14,756 results match your criteria Bmc Pharmacology & Toxicology[Journal]


Another piece of the Zika puzzle: assessing the associated factors to microcephaly in a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):827. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Background: Although it is known that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy may lead to microcephaly in the fetus, the prognostic factors associated with this tragic disorder remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prognostic factors associated with the incidence of microcephaly in congenital ZIKV infection.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (R) Epub ahead of print, Embase, Embase Classic, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, LILACS, and various thesis databases to identify human studies reporting microcephaly associated with congenital ZIKV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08946-5DOI Listing

Aflatoxins as a risk factor for liver cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2020 Jun 1;21(1):39. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.

Background: Liver cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation in the liver, due to a chronic injury, and subsequent alteration of the normal architecture of the liver. Even though there is a huge effort to elucidate the possible etiologic factors of liver cirrhosis, a significant number of cases are cryptogenic, especially in Sub Saharan Africa, where there is a high burden of aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins are known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma, which share similar etiologic factors with liver cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-020-00420-7DOI Listing

Database combinations to retrieve systematic reviews in overviews of reviews: a methodological study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 1;20(1):138. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM), Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, Ostmerheimer Str. 200, 51109, Cologne, Germany.

Background: When conducting an Overviews of Reviews on health-related topics, it is unclear which combination of bibliographic databases authors should use for searching for SRs. Our goal was to determine which databases included the most systematic reviews and identify an optimal database combination for searching systematic reviews.

Methods: A set of 86 Overviews of Reviews with 1219 included systematic reviews was extracted from a previous study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-00983-3DOI Listing

Emergency department attendance for injury and behaviours suggestive of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 May 29;20(1):266. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy.

Background: The study aimed to investigate if the behaviours suggestive of ADHD were more frequent in a population of children attending the Emergency Department (ED) for injuries, rather than for other causes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. Patients, aged 6 to 17 years, attending the ED for acute injuries and other causes were considered cases and controls, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02166-xDOI Listing

Sunlight exposed body surface area is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level in pregnant Minangkabau women, Indonesia.

BMC Nutr 2020 18;6:18. Epub 2020 May 18.

5Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra Indonesia.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in women, and living in a tropical country with a year-round abundance of sunlight as the primary source of vitamin D does not seem to guarantee adequate serum 25(OH)D. While living in the tropics, Minangkabau women are known to dress specifically according to their culture. This study was aimed to elucidate the association of sunlight exposed body surface area with serum 25(OH)D in pregnant Minangkabau women of Indonesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00342-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232832PMC

Aescin and diosmin each alone or in low dose- combination ameliorate liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

BMC Res Notes 2020 May 27;13(1):259. Epub 2020 May 27.

Biology Department, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE.

Objective: This study evaluated hepatoprotective effect of aescin (AES) and diosmin (DIO), individually or in low-dose combination in chemically induced liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups; Group 1, control, Group 2, injected with a single dose of a mixture of corn oil and carbon tetrachloride (CCl) to induce hepatic toxicity. Before CCl injection, Groups 3-6 were treated daily for 14 days with silymarin (SIL) (200 mg/kg), aescin (AES; 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05094-2DOI Listing

Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san ameliorates inflammation and lung injury by increasing the gut microbiota in the murine model of Streptococcus pneumonia-induced pneumonia.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 27;20(1):159. Epub 2020 May 27.

Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital of traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhongshan, Guangdong, 528401, People's Republic of China.

Background: Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san (SLBZS) regulates inflammation and gut microbiota which are associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn)-induced pneumonia. So, we studied the therapeutic effect of SLBZS and evaluated whether gut microbiota is associated with the effects of SLBZS in improving Spn-induced pneumonia.

Methods: Spn-induced pneumonia NIH mice were treated by SLBZS and cefixime. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02958-9DOI Listing

Is it necessary to use tobramycin-dexamethasone eye ointment prophylactically in eyes at the end of intraocular surgery?

BMC Ophthalmol 2020 May 27;20(1):208. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, 300052, China.

