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    180 results match your criteria Blepharospasm Benign Essential

    1 OF 4

    Diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm.
    Neurochirurgie 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Service de neurochirurgie, fondation ophtalmologique Adolphe-de-Rothschild, 75019 Paris, France.
    The diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm (pHFS), due to a benign compression of the facial motor nerve by a vessel, within or close to its root exit zone, is often made with delay. Misdiagnosis includes psychogenic spasm, tics, facial myokymia or blepharospasm, but in fact post-facial palsy synkinesis (post-paralytic HFS) is the closest clinical condition, because it is limited to the territory of the facial nerve of a single hemiface. The differential diagnosis between these two entities, whose pathophysiological mechanisms are very different, can be made by electroneuromyographic (ENMG) examination. Read More

    Chemodenervation for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Purpose: To review the medical literature on the outcomes and complications of various Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxins for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).

    Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in February 2017 in PubMed for articles published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without language limitations; studies published before 2000 were excluded. The combined searches yielded 127 citations. Read More

    Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm.
    Curr Eye Res 2018 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine , Toon , Japan.
    Objective: To determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on the eyelid pressure in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

    Methods: Twenty normal volunteers (10 men, 10 women; average age 59.7 ± 11. Read More

    Surgical approach to limiting skin contracture following protractor myectomy for essential blepharospasm.
    Digit J Ophthalmol 2017 5;23(4):8-12. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.
    Purpose: To report our experience with protractor myectomy in patients with benign essential blepharospasm who did not respond to serial botulinum toxin injection, and to describe intra- and postoperative techniques that limited skin contracture while also providing excellent functional and cosmetic results.

    Methods: The medical records of patients with isolated, benign, essential blepharospasm who underwent protractor myectomy from 2005 to 2008 by a single surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. The technique entailed operating on a single eyelid during each procedure, using a complete en bloc resection of all orbicularis tissue, leaving all eyelid skin intact at the time of surgery, and placing the lid under stretch with Frost suture and applying a pressure dressing for 5-7 days. Read More

    Medical Cannabis, a Beneficial High in Treatment of Blepharospasm? An Early Observation.
    Neuroophthalmology 2017 Oct 18;41(5):253-258. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    The objective of this study was to observe the effect of medical cannabis in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) as an adjunct to botulinum toxin. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients certified for medical cannabis use for BEB from September 2015 to May 2016. Patient demographics and responses, cannabis history, and severity indices were collected. Read More

    Physiological effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgery in cervical dystonia.
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia.

    Methods: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration. Read More

    Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study.
    Korean J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.
    Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of Botox and Neuronox in the management of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

    Methods: We performed a triple-masked, randomized control study to compare Botox and Neuronox in 48 eyes of 24 patients with BEB. All 24 patients randomly received Botox or Neuronox in the periorbital region in a masked, randomized split-face manner, keeping the injection sites and doses uniform. Read More

    A comparative crossover study on the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: preseptal and pretarsal botulinum toxin injection techniques.
    Neurol Sci 2017 Nov 7;38(11):2031-2036. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Neurology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) are chronic and disabling abnormal craniofacial movements that produce involuntary eyelid twitching and closure. The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections have been accepted and widely used for the treatment of HFS and BEB. However, different injection sites may influence the effectiveness, doses, and side effects. Read More

    A Dynamic Circuit Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Blepharospasm.
    Front Comput Neurosci 2017 7;11:11. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological StudiesSan Diego, CA, USA; Institute for Neural Computation, University of California, San DiegoSan Diego, CA, USA.
    Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. Read More

    Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy.
    PLoS One 2016 16;11(12):e0168652. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Neurology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Objective: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. Read More

    Changes in ocular higher-order aberrations following botulinum toxin treatment in patients with blepharospasm : BTX improves dry eye in patients with BEB.
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov 8;60(6):486-491. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.
    Background/aims: To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) by monitoring the ocular surface and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) before and after treatment.

    Methods: The present study reports a prospective case series of 38 patients (76 eyes, 11 men and 27 women; mean age 66.8 ± 9. Read More

    Use of Alleviating Maneuvers for Periocular Facial Dystonias.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;134(11):1247-1252
    Adnexal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England.
    Importance: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm are known to use botulinum toxin injections and alleviating maneuvers to help control their symptoms. The clinical correlates between the use of botulinum toxin injections and the use of alleviating maneuvers are not well established.

