1,593 results match your criteria Body Fluid Exposures

Occupational exposure to blood/body fluid splash and its predictors among midwives working in public health institutions at Addis Ababa city Ethiopia, 2020. Institution-based cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(6):e0251815. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Public Health, Wolkite University College of Health and Medical Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia.

Background: Blood/body fluid splash are hazards to health care professionals in their working area. Around twenty bloodborne pathogens are known to be transmitted through these occupational injuries. This problem alters the health status of health care professionals in different ways, including physically, mentally, and psychologically. Read More

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Ocular pharmacokinetics of atenolol, timolol and betaxolol cocktail: tissue exposures in the rabbit eye.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Eastern Finland, School of Pharmacy, Biopharmaceutics, Yliopistonranta 1, 70210 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

Quantitative understanding of pharmacokinetics of topically applied ocular drugs requires more research to further understanding and to eventually allow predictive in silico models to be developed. To this end, a topical cocktail of betaxolol, timolol and atenolol was instilled on albino rabbit eyes. Tear fluid, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma with endothelium, bulbar conjunctiva, anterior sclera, iris-ciliary body, lens and vitreous samples were collected and analysed using LC-MS/MS. Read More

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Lifestyle and Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence, Progression, and Mortality: Available Research and Future Directions.

Bladder Cancer 2020 28;6(1):9-23. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: A broad, comprehensive review of studies exploring associations between lifestyle factors and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) outcomes is warranted to consolidate recommendations and identify gaps in research.

Objective: To summarize the literature on associations between lifestyle factors and clinical outcomes among patients with NMIBC.

Methods: PubMed was systematically queried for articles published through March 2019 regarding lifestyle factors and recurrence, progression, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality among patients with NMIBC. Read More

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Comparison of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae response to infection by route of exposure.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jul 15;258:109118. Epub 2021 May 15.

Veterinary Diagnostic and Population Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; Pig Improvement Company, PIC®, Hendersonville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHP) is a concern both for pig well-being and producer economic viability. In the absence of fully protective health interventions, producers rely on controlled exposure to induce an immune response in pigs and minimize the clinical outcomes of MHP infection in pig populations. This study compared the effect of route of exposure on MHP infection, antibody response, clinical signs, and pathology. Read More

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Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile 2021.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 May 22;26(1):59. Epub 2021 May 22.

Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Center for Medical Education and International Relations, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.

Methods: The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. Read More

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Gestational blood levels of toxic metal and essential element mixtures and associations with global DNA methylation in pregnant women and their infants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 8;787:147621. Epub 2021 May 8.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Pregnant women and their fetuses are exposed to multiple toxic metals that together with variations in essential element levels may alter epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between gestational levels of toxic metals and essential elements and mixtures thereof, with global DNA methylation levels in pregnant women and their newborn children.

Methods: Using 631 mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort (The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study), we measured maternal blood concentration (gestation week ~18) of five toxic metals and seven essential elements. Read More

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September 2021

A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to describe antisense oligonucleotide distribution after intrathecal administration.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, Biogen Inc., 225 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are promising therapeutic agents for a variety of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), caused by genetic abnormalities or increased protein accumulation. Read More

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Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for alectinib, ruxolitinib, and panobinostat in the presence of cancer, renal impairment, and hepatic impairment.

Biopharm Drug Dispos 2021 Jun 5;42(6):263-284. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Renal (RIP) and hepatic (HIP) impairments are prevalent conditions in cancer patients. They can cause changes in gastric emptying time, albumin levels, hematocrit, glomerular filtration rate, hepatic functional volume, blood flow rates, and metabolic activity that can modify drug pharmacokinetics. Performing clinical studies in such populations has ethical and practical issues. Read More

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Persistent organic pollutants in plasma and stable isotopes in red blood cells of Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtles that nest in Brazil.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 31;167:112283. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto Oceanográfico, Laboratório de Química Orgânica Marinha, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, São Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil.

Studies of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in sea turtles are reported, but there are still spatial data gaps worldwide. POP contamination of live female blood plasma from Caretta caretta (n = 28), Chelonia mydas (n = 31) and Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 19), which nest in Brazil and feed along the South Atlantic Ocean, was investigated. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from red blood cells (RBC) were also evaluated to obtain information about trophic ecology. Read More

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Extravascular lung water and cardiac function assessed by echocardiography in healthy lowlanders during repeated very high-altitude exposure.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 26;332:166-174. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: High-altitude pulmonary edema is associated with elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We investigated sPAP and EVLW during repeated exposures to high altitude (HA).