Background: There are no data available regarding the complications associated with using antibiotic ointment at the end of intraocular surgery. This study aimed to explore the necessity of using ocular tobramycin-dexamethasone prophylactically at the end of intraocular surgery.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who received intraocular surgery at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2015 to December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01476-zDOI Listing

Uncovering the active compounds and effective mechanisms of the dried mature sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc. For the treatment of Alzheimer's disease through a network pharmacology approach.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 25;20(1):157. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Science & Technology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Shanzhuyu (the dried mature sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., DMSCO) is a Chinese herb that can be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its mechanism remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02951-2DOI Listing

High-quality antidepressant prescribing: please consider whether "perfection is the enemy of progress".

BMC Med 2020 May 21;18(1):150. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01621-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243321PMC

The effect of oxytocin vaginal gel on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Womens Health 2020 May 19;20(1):108. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Around 90% of postmenopausal women are suffering from vaginal atrophy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oxytocin vaginal gel on vaginal atrophy among postmenopausal women.

Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial that was conducted on 96 postmenopausal women who suffered from vaginal atrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00935-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236919PMC

Access to Oral health care: a focus on dental caries treatment provision in Enugu Nigeria.

BMC Oral Health 2020 May 19;20(1):145. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria.

Background: Dental caries, despite improvement in oral health across the globe, is still a large contributor to the global burden of oral diseases and a major public health concern. In Enugu state, Nigeria, there is minimal access to adequate and proper oral health care. This study examined the determinants of dental caries treatment provision and the challenges of providing equitable access to oral health care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01135-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236454PMC

Exploration of self-medication practice in Pokhara valley of Nepal.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 19;20(1):714. Epub 2020 May 19.

Karnali Academy of Health Sciences, Jumla, Karnali province, Nepal.

Background: Self-medication (SM) is the practice of consuming medication without the consultation of physician. The drugs most commonly self-medicated are paracetamol, analgesics, ranitidine, oral rehydration solution and antibiotics. The objective of the study was to assess the SM status and its causes in Pokhara valley of Nepal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08860-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236217PMC

Prevalence and factors associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Palestinian medical students.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 May 19;20(1):244. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.

Background: Co-existence of depression and anxiety can be associated with severe detrimental consequences to the physical, mental and social wellbeing of the affected populations. This study was conducted to determine prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Palestinian medical students and to investigate associations between sociodemographic factors of the students with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

Methods: This study was conducted in a cross-sectional observational design using a questionnaire in the period between September 2018 and April 2019 in a major university in the West Bank of Palestine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02658-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236464PMC

Association between risk of preeclampsia and maternal plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide in second trimester and at the time of delivery.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 May 19;20(1):302. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Background: The data on the association between the microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia (PE) is limited.

Methods: We, therefore, conducted a prospective nested case control study during Sep 2017 to Dec 2018 to examine the association between plasma TMAO measured during pregnancy and the risk of PE. Total of 17 patients diagnosed with early onset PE (EOPE), 49 with late onset PE (LOPE) and 198 healthy controls were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-02997-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236207PMC

Repeated disinfectant use in broiler houses and pig nursery units does not affect disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli field isolates.

BMC Vet Res 2020 May 18;16(1):140. Epub 2020 May 18.

Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Technology and Food Science Unit, Brusselsesteenweg 370, 9090, Melle, Belgium.

Background: Disinfectants are frequently used in animal production to reduce or eliminate the load of infectious agents and parasites in buildings and equipment associated with the housing or transportation of animals. There are growing concerns that the use of disinfectants would select for resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of repeated use of different disinfectants on the disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility under practical conditions in a broiler and pig pilot farm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02342-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236461PMC

Tropomyosin 1 genetically constrains in vitro hematopoiesis.

BMC Biol 2020 May 14;18(1):52. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Identifying causal variants and genes from human genetic studies of hematopoietic traits is important to enumerate basic regulatory mechanisms underlying these traits, and could ultimately augment translational efforts to generate platelets and/or red blood cells in vitro. To identify putative causal genes from these data, we performed computational modeling using available genome-wide association datasets for platelet and red blood cell traits.

