226 results match your criteria Blepharospasm Benign Essential


Macaque monkey trigeminal blink reflex circuits targeting levator palpebrae superioris motoneurons.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

For normal viewing, the eyes are held open by the tonic actions of the levator palpebrae superioris (levator) muscle raising the upper eyelid. This activity is interrupted during blinks, when the eyelid sweeps down to spread the tear film or protect the cornea. We examined the circuit connecting the principal trigeminal nucleus to the levator motoneurons by use of both anterograde and retrograde tracers in macaque monkeys. Read More

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Outcome of Injection Botulinum Toxin in Blepharospasm.

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan;13(25):40-49

Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Nepal.

Introduction: Blepharospasm is a condition of involuntary spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle which leads to intermittent or complete closure of the eyelids. Botulinum toxin is the currently recommended first line treatment for such blepharospasm. This study aims to find out the outcome of injection Botulinum toxin Type A in Blepharospasm. Read More

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January 2021

Complications of Preseptal Versus Pretarsal Botulinum Toxin Injection in Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Biostatistics Excellence Center, Research Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Purpose: To compare ocular complications and efficacy of preseptal (PST) versus pretarsal (PTS) botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Design: Randomized clinical trial SETTING: University hospital PATIENT: Twenty-four participants with BEB were enrolled during August 2019 to June 2020. All patients and the outcome evaluator were masked to the injection allocation. Read More

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Macaque monkey trigeminal blink reflex circuits targeting orbicularis oculi motoneurons.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Aug 28;529(11):2842-2864. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

The trigeminal blink reflex plays an important role in protecting the corneal surface from damage and preserving visual function in an unpredictable environment. The closing phase of the human reflex, produced by activation of the orbicularis oculi (ObOc) muscles, consists of an initial, small, ipsilateral R component, followed by a larger, bilateral R component. We investigated the circuitry that underlies this reflex in macaque (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta) monkeys by the use of single and dual tracer methods. Read More

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Disabling muscle of Riolan: A novel concept of orbicularis oculi myectomy for refractory benign essential blepharospasm.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 12:1120672121991043. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Oculoplastic, Orbital & Lacrimal Surgery, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan.

Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of orbicularis oculi myectomy with disabling the muscle of Riolan in patients with benign essential blepharospasm refractory to botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection.

Methods: This retrospective, observational study included 25 patients. After removal of the redundant skin and underlying orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) with or without extended OOM removal to the area of the superior orbital rim, the tarsal plate and the gray line were vertically severed at 2 points to disable the muscle of Riolan. Read More

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February 2021

Quality of life in isolated dystonia: non-motor manifestations matter.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and both physical and psychiatric factors in a large, international, multicentre cohort of patients with isolated dystonia, the Dystonia Coalition.

Methods: Natural history data from 603 patients with isolated dystonia (median age 57 years (IQR: 48 to 64 years), 67.0% women) were prospectively acquired and analysed. Read More

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February 2021

Antibody Development in Patients Treated Long-Term With OnabotulinumtoxinA for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Division of Ophthalmology (CNC, RB), Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/Ohio Health Doctor's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; and Department of Ophthalmology (CNC, JAB), Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Grant Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Report the development of onabotulinumtoxinA neutralizing antibodies in patients treated consecutively for 20 years or longer for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and Meige Syndrome.

Methods: Prospective, randomized, cross-sectional study of 12 randomly selected patients from a single clinical practice that have been treated consecutively for 20 or more years with onabotulinumtoxinA for BEB, HFS, or Meige Syndrome. Serum samples were collected from each subject and analyzed for neutralizing antibody formation using the Mouse Protection Assay. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of Upper Eyelid Surgery on Symptom Severity and Frequency in Benign Essential Blepharospasm.

J Mov Disord 2021 Jan 12;14(1):53-59. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Blepharospasm Clinic, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To assess the impact of periocular surgery, other than orbicularis stripping, on the severity and frequency of blepharospasm symptoms.

Methods: Consecutive patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) who underwent eyelid/eyebrow surgery with the aim of improving symptoms were retrospectively reviewed over a 5-year period. Patients who had completed the Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) and Blepharospasm Disability Index (BDI) pre- and at least 3 months postoperatively were included. Read More

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January 2021

Disease modifying treatment trials in Parkinson's disease: how to balance expectations and interests of patients, physicians and industry partners?

