1,269,923 results match your criteria Body Dysmorphic Disorder


Patient Perspective in Obesity Surgery: Goals for Weight Loss and Improvement of Body Shape in a Prospective Cohort Study.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):466-474. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Hospital Mittelbaden, Baden-Baden,

Objective: Obesity surgery provides sustainable weight loss, improvement of comorbidities, and improved quality of life (QOL). There is few evidence on the patient perspective and goals. This study compared expected and achieved weight loss, body shape, and QOL. Read More

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December 2018

Insulin Pump Therapy - Influence on Body Fat Redistribution, Skeletal Muscle Mass and Ghrelin, Leptin Changes in T1D Patients.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):454-464. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clinic of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (JFM CU), Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: To report changes in body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) after switching from multiple daily injection (MDI) to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

Methods: 31 patients switched over from MDI to CSII. Body composition, biochemical parameters, glycaemic variability (GV) and level of physical activity were evaluated before and 6 months on CSII. Read More

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December 2018

The Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality-Based Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 Dec 11;46(5-6):358-370. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Tai Chi (TC) is a Chinese mind-body exercise with proven physical and psychological benefits. A modified TC via virtual reality (VR) may be suitable for the elderly owing to the immediate guidance and feedback regarding movement accuracy. This study explored the cognitive and physical effects of a VR-based TC (VRTC) exercise program on older adults with cognitive impairment (CI). Read More

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December 2018

Sodium Fluoride Arrests Renal G2/M Phase Cell-Cycle Progression by Activating ATM-Chk2-P53/Cdc25C Signaling Pathway in Mice.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 11;51(5):2421-2433. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, China.

Background/aims: Excessive fluoride intake can induce cytotoxicity, DNA damage and cell-cycle changes in many tissues and organs, including the kidney. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced renal cell-cycle changes are not well understood at present. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate how sodium fluoride (NaF) induces cell-cycle changes in renal cells. Read More

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December 2018

GLP1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Is an Effective Therapeutic Option for Perioperative Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes within Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Protocols.

Eur Surg Res 2018 Dec 11;59(5-6):349-360. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Background: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are multimodal perioperative care pathways designed to achieve early recovery after surgical procedures by maintaining preoperative organ function and reducing profound stress responses following surgery [Wilmore and Kehlet: BMJ 2001; 322(7284): 473-6]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAgs), such as liraglutide, have recently been widely used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because they maintain blood glucose at an ideal level throughout the day, including during postprandial periods, thereby improving hypoglycemia and body weight more than insulin therapies. Additionally, the administration of liraglutide may exert cardiovascular, renal, and cerebral protective effects in T2D patients. Read More

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December 2018

Gonadotropin- and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Independent Precocious Puberty of Gonadal Origin in a Patient with Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Due to DAX1 Gene Mutation - A Case Report and Review of the Literature: Implications for the Pathomechanism.

Horm Res Paediatr 2018 Dec 11:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background/aims: Mutations in the DAX1 gene cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) classically associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Unexpectedly, precocious puberty (PP) has been reported in some cases, its mechanism remaining unclear.

Methods: We longitudinally studied a boy with AHC due to DAX1 gene mutation who developed peripheral PP at age 4. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Weight Loss on Glutathione Peroxidase 3 Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):475-490. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig,

Background/aims: Altered expression and circulating levels of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) have been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) across species. Here, we investigate whether GPX3 serum concentrations and adipose tissue (AT) GPX3 mRNA expression are related to obesity and weight loss.

Methods: GPX3 serum concentration was measured in 630 individuals, including a subgroup (n = 293) for which omental and subcutaneous (SC) GPX3 mRNA expression has been analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Metabolic profiling study on potential toxicity in male mice treated with Dechlorane 602 using UHPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 27;246:141-147. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), a chlorinated flame retardant, has been widely detected in different environmental matrices and biota. However, toxicity data for Dec 602 seldom have been reported. A metabolomics study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to study the urine and sera metabolic profiles of mice administered with Dec 602 (0, 0. Read More

