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    164 results match your criteria Blepharospasm Benign Essential

    1 OF 4

    A Dynamic Circuit Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Blepharospasm.
    Front Comput Neurosci 2017 7;11:11. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological StudiesSan Diego, CA, USA; Institute for Neural Computation, University of California, San DiegoSan Diego, CA, USA.
    Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. Read More

    Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy.
    PLoS One 2016 16;11(12):e0168652. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Neurology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Objective: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. Read More

    Changes in ocular higher-order aberrations following botulinum toxin treatment in patients with blepharospasm : BTX improves dry eye in patients with BEB.
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov 8;60(6):486-491. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.
    Background/aims: To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) by monitoring the ocular surface and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) before and after treatment.

    Methods: The present study reports a prospective case series of 38 patients (76 eyes, 11 men and 27 women; mean age 66.8 ± 9. Read More

    Use of Alleviating Maneuvers for Periocular Facial Dystonias.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;134(11):1247-1252
    Adnexal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England.
    Importance: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm are known to use botulinum toxin injections and alleviating maneuvers to help control their symptoms. The clinical correlates between the use of botulinum toxin injections and the use of alleviating maneuvers are not well established.

    Objective: To determine whether the use of alleviating maneuvers for benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm correlates with disease severity or botulinum toxin treatment. Read More

    Five-Year Retrospective Review of Cases with Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Presenting in a Tertiary Eye Care Center in North India.
    Semin Ophthalmol 2017 14;32(3):371-376. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH) , Chandigarh , India.
    Retrospective analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who reported to the oculoplasty clinic of a tertiary eye care center in north India between January 2010 and April 2015 was carried out. Dry eye, as well as all the local factors that can cause blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm, was ruled out. Systemic evaluation was done to rule out any neurological disorder. Read More

    Comparison of Two Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injection Patterns with or without the Medial Lower Eyelid in the Treatment of Blepharospasm.
    J Ophthalmol 2016 14;2016:5957812. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection patterns with or without the medial lower eyelid (MLE) in treating benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and influencing lacrimal drainage. Two different injection patterns of BoNT-A were randomly applied to 98 eyes of 49 BEB patients: MLE Group received a full injection pattern of 5 sites and non-MLE Group received a MLE waived injection pattern of 4 sites. Tear breakup time (BUT), Schirmer I test, lagophthalmos height, and lower lid tear meniscus height (TMH) were measured and Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) was surveyed before injection and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Read More

    Paroxysmal eyelid movements in patients with visual-sensitive reflex seizures.
    Epileptic Disord 2015 Dec;17(4):372-83
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Interdepartmental Research Centre for Social Diseases (CIMS), Childhood Epilepsy Section, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Aim: Paroxysmal eyelid movements (PEM) are non-epileptic episodes characterized by eyelid closure, upturning of the eyes, and rapid eyelid flutter. The aim of this study was to report clinical and EEG data of patients with PEM and its relationship with visual sensitivity.

    Methods: We studied 26 patients with epilepsy (12 males and 14 females; mean age: 14. Read More

    Blepharospasm in children and adolescents.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Feb 28;32(2):355-8. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.
    Purpose: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) generally is considered a disorder of adults; however, it rarely can present in childhood or adolescence. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BEB in children and adolescents. Our research question was whether blepharospasm is seen in children or adolescents as well as in the adult population. Read More

    Corneal and Tear Film Changes After Botulinum Toxin-A in Blepharospasm or Hemifacial Spasm.
    Cornea 2015 Aug;34(8):906-10
    Departments of *Ophthalmology, and †Neurology, Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Medicine, Isparta, Turkey.
    Purpose: To investigate changes in corneal parameters and the tear film after botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection in patients with blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm.

    Methods: Twelve patients with benign essential blepharospasm and 30 with hemifacial spasm treated with BTX-A were included in this study. Disease severity was evaluated using the Jankovic scale. Read More

    Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China.
    Eur Neurol 2015 19;73(5-6):337-41. Epub 2015 May 19.
    Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.
    Purpose: This study explored the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatments of primary blepharospasm.

    Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 100 patients with blepharospasm were enrolled. Data were collected from medical records and face-to-face interviews with patients and their families. Read More

    Oral methylphenidate for the treatment of refractory facial dystonias.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015 May-Jun;31(3):e65-6
    *Oculofacial and Orbital Surgery Division, Scheie Eye Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and †Division of Oculoplastic, Orbital and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
    Oral methylphenidate (Ritalin, Novartis) has been reported to alleviate symptoms of benign essential blepharospasm in an off-label application. This series presents 3 patients with refractory periorbital and facial dystonias, including blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, and oromandibular dystonia unresponsive to standard treatments who experienced a response to oral methylphenidate therapy. While the mechanisms for facial dystonias have not been elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that they are on the spectrum with Parkinson disease. Read More

    Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2015 Nov 22;99(11):1509-13. Epub 2015 Apr 22.
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, London, UK.
    Background: The aetiology of blepharospasm remains unclear. There is evidence that the afferent pathway is important, but this area remains under-researched.