Neurol Res Pract 2020 2;2:31. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Background: The advent of therapeutic strategies designed to modify the disease course in Parkinson's disease has raised great expectations in the currently conducted clinical trials. However, we see ethical challenges in the cooperation of industry and clinical partners, specifically evident in the way recruitment is performed.We here discuss the different positions and challenges of all involved to set the stage for a study and recruitment culture taking into account the expectations of all: (i) patients and their caregivers, ready to take the considerable burden of clinical trials in hope for the development of disease-modifying treatments; (ii) physicians and study nurses, obligated to the patients' well-being and benefit who accompany and supervise patients closely as basis for the performance of elaborate clinical trials (iii) industrial partners, investing years of efforts and finances to develop new treatments. Read More

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November 2020

Eye pain in the white and quiet eye.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2020 Nov;31(6):483-488

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Purpose Of Review: Eye pain is one of the most common presenting symptoms in ophthalmology. It can range from bothersome to debilitating for patients, and it can be vexing for clinicians, especially in the white and quiet eye. The purpose of this review is to provide updates of recent literature regarding eye pain and to communicate our current understanding regarding the evaluation and management of conditions that cause eye pain with a relatively normal examination. Read More

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November 2020

[Blepharospasm, dry eye and extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (French translation of the article)].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2020 Oct 4;43(8):691-696. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Département de santé publique, hôpital Tenon, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 4, rue de la Chine, 75970 Paris cedex 20, France; Inserm, Institut Pierre-Louis de Santé Publique, France; UPMC Sorbonne université, Paris, France.

Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a link between benign essential blepharospasm and Sjogren's syndrome by analyzing the presence of extractable nuclear antigens in this population.

Methods: Seventy-two patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) were included in this study. We eliminated patients with hemifacial spasm or blepharospasm secondary to corneal pathology. Read More

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October 2020

Blepharospasm: Is it really a "Benign" or an "Essential" Condition?

Authors:
Sameera Irfan

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan;12(23):4-6

FRCS (UK); Lahore, Pakistan.

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January 2020

Botulinum toxin for benign essential blepharospasm: A systematic review and an algorithmic approach.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2021 Jan-Feb;177(1-2):107-114. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Currently, there is no standardised approach for benign essential blepharospasm treatment with botulinum toxin, and controversies still exist regarding this subject.

Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to summarise and compare all the published data regarding benign essential blepharospasm treatment with botulinum toxin.

Methods: On October 3, 2018, an online search of the Medline database was conducted. Read More

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The good toxin: 10 years of experience with botulinum toxin A in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2020 May 26:1120672120925630. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To describe the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A (Botox) in patients with benign essential blepharospasm.

Methods: Retrospective review of operation, injection, and medical records.

Results: Information of 29 patients (nine males) was reviewed, and the average age of benign essential blepharospasm onset was 59. Read More

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Blepharospasm, dry eye and extractable nuclear antigen antibodies.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2020 Sep 10;43(7):e211-e215. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Département de santé publique, hôpital Tenon, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 4, rue de-la-Chine, 75970 Paris cedex 20, France; INSERM, institut Pierre-Louis de santé publique, UPMC Sorbonne université, Paris, France.

Purpose: To study whether there is an association between benign essential blepharospasm and Sjögren's syndrome by analyzing the presence of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens in this population.

Methods: Seventy-two patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) were included in this study. We excluded patients with hemifacial spasm or blepharospasm secondary to known corneal pathology. Read More

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September 2020

Medical and Surgical Treatments for Dystonia.

Authors:
H A Jinnah

Neurol Clin 2020 05 2;38(2):325-348. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Suite 6305 Woodruff Memorial Building, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Suite 6305 Woodruff Memorial Building, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

The dystonias are a large and heterogenous group of disorders characterized by excessive muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. Their clinical manifestations vary widely, and there are many potential causes. Despite the heterogeneity, helpful treatments are available for the vast majority of patients. Read More

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Serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in benign essential blepharospasm.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Jun 31;258(6):1293-1297. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

University of Health Sciences, Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Bereketzade Mahallesi, Bereketzade Camii Sokak, NO:2, Pbx: 34420 Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: This study aims to compare serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxy (OH)-vitamin D levels in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and healthy subjects and to determine their association with disease severity and frequency.

Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty patients (female, 39; male, 11) with BEB and 22 healthy subjects (female, 15; male, 7) included in the study. Read More

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Which factors impact on quality of life for adults with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm?

Orbit 2021 Apr 1;40(2):110-119. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust , London, UK.

: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are debilitating conditions causing spasms to the eyes and/or face and can significantly impact on quality of life (QoL). Initial research has highlighted potential factors impacting on QoL in BEB, but there remains a wealth of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors that may contribute to QoL but have not received attention. : Cross-sectional baseline data were collected before a single-masked randomised controlled trial from 130 adults with BEB and HFS recruited from botulinum toxin clinics at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Read More

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Screening Gene Mutations in Chinese Patients With Benign Essential Blepharospasm.