    Objective: To determine whether the use of alleviating maneuvers for benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm correlates with disease severity or botulinum toxin treatment. Read More

    Photophobia in primary headaches, in essential blepharospasm and in major depression.
    Int J Neurosci 2017 Aug 13;127(8):673-679. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    a Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital , University of Athens , Athens , Greece.
    Objectives: Although photophobia is a well-known symptom in various disorders, it has rarely been studied explicitly and its definition in a clinical setting can be somewhat elusive. Here, we assessed photophobia with a common psychometric tool in different conditions, in which light intolerance is considered part of the syndrome.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective study was undertaken in patients with migraine (MH), cluster headache (CH), tension-type headache (TH), essential blepharospasm (BS) and major depression (MD). Read More

    Screening for Cognitive Impairments in Primary Blepharospasm.
    PLoS One 2016 15;11(8):e0160867. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
    Backgrounds: Studies have reported that non-motor symptoms are an important component of primary dystonia. However, evidence supporting cognitive impairment in primary dystonia is limited and contradictory.

    Methods: We applied the Chinese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to screen for cognitive impairment in patients with primary blepharospasm. Read More

    Cognitive Flexibility in Primary Dystonia.
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2016 Jul;22(6):662-70
    Department of Neurology,Hannover Medical School,Hannover,Germany.
    Objectives Although primary dystonia is typically characterized as a movement disorder, it is also associated with cognitive alterations in the domain of executive functioning which may arise from changes in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, patients with dystonia show deficits in neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility. However, it is unclear whether cognitive inflexibility is caused by the pathomechanisms underlying primary dystonia or by confounding factors such as depression or symptom-related distraction. Read More

    Five-Year Retrospective Review of Cases with Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Presenting in a Tertiary Eye Care Center in North India.
    Semin Ophthalmol 2017 14;32(3):371-376. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH) , Chandigarh , India.
    Retrospective analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who reported to the oculoplasty clinic of a tertiary eye care center in north India between January 2010 and April 2015 was carried out. Dry eye, as well as all the local factors that can cause blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm, was ruled out. Systemic evaluation was done to rule out any neurological disorder. Read More

    Comparison of Two Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injection Patterns with or without the Medial Lower Eyelid in the Treatment of Blepharospasm.
    J Ophthalmol 2016 14;2016:5957812. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection patterns with or without the medial lower eyelid (MLE) in treating benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and influencing lacrimal drainage. Two different injection patterns of BoNT-A were randomly applied to 98 eyes of 49 BEB patients: MLE Group received a full injection pattern of 5 sites and non-MLE Group received a MLE waived injection pattern of 4 sites. Tear breakup time (BUT), Schirmer I test, lagophthalmos height, and lower lid tear meniscus height (TMH) were measured and Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) was surveyed before injection and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Read More

    Paroxysmal eyelid movements in patients with visual-sensitive reflex seizures.
    Epileptic Disord 2015 Dec;17(4):372-83
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Interdepartmental Research Centre for Social Diseases (CIMS), Childhood Epilepsy Section, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Aim: Paroxysmal eyelid movements (PEM) are non-epileptic episodes characterized by eyelid closure, upturning of the eyes, and rapid eyelid flutter. The aim of this study was to report clinical and EEG data of patients with PEM and its relationship with visual sensitivity.

    Methods: We studied 26 patients with epilepsy (12 males and 14 females; mean age: 14. Read More

    Blepharospasm in children and adolescents.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Feb 28;32(2):355-8. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.
    Purpose: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) generally is considered a disorder of adults; however, it rarely can present in childhood or adolescence. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BEB in children and adolescents. Our research question was whether blepharospasm is seen in children or adolescents as well as in the adult population. Read More

    Corneal and Tear Film Changes After Botulinum Toxin-A in Blepharospasm or Hemifacial Spasm.
    Cornea 2015 Aug;34(8):906-10
    Departments of *Ophthalmology, and †Neurology, Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Medicine, Isparta, Turkey.
    Purpose: To investigate changes in corneal parameters and the tear film after botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection in patients with blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm.

    Methods: Twelve patients with benign essential blepharospasm and 30 with hemifacial spasm treated with BTX-A were included in this study. Disease severity was evaluated using the Jankovic scale. Read More

    Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China.
    Eur Neurol 2015 19;73(5-6):337-41. Epub 2015 May 19.
    Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.
    Purpose: This study explored the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatments of primary blepharospasm.

    Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 100 patients with blepharospasm were enrolled. Data were collected from medical records and face-to-face interviews with patients and their families. Read More

    Oral methylphenidate for the treatment of refractory facial dystonias.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015 May-Jun;31(3):e65-6
    *Oculofacial and Orbital Surgery Division, Scheie Eye Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and †Division of Oculoplastic, Orbital and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
    Oral methylphenidate (Ritalin, Novartis) has been reported to alleviate symptoms of benign essential blepharospasm in an off-label application. This series presents 3 patients with refractory periorbital and facial dystonias, including blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, and oromandibular dystonia unresponsive to standard treatments who experienced a response to oral methylphenidate therapy. While the mechanisms for facial dystonias have not been elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that they are on the spectrum with Parkinson disease. Read More

    Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2015 Nov 22;99(11):1509-13. Epub 2015 Apr 22.
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, London, UK.
    Background: The aetiology of blepharospasm remains unclear. There is evidence that the afferent pathway is important, but this area remains under-researched.

    Aim: To explore the hypothesis that the afferent arm of the blink reflex is abnormal in blepharospasm by assessing a range of measures of corneal sensory function. Read More

    Clinical outcomes of individualized botulinum neurotoxin type A injection techniques in patients with essential blepharospasm.
    Korean J Ophthalmol 2015 Apr 17;29(2):115-20. Epub 2015 Mar 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.
    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcomes following botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment with an individualized injection technique based on the types of spasms and to compare the results of the individualized injection technique with those of the conventional injection technique in the same patients.

    Methods: From November 2011 to July 2013, 77 BoNT-A injections were performed in 38 patients. Eighteen patients were treated with conventional BoNT-A injections before 2011, and 20 patients were referred to our hospital for unsatisfactory results after a conventional injection technique. Read More

    A Survey of Current Blepharospasm Treatment Patterns Among Oculoplastic Surgeons.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Jan-Feb;32(1):24-7
    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To determine the current practice pattern of ASOPRS members injecting onabotulinumtoxinA for Blepharospasm.

    Methods: An invitation to participate in a web-based, anonymous survey was sent to current members of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASOPRS) via e-mail. The survey consisted of 9 questions and used the Research Electronic Data Capture online application. Read More

    Blink reflex studies in postparalytic facial syndrome and blepharospasm: trigeminal and extratrigeminal somatosensory stimulation.
    J Clin Neurophysiol 2014 Dec;31(6):535-40
    Department of Neurology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: The somatosensory-evoked blink reflex (SBR) is one of the release phenomena of blink reflex, possibly resulting from increased excitability of brainstem reticular formation.

    Methods: The authors investigated trigeminal blink responses and SBR in 26 patients with postparalytic facial syndrome (PFS) with synkinesia, 18 patients with essential blepharospasm, and 36 healthy volunteers (control participants).

    Results: Trigeminal blink reflex responses were elicited in all participants, whereas SBRs were elicited in 44. Read More

    Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with essential blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening-technique and results.
    Head Face Med 2014 Oct 22;10:44. Epub 2014 Oct 22.
    ENT-Department, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.
    Introduction: We describe the results of 15 patients suffering from essential blepharospasm with apraxia of eyelid opening who underwent frontalis suspension surgery.

    Material And Methods: Patients with apraxia of eyelid opening and unresponsive to botulinum toxin injections were studied. Bilateral frontalis suspension surgery was performed (sling operation) using polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex®) sutures. Read More

    Switch from abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) to incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) botulinum toxin formulation: a review of 257 cases.
    J Rehabil Med 2015 Feb;47(2):183-6
    Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, G51 4TF Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To explore the dose equivalence ratio and treatment costs for abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA for patients with focal dystonias.

    Design: Patient chart review.

