The prevention and treatment of iron deficiency is a major public health goal. Challenges in the treatment of iron deficiency include finding and addressing the underlying cause and the selection of an iron replacement product which meets the needs of the patient. However, there are a number of non-evidence-based misconceptions regarding the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, as well as inconsistency of terminology and lack of clear guidance on clinical pathways. Read More
Veneto Region Referral Centre for Iron Metabolism Disorders, Centre of Excellence, European Reference Network for Rare Haematological Disorders "EuroBloodNet", Department of Medicine, Integrated University Hospital, Policlinico "G.B. Rossi", Verona, Italy.
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, "Università degli Studi di Milano"; "Angelo Bianchi Bonomi" Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, "Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico", Milan, Italy.
The clinical profile and expectations of haemophilic patients with inhibitors have changed over the last three decades, mainly because of the prolongation of life-expectancy, often resulting in an increase of the orthopaedic burden. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is the most frequently used bypassing agent in haemophilia patients with inhibitors during elective orthopaedic surgery. For nearly 30 years, rFVIIa has been successfully used to control haemostasis in several major and minor surgical procedures. Read More
Background: The Italian Registry of Thrombosis in Children (RITI) was established by a multidisciplinary team with the aims of improving knowledge about neonatal and paediatric thrombotic events in Italy and providing a preliminary source of data for the future development of specific clinical trials and diagnostic-therapeutic protocols.
Materials And Methods: We analysed the subset of RITI data concerning paediatric systemic venous thromboembolic events that occurred between January 2007 and June 2013.
Results: Eighty-five deep venous thromboses and seven pulmonary emboli were registered in the RITI. Read More
Blood Transfus 2017 May 15:1-13. Epub 2017 May 15.
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.
Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. Read More
Background: During hypothermic storage, a substantial fraction of red blood cells (RBCs) transforms from flexible discocytes to rigid sphero-echinocytes and spherocytes. Infusion of these irreversibly-damaged cells into the recipient during transfusion serves no therapeutic purpose and may contribute to adverse outcomes in some patients. In this proof-of-concept study we describe the use of hypotonic washing for selective removal of the irreversibly-damaged cells from stored blood. Read More
Background: The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts.
Methods: The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). Read More
Background: The Quality Unit of a research and teaching hospital in Milan assessed the increased clinical use of fresh-frozen plasma in patients treated during 2012 in order to evaluate the appropriateness of this use.
Materials And Methods: For each patient in the study, a pathology profile was generated by means of record linkage techniques involving data collected through different information systems. Patients' information was combined using the patient identifier key generating pathology profiles exported to an Excel file. Read More
Background: Anti-RhD antibodies (anti-D) are important in the prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN) due to RhD incompatibility. Current preparations of anti-D are sourced from hyperimmune human plasma, so its production carries a risk of disease and is dependent on donor availability. Despite the efforts to develop a monoclonal preparation with similar prophylactic properties to the plasma-derived anti-D, no such antibody is yet available. Read More
Worldwide safety of blood has been positively impacted by technological, economic and social improvements; nevertheless, growing socio-political changes of contemporary society together with environmental changes challenge the practice of blood transfusion with a continuous source of unforeseeable threats with the emergence and re-emergence of blood-borne pathogens. Pathogen reduction (PR) is a proactive strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. PR technologies for the treatment of single plasma units and platelet concentrates are commercially available and have been successfully implemented in more than 2 dozen countries worldwide. Read More
Haemorrhage following injury is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The role of fibrinogen concentrate in trauma-induced coagulopathy has been the object of intense research in the last 10 years and has been systematically analysed in this review. A systematic search of the literature identified six retrospective studies and one prospective one, involving 1,650 trauma patients. Read More
The issue of the most appropriate red blood cell transfusion policy has been addressed by a number of randomised controlled trials, conducted over the last decades, comparing the effects on patients' outcome of restrictive blood transfusion strategies (transfusing when the haemoglobin concentration is less than 7 g/dL to 8 g/dL) vs more liberal ones (transfusing when the haemoglobin concentration is less than 9 g/dL to 10 g/dL) in a variety of clinical settings. In parallel, various systematic reviews and meta-analyses have tried to perform pooled analyses of the data from these randomised controlled trials and their results have been utilised by scientific societies to provide recommendations and guidelines on red blood cell transfusion thresholds. All these aspects will be critically discussed in this narrative review. Read More
Background: Red blood cells collected in citrate-phosphate-dextrose can be stored for up to 42 days at 4 °C in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol additive solution. During this controlled, but nevertheless artificial, ex vivo ageing, red blood cells accumulate lesions that can be reversible or irreversible upon transfusion. The aim of the present study is to follow several parameters reflecting cell metabolism, antioxidant defences, morphology and membrane dynamics during storage. Read More
Background: During its 120 days sojourn in the circulation, the red blood cell (RBC) remodels its membrane. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked enzyme that may serve as a marker for membrane processes occurring this ageing-associated remodelling process.