Results: Our model identified a joint collection of genomic features enriched at established trait associations and plausible candidate variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00783-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227211PMC

Risk perception and behavior in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators: an intervention study.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 13;20(1):679. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, State University of New York Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: Adolescents are engaged in agricultural work, including pesticide application, around the world. Adolescent pesticide applicators are more likely to be exposed to pesticides than their adult counterparts because of their application practice and hygiene habits surrounding pesticide use. There is a need for low-cost interventions to reduce pesticide exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08801-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222587PMC
May 2020
2.264 Impact Factor

Antibiotic prescribing among patients with severe infectious diseases in two private sector hospitals in Central India - a time series analysis over 10 years.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 May 13;20(1):340. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Global Public Health, Health Systems and Policy. Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem caused due to antibiotic use. In countries with high rates of infectious diseases, antibiotic resistance is a frequent cause of mortality. The aim was to analyse antibiotic prescribing practices between 2008 and 2017 in a teaching (TH) and a non-teaching (NTH) hospital, as typical hospitals of low- and middle-income countries, and to compare antibiotic prescribing for severe infectious indications for which empiric antibiotic treatment is recommended. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05059-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218632PMC

Genetic variants in FBLIM1 gene do not contribute to SAPHO syndrome and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in typical patient groups.

BMC Med Genet 2020 May 12;21(1):102. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 10, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Syndrome of synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis (SAPHO) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) present two diseases of a dermatologic and rheumatologic spectrum that are variable in manifestation und therapeutic response. Genetic risk factors have long been assumed in both diseases, but no single reliable factor has been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to clinically characterize a patient group with syndrome of synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis (SAPHO) (n = 47) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)/ chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) (n = 9) and analyze a CRMO candidate gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-01037-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216525PMC

Effect of long-term treatment of Carvacrol on glucose metabolism in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 11;20(1):142. Epub 2020 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511436, China.

Background: Carvacrol is a food additive with various bioactivities, including reducing the blood glucose level as well as improvement of heart function, in diabetic mice. We explored the antihyperglycemic effect of carvacrol and its effect on the key hepatic enzymes accounting for glucose metabolism.

Methods: A streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes-mellitus model in mice was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02937-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216511PMC

Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 19;20(1):287. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, 518036, China.

Background: Accurate identification Candida is important for successful therapy and epidemiology study. The aim of research is to study API 20C yeast identification system identification rate by using molecular identification as gold standard and tested the antifungal susceptibility of Candida from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Methods: In total, 3574 yeast isolates were obtained from patients with VVC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-04985-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216708PMC

Detrimental role of sphingosine kinase 1 in kidney damage in DOCA-salt hypertensive model: evidence from knockout mice.

BMC Nephrol 2020 May 11;21(1):173. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 980613, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive metabolite of sphingolipids and produced by sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2). SphK1/S1P pathway is implicated in the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, the role of SphK1/S1P pathway in renal injury in hypertension has not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01815-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216348PMC

Interaction between NSMCE4A and GPS1 links the SMC5/6 complex to the COP9 signalosome.

BMC Mol Cell Biol 2020 May 8;21(1):36. Epub 2020 May 8.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: The SMC5/6 complex, cohesin and condensin are the three mammalian members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, large ring-like protein complexes that are essential for genome maintenance. The SMC5/6 complex is the least characterized complex in mammals; however, it is known to be involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR) and chromosome segregation.

Results: In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used to help elucidate novel interactions of the kleisin subunit of the SMC5/6 complex, NSMCE4A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12860-020-00278-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206739PMC

An educational intervention improved knowledge of dietary supplements in college students.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 7;20(1):633. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Food Safety and Management, Showa Women's University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: We have previously reported on the prevalence of dietary supplements among college students; it was deduced that their intake of supplements increased according to their grade (i.e., 13. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08786-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204311PMC

Efficacy of andrographolide in not active progressive multiple sclerosis: a prospective exploratory double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

BMC Neurol 2020 May 7;20(1):173. Epub 2020 May 7.

