A comparative crossover study on the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: preseptal and pretarsal botulinum toxin injection techniques.
Neurol Sci 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
Neurology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) are chronic and disabling abnormal craniofacial movements that produce involuntary eyelid twitching and closure. The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections have been accepted and widely used for the treatment of HFS and BEB. However, different injection sites may influence the effectiveness, doses, and side effects. Read More