Materials And Methods: Expression and enzymatic activity of AChE were determined on RBCs of various ages, as obtained by separation based on volume and density (ageing in vivo), and on RBCs of various times of storage in blood bank conditions (ageing in vitro), as well as on RBC-derived vesicles. Read More
Red blood cells (RBCs) units are the most requested transfusion product worldwide. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anaemia, acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30% of the blood volume, with the aim of restoring tissue oxygen delivery. However, stored RBCs from donors are not a qualitative equal product, and, in many ways, this is a matter of concern in the transfusion practice. Read More
Haemolysis occurs in many haematologic and non-haematologic diseases. Transfusion of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) can result in intravascular haemolysis, in which the RBCs are destroyed within the circulation, and extravascular haemolysis, in which RBCs are phagocytosed in the monocyte-macrophage system. This happens especially after RBCs have been stored under refrigerated conditions for long periods. Read More
Background: The predominant mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Europe is male-to-male transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are deferred from donating blood in many countries, but nevertheless do donate blood. Based on data from 34 countries, we estimated the proportion of MSM screened for HIV in the context of a blood donation and identified individual factors associated with this HIV screening in order to propose possible public health interventions. Read More
Background: Transfusion of washed platelet concentrates (W-PC) is recommended for some patients, such as those who have had previous severe allergic transfusion reactions. However, we still lack a standardised method for preparing these products. Here, we assessed the effect of a manual washing procedure on in vitro platelet quality and on the transfusion efficacy of W-PCs. Read More
Background: Public cord blood banking is currently managed in Italy by a network of 19 regional cord blood banks coordinated by the National Blood Centre and the National Transplant Centre. A cost analysis was carried out within the Italian network to determine the relationship between cost of cord blood collection and banking and size of the bank inventory, which ranged from 106 to 9,341 units on December 31(st), 2012.
Materials And Methods: The 19 banks were invited to report costs incurred in 2012 related to cord blood unit collection, transportation, biological validation, characterisation, manipulation, cryopreservation, storage, data management, and general costs. Read More
Background: In Europe, red cell concentrates (RCC) are usually stored in SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol). During storage, in vitro red cell quality declines, including lowered energy status and increased cell lysis. Recently, several additive solutions (ASs), designed to diminish the decline in in vitro quality during storage, have been developed. Read More
Transfusion of stored blood is regarded as one of the great advances in modern medicine. However, during storage in the blood bank, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo a series of biochemical and biomechanical changes that affect cell morphology and physiology and potentially impair transfusion safety and efficacy. Despite reassuring evidence from clinical trials, it is universally accepted that the storage lesion(s) results in the altered physiology of long-stored RBCs and helps explain the rapid clearance of up to one-fourth of long-stored RBCs from the recipient's bloodstream at 24 hours after administration. Read More
Background: Acute and delayed haemolysis, alloimmunisation and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) are potential complications after ABO incompatible haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aims of this study were to investigate acute and delayed red blood cell (RBC) antibody-associated complications, including haemolysis, PRCA and alloimmunisation in major and bidirectional ABO incompatible HSCT.