Pharmacology and Morphophysiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia, 613, Valdivia, Chile.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune mediated disease and the progressive phase appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of progressive MS (PMS) has been re-organized into categories of active vs. not active inflammatory disease and the presence vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01745-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203851PMC

Rational dispensing of oral dosage forms of medicines to children at a teaching hospital in Sri Lanka.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 6;20(1):377. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Background: Good dispensing practice is vital for rational use of medicines. There are many paediatric specific challenges when maintaining good dispensing practices to children. Lack of age appropriate dosage forms, lack of medicines in strengths suitable for children, lack of palatable medicines, lack of expertise in paediatric pharmacy are few challenges faced when maintaining good dispensing practices to children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05246-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201638PMC

Spatial patterns in prostate Cancer-specific mortality in Pennsylvania using Pennsylvania Cancer registry data, 2004-2014.

BMC Cancer 2020 May 6;20(1):394. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 90 Hope Drive, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.

Background: Spatial heterogeneity of prostate cancer-specific mortality in Pennsylvania remains unclear. We utilized advanced geospatial survival regressions to examine spatial variation of prostate cancer-specific mortality in PA and evaluate potential effects of individual- and county-level risk factors.

Methods: Prostate cancer cases, aged ≥40 years, were identified in the 2004-2014 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06902-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203834PMC

Pacemaker detected active minutes are superior to pedometer-based step counts in measuring the response to physical activity counseling in sedentary older adults.

BMC Geriatr 2020 May 6;20(1):162. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: In patients with permanent pacemakers (PPM), physical activity (PA) can be monitored using embedded accelerometers to measure pacemaker detected active hours (PDAH), a strong predictor of mortality. We examined the impact of a PA Counseling (PAC) intervention on increasing activity as measured by PDAH and daily step counts.

Methods: Thirteen patients (average age 80 ± 6 years, 84. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01559-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201960PMC

Impact of Erythropoietin in the management of Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy in resource-constrained settings: protocol for a randomized control trial.

BMC Neurol 2020 May 4;20(1):171. Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Perinatal asphyxia, more appropriately known as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), is a condition characterized by clinical and laboratory evidence of acute or sub-acute brain injury resulting from systemic hypoxemia and/or reduced cerebral blood flow. HIE is a common and devastating clinical condition in resource-poor countries with poor treatment outcome. This paper describes the protocol for an ongoing study that aims to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Erythropoietin (EPO) as compared to routine care in the management of moderate to severe HIE among term infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01751-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199320PMC

A randomized, controlled, repeat-dose study of batefenterol/fluticasone furoate compared with placebo in the treatment of COPD.

BMC Pulm Med 2020 May 4;20(1):119. Epub 2020 May 4.

GSK, Research and Development, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Background: Batefenterol (BAT) is a bi-functional molecule with both muscarinic antagonist and β-adrenoceptor agonist pharmacology. This Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the safety and tolerability of BAT 300 μg with fluticasone furoate (FF) 100 μg administered via the ELLIPTA inhaler (BAT/FF 300/100).

Methods: Subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized 2:1 to receive BAT/FF 300/100 or placebo once daily for 6 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-1153-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199364PMC

Pharmacy professionals' experiences and perceptions of providing NHS patient medicines helpline services: a qualitative study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Apr 29;20(1):364. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Bath, 5 West, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

Background: Patient medicines helpline services (PMHS) have been established at some National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in England, with the aim of providing medicines-related support to patients after they have been discharged. Addressing an important knowledge gap, this qualitative study sought to examine pharmacy professionals' experiences and perceptions of their PMHS, including perceived benefits of the services, and areas for improvement.

Methods: Invitations to participate were sent to all NHS Trusts within England that were known to provide a PMHS (n = 117). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05182-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189450PMC

Antimicrobial potential, phytochemical profile, cytotoxic and genotoxic screening of Sedum praealtum A. DC. (balsam).