    Aim: To explore the hypothesis that the afferent arm of the blink reflex is abnormal in blepharospasm by assessing a range of measures of corneal sensory function. Read More

    Clinical outcomes of individualized botulinum neurotoxin type A injection techniques in patients with essential blepharospasm.
    Korean J Ophthalmol 2015 Apr 17;29(2):115-20. Epub 2015 Mar 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.
    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcomes following botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment with an individualized injection technique based on the types of spasms and to compare the results of the individualized injection technique with those of the conventional injection technique in the same patients.

    Methods: From November 2011 to July 2013, 77 BoNT-A injections were performed in 38 patients. Eighteen patients were treated with conventional BoNT-A injections before 2011, and 20 patients were referred to our hospital for unsatisfactory results after a conventional injection technique. Read More

    A Survey of Current Blepharospasm Treatment Patterns Among Oculoplastic Surgeons.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Jan-Feb;32(1):24-7
    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To determine the current practice pattern of ASOPRS members injecting onabotulinumtoxinA for Blepharospasm.

    Methods: An invitation to participate in a web-based, anonymous survey was sent to current members of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASOPRS) via e-mail. The survey consisted of 9 questions and used the Research Electronic Data Capture online application. Read More

    Blink reflex studies in postparalytic facial syndrome and blepharospasm: trigeminal and extratrigeminal somatosensory stimulation.
    J Clin Neurophysiol 2014 Dec;31(6):535-40
    Department of Neurology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: The somatosensory-evoked blink reflex (SBR) is one of the release phenomena of blink reflex, possibly resulting from increased excitability of brainstem reticular formation.

    Methods: The authors investigated trigeminal blink responses and SBR in 26 patients with postparalytic facial syndrome (PFS) with synkinesia, 18 patients with essential blepharospasm, and 36 healthy volunteers (control participants).

    Results: Trigeminal blink reflex responses were elicited in all participants, whereas SBRs were elicited in 44. Read More

    Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with essential blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening-technique and results.
    Head Face Med 2014 Oct 22;10:44. Epub 2014 Oct 22.
    ENT-Department, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.
    Introduction: We describe the results of 15 patients suffering from essential blepharospasm with apraxia of eyelid opening who underwent frontalis suspension surgery.

    Material And Methods: Patients with apraxia of eyelid opening and unresponsive to botulinum toxin injections were studied. Bilateral frontalis suspension surgery was performed (sling operation) using polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex®) sutures. Read More

    Switch from abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) to incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) botulinum toxin formulation: a review of 257 cases.
    J Rehabil Med 2015 Feb;47(2):183-6
    Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, G51 4TF Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To explore the dose equivalence ratio and treatment costs for abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA for patients with focal dystonias.

    Design: Patient chart review.

    Subjects/patients: Adult patients with blepharospasm (n = 19), cervical dystonia (n = 122), hemifacial spasm (n = 91) or segmental/generalized dystonia (n = 19) at a neurology outpatient clinic. Read More

    Effect of upper eyelid myectomy on subsequent chemodenervation in the management of benign essential blepharospasm.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015 May-Jun;31(3):222-6
    *Department of Ophthalmology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.; †Ophthalmic Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Inc., Des Peres, Missouri, U.S.A.; ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, U.S.A.; §Departments of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
    Purpose: Some patients with severe benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) become clinically refractory to chemodenervation with botulinum toxin. In these patients, surgical myectomy is an effective additive treatment for the management of this disabling condition. The purpose of this study is to determine how myectomy for BEB alters subsequent botulinum toxin administration. Read More

    Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014 Oct 2;16(5):258-62. Epub 2014 Sep 2.
    University of California Irvine, Dept. of Dermatology , Englewood, CO , USA.
    Introduction: A recent paper in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology by Koshy and colleagues (2012, 11( 4 ):507-512) report on "Effect of Dietary Zinc and Phytase Supplementation on Botulinum Toxin Treatments" and conclude by claiming the discovery of "a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm". The purpose of this paper is to examine these published claims for possible methodological and design errors and potential sources of bias.

