2,043 results match your criteria Blepharospasm Benign Essential


[Cost-utility analysis of two formulations of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia in Spain].

Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;67(12):465-472

Hospital Clinico San Carlos, 28040 Madrid, Espana.

Introduction: Studies on focal dystonia showed that the formulations of botulinum toxin type A, incobotulinumtoxin-A (Inco-BTA) and onabotulinumtoxin-A (Ona-BTA), have equivalent efficacy and safety.

Aim: To carry-out a cost-utility analysis of Inco-BTA administered on flexible intervals vs. Ona-BTA on a fixed interval, in the treatment of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. Read More

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December 2018

BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Blepharospasm.

Neuromolecular Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Larissa, University of Thessaly, Biopolis, Mezourlo Hill, 41100, Larissa, Greece.

A few genetic variants are implicated in the development of blepharospasm (BSP). The precise role of the rs6265 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene on BSP remains controversial. The effect of rs6265 on BSP was evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Treatment of psychiatric disturbances in common hyperkinetic movement disorders.

Expert Rev Neurother 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

b Department of Human Neurosciences , Sapienza University of Rome , Rome.

Introduction: This paper reviews studies that have assessed the treatment of psychiatric disturbances in dystonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's disease and essential tremor. Areas covered: We searched for papers in English in Pubmed using the following keywords: blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, arm dystonia, laryngeal dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's chorea, essential tremor, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, psychosis, apathy. Expert commentary: Although psychiatric disturbances are frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, few controlled studies have assessed the treatment of psychiatric disturbances in such disorders. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Dystonia.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;159:229-236

Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This chapter presents a review of the literature for falls and abnormalities of balance and gait in isolated dystonia syndromes. Balance appears to be relatively preserved in primary and focal dystonias, except when postural abnormalities significantly displace the center of gravity of the body. Gait can be affected by abnormal dystonic movements and limb deformities, and is commonly abnormal in generalized dystonia. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Sexual dysfunction in cervical dystonia and blepharospasm.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 26;14:2847-2852. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany,

Background: Sexual dysfunction is a frequent, yet underrated, symptom of neurological disease. While knowledge of non-motor comorbidity in focal dystonia is growing rapidly, there is no information on the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in cervical dystonia (CD) or blepharospasm (BL).

Methods: In this controlled study, we examined sexual dysfunction in 65 patients with CD and 54 patients with BL by the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, a validated self-rating scale. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

High prevalence of neutralizing antibodies after long-term botulinum neurotoxin therapy.

Neurology 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

From the Department of Neurology (P.A., A.J., J.-I.L., M.M., M.R., O.A., H.-P.H., H.H.), Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf; and Toxogen GmbH (D.R., H.B.), Hannover, Germany.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NABs) against botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) during long-term BoNT/A treatment in different neurologic indications.

Methods: In this monocentric, observational cross-sectional study, 596 outpatients treated with BoNT/A for different indications were tested for BoNT/A binding antibodies by ELISA. Positive samples were investigated for NABs with the mouse hemidiaphragm test. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Impact of botulinum toxin injections on quality of life and self-esteem in patients with blepharospasm.

Psychol Health Med 2018 Nov 21:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

a Neurology Department, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou , Zhejiang Province , P.R. China.

To determine the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections on self-esteem and quality of life (QOL) in blepharospasm patients, we enrolled 87 patients into the study. Patients completed the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) before treatment on the date of enrollment and again after 4 weeks of treatment with BoNT-A. The overall QOL, general health status, the physiological and psychological domain scores of the WHOQOL-BREF, and the SES score significantly improved after treatment. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Quality of life in idiopathic dystonia: a systematic review.

J Neurol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Academic Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Objective: Dystonia is characterised by sustained muscular contractions frequently producing repetitive, twisting and patterned movements. The primary aim of this systematic review was to establish how quality of life (QoL) is affected in idiopathic focal, multifocal and segmental dystonia. This review aimed to evaluate variations in QoL between different subtypes of dystonia, identify the determinants of QoL and assess the effects of different treatments on QoL. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Recurrent epibulbar dermoid cyst treated with amniotic membrane implant a case report.