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Apr 29;20(1):133. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Physiology and Oral Pathology, Araraquara School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (FOAr/UNESP), Araraquara, SP, 14801-903, Brazil.

Background: Sedum praealtum has been used for a long time in traditional medicine as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Its beneficial effects have been known since ancient times, when Latinos used it to treat sore and swollen eyes. This research evaluated the antimicrobial potential, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, and some chromatographic profiles of the hydroethanolic extract of leaves, stems and roots of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02915-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191818PMC

The dietary antioxidant quercetin reduces hallmarks of bleomycin-induced lung fibrogenesis in mice.

BMC Pulm Med 2020 Apr 29;20(1):112. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Auf'm Hennekamp 50, 40225, Düsseldorf, DE, Germany.

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, lethal disease of which the etiology is still not fully understood. Current treatment comprises two FDA-approved drugs that can slow down yet not stop or reverse the disease. As IPF pathology is associated with an altered redox balance, adding a redox modulating component to current therapy might exert beneficial effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-1142-xDOI Listing

Risk reduction of diarrhea and respiratory infections following a community health education program - a facility-based case-control study in rural parts of Kenya.

BMC Public Health 2020 Apr 29;20(1):586. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences (CREATES), Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Diarrheal and acute respiratory infections remain a major cause of death in developing countries especially among children below 5 years of age. About 80% of all hospital attendances in Kenya can be attributed to preventable diseases and at least 50% of these preventable diseases are linked to poor sanitation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a community-based health education program, called Familia Nawiri, in reducing the risk of diarrhea and respiratory infections among people living in three rural Kenyan communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08728-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191750PMC

Draft genome sequences of Hirudo medicinalis and salivary transcriptome of three closely related medicinal leeches.

BMC Genomics 2020 Apr 29;21(1):331. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Federal Research and Clinical Centre of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, 1a Malaya Pirogovskaya Str, Moscow, 119435, Russia.

Background: Salivary cell secretion (SCS) plays a critical role in blood feeding by medicinal leeches, making them of use for certain medical purposes even today.

Results: We annotated the Hirudo medicinalis genome and performed RNA-seq on salivary cells isolated from three closely related leech species, H. medicinalis, Hirudo orientalis, and Hirudo verbana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191736PMC

Uncovering the mechanism of the effects of Paeoniae Radix Alba on iron-deficiency anaemia through a network pharmacology-based strategy.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Apr 28;20(1):130. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330004, China.

Background: Paeoniae Radix Alba, the root of the plant Paeonia lactiflora Pall, is a common blood-enriching drug in traditional Chinese medicine. Its effectiveness in the clinical treatment of anaemia is remarkable, but its potential pharmacologic mechanism has not been clarified.

Methods: In this study, the potential pharmacologic mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia was preliminarily elucidated through systematic and comprehensive network pharmacology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02925-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189569PMC

Correction to: Determinants of none-exclusive breast feeding practice among HIV positive women at selected Health Institutions in Ethiopia: case control study.

BMC Res Notes 2020 04 24;13(1):231. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The authorship list on the original article [1] was incorrect and should instead show as Aklilu Abera Ayele, Kemal Ahmed Seid and Oumer Sada Muhammed. The authors apologise for this error. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05074-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181523PMC

In vitro and in vivo effects of flubendiamide and copper on cyto-genotoxicity, oxidative stress and spleen histology of rats and its modulation by resveratrol, catechin, curcumin and α-tocopherol.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2020 Apr 23;21(1):29. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go- Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), -281001, Mathura, India.

Background: Living organisms are frequently exposed to more than one xenobiotic at a time either by ingestion of contaminated food/fodder or due to house-hold practices, occupational hazards or through environment. These xenobiotics interact individually or in combination with biological systems and act as carcinogen or produce other toxic effects including reproductive and degenerative diseases. Present study was aimed to investigate the cyto-genotoxic effects of flubendiamide and copper and ameliorative potential of certain natural phyotconstituent antioxidants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-020-00405-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179012PMC

Prevalence of depression and anxiety and correlations between depression, anxiety, family functioning, social support and coping styles among Chinese medical students.

