates to brain and all organs. Radon-222 has a relatively high solubility in blood and body fluids based on human inhalation experiments. Read More

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Cytokine profiles in cord blood in relation to prenatal traffic-related air pollution: The NELA cohort.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2022 02;33(2):e13732

Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.

Background: Outdoor air pollution may disturb immune system development. We investigated whether gestational exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) is associated with unstimulated cytokine profiles in newborns.

Methods: Data come from 235 newborns of the NELA cohort. Read More

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February 2022

Longitudinal analyses of development of the immune system during the first five years of life in relation to lifestyle.

Allergy 2022 05 16;77(5):1583-1595. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Changes in immune cell composition during the immunological window within the first years after birth are not fully understood, especially the effect that different lifestyles might have on immune cell functionality.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from mothers and their children at birth and at two anvd five years were analyzed by mass cytometry. Immune cell composition and functionality was analyzed according to family lifestyle (anthroposophic and non-anthroposophic). Read More

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Pesticide residues levels as hematological biomarkers-a case study, blood serum of greenhouse workers in the city of Hamadan, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 26;29(25):38450-38463. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Center of Excellence for Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

The cultivation of greenhouse crops is the most severe form of crop production in Iran, and vast quantities of unreasonable pesticides are being utilized to control the pests. The residual level of blood pesticides and their correlation with multibiomarkers were determined to evaluate the adverse health consequences on greenhouse workers in the Hamadan, west of Iran. Participants were 180 adult males, including 90 greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides and 90 control individuals. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to PM and changes in DNA methylation and telomere length in cord blood.

Environ Res 2022 06 19;209:112717. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, CPO-Piemonte, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Air pollution exposure in pregnancy can cause molecular level alterations that might influence later disease susceptibility.

Objectives: We investigated DNA methylation (DNAm) and telomere length (TL) in the cord blood in relation to gestational PM exposure and explored potential gestational windows of susceptibility.

Methods: Cord blood epigenome-wide DNAm (N = 384) and TL (N = 500) were measured in children of the Italian birth cohort Piccolipiù, using the Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip and qPCR, respectively. Read More

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Occupational Exposure of Health-Care Workers to Blood and Body Fluids in West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia, 2018: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Environ Public Health 2021 31;2021:2944158. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Health-care workers are susceptible to acquiring blood and body fluids borne infections due to their occupations involving contact with patients and their body fluids, although studies conducted in Ethiopia are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of exposure to blood and body fluids among health-care workers in governmental health facilities in West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia.

Materials And Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 19 to June 25, 2018. Read More

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January 2022

A metabolome-wide association study of in utero metal and trace element exposures with cord blood metabolome profile: Findings from the Boston Birth Cohort.

Environ Int 2022 01 19;158:106976. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to metals lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) and trace elements selenium (Se) and manganese (Mn) has been linked to the developmental origins of cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms are not well-understood.

Objective: Conduct a metabolome-wide association study to understand how in utero exposure to Pb, Hg, Cd, Se, and Mn affects the metabolic programming of fetuses.

Methods: We used data from the Boston Birth Cohort, which enrolled mother-child pairs from Boston, MA. Read More

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January 2022

Impact of Repeated Acute Exposures to Low and Moderate Exercise-Induced Hypohydration on Physiological and Subjective Responses and Endurance Performance.

Nutrients 2021 Dec 15;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Faculty of Physical Activity Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada.

This study aimed to examine whether repeated exposures to low (2%) and moderate (4%) exercise-induced hypohydration may reverse the potentially deleterious effect of hypohydration on endurance performance. Using a randomized crossover protocol, ten volunteers (23 years, V˙O: 54 mL∙kg∙min) completed two 4-week training blocks interspersed by a 5-week washout period. During one block, participants replaced all fluid losses (EUH) while in the other they were fluid restricted (DEH). Read More

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December 2021

HBM4EU Occupational Biomonitoring Study on e-Waste-Study Protocol.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 12 9;18(24). Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 b, 00250 Helsinki, Finland.