    Methods: The authors evaluated the published results in comparison to the published literature on zinc deficiency, the role of phytase, prior reports of an effect of zinc on activity of botulinum toxin, issues of study design and execution and if the reported results of the study supported the study's conclusions. Read More

    Facial dystonias and rosacea: is there an association?
    Orbit 2014 Aug 15;33(4):276-9. Epub 2014 May 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ochsner Clinic Foundation , New Orleans, Louisiana , USA .
    Purpose: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) belong to a spectrum of focal movement disorders that cause involuntary, spasmodic contractions of the eyelid and facial muscles. In our clinical experience, we have observed an increased prevalence of rosacea in patients who present with BEB and HFS. We investigate our clinical findings with a review of disease pathophysiology and treatment. Read More

    Ocular surface alterations in blepharospasm patients treated with botulinum toxin A injection.
    Eur J Ophthalmol 2014 Nov-Dec;24(6):830-4. Epub 2014 May 1.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara - Turkey.
    Purpose: To evaluate ocular surface changes secondary to periocular botulinum toxin A injection in patients with essential blepharospasm.

    Methods: Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with essential blepharospasm who underwent periocular botulinum toxin A injection were included in this prospective study. Patients were evaluated prior to and at 2-week and 1-, 3-, and 6-month time points following injections. Read More

    Safety of onabotulinum toxin a injection to the central upper eyelid and eyebrow regions.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Sep-Oct;30(5):377-80
    *Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; and †Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To evaluate the safety of onabotulinum toxin A injected into the central upper eyelid and eyebrow regions.

    Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients undergoing onabotulinum toxin A injection to the central upper eyelid and eyebrow between February, 2012, and November, 2012. Age, gender, indication, injection sites, number of central units, total number of units, and occurrence of adverse events were all recorded. Read More

    A direct comparison of onabotulinumtoxina (Botox) and IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a split-face technique.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2014 Sep;34(3):233-6
    Département d'ophtalmologie (JS, AG), Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada; and Centre universitaire d'ophtalmologie et Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec (JS, AG), Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus, Quebec City, Canada.
    Background: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is characterized by progressive involuntary contractions of the protractor muscles, sometimes leading to a debilitating closure of the lids. It is currently treated with the injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). The purpose of this study was to compare 2 BoNT/A preparations (i. Read More

    Long-term therapy of benign essential blepharospasm and facial hemispasm with botulinum toxin A: retrospective assessment of the clinical and quality of life impact in patients treated for more than 15 years.
    Acta Neurol Belg 2014 Dec 7;114(4):285-91. Epub 2014 Mar 7.
    First Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, St. Anne's Hospital, Masaryk University, Pekařská 53, 656 91, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is recognized as the treatment of choice for patients with blepharospasm and facial hemispasm. We report the results of long-term BoNT-A therapy (15-20 years) in a group of patients with blepharospasm (9 patients) and hemifacial spasm (18 patients). We evaluated the number of treatment sessions, duration of therapeutic effects, side effects and their frequency during long-term therapy, and the differences between these two groups of patients. Read More

    Efficacy of botulinum toxin in benign essential Blepharospasm: Desirable & undesirable effects.
    Pak J Med Sci 2013 Nov;29(6):1389-93
    Humaira Zafar, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Objective: To study the efficacy, desirable and undesirable effects of locally injectable preparation of botulinum toxin in patients suffering from Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB).

    Methods: It was a prospective study carried out from October 2006 till November 2012 at a private set up, "Dr Shakaib's Eye Clinic", in Islamabad. Follow up of Seventeen patients of BEB has been done over six years period after injecting botulinum toxin. Read More

    Motor vehicle accidents and injuries in patients with idiopathic blepharospasm.
    J Neurol Sci 2014 Apr 30;339(1-2):217-9. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
    Department of Neurology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Background: Blepharospasm can cause transient functional blindness that may cause catastrophic traffic accidents.

    Methods: Sixty-six patients in southern Taiwan with idiopathic blepharospasm were enrolled. The incidence of and injuries from traffic accidents from the onset of blepharospasm symptoms to the first injection of botulinum toxin were analyzed. Read More

    Trigeminal high-frequency stimulation produces short- and long-term modification of reflex blink gain.
    J Neurophysiol 2014 Feb 27;111(4):888-95. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York;
    Reflex blinks provide a model system for investigating motor learning in normal and pathological states. We investigated whether high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the supraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve before the R2 blink component (HFS-B) decreases reflex blink gain in alert rats. As with humans (Mao JB, Evinger C. Read More

    The influence of benign essential blepharospasm on dry eye disease and ocular inflammation.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2014 Mar 20;157(3):591-7.e1-2. Epub 2013 Nov 20.
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
    Purpose: To study the influence of blepharospasm on dry eye disease by analyzing the clinical features, tear cytokine, and treatment response of patients with dry eye disease accompanied by benign essential blepharospasm.

    Design: Prospective case series study.

    Methods: Forty adults with a diagnosis of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and dry eye disease (DED) were consecutively recruited. Read More

    Myectomy for blepharospasm 2013.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2013 Sep;24(5):488-93
    Center for Facial Appearances, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Botulinum toxin (BTX) injections are the main medical treatment of facial dystonias, but injections are ineffective in some patients. This review discusses the indications for myectomy and surgical technique for treating benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and apraxia of eyelid opening (ALO).

