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    Reflectance confocal microscopy analysis of equivocal melanocytic lesions with severe regression.
    Skin Res Technol 2017 May 21. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Department of Dermatologic Clinic, San Gallicano Dermatological Institute - IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
    Background: The differential diagnosis between regressing nevi and melanoma might be challenging; regressing areas can represent a confounding factor for the diagnosis and the histology still remain mandatory to rule out melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy may add valuable information by revealing features suggestive of the nature of the melanocytic proliferation.

    Objective: To assess the impact of confocal microscopy in the management of regressive melanocytic lesions. Read More

    Melanoma Is Skin Deep: A 3D Reconstruction Technique for Computerized Dermoscopic Skin Lesion Classification.
    IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2017 16;5:4300117. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Research and Development TeamPlanet-I Technologies.
    Melanoma mortality rates are the highest amongst skin cancer patients. Melanoma is life threating when it grows beyond the dermis of the skin. Hence, depth is an important factor to diagnose melanoma. Read More

    [Negative pressure system in the treatment of enterocutaneous fistulas in the pediatric population].
    Cir Pediatr 2016 Oct 10;29(4):166-170. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    Servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid.
    Aim Of The Study: The management of children with enterocutaneous fistulas (EF) along with large abdominal wall defects secondary to multiple surgical interventions can be difficult and sometimes lead to intestinal failure (IF). The aim of this study is to present the results of negative pressure systems and their properties (edema reduction angiogenesis promotion and granulation tissue formation) in children with enterocutaneous fistulas (EF) and their prognosis.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of children with refractory, high output EF treated with NPS between 2008-2014. Read More

    Genomic Assessment of Blitz Nevi Suggests Classification as a Subset of Blue Nevus Rather Than Spitz Nevus: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Molecular Analysis of 18 Cases.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Departments of *Pathology, and†Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; and‡Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    Blitz nevi/tumors are a distinct subset of melanocytic neoplasia which show mixed morphologic features of Spitz and blue nevus. Genomically, most blue nevi have GNAQ or GNA11 mutations while most Spitzoid neoplasms have either an HRAS mutation or translocations involving MET, ROS, BRAF, ALK1, NTRK1, and RET. The criteria used for the assessment of malignancy in blue and Spitzoid lesions are different, and these lesions have different prognostic markers. Read More

    Estimating melanin location in the pigmented skin lesions by hue-saturation-lightness color space values of dermoscopic images.
    J Dermatol 2017 May;44(5):490-498
    Department of Dermatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan.
    The depth of melanin in the skin can be estimated roughly by observation of the color exhibited on dermoscopy. Currently, there are no objective methods to estimate it. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the depth of melanin in the skin and the color variation exhibited, and to objectively estimate the 3-D location of melanin in the pigmented skin lesions from dermoscopic images. Read More

    Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (animal type melanoma): An institutional experience.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York; Department of Pathology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York.
    Background: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is an uncommon, recently described entity with unknown biologic behavior. There is a high rate of regional metastases, but limited evidence of distant metastases or disease-related death.

    Objective: We sought to report our series of patients given a diagnosis of PEM at our institution and provide mutational analysis of genes commonly implicated in melanoma in 2 cases. Read More

    SF3B1 and BAP1 mutations in blue nevus-like melanoma.
    Mod Pathol 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, West German Cancer Center, University Duisburg-Essen and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Essen, Germany.
    Blue nevi are melanocytic tumors originating in the cutaneous dermis. Malignant tumors may arise in association with or resembling blue nevi, so called 'blue nevus-like melanoma', which can metastasize and result in patient death. Identifying which tumors will behave in a clinically aggressive manner can be challenging. Read More

    Phacomatosis Cesioflammea with Cutis Marmorata-like Lesions and Unusual Extracutaneous Abnormalities: Is It a Distinct disorder?
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Mar-Apr;62(2):207-209
    Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    A 2-month-old boy was presented with widespread lateralized blue macules (nevus cesius), an extensive nevus flammeus, and large patches of cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita. Moreover, he had macrocephaly, a coarse facial appearance with depressed nasal bridge, retinal abnormalities, septal defects of the heart, and obliteration of the left brachiocephalic vein and major veins of the left arm with pronounced collateralization. The multisystem disorder of this boy cannot be categorized within the present classification of distinct types of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis. Read More

    Metastatic melanoma with features of blue nevus and tumoral melanosis identified during pembrolizumab therapy.
    JAAD Case Rep 2017 Mar 15;3(2):135-137. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Dermatology, Penn State Health Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
    Metastatic melanoma may exhibit clinical or histologic features of blue nevus. Pembrolizumab therapy is associated with regression and tumoral melanosis. We report on a man with widespread metastatic melanoma on pembrolizumab therapy in whom a blue-grey papule developed on the left side of his neck that clinically resembled a blue nevus and histologically showed features of both blue nevus and tumoral melanosis. Read More

    Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of oral melanocytic nevi and review of the literature.
    J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Jun 29;118(3):151-155. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Dental School of University of Seville, Spain.
    Introduction: Oral melanocytic nevi (OMNs) are uncommon benign melanocytic tumors, histologically similar to their cutaneous counterparts. The aim of this study was twofold: to contribute to the epidemiology with a literature review with the first Spanish series of OMNs, and to report on clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and demographic findings.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of cases attended over the period 1999-2010 was carried out using data drawn from the pathology unit files at two public hospitals in the Spanish region of Andalusia, serving between them a population of 823. Read More

    Acquired blue nevus of the nail bed.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Feb 15;23(2). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington. Steven.Sloan@ va.gov.
    Blue nevi are benign proliferations of melaninproducingdendritic melanocytes located in thedermis. These nevi tend to occur mostly on the skin,predominantly on the head and neck, dorsal aspectsof the distal extremities, and the sacral area, butcan also occasionally appear on mucosal surfaces.Blue nevi of the nail apparatus are uncommon. Read More

    Blue nevus-like and blue nevus-associated melanoma: a comprehensive review of the literature.
    ANZ J Surg 2017 May 20;87(5):345-349. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Stevenage, UK.
    Background: Malignant blue nevus, blue nevus-associated melanoma and blue nevus-like melanoma are all terms used to describe malignant melanomas arising from, in association with, or resembling blue nevi. This review is aimed at summarizing the available literature to reduce the confusion surrounding this rare malignancy, and aid the surgeon in choosing further diagnostic or therapeutic measures.

    Methods: We conducted a search of Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Scopus and the Cochrane Library for all full text articles published in English that reported on a malignant melanoma arising from, in association with, or resembling a blue nevus. Read More

    Metastatic Cellular Blue Nevus: A Rare Case With Metastasis Beyond Regional Nodes.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    *Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, WA; †Department of Anatomical Pathology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, QEII Medical Centre, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; ‡St John of God Hospitals (Subiaco, Murdoch, Midland and Mt Lawley); §Department of Medical Oncology, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, WA; and ¶School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA.
    In this study, we present a rare case of a 35-year-old man with a long-standing blue-black lesion on his left hand with subsequent infraclavicular and axillary lymph node tumor deposits. The hand lesion and lymph nodes were excised revealing histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings consistent with cellular blue nevus. Despite nonregional lymph node involvement, there has been no progression at 12-months follow-up. Read More

    Nail apparatus melanoma initially diagnosed as nail matrix blue nevus: a case report with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2017 Jan 31;7(1):63-66. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia.
    We present a case of nail apparatus melanoma in a 50-year-old woman presenting as new and changing longitudinal melanonychia of the right thumb. Very heavy melanin pigmentation involving both the epidermis and dermis interfered with dermatopathological assessment, which initially leads to a diagnosis of nail matrix blue nevus. After consultation with a specialist multidisciplinary clinic the diagnosis was revised to invasive melanoma, a diagnosis consistent with the clinical and dermatoscopic assessment. Read More

    The significance of blue color in dermatoscopy.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2017 Mar 27;15(3):302-307. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Division of General Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Background And Objectives: Skin lesions with blue color are frequently excised to rule out malignancy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the significance of blue color.

    Methods: We retrospectively scanned dermatoscopic images for blue color and classified them according to pattern analysis. Read More

    Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;92(1):110-112
    Division of Dermatology, Internal Medicine Department - Medical School of Ribeirão Preto - Universidade de São Paulo- Ribeirão Preto (SP) -Brazil.
    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. Read More

    Dermoscopic Features of Small, Medium, and Large-Sized Congenital Melanocytic Nevi.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Feb 3;29(1):26-32. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are present at birth. It is well known that the presence of large-sized congenital nevus in early life could predict a major risk of developing melanoma.

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and dermoscopic features of the CMN, to search for and highlight any differences between small-sized, medium-sized, large-sized CMN. Read More

    Melanocytic nevus count and dermoscopic features do not differ in psoriatic patients undergoing biological agent versus conventional drug therapy.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr;152(2):126-131
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease and treatment of psoriasis includes conventional immunosuppressive agents and biological agents. There are a few data on the relationship between psoriasis and melanocytic lesions. Either benign or malignant proliferations may be seen with immunosuppressive treatment. Read More

    Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome: Promising Response To Sirolimus.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 Jan;54(1):53-54
    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hacettepe University, Cancer Institute, 06100 Ankara-Turkey. Correspondence to: Dr Burca Aydin, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hacettepe University, Cancer Institute, 06100 Ankara-Turkey.
    Background: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare disease involving venous malformations.