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November 2018

A review of methods used for hazard identification and risk assessment of environmental hazards.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 8;123:231-239. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Innovation, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Av. Appia 20 CH-1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Approximately one quarter of all deaths globally are attributed to living or working in an unhealthy environment, with household and ambient air pollution, along with exposures to ultraviolet radiation and chemicals amongst the leading causes. At present there are no international standards for assessing the risks of these environmental hazards. The use of heterogeneous methods to identify health risks from environmental hazards may reduce the level of confidence the public has in the conclusions that are made. Read More

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December 2018

Prenatal thallium exposure and poor growth in early childhood: A prospective birth cohort study.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 8;123:224-230. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People's Republic of China; Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Population Health & Aristogenics, Hefei, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Thallium (Tl) exposure remains a public health problem with potential impacts on humans. Studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to thallium may be associated with fetal growth, but no studies are known have explored its association with early childhood anthropometry.

Objective: To investigate the effects of prenatal Tl exposures on early child growth and development aged 0-2 years in a prospective birth cohort study. Read More

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December 2018

A roadmap towards a functional paradigm for learning & memory in plants.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 8;232:209-215. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research & Technology (CERTH), Thessaloniki, Greece.

In plants, the acquisition, processing and storage of empirical information can result in the modification of their behavior according to the nature of the stimulus, and yet this area of research remained relatively understudied until recently. As the body of evidence supporting the inclusion of plants among the higher organisms demonstrating the adaptations to accomplish these tasks keeps increasing, the resistance by traditional botanists and agricultural scientists, who were at first cautious in allowing the application of animal models onto plant physiology and development, subsides. However, the debate retains much of its heat, a good part of it originating from the controversial use of nervous system terms to describe plant processes. Read More

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November 2018

Cardiovascular toxicity and anxiety-like behavior induced by deltamethrin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 5;219:155-164. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Deltamethrin is widely used because of its low toxicity and high efficiency. Although its potential toxicity has been reported, its effects on cardiovascular system and motor behavior and its underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. In this study, the effects of deltamethrin on the development, cardiovascular system and motor behavior of zebrafish larvae and their possible mechanisms were evaluated using the transgenic zebrafish Tg (kdrl:mCherry) and Tg(myl7:GFP). Read More

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December 2018

Impact of upstream oil extraction and environmental public health: A review of the evidence.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;657:187-199. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Upstream oil extraction, which includes exploration and operation to bring crude oil to the surface, frequently occurs near human populations. There are approximately 40,000 oil fields globally and 6 million people that live or work nearby. Oil extraction can impact local soil, water, and air, which in turn can influence community health. Read More

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December 2018

Elevated arsenic exposure and efficient arsenic metabolism in indigenous women around Lake Poopó, Bolivia.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 2;657:179-186. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Hydrosciences Montpellier, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, CNRS, University of Montpellier, France.

Elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic, one of the most potent environmental toxicants and carcinogens, have been detected in well water around Lake Poopó, Bolivia. This study aimed to assess human exposure to arsenic in villages around Lake Poopó, and also to elucidate whether the metabolism and detoxification of arsenic in this population is as efficient as previously indicated in other Andean areas. We recruited 201 women from 10 villages around Lake Poopó. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of patient positioning on reported clinical outcomes after greater occipital nerve block for treatment of headache: Results from prospective single-centre, non-randomised, proof-of-concept study.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Dec 3;176:73-77. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Science & Innovation Manager, R&D Department, Cumbria Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Carlisle, CA1 3SX, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: Greater occipital nerve (GON) block is a treatment option applied for a variety of primary headache disorders. Although a patient's body position is known to have an impact on the effect of local anaesthetics, this has not before been investigated for patients undergoing GON block. Therefore, the clinical effectiveness of either a sitting or supine position was assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Mid-calf skeletal muscle density and its associations with physical activity, bone health and incident 12-month falls in older adults: The Healthy Ageing Initiative.