Materials And Methods: We retrospectively examined the transplant courses of 36 recipients of bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from ABO incompatible donors and evaluated the current practice of performing plasmapheresis in patients with higher isoagglutinin titres. Read More
Background: Foeto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH), a gestational event that occurs before or during delivery, consists of a loss of foetal blood into the maternal circulation. FMH occurs more frequently during the third trimester or labour both in normal and complicated pregnancies. In the case of alloimmunisation, the maternal immunological response and the severity of the resulting foetal or neonatal disease depend on the amount of foetal blood that passes into the maternal circulation. Read More
Background: In the Balearic Islands, as in other areas of the Mediterranean basin, there is a significant proportion of asymptomatic Leishmania (L.) infantum-infected blood donors, who may represent an important threat to transfusion safety. The Balearic Islands blood bank, located in an area endemic for L. Read More
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological alterations that occur during the storage of erythrocyte suspensions which may lead to transfusion-related immunomodulation following allogeneic blood transfusion.
Materials And Methods: One part of the erythrocyte suspensions obtained from donors was leucoreduced while the other part was not. The leucoreduced (LR) and non-leucoreduced (NL) erythrocyte suspensions were then further divided into three equal amounts which were stored for 0, 21 or 42 days prior to measurements, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, of cytokine levels in their supernatants. Read More
Over 110 million units of blood are collected yearly. The need for blood products is greater in developing countries, but so is the risk of contracting a transfusion-transmitted infection. Without efficient donor screening/viral testing and validated pathogen inactivation technology, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections correlates with the infection rate of the donor population. Read More
Background: To preserve cellular integrity and avoid bacterial growth, storage and transfer of blood and blood products follow strict guidelines in terms of temperature control. We evaluated the impact of ineligible warming of whole blood donations on the quality of blood components.
Materials And Methods: One-hundred and twenty units of whole blood (WB) from eligible blood donors were collected in CPDA-1 and stored at 4±2 °C. Read More
Background: RhD variants have altered D epitopes and/or decreased antigen copies per red cell. Individuals carrying these variants may test antigen negative, weakly positive, or positive by serology, and may or may not be at risk of alloimmunisation after exposure. There have been recommendations to perform RHD genotyping of patients, pregnant women and females of childbearing potential with serological weak D phenotype, to guide prophylactic use of Rh immune globulin (RhIG), and better conserve D-negative blood products. Read More
Elucidating the precise mechanisms of cumulative red cell damages during storage and the potential harmful consequences after transfusion are achievable by exacting laboratory science and well-defined clinical studies in progress. Accordingly, for larger magnitude blood transfusions (i.e. Read More
Background: Cardiac surgery is frequently associated with excessive blood loss requiring multiple blood transfusions which are, in turn, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effectiveness of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®))-guided administration of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) with regards to blood loss, transfusion requirements, and major post-operative complications.
Materials And Methods: Coagulation management in 68 prospective patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass was based on a treatment algorithm guided by ROTEM(®) measurements. Read More
Background: Disciplines involved in diagnosing transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) report according to a "one-hit" theory. However, studies showed that patients with an underlying condition are at increased risk of the development of TRALI. We investigated whether accumulating evidence on the "two-hit" theory has changed the practice of reporting TRALI. Read More
Background: Although ammonia in plasma does not usually pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in cases of traumatic brain injury it may do so, acting as a neurotoxin on the brain. Excess intake of ammonia should be restricted in conditions involving BBB breakdown, such as traumatic brain injury. Washing is a method to remove ammonia from blood products, but fresh-frozen plasma and albumin products cannot be washed. Read More