Methods: Healthy lowlanders underwent two identical 7-day HA-cycles, where subjects slept at 2900 m and spent 4-8 h daily at 5050 m, separated by a weeklong break at low altitude (LA). Read More

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Umbilical cord blood-derived microglia-like cells to model COVID-19 exposure.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 19;11(1):179. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Microglia, the resident brain immune cells, play a critical role in normal brain development, and are impacted by the intrauterine environment, including maternal immune activation and inflammatory exposures. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential developmental immune challenge to the fetal brain, in the setting of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection with its attendant potential for cytokine production and, in severe cases, cytokine storming. There is currently no biomarker or model for in utero microglial priming and function that might aid in identifying the neonates and children most vulnerable to neurodevelopmental morbidity, as microglia remain inaccessible in fetal life and after birth. Read More

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Perls' Prussian Blue Stains of Lung Tissue, Bronchoalveolar Lavage, and Sputum.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2021 ;40(1):1-15

National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

Perls' Prussian blue (PPB) stain recognizes Fe3+ associated with hemosiderin. The employment of this stain in clinical medicine and research has been extensive and novel applications continue to evolve. Ferruginous bodies are intracellular structures in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and sputum that stain with PPB. Read More

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Association Between Habitual Snoring and Cognitive Performance Among a Large Sample of Preadolescent Children.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 May;147(5):426-433

Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Importance: Previous studies have identified an association between habitual snoring and lower cognitive performance in children. However, whether and to what extent this association is confounded by pertinent demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic characteristics is unknown.

Objective: To assess the extent to which potential confounding factors modify the association between parent-reported habitual snoring and cognitive outcomes among a large and diverse sample of typically developing preadolescent children. Read More

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Health disparities: Intracellular consequences of social determinants of health.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 04 5;416:115444. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY, USA; Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Health disparities exist dependent on socioeconomic status, living conditions, race/ethnicity, diet, and exposures to environmental pollutants. Herein, the various exposures contributing to a person's exposome are collectively considered social determinants of health (SDOH), and the SDOH-exposome impacts health more than health care. This review discusses the extent of evidence of the physiologic consequences of these exposures at the intracellular level. Read More

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Prevalence and associated factors of sharps injuries and other blood/body fluid exposures among healthcare workers: A multicenter study.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Feb 1:1-5. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei230022, Anhui, China.

A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24. Read More

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February 2021

Assessment of Maternal and Neonatal Cord Blood SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and Placental Transfer Ratios.

JAMA Pediatr 2021 06;175(6):594-600

Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Importance: Maternally derived antibodies are a key element of neonatal immunity. Understanding the dynamics of maternal antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and subsequent transplacental antibody transfer can inform neonatal management as well as maternal vaccination strategies.

Objective: To assess the association between maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody concentrations. Read More

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Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Associated Factors Towards Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV/AIDS among Health Professionals in Health Centers Found in Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 14;13:41-51. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.

Background: Healthcare workers are at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, because of occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a short-term antiretroviral treatment used to reduce the likelihood of viral infection after exposure to the blood or body fluids of an infected person. Timely PEP after exposure to high-risk body fluids in the working area can reduce the rate of transmission of HIV significantly. Read More

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January 2021

Exposure to toxic metals and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of preeclampsia and preterm birth in the United States: a review.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 05 11;3(3):100308. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; Institute for Environmental Health Solutions, Chapel Hill, NC. Electronic address:

Preeclampsia and preterm birth are among the most common pregnancy complications and are the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are multifactorial in nature and increasing evidence suggests that the pathophysiology behind preterm birth and preeclampsia may be similar-specifically, both of these disorders may involve abnormalities in placental vasculature. A growing body of literature supports that exposure to environmental contaminants in the air, water, soil, and consumer and household products serves as a key factor influencing the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Oxidative stress-mediated induction of pulmonary oncogenes, inflammatory, and apoptotic markers following time-course exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in rats.

Metabol Open 2021 Mar 15;9:100075. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Biosciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) has been used in many products usually handled by humans including inks, paints, polishes, brake fluids and so on. This present study therefore, investigated its effect on lung, in a time-course study in male Wistar rats. Animals were orally administered 50 mg/kg body weight of EGME for a period of 7, 14, and 21 days. Read More

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Variability of essential and non-essential trace elements in the follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Feb 29;209:111733. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States.