    Subjects/patients: Adult patients with blepharospasm (n = 19), cervical dystonia (n = 122), hemifacial spasm (n = 91) or segmental/generalized dystonia (n = 19) at a neurology outpatient clinic. Read More

    Effect of upper eyelid myectomy on subsequent chemodenervation in the management of benign essential blepharospasm.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015 May-Jun;31(3):222-6
    *Department of Ophthalmology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.; †Ophthalmic Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Inc., Des Peres, Missouri, U.S.A.; ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, U.S.A.; §Departments of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
    Purpose: Some patients with severe benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) become clinically refractory to chemodenervation with botulinum toxin. In these patients, surgical myectomy is an effective additive treatment for the management of this disabling condition. The purpose of this study is to determine how myectomy for BEB alters subsequent botulinum toxin administration. Read More

    Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014 Oct 2;16(5):258-62. Epub 2014 Sep 2.
    University of California Irvine, Dept. of Dermatology , Englewood, CO , USA.
    Introduction: A recent paper in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology by Koshy and colleagues (2012, 11( 4 ):507-512) report on "Effect of Dietary Zinc and Phytase Supplementation on Botulinum Toxin Treatments" and conclude by claiming the discovery of "a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm". The purpose of this paper is to examine these published claims for possible methodological and design errors and potential sources of bias.

    Methods: The authors evaluated the published results in comparison to the published literature on zinc deficiency, the role of phytase, prior reports of an effect of zinc on activity of botulinum toxin, issues of study design and execution and if the reported results of the study supported the study's conclusions. Read More

    Facial dystonias and rosacea: is there an association?
    Orbit 2014 Aug 15;33(4):276-9. Epub 2014 May 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ochsner Clinic Foundation , New Orleans, Louisiana , USA .
    Purpose: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) belong to a spectrum of focal movement disorders that cause involuntary, spasmodic contractions of the eyelid and facial muscles. In our clinical experience, we have observed an increased prevalence of rosacea in patients who present with BEB and HFS. We investigate our clinical findings with a review of disease pathophysiology and treatment. Read More

    Ocular surface alterations in blepharospasm patients treated with botulinum toxin A injection.
    Eur J Ophthalmol 2014 Nov-Dec;24(6):830-4. Epub 2014 May 1.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara - Turkey.
    Purpose: To evaluate ocular surface changes secondary to periocular botulinum toxin A injection in patients with essential blepharospasm.

    Methods: Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with essential blepharospasm who underwent periocular botulinum toxin A injection were included in this prospective study. Patients were evaluated prior to and at 2-week and 1-, 3-, and 6-month time points following injections. Read More

    Safety of onabotulinum toxin a injection to the central upper eyelid and eyebrow regions.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Sep-Oct;30(5):377-80
    *Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; and †Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To evaluate the safety of onabotulinum toxin A injected into the central upper eyelid and eyebrow regions.

    Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients undergoing onabotulinum toxin A injection to the central upper eyelid and eyebrow between February, 2012, and November, 2012. Age, gender, indication, injection sites, number of central units, total number of units, and occurrence of adverse events were all recorded. Read More

    A direct comparison of onabotulinumtoxina (Botox) and IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a split-face technique.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2014 Sep;34(3):233-6
    Département d'ophtalmologie (JS, AG), Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada; and Centre universitaire d'ophtalmologie et Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec (JS, AG), Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus, Quebec City, Canada.
    Background: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is characterized by progressive involuntary contractions of the protractor muscles, sometimes leading to a debilitating closure of the lids. It is currently treated with the injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). The purpose of this study was to compare 2 BoNT/A preparations (i. Read More

    Long-term therapy of benign essential blepharospasm and facial hemispasm with botulinum toxin A: retrospective assessment of the clinical and quality of life impact in patients treated for more than 15 years.
    Acta Neurol Belg 2014 Dec 7;114(4):285-91. Epub 2014 Mar 7.
    First Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, St. Anne's Hospital, Masaryk University, Pekařská 53, 656 91, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is recognized as the treatment of choice for patients with blepharospasm and facial hemispasm. We report the results of long-term BoNT-A therapy (15-20 years) in a group of patients with blepharospasm (9 patients) and hemifacial spasm (18 patients). We evaluated the number of treatment sessions, duration of therapeutic effects, side effects and their frequency during long-term therapy, and the differences between these two groups of patients. Read More

    Efficacy of botulinum toxin in benign essential Blepharospasm: Desirable & undesirable effects.
    Pak J Med Sci 2013 Nov;29(6):1389-93
    Humaira Zafar, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Objective: To study the efficacy, desirable and undesirable effects of locally injectable preparation of botulinum toxin in patients suffering from Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB).

    Methods: It was a prospective study carried out from October 2006 till November 2012 at a private set up, "Dr Shakaib's Eye Clinic", in Islamabad. Follow up of Seventeen patients of BEB has been done over six years period after injecting botulinum toxin. Read More

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