Bone 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: 2214 community-dwelling men and women who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative (Sweden) study at age 70 were included in this analysis. Read More

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December 2018
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia following hematopoietic stem cell transplant: A critical review of the literature.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Dec 10:e27569. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology/Oncology Section, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are rare but exceptionally challenging complication. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and identified a pooled incidence of post-HSCT autoimmune hemolytic anemia and/or immune thrombocytopenia of 2.66% (SE = 0. Read More

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December 2018

Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Background People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in part due to low insulin sensitivity mediated arterial stiffness. However, the effect of short-term exercise training intensity, and/or amount (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Macrophages for Disease Modeling and Functional Genomics.

Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 2018 Dec 10:e74. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cardiometabolic Genomics Program, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Macrophages play important roles in many diseases. We describe a protocol and the associated resources for the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages (IPSDM) and their applications in understanding human macrophage physiology and relevant diseases. The protocol uses an embryoid body-based approach with a combination of serum-free condition for hematopoiesis specification, followed by adherent culture with serum and M-CSF for myeloid expansion and macrophage maturation. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between retinal vessel diameter with both retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and optic nerve head parameters in middle-aged Caucasians: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Eye study.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

Purpose: To study the normal relationship between retinal vessel diameter (RVD) with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a cohort of middle-aged Caucasians.

Methods: We investigated 3070 individuals (6140 eyes). Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) were measured in the right eye using a semi-automated computer-assisted program. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the Acetabulum As a Skeletal Indicator of Age at Death in Modern European-Americans.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Bldg. 13, Pensacola, FL, 32514.

Progressive changes in the acetabulum have been used in modern skeletal age estimation, but they have not been completely understood. If their age correlations are weakened by the influence of factors like physical activity and obesity, acetabular changes should not be used for age estimation. To investigate their utility for aging, the acetabular variables of Rissech et al. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic variation of FTO: rs1421085 T>C, rs8057044 G>A, rs9939609 T>A, and copy number (CNV) in Mexican Mayan school-aged children with obesity/overweight and with normal weight.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23192. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Programa Integral de Atención a la Obesidad, Secretaria de Educación del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

Objectives: Genetic variation of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and obesity traits. Distribution of FTO single nutleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1421085T>C, rs9939609T>A, rs8057044G>A and copy number variation (CNV) was evaluated in association with childhood obesity or overweight status in children with Mayan ethnicity.

Methods: We included 318 school-aged children with obesity or overweight status (body mass index [BMI]: >85th percentile) and 303 children with normal weight (BMI: 15th-85th percentile). Read More

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December 2018

Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) cross talk and language in ceRNA regulatory networks: A new look at hallmarks of breast cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women worldwide. Despite the substantial advancement in understanding the molecular mechanisms and management of BC, it remains the leading cause of cancer death in women. One of the main reasons for this obstacle is that we have not been able to find the Achilles heel for the BC as a highly heterogeneous disease. Read More

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December 2018

Combination of Whole Grape Seed Flour and Newly Isolated Kefir Lactic Acid Bacteria Reduces High-Fat (HF)-induced Hepatic Steatosis.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 Dec 11:e1801040. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.-H. Kwon, H. G. Lee, K.-H. Seo, H. Kim, Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul.

Scope: This study aimed to determine the separate and combined effect of a prebiotic (Catechin-rich wine grape seed flour, GSF) and a probiotic (newly isolated kefir lactic acid bacteria, LAB) on hepatic steatosis of obese mice.

Methods And Results: High-fat (HF)-induced obese mice were fed HF diet containing 6% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control), 10% GSF, orally administrated LAB, or combination of GSF and LAB for 9 weeks. There was a significant reduction of body weight gain, and liver weights, plasma insulin concentrations, and HOMA-IR in all experimental groups compared to control. Read More

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December 2018

Impaired pressure natriuresis and non-dipping blood pressure in Rats with early type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, EH16 4TJ.

Key Points Summary: Type 1 diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk: hypertension amplifies this risk. Pressure natriuresis regulates long-term blood pressure. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats by streptozotocin injection and after three weeks demonstrated a substantial impairment of pressure natriuresis: acute increases in blood pressure did not increase renal medullary blood flow, and tubular sodium reabsorption was not downregulated. Read More

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December 2018

Volume change in infrapatellar fat pad is associated not with obesity but with cartilage degeneration.