    Case Characteristics: We present a 6-year-old female with the syndrome, and consumptive coagulopathy.

    Intervention/outcome: After management with sirolimus, symptoms resolved. Read More

    Recurrent GNAQ mutations in anastomosing hemangiomas.
    Mod Pathol 2017 May 13;30(5):722-727. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Anastomosing hemangiomas are recently described benign vascular lesions that occur chiefly in the genitourinary tract and paravertebral soft tissues. Owing to their rarity and unusual cytoarchitectural features, anastomosing hemangiomas are frequently confused with low-grade angiosarcomas. The specific genetic alterations underlying these lesions are currently unknown. Read More

    Case Report of a Large Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytoma With Suspected Lymph Node Metastases.
    Eplasty 2016 16;16:e33. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Objective: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma was proposed by Zembowicz et al in 2004 including lesions previously diagnosed as human animal-type melanoma and epithelioid blue nevus. Tumors are composed of epithelioid and spindled melanocytes with heavy pigmentation. Methods: We report a case of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma in 47-year-old Asian woman. Read More

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a nuclear biomarker to assess biological potential in histologically ambiguous heavily pigmented melanocytic neoplasms.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Mar 6;44(3):249-255. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Program in Dermatopathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Background: 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic marker detectable through immunohistochemistry (IHC) that has been shown to distinguish benign nevi from melanoma with high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of the study was to explore its diagnostic utility in a subset of histologically challenging, heavily pigmented cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms.

    Methods: 5-hmC IHC was performed on 54 heavily pigmented melanocytic tumors. Read More

    Double Jeopardy: The Rubber Ball Bounces Twice.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Jan;137(1):15-17
    Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Soblet et al. describe cis mutations in TEK/Tie-2 in blue rubber bleb nevus and sporadic vascular malformations. This suggests that the remaining normal allele is required for the phenotype. Read More

    Rectal Blue Nevus: Distinguishing Features of a Rare Entity.
    ACG Case Rep J 2016 Aug 7;3(4):e168. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.
    A 26-year-old African American man with a history of depression and tuberculosis presented to the gastroenterology department after several months of rectal pain with bowel movements. Colonoscopy revealed hyperpigmentation in the distal rectum and internal hemorrhoids, which resulted in a diagnosis of blue nevi. This is only the third known description of a blue nevus involving the gastrointestinal mucosa. Read More

    Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Diagnosed Prenatally as an Epignathus.
    J Craniofac Surg 2016 Nov;27(8):e737-e738
    *I Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education†Center for Craniofacial Disorders, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.
    The authors present a clinical report of the giant fetal tumor protruding from the oral cavity diagnosed sonographically at 32 weeks of gestation as an epignathus. After delivery, tumor proved to be a presentation of the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, the literature offers no reports on similar cases. Read More

    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome: a rare cause of chronic occult blood loss and iron deficiency anaemia.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Dec 20;2016. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus Universitetshospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder with malformed veins, or blebs, appearing in the skin or internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is the most common feature and often subject to bleeding, potentially resulting in chronic occult blood loss and iron deficiency anaemia. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with venous malformations on the feet and severe anaemia. Read More

    [Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome complicated by a ventricular septal defect: a case report].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2016 Dec;36(12):1599-1601
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. E-mail:
    Objective: The co-occurrence of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) and ventricular septal defects is rare. Here we present a case of BRBNS in a 15-year-old boy who was born with multiple cavernous hemangiomas and a ventricular septal defect. Examinations revealed the presence of hemangioma lesions in the subcutaneous and mucosal tissues as well as in the cerebrum, nasopharynx, tongue, esophagus, gastric body, sigmoid colon and adrenal gland. Read More

    Activating cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CYSLTR2) mutations in blue nevi.
    Mod Pathol 2017 Mar 9;30(3):350-356. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, West German Cancer Center, University Duisburg-Essen and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Essen, Germany.
    Blue nevi are common melanocytic tumors arising in the dermal layer of the skin. Similar to uveal melanomas, blue nevi frequently harbor GNAQ and GNA11 mutations. Recently, recurrent CYSLTR2 and PLCB4 mutations were identified in uveal melanomas not harboring GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. Read More

    Amelanotic Cellular Blue Nevus of the Eyelid.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Dec 7. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Departments of *Ophthalmology, †Pathology, and ‡Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.
    The authors describe an isolated, yellowish papular lesion of the upper eyelid in a 63-year-old man. Following excision, histopathologic analysis showed the features of a benign hypopigmented cellular blue nevus, the first and only case involving the eyelid skin. Read More

