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    Removal of Procalcitonin and Selected Cytokines during Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis Using High Cutoff Hemofilters in Patients with Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 27;46(2):153-159. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Internal Diseases, Nephrology and Dialysis, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.
    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) using high cutoff (HCO) hemofilters on the removal of procalcitonin (PCT), and other inflammatory markers in the treatment of patients during septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI).

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-six patients with septic shock and AKI were included in the study. Before and after the 24-h HCO-CVVHD, PCT, native C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-12, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-α) in serum and effluent were assessed. Read More

    Disorders of Lipid Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 27;46(2):144-152. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the most important pathophysiological mechanisms for CVD in patients with CKD is the widespread and possibly accelerated formation of atherosclerotic plaques due to hyperlipidemia, uremic toxins, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Recent studies showed that the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increases, and that high--density lipoprotein cholesterol dysfunction occurs as kidney function declines and inflammation becomes more prevalent. Read More

    Lectin Affinity Plasmapheresis for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus and Marburg Virus Glycoprotein Elimination.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 26;46(2):126-133. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Goethe University Hospital, Med. III, Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Background/aims: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Marburg virus (MARV) are among the World Health Organization's top 8 emerging pathogens. Both zoonoses share nonspecific early symptoms, a high lethality rate, and a reduced number of specific treatment options. Therefore, we evaluated extracorporeal virus and glycoprotein (GP) elimination by lectin affinity plasmapheresis (LAP). Read More

    Remote Monitoring of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Improves Personalization of Dialytic Prescription and Patient's Independence.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 25;46(2):111-117. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.
    Background: Remote monitoring (RM) supports a healthcare model that enhances patients' self-management. We evaluated the utility of RM in patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD).

    Methods: We observed 37 -RM-APD patients, 16 incidents, and 21 prevalents switched from traditional APD (T-APD). Read More

    Is Sclerostin Level Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases in Hemodialysis Patients?
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 25;46(2):118-125. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Nephrology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background/aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relation between sclerostin, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular events (CVE) in hemodialysis patients (HD).

    Methods: Sclerostin level and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 97 HD patients and sclerostin level in 40 controls were measured.

    Results: Sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Read More

    Paricalcitol and Peritoneal Protein Loss in Peritoneal Dialysis: A Double-Center Study.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 19;46(2):103-110. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Algarve Hospitalar Center, Hospital of Faro, Faro, Portugal.
    Background/aims: Peritoneal protein loss (PPL) is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Controversial results have been published about the effect of paricalcitol in PPL among PD patients. This study intends to analyze the relationship between paricalcitol and PPL in PD. Read More

    Efficacy of the Combination of Immunoadsorption and Rituximab for Treatment in a Case of Severe Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Recurrence after Renal Transplantation.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 19;46(2):90-93. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Nephrology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Background/aims: We present a case of a male patient with severe recurrence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) after transplant.

    Methods: Before the transplant he was treated with plasma exchange. Massive proteinuria was detected post-transplantation and plasma exchanges were performed without response. Read More

    Extended Sessions of Polymyxin-B Immobilized Fiber Column Hemoperfusion Ameliorate Renal Outcome and Mortality in Septic Shock with Acute Kidney Injury.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 19;46(2):81-89. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Nephrology, Toshiba General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background/aims: Polymyxin-B (PMX) treatment has been reported to decrease mortality in patients with septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether extended sessions of PMX (Ext-PMX) immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion ameliorate clinical outcomes in patients complicated with septic shock and AKI without surgical control.

    Methods: Twenty-two patients with nonsurgical septic shock and AKI who received PMX were included. Read More

    The Role of Doppler Ultrassonography in Significant and Borderline Stenosis Definition.
    Blood Purif 2018 Apr 19;46(2):94-102. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Centro de Acessos Vasculares Nephrocare Gaia, Porto, Portugal.
    Background: The definition of significant stenosis (SS) remains controversial.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1,040 consultations. SS was defined in the presence of clinical and echo-Doppler (DDU) criteria: Qa <500 mL/min or Qa decrease >25%; RI >0. Read More

    Associations between Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Complications of Uremic Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.
    Blood Purif 2018 19;46(1):48-55. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Nephropathy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
    This study is to investigate the associations between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular complications of uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Uremic patients on MHD (189, case group) and healthy people (165, control group) were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to test ApoE gene polymorphisms. Read More