J Orthop Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of General Medical Services, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Infrapatellar fat pad has been implicated in knee osteoarthritis. We examined whether infrapatellar fat pad volume is associated with quantitative cartilage changes using magnetic resonance imaging T1ρ mapping. Fifty-eight knees of knee pain patients (19 men, 39 women, mean age 57. Read More

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December 2018

Increased risk of postoperative complications after total thyroidectomy with Graves' disease.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Surgery, Ewha Womans University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The effect of Graves' disease on the risk of postoperative complications in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy is unclear.

Methods: The incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and hypoparathyroidism were analyzed between 165 patients with Graves' disease (GD group) and 1:1 matched patients with euthyroid states (control group).

Results: The matched cohorts did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, pathologic diagnosis, and extent of operation. Read More

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December 2018

Regulation of melanocyte stem cells in the pigmentation of skin and its appendages: Biological patterning and therapeutic potentials.

Exp Dermatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Integrative Stem Cell Center, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan.

Skin evolves essential appendages and indispensable types of cells that synergistically insulate the body from environmental insults. Residing in the specific regions in the skin such as epidermis, dermis and hair follicle, melanocytes perform an array of vital functions including defending the ultraviolet radiation and diversifying animal appearance. As one of the adult stem cells, melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicle bulge niche can proliferate, differentiate, and keep quiescence to control and coordinate tissue homeostasis, repair, and regeneration. Read More

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December 2018
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Perilipin-2 promotes obesity and progressive fatty liver disease in mice through mechanistically distinct hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte actions.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Graduate Program in Integrated Physiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Key Points: Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammation, and glucose clearance abnormalities in WD-fed mice. Hepatocyte and extra-hepatic actions of Plin2 mediate fatty liver formation in WD-fed mice through distinct mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Thermo-sensitive nanogel-laden bicontinuous microemulsion drug-eluting contact lenses.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, 42472, South Korea.

The bicontinuous microemulsion contact lens (BMCL) has nanoporous biphasic structures (100-250 nm) that are interconnected via multiple nano-channels, providing suitable retention of various drugs for glaucoma. Timolol maleate (TM)-carried thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogel (30-50 nm) was incorporated into BMCLs by soaking or by centrifuging plus soaking. Here, we present drug-loading and release in silicon- or polyethylene oxide-microemulsion BMCLs under various conditions. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of prepregnancy body mass index on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the prepregnancy BMI on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Five electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, were searched for literature published until 1 January 2018. The two-stage, random effect meta-analysis was performed to compare the dose-response relationship between BMI and GDM. Read More

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December 2018

Incidence, severity, longitudinal trends and predictors of acute and chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2018 Dec 10:e12976. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin-Ko, Taiwan.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal incidence, severity, pattern of changes or predictors of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN) in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer. A longitudinal repeated measures study design was employed, and 77 participants were recruited from the colorectal and oncology departments of two teaching medical centres in Taiwan. Physical examinations were performed, and self-reports regarding adverse impacts of OXAIPN and quality of life were obtained at five time points throughout 12 cycles of chemotherapy (C/T). Read More

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December 2018

Addition of GLP-1RA therapy to Insulin in C-peptide Positive Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that addition of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) to insulin in c-peptide positive patients with T1D will result in a reduction in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) with reduced insulin requirements and a rise in c-peptide concentrations.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 11 normal weight patients with T1D consecutively treated with GLP-1RA in addition to insulin. Paired t tests were used to compare the changes in HbA1c, insulin doses, body weight, body mass index, and C-peptide concentrations prior to and 12 ± 1 week after GLP-1RA therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Brain connection pattern under interoceptive attention state predict interoceptive intensity and subjective anxiety feeling.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China.