    Recent Findings: There are four reasons to consider myectomy for patients with BEB. Read More

    Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A injections to treat blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2014 Apr 4;42(3):254-61. Epub 2013 Aug 4.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Jordan, and Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan.
    Background: To evaluate efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A injections after more than 10 consecutive years of treatment for benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.

    Design: Retrospective chart review at university-affiliated hospital.

    Participants: Study consisted of 64 patients treated with botulinum toxin A injections between October 2005 and May 2006. Read More

    Animal models for investigating benign essential blepharospasm.
    Curr Neuropharmacol 2013 Jan;11(1):53-8
    Depts. of Neurobiology & Behavior and Ophthalmology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5230.
    The focal dystonia benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) affects as many as 40,000 individuals in the United States. This dystonia is characterized by trigeminal hyperexcitability, photophobia, and most disabling of the symptoms, involuntary spasms of lid closure that can produce functional blindness. Like many focal dystonias, BEB appears to develop from the interaction between a predisposing condition and an environmental trigger. Read More

    A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with benign essential blepharospasm.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2013 Sep;33(3):235-40
    Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.
    Background: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a neurologic disorder characterized by an adult-onset focal dystonia that causes involuntary blinking and eyelid spasms. The pathophysiology of BEB patients remains unclear. This study investigated intrinsic low-frequency fluctuation in BEB patients during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Read More

    Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 May-Jun;29(3):205-7
    Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA.
    Purpose: To evaluate subjective outcomes and preferences in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) treated with both onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin).

    Methods: An institutional review board approved retrospective review of 128 patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA for BEB by 1 author (J.B. Read More

    Long-term botulinum toxin treatment of benign essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and Meige syndrome.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Jul 28;156(1):173-177.e2. Epub 2013 Mar 28.
    Division of Ophthalmology, Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/OhioHealth Doctor's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Purpose: To report the clinical success and incidence of adverse events of repetitive botulinum toxin treatment of 15 years or greater.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Methods: The study sample consisted of 37 patients from a clinical practice, 11 male and 26 female. Read More

    Patient-reported benefit from botulinum toxin treatment for essential blepharospasm: using 2 assessment scales.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 May-Jun;29(3):196-7
    Department of Ophthalmology, Maidstone Hospital, Hermitage Lane, Maidstone ME16 9QQ, United Kingdom.
    Purpose: To assess and compare the change in quality-of-life and function following treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX) using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI) scores.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of 62 consecutive patients treated with BTX for blepharospasm conducted during a postinterventional telephone interview. Post hoc analysis converts the GBI to a score from -100 (maximum harm) through 0 (no effect) to +100 (maximum benefit). Read More

    Efficacy of carbamazepine combined with botulinum toxin a in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.
    Eye Sci 2012 Dec;27(4):178-81
    1.Department of Opthalmology,the First Rongjun Hospital of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou 510260,China 2.Department of Opthalmology,the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou,Guangzhou 510180,China.
    Purpose: To observe the efficacy of the combined treatment of carbamazepine and botulinum toxin A for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.

    Methods: Fifty-eight patients with either blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. In the treatment group, 30 patients were administered with local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A and oral carbamazepine 100 mg/time, 3 times a day for 60 days. Read More

    A comparison of facial muscle squeezing versus non-facial muscle squeezing on the efficacy of botulinumtoxin-A injections for the treatment of facial dystonia.
    Orbit 2012 Dec 12;31(6):400-3. Epub 2012 Oct 12.
    Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, West Sussex, UK.
    Background: This study was performed to address whether voluntary muscle squeezing post botulinum toxin-A treatment with increased neuronal activity translates into noticeable patient benefit in practice.

    Methods: This was a prospective, consecutive, double crossover interventional study. Participants were receiving regular (3 monthly) botulinum toxin-A treatment for aberrant facial nerve regeneration (AFNR), benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) or hemifacial spasm (HFS). Read More

    Botulinum toxin injections for blepharospasm prior to ocular surgeries.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2012 3;6:579-83. Epub 2012 May 3.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to show the efficiency of preoperative botulinum toxin A (Botox A) in patients with benign essential blepharospasm who were to undergo ocular surgery with local anesthesia.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight benign essential blepharospasm patients who were administered unilateral Botox A prior to ocular surgery between January 2004 and May 2011 were included in this study. Eleven cases had pterygiums, ten had cataracts, and four had glaucomas, while the remaining three had aphakia. Read More

    Gender differences in benign essential blepharospasm.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2012 May-Jun;28(3):169-70
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
    Purpose: Detection of differences in disease characteristics between male and female patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 32 male and 61 female BEB patients, comparing the time interval between treatments with botulinum toxin A. We prospectively compared BEB-related questionnaire results between 36 female and 15 male patients. Read More

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