    From Isonatric to Isotonic Hemodialysis.
    Blood Purif 2018 19;46(1):77-80. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Background: Isonatric hemodialysis aims at maintaining stable cellular hydration through a close control of natremia, considered a surrogate of tonicity. However, 2 methods are available to perform isonatric hemodialysis: one based on natremia derived from plasma conductivity (NaCond) and the other based on natremia measured at laboratory (NaLab). We compared the control of tonicity obtained by isonatric hemodialysis based on NaLab or NaCond. Read More

    Early Flow Disturbances of Tunnelled Haemodialysis Catheters and Topographic Landmarks in Chest X-Ray.
    Blood Purif 2018 19;46(1):70-76. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Neurology, Dermatology, Clinic for Endocrinology, Nephrology, Section of Nephrology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background/aims: The position of the tip of tunnelled haemodialysis (HD) catheters (THC) might influence flow characteristics during HD. In chest X-ray (CXR), carina-related landmarks may be practicable to verify the THC position, and tip-carina distance (TCD) might be useful to predict early-flow dysfunctions.

    Methods: In this single-centre, retrospective study, the TCD and the angle between the distal catheter and the body vertical axis (tip-body vertical-angle [TVA]) was measured in 115 THC by post-procedure CXR with 2 investigators. Read More

    Is There Enough Evidence to Prove That Hemodiafiltration Is Superior?
    Blood Purif 2018 12;46(1):3-6. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    The evidence concerning online hemodiafiltration (HDF) includes the following: (1) the increase of removal of uremic toxin, (2) the prevention of dialysis rerated hypotension, (3) the recovery of survival, and (4) the recovery of dialysis related uncertain symptoms. Although clinical evidence has been noted, the hypothesis of the efficacy of HDF are still indefinite and require further precise research. Read More

    Fallacies and Pitfalls of Dialysis Sodium Prescription and Control.
    Blood Purif 2018 12;46(1):27-33. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Medicine, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Dialysate conductivity is routinely used as a surrogate for dialysate sodium concentration. However, dialysis machine manufacturers apply different conductivity temperature correction coefficients. With the same conductivity in dialysis machines manufactured by different manufacturers, dialysate sodium may significantly differ. Read More

    Factors Associated with Functional Performance among Patients on Hemodialysis in Taiwan.
    Blood Purif 2018 12;46(1):12-18. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background/aims: We investigated factors associated with functional performance in hemodialysis (HD) patients as well as their relationships with mortality.

    Methods: We enrolled 790 HD patients who were followed up from 2009 to 2013. Functional performance was evaluated by Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPSS) scores. Read More

    Effect of Hybrid Blood Purification Treatment on Secondary Hyperparathyroidism for Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.
    Blood Purif 2018 12;46(1):19-26. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of hybrid blood purification treatment on secondary hyperparathyroidism for maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients.

    Methods: A total of 40 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: HD combined with hemoperfusion (HD + HP) group (n = 20) and HD group (n = 20). Changes in intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) in these 2 groups were compared before and after treatment, and iPTH levels in the HD + HP group were monitored before and after treatment. Read More

    Effects of Volume Overload and Current Techniques for the Assessment of Fluid Status in Patients with Renal Disease.
    Blood Purif 2018 12;46(1):34-47. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Volume overload is an important, may be the foremost, independent prognostic factor determining the outcome of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, it is crucial to measure fluid status of these patients and avoid volume overload. This review aims to evaluate volume overload, its effects on patients with renal diseases and current methodologies measuring volume status in the body. Read More

    Treatment of Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis in the Elderly.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):208-212. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    As the population worldwide ages, the epidemic of kidney disease will also increase. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) positive rapidly progressive positive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is the most common etiology for biopsied patients among the very elderly. Its pathological features and clinical course are well described, though there is still debate about the mechanism of injury involved in individual patients. Read More

    Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Care?
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):173-178. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Background: Magnesium (Mg) is an essential cation for multiple processes in the body. The kidney plays a major role in regulating the Mg balance. In a healthy individual, total-body Mg content is kept constant by interactions among intestine, bones and the kidneys. Read More