Interoception involves the processing of a variety of different types of information ascending from the body. Accumulating evidence has indicated that interoception plays a fundamental role in cognitive and emotional processes, such as anxiety, but how different functional connectivity patterns contribute to emotions and visceral feelings during an interoceptive attention state is still unclear. In the present study, an interoceptive attention task was performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects, and the participants' subjective ratings of the intensity of interoception and feelings of anxiety were recorded. Read More

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December 2018

Ipragliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor, Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass, but not Muscle Mass, in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients Treated with Insulin: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Diabetes Investig 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

Aims/introduction: SGLT2 inhibitors reduce body weight (BW) by creating a negative energy balance. Previous reports have suggested that this BW reduction is mainly loss of body fat and that ~20% of the reduction is lean mass. However, the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on BW and body composition remain unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Unexpected bird-feather mite associations revealed by DNA metabarcoding uncovers a dynamic ecoevolutionary scenario.

Mol Ecol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Avda. Americo Vespucio 26, Sevilla, 41092, Spain.

The high relevance of host-switching for the diversification of highly host-specific symbionts (i.e., those commonly inhabiting a single host species) demands a better understanding of host-switching dynamics at an ecological scale. Read More

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December 2018

Bilateral projections to the thalamus from individual neurons in the inferior colliculus.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, USA.

The medial geniculate body (MG) receives a large input from the ipsilateral inferior colliculus (IC) and a smaller but substantial input from the contralateral IC. Both crossed and uncrossed inputs comprise a large percentage of glutamatergic cells and a smaller percentage of GABAergic cells. We used double labeling with fluorescent retrograde tracers to identify individual IC cells that project bilaterally to the MGs in adult guinea pigs. Read More

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December 2018

Body mass index and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity and recovery following graded exercise.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23208. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objectives: The present study sought to expand upon prior investigations examining patterns of vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and perceived exertion as a function of body mass index (BMI) in response to and recovery from exercise.

Methods: Participants underwent a resting (baseline) period, followed by a graded exercise protocol on an ergometer with ascending difficulty stages, and finally another resting (recovery) period. Individuals were stratified into three BMI groups: low, moderate, and high. Read More

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December 2018

Insulin-like peptides of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, and their mediation effects on hemolymph trehalose level, larval development, and adult reproduction.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2018 Dec 10:e21524. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University, Andong, Korea.

Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) of insects mediate various physiological processes including hemolymph sugar level, immature growth, female reproduction, and lifespan. In target cells of ILPs, insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is highly conserved in animals. IIS in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is known to be involved in maintaining hemolymph trehalose levels and promoting larval growth. Read More

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December 2018

Risk Factors for Multiple Hemorrhages Following Tonsil Surgery in Children.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Enhancement, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Although much is known about the incidence and risk factors for hemorrhage after tonsil surgery, the incidence and factors related to multiple episodes of hemorrhage are not well examined. Our objective was to identify risk factors that may contribute to multiple hemorrhages following tonsil surgery in children.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Read More

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December 2018

Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Decitabine in Pediatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Established Products, Janssen Research & Development, Titusville, NJ, USA.

Dacogen, the formulated product of the pharmaceutically active agent decitabine (5 aza-2'-deoxycytidine), is approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The current analysis was performed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of decitabine in pediatric patients with AML and evaluate their consistency with the PK in adult patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed by pooling decitabine concentration-time data from 5 adult (AML and MDS) and 2 pediatric (AML) studies. Read More

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December 2018

Population Pharmacokinetics and Exposure-Response Modeling Analyses of Golimumab in Children With Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Global Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Spring House, PA, USA.

Population pharmacokinetics (PK) and exposure-response (E-R) analyses were conducted to compare the PK and E-R relationships of golimumab between children and adults with ulcerative colitis. PK data following subcutaneous golimumab administration to children with ulcerative colitis (6-17 years) in the PURSUIT-PEDS-PK study, adults with ulcerative colitis in the PURSUIT study, and children with pediatric polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (2-17 years) in the GO-KIDS study, were included in the population PK analysis. E-R analysis was conducted using logistic regression to link serum golimumab concentration and Mayo score-based efficacy outcomes in pediatric and adult ulcerative colitis. Read More

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December 2018

Liver Stiffness Measured by 2-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography: Prospective Evaluation of Healthy Volunteers and Patients With Liver Cirrhosis.

J Ultrasound Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Oncology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Objectives: We aimed to establish normal values for liver stiffness measurement, performed by 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (LOGIQ E9; GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, WI), in healthy volunteers, patients with nonhepatic morbidities, and patients with histologically confirmed liver cirrhosis.