BMC Surg 2018 Nov 14;18(1):98. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Cellular Biology and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Autonomous University of Baja California, Av. Universidad no 14418, Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, CP. 22390, Tijuana, BC, Mexico.

Background: The dermoid cyst considered a cystic teratoma derived from embryonic germinal epithelium is a slow-growing benign tumour. Dermoid cysts may occur in the orbital and periorbital region in paediatric patients and are often recurrent. The surgical approach depends upon the site of the lesion, superficial or deep. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Abnormal sensory gating in patients with different types of focal dystonias.

Mov Disord 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Movement execution in healthy individuals increases the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold. These changes are a result of mechanisms of sensory gating at the subcortical level. Although the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold is abnormally increased in patients with focal dystonias, the effect of movement execution on somatosensory temporal discrimination in dystonic patients is unknown. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Effects of Repeated Eyelid Injections with Botulinum Toxin A on Innervation of Treated Muscles in Patients with Blepharospasm.

Curr Eye Res 2018 Oct 31:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , Minnesota , USA.

Purpose: To assess changes in innervation and muscle morphology after repeated botulinum toxin A injections in subjects with benign essential blepharospasm.

Methods: Surgical waste specimens were processed for histologic examination of nerve fibers, neuromuscular junctions, fiber size, and central nucleation and compared to age matched controls and to two subjects with blepharospasm that had not received botulinum toxin A injections.

Results: There was a significant increase in amount of nerve fibers and numbers of neuromuscular junctions in the orbicularis oculi muscles from subjects with blepharospasm treated repetitively with botulinum toxin A. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

[Non-motor disorders in patients with muscular dystonia].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2018 ;118(9):98-105

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Non-motor disturbances represented by sensory, affective, obsessive-compulsive disorders, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances are often found in patients with dystonia and have a negative impact on their quality of life. The prevalence of sensory and affective disorders and sleep disturbances is above 50% in patients with cervical dystonia and is 25% in patients with blepharospasm, writing spasm; cognitive dysfunction is found in more than 25% of patients with focal dystonia. The relationship of non-motor, in particular psychiatric disorders, with the impairment of social and everyday life and worsening of quality of life in whole was shown. Read More

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January 2018
3 Reads

Morphological and functional findings in Alström syndrome: a study of two families.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2018 Nov./Dec.;81(6):524-528. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Centro Brasileiro da Visão, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Alström syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by mutations to the ALMS1 gene and clinical findings of childhood obesity, diabetes mellitus, dilated cardiomyopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cone-rod dystrophy, which may result in blindness. Ocular manifestations occur in the first decade of life with nystagmus, blepharospasm, and photophobia leading to progressive and severe reductions in visual acuity. This study describes the retinal structure and functional aspects of four patients (8 eyes) from two different families as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and full-field electroretinography. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Clinical Features of Benign Essential Blepharospasm in Korean Patients.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct;32(5):339-343

Department of Ophthalmology, Kim's Eye Hospital, Myung-Gok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To analyze the clinical features of benign essential blepharospasm in Korean patients.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with benign essential blepharospasm in Kim's Eye Hospital from November 2014 to December 2016 were evaluated using a clinical examination and questionnaire. The questionnaire reviewed personal medical history, demographic factors, risk factors for blepharospasm development, and relieving and aggravating factors. Read More

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October 2018

Disease progression in blepharospasm: a 5-year longitudinal study.

Eur J Neurol 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.

Background And Purpose: The clinical manifestation of dystonic spasms in blepharospasm (BSP) patients may be heterogeneous. Whether the varying phenomenology of eyelid spasms becomes manifest sequentially during the course of the disease or aggregates in separate clusters according to different disease courses is still unclear. For this purpose, the clinical features in BSP patients were evaluated longitudinally over a 5-year period and also the blink reflex recovery cycle was tested in a subgroup of BSP patients. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Expert recommendations for diagnosing cervical, oromandibular, and limb dystonia.