    Fistula Cannulation with a Novel Fistula Cannula: A Review of Cannulation Devices and Procedures.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):278-283. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Department, San Bortolo Hospital, aULSS8 Berica, Vicenza, Italy.
    Arteriovenous fistula cannulation for dialysis treatments in Europe has traditionally been done by metal needles. In -Japan, plastic cannulas have been available for many years and are used in the majority of the dialysis patients. The mechanical structure and the cannulation procedure of the plastic cannulas differ from those of the metal needles. Read More

    What We Do and Do Not Know about Women and Kidney Diseases; Questions Unanswered and Answers Unquestioned: Reflection on World Kidney Day and International Woman's Day.
    Blood Purif 2018 16;45(4):364-375. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly. Girls and women, who make up approximately 50% of the world's population, are important contributors to society and their families. Read More

    Acute Kidney Injury in Sub-Sahara Africa: A Single-Center Experience from Khartoum, Sudan.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):201-207. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Soba University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: The burden of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high in Africa. While there are no reliable statistics about AKI in Africa, the Global Snapshot Study of the 0by25 initiative of the International Society of Nephrology has determined dehydration, infections, animal envenomation, and complications during pregnancy as the main causes.

    Methods: This study was conducted at the Soba University Hospital (SUH), Khartoum, Sudan, a tertiary referral center. Read More

    Pregnancy and End-Stage Renal Disease.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):194-200. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Pregnancy is uncommon in women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Fertility rates are low in women on dialysis, and physicians still frequently counsel women with ESRD against pregnancy. Advancements in the delivery of dialysis and obstetric care have led to improved live birth rates in women on dialysis, so pregnancy for young women with ESRD is now more feasible and safer. Read More

    Novel Insights into the Pathogenesis and Prevention of Intradialytic Hypotension.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):230-235. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Background: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication of haemodialysis (HD) and associated with adverse outcomes, especially when a nadir definition (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg) is used. The pathogenesis of IDH is directly linked to the discontinuous nature of the HD treatment, in combination with patient-related factors such as age, diabetes mellitus and cardiac failure.

    Summary: Although the decline in blood volume due to removal of fluid by ultrafiltration is the prime mover, thermally induced reflex vasodilation compromises the haemodynamic response to hypovolemia. Read More

    Fluid Overload and Inflammation Axis.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):159-165. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Extracellular fluid overload (FO), which is assessed using bioimpedance technologies, is an important predictor of outcome in dialysis patients and in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease. While traditional cardiovascular abnormalities are assumed to mediate this risk, recently also, the importance of noncardiovascular factors, such as systemic inflammation and malnutrition has been shown. While both FO and inflammation are independent risk factors for mortality, recent studies have shown that their combined presence can lead to a cumulative risk profile. Read More

    Standardized Protocol for Hemodialysis Vascular Access Assessment: The Role of Ultrasound and ColorDoppler.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):260-269. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.
    Introduction: Ultrasound and colorDoppler technique, which is relatively inexpensive, rapid, non-invasive and repeatable is a powerful tool used for early diagnosis of vascular access (VA) complications in hemodialysis patients. To date a standard and widely comprehensible echocolorDoppler (ECD) protocol is not available.

    Materials And Methods: A simple step-by-step protocol based on anatomical and hemodynamic parameters of VA has been developed during a 3-years VA ECD follow-up. Read More

    Skin Examination: An Important Diagnostic Tool in Renal Failure Patients.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):187-193. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Renal failure is common in the United States with an estimated prevalence of 660,000 treated end-stage renal disease patients in 2015 [1]. Causes of renal failure are many, and complications from renal failure, underlying disease, and treatment are not infrequent. Examples of common skin manifestations include xerosis, pigmentary change, and nail dystrophies. Read More

    Visions in a Crystal Ball: The Future of Peritoneal Dialysis.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):218-223. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one of the corner stones of renal replacement therapy and should be strongly considered if preemptive kidney transplantation is not available.

    Summary: There are several initiatives that may help the growth in the use of PD around the world. First, PD is an underused and valuable option in patients with heart failure and the chronic cardiorenal syndrome, especially in those with frequent hospitalizations despite optimal medical therapy. Read More

    Bringing Home The Bacon: Update on The State of Kidney Xenotransplantation.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):254-259. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Background: There is a continuing critical shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation, particularly for patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Efforts are being made to resolve the donor kidney shortage by the transplantation of kidneys from genetically-engineered pigs.