Both essential and non-essential elements have been associated with female reproductive function in epidemiologic investigations, including among IVF populations. To date, most investigators have used blood or urine to assess biomarkers of exposure, with few employing ovarian follicular fluid (FF). FF may offer a more direct "snapshot" of the oocyte microenvironment than blood or urine, however previous studies report follicle-to-follicle variability in FF constituents that may contribute to exposure misclassification. Read More

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February 2021

Prediction of an outcome using NETwork Clusters (NET-C).

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Feb 8;90:107425. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, NH. Electronic address:

Birth weight is a key consequence of environmental exposures and metabolic alterations and can influence lifelong health. While a number of methods have been used to examine associations of trace element (including essential nutrients and toxic metals) concentrations or metabolite concentrations with a health outcome, birth weight, studies evaluating how the coexistence of these factors impacts birth weight are extremely limited. Here, we present a novel algorithm NETwork Clusters (NET-C), to improve the prediction of outcome by considering the interactions of features in the network and then apply this method to predict birth weight by jointly modelling trace element and cord blood metabolite data. Read More

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February 2021

Prenatal Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances, Umbilical Cord Blood DNA Methylation, and Cardio-Metabolic Indicators in Newborns: The Healthy Start Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 12 24;128(12):127014. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely detected in women of reproductive age. Prenatal PFAS exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes in children. We hypothesized that DNA methylation changes may result from prenatal PFAS exposure and may be linked to offspring cardio-metabolic phenotype. Read More

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December 2020

Assessment of Maternal and Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load, Transplacental Antibody Transfer, and Placental Pathology in Pregnancies During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2030455. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Biological data are lacking with respect to risk of vertical transmission and mechanisms of fetoplacental protection in maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Objective: To quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal biofluids, transplacental passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, and incidence of fetoplacental infection.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study was conducted among pregnant women presenting for care at 3 tertiary care centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Read More

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December 2020

Respiratory alkalinization and posterior cerebral artery dilatation predict acute mountain sickness severity during 10 h normobaric hypoxia.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jan;106(1):175-190

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness (AMS), involving the respiratory, renal and cerebrovascular systems, remains poorly understood. How do the early adaptations in these systems during a simulated altitude of 5000 m relate to AMS risk? What is the main finding and its importance? The rate of blood alkalosis and cerebral artery dilatation predict AMS severity during the first 10 h of exposure to a simulated altitude of 5000 m. Slow metabolic compensation by the kidneys of respiratory alkalosis attributable to a brisk breathing response together with excessive brain blood vessel dilatation might be involved in early development of AMS. Read More

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January 2021

Sex-specific associations of plasma metals and metal mixtures with glucose metabolism: An occupational population-based study in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 3;760:143906. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China; Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Highly Prevalent Diseases, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China; Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China; Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Studies with multi-pollutant approach on the relationships between multiple metals and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) are limited. Few studies are available on the potential sex-specific associations between metal exposures and glucose metabolism. We explored the associations between 22 plasma metals and FPG level among the 769 participants from the manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort in China. Read More

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Using BMI as a chronometer for persistent chemical exposures and chronic disease.

Environ Res 2021 02 9;193:110588. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY, 10029, USA. Electronic address:

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February 2021

Plasma polybrominated diphenyl ethers, urinary heavy metals and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 26;269:116162. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China; Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China. Electronic address:

The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has increased rapidly worldwide in recent years. Exposure to endocrine disruptors can affect thyroid hormones and is probably carcinogenic to humans. The effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As and Hg) on risk of TC have been rarely reported. Read More

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January 2021

Sampling interstitial fluid from human skin using a microneedle patch.

Sci Transl Med 2020 11;12(571)

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

Tissue interstitial fluid (ISF) surrounds cells and is an underutilized source of biomarkers that complements conventional sources such as blood and urine. However, ISF has received limited attention due largely to lack of simple collection methods. Here, we developed a minimally invasive, microneedle-based method to sample ISF from human skin that was well tolerated by participants. Read More

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November 2020

Air pollution from traffic during pregnancy impairs newborn's cord blood immune cells: The NELA cohort.

Environ Res 2021 07 17;198:110468. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain; University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Hazards of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing immune system are poorly understood. We sought to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to TRAP on cord blood immune cell distributions; and to identify gestational windows of susceptibility.

Methods: In-depth immunophenotyping of cord blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets was performed by flow cytometry in 190 newborns embedded in the Nutrition in Early Life and Asthma (NELA) birth cohort (2015-2018). Read More

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