Neurol Sci 2018 Sep 29. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, and Neuromed Institute IRCCS, Pozzilli, Italy.

Background: Diagnosis of focal dystonia is based on clinical grounds and is therefore open to bias. To date, diagnostic guidelines have been only proposed for blepharospasm and laryngeal dystonia. To provide practical guidance for clinicians with less expertise in dystonia, a group of Italian Movement Disorder experts formulated clinical diagnostic recommendations for cervical, oromandibular, and limb dystonia. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Blepharospasm in Japan: A Clinical Observational Study From a Large Referral Hospital in Tokyo.

Neuroophthalmology 2018 Oct 9;42(5):275-283. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Division of Neuro-ophthalmology, Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Focal dystonia is regarded as a characteristic feature of blepharospasm. However, patients do not always present with motor symptoms. To clarify the clinical features of blepharospasm in Japan, we conducted a retrospective observational study involving a large population of patients from a single institution. Read More

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October 2018

Protective Effect of Blepharospasm on the Anterior Segment of the Eye.

Acta Clin Croat 2018 Mar;57(1):130-133

Department of Ophthalmology, Osijek University Hospital Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia.

The aim of the study was to determine the role of blepharospasm as a protective factor for the anterior segment of the eye by comparing the degree of blepharospasm and changes of the anterior segment structures. The study included sixty female patients older than forty years with the clinical diagnosis of blepharospasm. They were divided into two groups; the first group consisted of patients with stage I and II of blepharospasm with dominant dry eye symptoms, and the second group consisted of patients with stage III and IV of blepharospasm who required interventional therapy (all patients in this study were treated with botulinum toxin type A). Read More

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March 2018
5 Reads

Voxel-Mirrored Homotopic Connectivity of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Blepharospasm.

Front Psychol 2018 11;9:1620. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Several networks in human brain are involved in the development of blepharospasm. However, the underlying mechanisms for this disease are poorly understood. A voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was used to quantify the changes in functional connectivity between two hemispheres of the brain in patients with blepharospasm. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders.

Aust J Gen Pract 2018 Sep;47(9):598-601

MD (Med), DM (Neuro), FRACP, Neurologist, Staff Specialist, Canberra Hospital.

Background: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is an exotoxin that causes neuromuscular weakness. BoNT serotypes A and B have been used for decades for the safe and effective treatment of various movement disorders, including some forms of focal dystonia. These conditions, such as cervical dystonia, hemifacial spasm, blepharospasm and spasmodic dysphonia, can have a substantial impact on patients' quality of life, but are often under-recognised. Read More

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September 2018

Blepharospasm with elevated anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titer.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2018 Aug;76(8):522-526

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003, China.

Objectives: To determine whether serum levels of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR-Abs) are related to clinical parameters of blepharospasm (BSP).

Methods: Eighty-three adults with BSP, 60 outpatients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and 58 controls were recruited. Personal history, demographic factors, response to botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and other neurological conditions were recorded. Read More

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August 2018
1.010 Impact Factor

Injecting botulinum toxin into the treatment of blepharospasm.

Rom J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr-Jun;62(2):162-165

Ophthalmology Department, "Dr. Carol Davila" Central University Military Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; Elias University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.

The present paper is an introduction to this category of therapy, the injection of botulinum toxin into blepharospasm and, at the same time, an attempt to familiarize our readers with this concept. Our activity in this field started in 2014; the favorable results we have obtained since then have made us write this article. BEB = Abnormal Benign Essential Blepharospasm, TXB = Botulinum Toxin. Read More

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September 2018
13 Reads

Long-term outcome of flexible onabotulinum toxin A treatment in facial dystonia.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Sep 10. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Corneo Plastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, UK.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of onabotulinum used to treat facial dystonia and compare a flexible and fixed treatment regimen.

Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study looking at benign essential blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and aberrant facial nerve regeneration synkinesis (AFR) treatment with onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) over a minimum of 10 years. Fifty-one patients were recruited into the study, with each dystonia subgroup having 17 patients. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Evaluation of Scheimpflug imaging parameters in blepharospasm and normal eyes.

BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 5;18(1):239. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: To investigate changes in corneal elevation, pachymetry, and keratometry in discriminating between normal and blepharospasm eyes, as measured by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera.

Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. A total of 47 consecutive patients with a range of blepharospasm severity and 40 age- and sex- matched healthy subjects were included, one eye of each subject was randomly chosen for data analysis. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

[The patterns analysis of clinical application of acupuncture for ophthalmopathy].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2018 Aug;38(8):907-12

Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China; Shanghai Institute of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Meridian, Shanghai 200030.

Based on the data from the -, the bibliometric analysis was applied to analyze and evaluate the literature regarding clinical research of acupuncture for ophthalmopathy published between 1954 to 2016, hoping to objectively reflect the disease spectrum and indication of acupuncture for ophthalmopathy. The results showed that the disease spectrum of acupuncture for ophthalmopathy involved 47 specific diseases in 13 types of diseases. The total number of cases was 176 469, and the number of effective cases was 160 662, and the effective rate was 91. Read More

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August 2018
17 Reads

Changes in interleukin-6 tear concentration and clinical outcome in moderate-to-severe bacterial corneal ulcers after corneal collagen cross-linking.

Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(8):1421-1424. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia.

We aimed to evaluate interleukin-6 (IL-6) tear concentration and clinical outcome in patients with moderate-to-severe bacterial corneal ulcers post corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) therapy. This pre-post designed study involving 21 moderate-to-severe corneal ulcer patients who underwent CXL therapy. Patients with infectious corneal ulcer were given CXL therapy as adjunctive treatment after 5d of broadspectrum antibiotic treatment. Read More

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Stroke-induced resolution of primary blepharospasm: evidence for the lenticular nucleus as a control candidate.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 25;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Oculoplastics, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

Primary blepharospasm is an adult-onset focal dystonia characterised by involuntary contractions of the orbicularis oculi, leading to bilateral spasmodic closure of the eyelids. While spasms of this muscle constitute the hallmark of disease, other motor manifestations include increased spontaneous blinking and apraxia of eyelid opening. Originally misdiagnosed as a psychiatric condition, blepharospasm is now well established as being of neurological origin although questions remain as to its pathophysiological mechanisms. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Isolated focal dystonia phenotypes are associated with distinct patterns of altered microstructure.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 5;19:805-812. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States; Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Objective: Isolated adult-onset focal dystonia is considered a network disorder with disturbances to the motor basal ganglia and cerebellar circuits playing a pathophysiological role, but why specific body regions become affected remains unknown. We aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging to determine if the two most common phenotypes of focal dystonia are associated with distinguishing microstructural changes affecting the motor network.

Methods: Fifteen blepharospasm patients, 20 cervical dystonia patients, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Read More

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June 2018
12 Reads

Unusual Clinical Presentations Challenging the Early Clinical Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;64(4):1051-1065

IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna, Italy.

The introduction of prion RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive specific assay for the in vivo detection of the abnormal prion protein, has significantly increased the potential for an early and accurate clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). However, in the clinical setting, the early identification of patients with possible CJD is often challenging. Indeed, CJD patients may present with isolated symptoms that remain the only clinical manifestation for some time, or with neurological syndromes atypical for CJD. Read More

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January 2018
5 Reads

Dystonia in Patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3 - Machado-Joseph disease: An Underestimated Diagnosis?

Open Neurol J 2018 31;12:41-49. Epub 2018 May 31.

Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Background: Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 3 (SCA3) or Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD) is characterized by cerebellar, central and peripheral symptoms, including movement disorders. Dystonia can be classified as hereditary and neurodegenerative when present in SCA3.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dystonia characteristics in patients with MJD. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Botulinum toxin injection and tear production.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):428-433

Department of Ophthalmology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Purpose Of Review: In 1980, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was introduced for the treatment of strabismus and benign essential blepharospasm. Since then, a number of additional indications have been introduced, which continue to expand, providing less invasive solutions in managing different ophthalmic conditions.

Recent Findings: Successful trials of BTX-A injection into the lacrimal gland have been reported for the treatment of epiphora caused by primary lacrimal gland hyperlacrimation, functional tearing, gustatory tearing, and lacrimal outflow obstruction. Read More

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September 2018
14 Reads

Health-related quality of life outcomes from botulinumtoxin treatment in blepharospasm.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Sep 2;172:130-133. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany; Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Centre of Neurology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Abteilung für Neurologie, Reha-Zentrum Bad Gögging, Passauer Wolf, Bad Gögging, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Blepharospasm associates with impairment in generic health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Albeit botulinum toxin is widely used to alleviate the motor symptoms of blepharospasm, its effect on generic health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) is heterogeneous.

Patients And Methods: In this open-label clinical observational study, we characterized outcomes on HR-QoL in terms of the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5 L) from botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection in a prospective cohort of patients with blepharospasm (n = 55). Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Functional eyelid opening apraxia: a kinematic study.

Eur J Neurol 2018 Aug;25(8):e95-e97

Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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August 2018
4 Reads

Utilisation d’une solution polyamphotère lors de lésions et brûlures chimiques oculaires cutanées et buccales. effet sur la douleur de la diphotérine®.

Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2017 Dec;30(4):286-291

Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Polyamphoteric washing solutions (PWS) have been used for several years, mainly in industries, for cases of chemical ocular or cutaneous splashes by acid or alkali. We collected 37 cases reporting the use of PWS for ocular and cutaneous chemical splashes from several centres. Among the 37 cases, 55. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Spread of dystonia in patients with idiopathic adult-onset laryngeal dystonia.

Eur J Neurol 2018 Nov 31;25(11):1341-1344. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Adult-onset laryngeal dystonia (LD) can be isolated or can be associated with dystonia in other body parts. Combined forms can be segmental at the onset or can result from dystonia spread to or from the larynx. The aim of this study was to identify the main clinical and demographic features of adult-onset idiopathic LD in an Italian population with special focus on dystonia spread. Read More

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November 2018

Developments in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm.

Authors:
Michael T Yen

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):440-444

Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review new developments in the medical and surgical treatment options for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Recent Findings: Botulinum toxin injections remain the mainstay treatment for BEB with several formulations currently commercially available. Reports in the medical literature support photochromatic modulation for the symptoms of photophobia, as well as oral medications and surgical myectomy for control of the motor signs of eyelid protractor spasm. Read More

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September 2018
14 Reads

The Ex vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) model as a mean of improving venom ophthalmia understanding.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 8;150:253-260. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snakes belonging to the genus Naja (Elapid family), also known as "spitting cobras", can spit venom towards the eyes of the predator as a defensive strategy, causing painful and potentially blinding ocular envenoming. Venom ophthalmia is characterized by pain, hyperemia, blepharitis, blepharospasm and corneal erosions. Elapid venom ophthalmia is not well documented and no specific treatment exists. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Increase lipid tear thickness after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.

Sci Rep 2018 May 30;8(1):8367. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and aqueous tear production after botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) injection in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). Eleven and six patients with BEB and HFS, respectively, who received BoNT injection were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The blepharospasm disability index (BSDI), blink pattern, dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test 1 findings, LLT, eyelid performance, and corneal integrity were evaluated before and after treatment. Read More

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The impact of deep brain stimulation on health related quality of life and disease-specific disability in Meige Syndrome (MS).