    Summary: This review outlines the pathobiological barriers to pig organ xenotransplantation in primates, which include (i) antibody-dependent complement-mediated rejection, (ii) a T cell-mediated elicited antibody and cellular response, (iii) coagulation dysregulation between pigs and primates, and (iv) a persistent inflammatory response. Read More

    Acid-Base and Electrolyte Managements in Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease: Case-Based Discussion.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):179-186. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Acid-base and electrolyte alterations are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney failure (ESRD). The alterations become more complex as CKD advances to ESRD, leading to morbidity and mortality. Three cases are presented illustrating some key prototypic features in CKD and ESRD. Read More

    Predicting Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care Unit Patients: The Role of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-2 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-7 Biomarkers.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):270-277. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on a rise in serum creatinine and/or fall in urine output. It has been shown that there are patients that fulfill AKI definition but do not have AKI, and there are also patients with evidence of renal injury who do not meet any criteria for AKI. Recently the innovative and emerging proteomic technology has enabled the identification of novel biomarkers that allow improved risk stratification. Read More

    Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Salty Relationship.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):166-172. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Background: Hypertension affects almost all chronic kidney disease patients and is related to poor outcomes. Sodium intake is closely related to blood pressure (BP) levels in this population and decreasing its intake consistently improves the BP control particularly in short-term controlled trials. However, most patients struggle in following a controlled diet on sodium according to the guidelines recommendation due to several factors and barriers discussed in this article. Read More

    Association between Heights of Dialysis Patients and Outcomes: Results from a Retrospective Cohort Study of the International MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (MONDO) Database Initiative.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):245-253. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Renal Research Institute, New York, New York, USA.
    Background: Tall people have improved metabolic profiles and better cardiovascular outcomes, a relationship inverted in dialysis patients. We investigated the relationship between height and outcomes in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients commencing treatment in an analysis of the international Monitoring Dialysis Outcomes (MONDO) database.

    Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included incident HD patients commencing treatment between -January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and investigated the association between height and mortality using the MONDO database. Read More

    Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):154-158. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Accelerated ageing is observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)/end-stage renal disease. Premature vascular aging and arterial stiffening are the most characteristic features of this "progeria" that is already observed in those with the early stages of CKD. Aortic stiffening is associated with high characteristic impedance, left ventricular hypertrophy, decreased coronary perfusion, and is a strong prognostic marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Read More

    Management of Elderly Patients with Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):213-217. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Background: Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by a rapid deterioration of renal function and by extracapillary proliferation in >50% of glomeruli. The most common type of RPGN is "pauci-immune" glomerulonephritis caused by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV).

    Summary: The incidence of AAV increases with age and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis is the most common diagnosis found in renal biopsies in the elderly population. Read More

    Relationships between Neighborhood Walkability and Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels in Hemodialysis Patients.
    Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):236-244. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Renal Research Institute, New York, New York, USA.
    Background/aims: Neighborhood walkability is associated with indicators of health in the general population. We explored the association between neighborhood walkability and daily steps in hemodialysis (HD) patients.

    Methods: We measured daily steps over 5 weeks using Fitbit Flex (Fitbit, San Francisco, CA, USA) and retrieved Walk Score® (WS) data by patient's home ZIP code (www. Read More

    Cognitive Function Declines Significantly during Haemodialysis in a Majority of Patients: A Call for Further Research.
    Blood Purif 2018 16;45(4):347-355. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Psychiatry, Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Introduction: Cognitive impairment (CI) is very common condition that occurs in haemodialysis patients and it is associated with reduced functional capacity and mortality. We assessed the change in cognitive function during haemodialysis and associated risk factors.

    Methods: All patients ≥50 years, on haemodialysis for ≥3 months, no dementia from 2 dialysis centres were selected. Read More

    Phosphate and Calcium Control in Short Frequent Hemodialysis with the NxStage System One Cycler: Mass Balance Studies and Comparison with Standard Thrice-Weekly Bicarbonate Dialysis.
    Blood Purif 2018 16;45(4):334-342. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Short frequent dialysis with NxStage System One cycler (NSO) has become increasingly popular as home hemodialysis prescription. Short dialysis sessions with NSO might not allow adequate phosphate (P) removal.

    Methods: Single-session and weekly balances of P and calcium (Ca) were compared in 14 patients treated with NSO (6 sessions/week) and in 14 patients on standard bicarbonate dialysis (BHD). Read More

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