Methods: A total of 175 participants were included between July 2016 and February 2018. Three cohorts were analyzed: healthy volunteers (n = 68), patients with healthy livers but nonhepatic morbidities (n = 57), and patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 50). Read More

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December 2018

Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamics of Intrathecal Injection of Recombinant Human HGF (KP-100) in Subjects With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Phase I Trial.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Hepatocyte growth factor is an endogenous pleiotropic factor shown to act as a potent neuroprotectant against disease progression in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which is a devastating, adult-onset motor neuron disease. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of recombinant 5-residue-deleted human hepatocyte growth factor (KP-100) injected intrathecally through an implantable catheter connected to a subcutaneous port, we conducted a first-in-human phase I trial of intrathecal KP-100 in 15 Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The regimen was a single injection of 3 escalating doses (0. Read More

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December 2018
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Age-associated changes of resting energy expenditure, body composition and fat distribution in Chinese Han males.

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13940

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Age-related alterations in whole body composition, particularly, reduced fat free mass (FFM) and increased fat mass (FM), lead to a progressive decline in resting energy expenditure (REE). Similarly, regional body composition and fat distribution changes with age might also contribute to an overall lower REE. This study investigated the influence of age on REE, regional body composition and fat distribution, including subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF), in a Chinese Han population as well as their contributions to age-related changes in REE. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiac metabolic modulation upon low-carbohydrate low-protein ketogenic diet in diabetic rats studied in vivo using hyperpolarized C pyruvate, butyrate, and acetoacetate probes.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Functional Metabolism Group, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore.

Aims: To investigate the effects of long-term low-carbohydrate low-protein ketogenic diet (KD) on cardiac metabolism and diabetic cardiomyopathy status in lean diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.

Materials And Methods: Diabetic GK rats were fed with KD for 62 weeks. Cardiac function and metabolism were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and C magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( C-MRS), at rest and under dobutamine stress. Read More

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December 2018

A resistance exercise set for a total body workout for adults with intellectual disabilities, a pilot study.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Resistance training has beneficial effects on fitness levels, cardiovascular disease risk, risk of sarcopenia and on performing activities of daily living. The focus of this study is to design a total body resistance exercise set for adults with intellectual disabilities (RESID) with minimal equipment required and to test its feasibility.

Method: The RESID was selected in an expert meeting, and its feasibility was determined in a cross-sectional pilot study. Read More

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December 2018

Intrathecal betamethasone for cancer pain: A study of its analgesic efficacy and safety.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Kansai Medical University Medical Center, Moriguchi, Japan.

Background: A preliminary study has shown effective cancer pain relief by intrathecal betamethasone (ITB). However, further evidence is needed to support this new approach.

Methods: Cancer patients with opioid-resistant pain received lumbar intrathecal administration of betamethasone 2 or 3 mg once a week for 28 days. Read More

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December 2018
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Menadione perturbs oxidative stress biomarkers and testicular function indices of rats.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Dec 10:e22282. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Antioxidants, Redox Biology, and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, FCT-Abuja, Nigeria.

In this study, we evaluated the influence of menadione on the androgenic, oxidative stress biomarkers, and testicular function indices in rats. Rats (20) were randomized into four groups (A-D) of five rats each. Rats in groups A, B, C, and D received the vehicle of administration (olive oil), 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight menadione intraperitoneally, respectively, for 7 days. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding the importance of low-molecular weight (ethylene oxide- and propylene oxide-induced) DNA adducts and mutations in risk assessment: Insights from 15 years of research and collaborative discussions.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

The interpretation and significance of DNA adduct data, their causal relationship to mutations, and their role in risk assessment have been debated for many years. An extended effort to identify key questions and collect relevant data to address them was focused on the ubiquitous low MW N7-alkyl/hydroxyalkylguanine adducts. Several academic, governmental, and industrial laboratories collaborated to gather new data aimed at better understanding the role and potential impact of these adducts in quantifiable genotoxic events (gene mutations/micronucleus). Read More

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December 2018
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