BMC Psychol 2020 Apr 22;8(1):38. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, No.1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Medical students experience depression and anxiety at a higher rate than the general population or students from other specialties. While there is a growing literature on the high prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms and about potential risk factors to the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among medical students, there is a paucity of evidence focused on the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms and associations with family function, social support and coping styles in Chinese vocational medicine students. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students and assess the correlation between depression/anxiety symptoms and family function, social support and coping styles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00402-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178943PMC

OCT proves that vitreomacular adhesion is significantly more likely to develop vision-threatening retinal complications than vitreomacular separation.

BMC Ophthalmol 2020 Apr 22;20(1):163. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: SD-OCT is becoming commonplace in everyday practice. Vitreomacular adhesions (VMAs) are being more routinely diagnosed. Predictive studies to the natural course of VMA are thus clinically significant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01416-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178608PMC

The validity of reticulocyte hemoglobin content and percentage of hypochromic red blood cells for screening iron-deficiency anemia among patients with end-stage renal disease: a retrospective analysis.

BMC Nephrol 2020 Apr 22;21(1):142. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Hematology Laboratory, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Early detection of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical treatment and quality of life for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of CHr and %Hypo in screening IDA among ESRD patients and compare their performance with screening IDA among non-ESRD patients.

Method: A retrospective analysis of 312 participants was conducted at Cho Ray Hospital, Vietnam, including healthy control participants and ESRD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01796-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178621PMC

Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, serotypes and risk factors for group B streptococcus rectovaginal isolates among pregnant women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya; a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 22;20(1):302. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Estimates of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease burden, antimicrobial susceptibility, and serotypes in pregnant women are limited for many resource-limited countries including Kenya. These data are required to inform recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment of infections due to GBS.

Methods: We evaluated the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, serotypes, and risk factors associated with rectovaginal GBS colonization among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between August and November 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05035-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178604PMC

Comparative effect of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors on laboratory parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2020 Apr 21;21(1):28. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects on laboratory parameters among monotherapy with five DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: We identified cohorts of new sitagliptin users (n = 879), vildagliptin users (n = 253), teneligliptin users (n = 260), alogliptin users (n = 237), and linagliptin users (n = 180) in patients with type 2 DM. We used a multivariate regression model to evaluate and compare the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters including HbA1c concentration and serum concentrations of creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase among the five DPP-4 inhibitors up to 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-020-00407-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171729PMC

The impact of propranolol on nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity in patients with resistant hypertension-evidence from the APPROPRIATE trial.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Apr 21;13(1):228. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Objectives: The objective was to assess the effect of propranolol on oxidative stress and anti-oxidant potential in patients with resistant hypertension as a secondary analysis of the APPROPRIATE trial. This randomized double blinded clinical trial recruited patients with resistant hypertension and allocated forty patients to propranolol and placebo in 1:1 ratio. The pro-oxidant state (nitrate and nitrite) was assessed using modified Griess assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05067-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175567PMC

Network Pharmacology Approach to Uncover the Mechanism Governing the Effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on Osteoarthritis.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Apr 21;20(1):121. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No 155, Hanzhong Road, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: This study used a network pharmacology approach to elucidate the molecular mechanism governing the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (RAB) on osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Based on oral bioavailability and drug-likeness, the main active components of RAB were screened via the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology platform. The GeneCard, OMIM, PharmGkb, Therapeutic Targets database, and DrugBank database were used to establish a database of osteoarthritis targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02909-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171799PMC

Resource implications of the latent tuberculosis cascade of care: a time and motion study in five countries.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Apr 21;20(1):341. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: The End TB Strategy calls for global scale-up of preventive treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), but little information is available about the associated human resource requirements. Our study aimed to quantify the healthcare worker (HCW) time needed to perform the tasks associated with each step along the LTBI cascade of care for household contacts of TB patients.

Methods: We conducted a time and motion (TAM) study between January 2018 and March 2019, in which consenting HCWs were observed throughout a typical workday. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05220-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175545PMC