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Aug 25;171:53-57. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal; Department of Neurosurgery, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal; Movement Disorders and Functional Surgery Unit, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Meige Syndrome (MS) is a disabling movement disorder which impairs daily routines such as eating and speaking and, when not responsive to best medical treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) has been considered. Previous evidence has shown a significant improvement in motor dysfunction with DBS, however its benefit on disease-specific disability and quality of life has not been thoroughly studied. We describe two patients with severe MS submitted to GPi-DBS. Read More

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Whole-exome sequencing for variant discovery in blepharospasm.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.

Departments of Neurology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Blepharospasm (BSP) is a type of focal dystonia characterized by involuntary orbicularis oculi spasms that are usually bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical. Despite strong evidence for genetic contributions to BSP, progress in the field has been constrained by small cohorts, incomplete penetrance, and late age of onset. Although several genetic etiologies for dystonia have been identified through whole-exome sequencing (WES), none of these are characteristically associated with BSP as a singular or predominant manifestation. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Clinical experience with patients with spasmodic dysphonia and primary Meige syndrome.

Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2018 Apr 28. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Departamento de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, España.

Introduction: Meige syndrome (MS) is part of the group of segmental cranial dystonias, which affect more than two cranial muscle groups. Specifically, blepharospasm is associated with another cranial dystonia (oromandibular, cervical or laryngeal). The aim of this paper was to report our experience in patients with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) associated with primary MS. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm.

Neurochirurgie 2018 May 16;64(2):82-86. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Service de neurochirurgie, fondation ophtalmologique Adolphe-de-Rothschild, 75019 Paris, France.

The diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm (pHFS), due to a benign compression of the facial motor nerve by a vessel, within or close to its root exit zone, is often made with delay. Misdiagnosis includes psychogenic spasm, tics, facial myokymia or blepharospasm, but in fact post-facial palsy synkinesis (post-paralytic HFS) is the closest clinical condition, because it is limited to the territory of the facial nerve of a single hemiface. The differential diagnosis between these two entities, whose pathophysiological mechanisms are very different, can be made by electroneuromyographic (ENMG) examination. Read More

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Chemodenervation for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2018 Sep 10;125(9):1459-1467. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: To review the medical literature on the outcomes and complications of various Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxins for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).

Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in February 2017 in PubMed for articles published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without language limitations; studies published before 2000 were excluded. The combined searches yielded 127 citations. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Acute intensive care unit management of mustard gas victims: the Turkish experience.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2018 Dec 7;37(4):332-337. Epub 2018 May 7.

b Department of Medical CBRN Defense , University of Health Sciences , Etlik/Ankara , Turkey.

Purpose: Sulphur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Read More

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December 2018
12 Reads

Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm.

Curr Eye Res 2018 Jul 19;43(7):896-901. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

a Department of Ophthalmology , Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine , Toon , Japan.

Objective: To determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on the eyelid pressure in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Methods: Twenty normal volunteers (10 men, 10 women; average age 59.7 ± 11. Read More

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Altered functional connectivity in blepharospasm/orofacial dystonia.

Brain Behav 2018 Jan 18;8(1):e00894. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of NeurologyKlinikum rechts der IsarTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany.

Introduction: Blepharospasm is characterized by involuntary eyelid spasms. It can be associated with perioral dystonia (Meige's syndrome or orofacial dystonia). We aimed at studying resting-state functional brain connectivity in these patients and its potential modulation by therapeutic botulinum toxin injections. Read More

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January 2018
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Combined effects of rTMS and botulinum toxin therapy in benign essential blepharospasm.

Brain Stimul 2018 May - Jun;11(3):645-647. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Human Motor Control, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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February 2018
3 Reads

The use of hyaluronic acid subdermal filler for entropion in canines and felines: 40 cases.

Vet Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Eye Care for Animals, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) subdermal filler in canines and felines for entropion.

Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination was performed by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist or ABVO-approved resident. Each case was characterized as primary, secondary, spastic or cicatricial entropion. Read More

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March 2018
18 Reads