    Agminated blue nevus - Case report.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Sep-Oct;91(5):658-660
    Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Read More

    Diffuse Cavernous Hemangioma of the Colon.
    Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2016 Jul-Sep;79(3):393-394
    A 70-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with a history of rectal bleeding and constipation, his colonoscopy revealed varicosities and bluish nodular lesions of the rectum (Figure 1). Abdominal CT showed multiple nodular lesions beginning from the distal descending colon and extending to the rectum, calcifications suggesting phleboliths were also seen in these lesions. A contrast enhanced pelvic MRI demonstrated multiple tubular lesions showing hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and hypointensity on T1-weighted images, consistent with the affected areas on the CT scan (Figure 2). Read More

    Favorable Response to Sirolimus in a Child With Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome in the Gastrointestinal Tract.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Mar;39(2):147-149
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Recently, sirolimus was demonstrated to be effective in treating vascular lesions and lessening the frequency of bleeding and secondary iron deficiency anemia. We present a child with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome who had prolonged history of iron deficiency anemia secondary to unrecognized gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment with propranolol, omeprazole and iron had failed. Read More

    Primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumour with a plaque-like blue nevus in a patient with ocular albinism.
    Eur J Dermatol 2016 Oct;26(5):496-498
    Department of Biopathology, University Hospital, 80 av Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5,, Tumorotheque of Biopathology, University Hospital, 80 av Augustin Fliche, 34295, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

    Digital imaging biomarkers feed machine learning for melanoma screening.
    Exp Dermatol 2016 Oct 26. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.
    We developed an automated approach for generating quantitative image analysis metrics (imaging biomarkers) that are then analysed with a set of 13 machine learning algorithms to generate an overall risk score that is called a Q-score. These methods were applied to a set of 120 "difficult" dermoscopy images of dysplastic nevi and melanomas that were subsequently excised/classified. This approach yielded 98% sensitivity and 36% specificity for melanoma detection, approaching sensitivity/specificity of expert lesion evaluation. Read More

    Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings.
    Radiol Bras 2016 Jul-Aug;49(4):257-263
    Tenured Associate Professor in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of the Escola Paulista de Medicina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Read More

    An Orbital Malignant Melanoma Arising in Cellular Blue Nevus in a Patient with Nevus of Ota.
    Cureus 2016 Jul 18;8(7):e698. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
    Medical Eye Associates, University of Central Florida College of Medicine.
    Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Read More

    Glowing in the Dark: Use of Confocal Microscopy in Dark Pigmented Lesions.
    Dermatol Clin 2016 Oct;34(4):431-442
    Melanoma Unit, Dermatology Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036, Spain; CIBER de Enfermedades Raras, Barcelona, Spain.
    Reflectance confocal microscopy patterns and structures of clinically dark lesions are described. Because many of the dark lesions have melanin in superficial skin layers these lesions show great semiology by confocal. Limitations and pitfalls of reflectance confocal microscopy in clinically dark lesions are also detailed. Read More

    Multifocal vascular lesions.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Sep;35(3):153-60
    Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Read More

    Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Sep;35(3):128-36
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. Read More

    Expression of microphthalmia transcription factor, S100 protein, and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and pigmented nevi.
    Biomed Rep 2016 Sep 1;5(3):327-331. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130041, P.R. China.
    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a type of malignant tumor, which originates from neural crest melanocytes. MM progresses rapidly and results in a high mortality rate. The present study aims to investigate the expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), the S100 protein, and HMB-45 in MM and pigmented nevi. Read More

    Near-infrared reflectance and autofluorescence imaging characteristics of choroidal nevi.
    Eye (Lond) 2016 Dec 2;30(12):1593-1597. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Department of Eye and Vision Science, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    PurposeTo report near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R), near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF) and blue wave autofluorescence (BW-AF) appearance of choroidal nevi using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO).Patients and methodsNIR-R, NIR-AF and BW-AF images of choroidal nevi were compared with color fundus photos (CF). Images were graded as hyperreflective if reflectance was much greater than background, hyporeflective if less than background, and isoreflective if the same as the background. Read More

    Melanoma associated with congenital intermediate common blue nevus of the scalp - Case report.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;91(4):514-6
    Hospital Federal de Bonsucesso - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
    Melanomas can arise either de novo (70%) or from pre-existing melanocytic lesions (30%). Of the latter, most cases arise at the dermoepidermal junction from small congenital or acquired non-blue nevi while only a few arise from blue nevi, notably the cellular subtype and less commonly the common (dendritic) type. Melanomas that arise from blue nevi usually occur on the scalp with greater frequency, as in the case described. Read More

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