Front Neurol 2019 23;10:1387. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

This study aimed to screen gene mutations in Chinese patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) to understand its etiology. Twenty BEB patients diagnosed by clinical manifestations between April 2015 and October 2015 were enrolled. All the cases were investigated by questionnaires about general conditions, social behavioral factors, environmental factors, psychological factors, genetic factors, and previous diseases. Read More

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January 2020

Personality profile of the primary blepharospasm (BSP): An investigation using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

Neurosci Lett 2020 03 5;722:134821. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore whether patients with blepharospasm (BSP) have abnormal personality traits by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire.

Method: The personality profiles of patients with BSP and its relationship with clinical characteristics were assessed in this research. 46 patients with BSP and 33 age-and-gender matched healthy controls were assessed using the MMPI questionnaire. Read More

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Sex, blinking, and dry eye.

J Neurophysiol 2020 02 15;123(2):831-842. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

Blinking sustains the corneal tear film generated by sexually dimorphic lacrimal and meibomian glands. Our study examines whether trigeminal control of blinking is also sexually dimorphic by investigating trigeminal reflex blinking, associative blink modification, and spontaneous blinking in male and female rats before and after unilateral dry eye caused by exorbital gland removal. Before gland removal, female rats exhibited a lower threshold for evoking trigeminal reflex blinks, a weaker effect of associative blink modification, and longer-duration spontaneous blinks than males. Read More

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February 2020

Risk of spread in adult-onset isolated focal dystonia: a prospective international cohort study.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 03 17;91(3):314-320. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Neurology, Radiology, Neuroscience, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Isolated focal dystonia can spread to muscles beyond the initially affected body region, but risk of spread has not been evaluated in a prospective manner. Furthermore, body regions at risk for spread and the clinical factors associated with spread risk are not well characterised. We sought here to prospectively characterise risk of spread in recently diagnosed adult-onset isolated focal dystonia patients. Read More

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Myotomy In Situ for Essential Blepharospasm Refractory to Botulinum Toxin.

Ann Plast Surg 2020 01;84(1S Suppl 1):S74-S79

Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Full myectomy is recommended for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) refractory to botulinum toxin (BT) treatment, but long-term swelling, scar contracture, hollow appearance, and unnatural contour of the eyelids are common postoperative complications. We present myotomy in situ to minimize these adverse outcomes.

Methods: The redundant eyelid skin with its underlying muscle is resected first, and myotomy in situ is performed by completely cutting the residual orbicularis oculi muscles into multiple cubes and down to the subcutaneous layer, and then cutting the procerus and corrugator muscles down to the periosteum. Read More

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January 2020

Characteristics of tear abnormalities associated with benign essential blepharospasm and amelioration by means of botulinum toxin type A treatment.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan 10;64(1):45-53. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of tear abnormalities with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment.

Study Design: Prospective and clinical study.

Methods: Forty eyes of 40 patients (12 men and 28 women, ages 63. Read More

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January 2020

Dry eye syndrome in benign essential blepharospasm.

Authors:
B C Girard P Lévy

J Fr Ophtalmol 2019 Dec 14;42(10):1062-1067. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Département de Santé Publique, Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 4, rue de la Chine, 75970 Paris cedex 20, France; Institut Pierre-Louis de Santé Publique, UPMC Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Paris, France.

Purpose: To determine the significance of dry eye syndrome in benign essential blepharospasm.

Design: Retrospective consecutive case series.

Participants: One hundred and forty-four patients (288 eyes) with benign essential blepharospasm. Read More

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December 2019

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2019 Oct;33(5):430-435

Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of Botox and Neuronox in the management of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Methods: We performed a triple-masked, randomized control study to compare Botox and Neuronox in 48 eyes of 24 patients with BEB. All 24 patients randomly received Botox or Neuronox in the periorbital region in a masked, randomized split-face manner, keeping the injection sites and doses uniform. Read More

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October 2019

Glucose hypometabolism in the visual cortex proportional to disease severity in patients with essential blepharospasm.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 26;24:101995. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Essential blepharospasm (EB) causes difficulty in eyelid opening because of involuntary movements of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Patients with EB have functional visual loss due to sustained eyelid closure. We examined cerebral glucose metabolism in 39 patients with EB (12 men and 27 women; mean age, 52. Read More

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September 2020

Abnormal spontaneous neural activity of brain regions in patients with primary blepharospasm at rest.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Aug 5;403:44-49. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Primary blepharospasm (BSP) is characterized by excessive involuntary eyelid spasms without significant morphological brain abnormalities. Its neural bases remain unclear. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a powerful tool for exploring cerebral function mechanisms in BSP. Read More

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Increased pupillary constriction velocity in benign essential blepharospasm associated with photophobia.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(6):e0217924. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated whether the pupillary light reflex is altered in benign essential blepharospasm patients. Twenty-three patients with benign essential blepharospasm, 47 with reflex blepharospasm, and 29 dry eye disease controls were included. Pupillary light reflex-related parameters were measured under mesopic (10 lux) and photopic illuminance (200 lux) using an infrared pupillometer. Read More

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February 2020