Workers involved in the processing of electronic waste (e-waste) are potentially exposed to toxic chemicals. If exposure occurs, this may result in uptake and potential adverse health effects. Thus, exposure surveillance is an important requirement for health risk management and prevention of occupational disease. Read More

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December 2021

Maternal and Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin G Antibody Levels at Delivery After Receipt of the BNT162b2 Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccine During the Second Trimester of Pregnancy.

JAMA Pediatr 2022 Mar;176(3):290-295

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Importance: BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination in the third trimester was found to be associated with a strong maternal humoral IgG response that crossed the placenta and approached maternal titers in the newborn.

Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels at birth after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination during the second trimester of pregnancy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study, conducted at a single medical center in Haifa, Israel, from May to July 2021, included women with a singleton pregnancy over 24 weeks of gestation at least 7 days after receipt of their second COVID-19 vaccine dose who were not known to be previously infected with COVID-19. Read More

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Long-term in vitro exposure of human granulosa cells to the mixture of endocrine disrupting chemicals found in human follicular fluid disrupts steroidogenesis.

Toxicol In Vitro 2022 Mar 18;79:105302. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and Ecology, Serbia. Electronic address:

Most in vitro studies examine the effects of a single ED or a mixture of EDs on granulosa cells using short-term exposure; however, this approach is unlikely to reflect long-term, real-life exposures that are common in humans. We established an in vitro model that mimics long-term exposure of granulosa cells to real-life ED mixture. Human granulosa cells, HGrC1, were exposed to the mixture consisting of bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyl 153, benzo[a]pyrene, and perfluorooctanesulfonate in concentrations found in human follicular fluid (MIX) for 48 h and 4 weeks. Read More

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Comparison of untargeted and targeted perfluoroalkyl acids measured in adolescent girls.

Chemosphere 2022 Mar 15;290:133303. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Quantitative biomonitoring (e.g., targeted analysis) has served as the gold standard for environmental exposure biomonitoring for several decades. Read More

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Prenatal lead exposure, telomere length in cord blood, and DNA methylation age in the PROGRESS prenatal cohort.

Environ Res 2022 04 15;205:112577. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Lead is a ubiquitous pollutant with deleterious effects on human health and remains a major current public health concern in developing countries. This heavy metal may interfere with nucleic acids via oxidative stress or epigenetic changes that affect biological markers of aging, e.g. Read More

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Transcriptomics of single dose and repeated carbon black and ozone inhalation co-exposure highlight progressive pulmonary mitochondrial dysfunction.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2021 12 15;18(1):44. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Mitochondria, Metabolism and Bioenergetics Working Group, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Background: Air pollution is a complex mixture of particles and gases, yet current regulations are based on single toxicant levels failing to consider potential interactive outcomes of co-exposures. We examined transcriptomic changes after inhalation co-exposure to a particulate and a gaseous component of air pollution and hypothesized that co-exposure would induce significantly greater impairments to mitochondrial bioenergetics. A whole-body inhalation exposure to ultrafine carbon black (CB), and ozone (O) was performed, and the impact of single and multiple exposures was studied at relevant deposition levels. Read More

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December 2021

Post-exercise accumulation of interstitial lung water is greater in hypobaric than normobaric hypoxia in adults born prematurely.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2022 03 7;297:103828. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

We aimed to gauge the interstitial lung water accumulation following moderate-intensity exercise under normobaric and hypobaric hypoxic conditions in a group of preterm born but otherwise healthy young adults. Sixteen pre-term-born individuals (age = 21±2yrs.; gestational age = 29±3wk. Read More

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Serological Responses in Patients Infected with Mayaro Virus and Evaluation of Cross-Protective Responses against Chikungunya Virus.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 11 29;106(2):607-609. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an alphavirus endemic to both Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent reports have questioned the ability of MAYV and its close relative, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), to generate cross-reactive, neutralizing antibodies to one another. Since CHIKV was introduced to South America in 2013, discerning whether individuals have cross-reactive antibodies or whether they have had exposures to both viruses previously has been difficult. Read More

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November 2021

Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Infant Feeding and DNA Methylation in Infancy and Childhood in a Population at Increased Risk for Type 1 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 13;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

We assessed associations between infant diet (e.g., breastfeeding and introduction to solid foods) and DNA methylation in infancy and childhood. Read More

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November 2021