197 results match your criteria Blepharospasm Benign Essential


Sensory Trick Frames: A New Device for Blepharospasm Patients.

J Mov Disord 2019 Jan 16;12(1):22-26. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Adnexal Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London.

Objective: To determine whether the use of unique customized spectacles provided with modified side arms may be helpful in reducing benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) in patients describing periocular sensory tricks (ST).

Methods: A prospective descriptive study of patients with BEB with positive periocular or temporal region ST phenomenon response under the care of the Botox Clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK. Nine consecutive patients with BEB describing ST were recruited, and the disease frequency and severity were assessed with the Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) and the Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI) before and after the use of the sensory trick frames (STF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18010DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Botulinum toxin relieves anxiety and depression in patients with hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2019 19;15:33-36. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China,

Objective: To explore the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) therapy in relieving anxiety and depression in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Patients And Method: Ninety idiopathic HFS patients and 90 BEB patients were enrolled. The anxiety and depression status were evaluated by self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS), respectively, before and after the injection of BTX-A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S181820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304258PMC
December 2018

Epidemiology of benign essential blepharospasm: A nationwide population-based retrospective study in Taiwan.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(12):e0209558. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Importance: This study provides a nationwide, population-based data on the incidence of benign essential blepharospasm in Asian adults.

Background: To describe the incidence, patient demographics, and risk factors associated with benign essential blepharospasm.

Design: Population-based retrospective study. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209558PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306223PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

Quality of life in idiopathic dystonia: a systematic review.

J Neurol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Academic Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Objective: Dystonia is characterised by sustained muscular contractions frequently producing repetitive, twisting and patterned movements. The primary aim of this systematic review was to establish how quality of life (QoL) is affected in idiopathic focal, multifocal and segmental dystonia. This review aimed to evaluate variations in QoL between different subtypes of dystonia, identify the determinants of QoL and assess the effects of different treatments on QoL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9119-xDOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

Effects of Repeated Eyelid Injections with Botulinum Toxin A on Innervation of Treated Muscles in Patients with Blepharospasm.

Curr Eye Res 2018 Oct 31:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , Minnesota , USA.

Purpose: To assess changes in innervation and muscle morphology after repeated botulinum toxin A injections in subjects with benign essential blepharospasm.

Methods: Surgical waste specimens were processed for histologic examination of nerve fibers, neuromuscular junctions, fiber size, and central nucleation and compared to age matched controls and to two subjects with blepharospasm that had not received botulinum toxin A injections.

Results: There was a significant increase in amount of nerve fibers and numbers of neuromuscular junctions in the orbicularis oculi muscles from subjects with blepharospasm treated repetitively with botulinum toxin A. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02713683.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2018.1543707DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Clinical Features of Benign Essential Blepharospasm in Korean Patients.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct;32(5):339-343

Department of Ophthalmology, Kim's Eye Hospital, Myung-Gok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To analyze the clinical features of benign essential blepharospasm in Korean patients.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with benign essential blepharospasm in Kim's Eye Hospital from November 2014 to December 2016 were evaluated using a clinical examination and questionnaire. The questionnaire reviewed personal medical history, demographic factors, risk factors for blepharospasm development, and relieving and aggravating factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2018.0038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182215PMC
October 2018

Disease progression in blepharospasm: a 5-year longitudinal study.

Eur J Neurol 2019 Feb 12;26(2):268-273. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.

Background And Purpose: The clinical manifestation of dystonic spasms in blepharospasm (BSP) patients may be heterogeneous. Whether the varying phenomenology of eyelid spasms becomes manifest sequentially during the course of the disease or aggregates in separate clusters according to different disease courses is still unclear. For this purpose, the clinical features in BSP patients were evaluated longitudinally over a 5-year period and also the blink reflex recovery cycle was tested in a subgroup of BSP patients. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ene.13832
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.13832DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Injecting botulinum toxin into the treatment of blepharospasm.

Rom J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr-Jun;62(2):162-165

Ophthalmology Department, "Dr. Carol Davila" Central University Military Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; Elias University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.

The present paper is an introduction to this category of therapy, the injection of botulinum toxin into blepharospasm and, at the same time, an attempt to familiarize our readers with this concept. Our activity in this field started in 2014; the favorable results we have obtained since then have made us write this article. BEB = Abnormal Benign Essential Blepharospasm, TXB = Botulinum Toxin. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117523PMC
February 2019
20 Reads

Long-term outcome of flexible onabotulinum toxin A treatment in facial dystonia.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Sep 10. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Corneo Plastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, UK.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of onabotulinum used to treat facial dystonia and compare a flexible and fixed treatment regimen.

Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study looking at benign essential blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and aberrant facial nerve regeneration synkinesis (AFR) treatment with onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) over a minimum of 10 years. Fifty-one patients were recruited into the study, with each dystonia subgroup having 17 patients. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41433-018-0203-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41433-018-0203-3DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

Stroke-induced resolution of primary blepharospasm: evidence for the lenticular nucleus as a control candidate.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 25;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Oculoplastics, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

Primary blepharospasm is an adult-onset focal dystonia characterised by involuntary contractions of the orbicularis oculi, leading to bilateral spasmodic closure of the eyelids. While spasms of this muscle constitute the hallmark of disease, other motor manifestations include increased spontaneous blinking and apraxia of eyelid opening. Originally misdiagnosed as a psychiatric condition, blepharospasm is now well established as being of neurological origin although questions remain as to its pathophysiological mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224339DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Botulinum toxin injection and tear production.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):428-433

Department of Ophthalmology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Purpose Of Review: In 1980, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was introduced for the treatment of strabismus and benign essential blepharospasm. Since then, a number of additional indications have been introduced, which continue to expand, providing less invasive solutions in managing different ophthalmic conditions.

Recent Findings: Successful trials of BTX-A injection into the lacrimal gland have been reported for the treatment of epiphora caused by primary lacrimal gland hyperlacrimation, functional tearing, gustatory tearing, and lacrimal outflow obstruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000506DOI Listing
September 2018
20 Reads

Developments in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm.

Authors:
Michael T Yen

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):440-444

Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review new developments in the medical and surgical treatment options for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Recent Findings: Botulinum toxin injections remain the mainstay treatment for BEB with several formulations currently commercially available. Reports in the medical literature support photochromatic modulation for the symptoms of photophobia, as well as oral medications and surgical myectomy for control of the motor signs of eyelid protractor spasm. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00055735-900000000-9925
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000500DOI Listing
September 2018
19 Reads

Increase lipid tear thickness after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.

Sci Rep 2018 May 30;8(1):8367. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and aqueous tear production after botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) injection in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). Eleven and six patients with BEB and HFS, respectively, who received BoNT injection were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The blepharospasm disability index (BSDI), blink pattern, dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test 1 findings, LLT, eyelid performance, and corneal integrity were evaluated before and after treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26750-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976660PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm.

Neurochirurgie 2018 May 16;64(2):82-86. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Service de neurochirurgie, fondation ophtalmologique Adolphe-de-Rothschild, 75019 Paris, France.

The diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm (pHFS), due to a benign compression of the facial motor nerve by a vessel, within or close to its root exit zone, is often made with delay. Misdiagnosis includes psychogenic spasm, tics, facial myokymia or blepharospasm, but in fact post-facial palsy synkinesis (post-paralytic HFS) is the closest clinical condition, because it is limited to the territory of the facial nerve of a single hemiface. The differential diagnosis between these two entities, whose pathophysiological mechanisms are very different, can be made by electroneuromyographic (ENMG) examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuchi.2017.12.003DOI Listing

Chemodenervation for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2018 Sep 10;125(9):1459-1467. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: To review the medical literature on the outcomes and complications of various Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxins for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).

Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in February 2017 in PubMed for articles published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without language limitations; studies published before 2000 were excluded. The combined searches yielded 127 citations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01616420183068
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.03.013DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm.

Curr Eye Res 2018 Jul 19;43(7):896-901. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

a Department of Ophthalmology , Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine , Toon , Japan.

Objective: To determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on the eyelid pressure in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Methods: Twenty normal volunteers (10 men, 10 women; average age 59.7 ± 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2018.1464191DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Combined effects of rTMS and botulinum toxin therapy in benign essential blepharospasm.

Brain Stimul 2018 May - Jun;11(3):645-647. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Human Motor Control, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.02.004DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads

Surgical approach to limiting skin contracture following protractor myectomy for essential blepharospasm.

Digit J Ophthalmol 2017 5;23(4):8-12. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Purpose: To report our experience with protractor myectomy in patients with benign essential blepharospasm who did not respond to serial botulinum toxin injection, and to describe intra- and postoperative techniques that limited skin contracture while also providing excellent functional and cosmetic results.

Methods: The medical records of patients with isolated, benign, essential blepharospasm who underwent protractor myectomy from 2005 to 2008 by a single surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. The technique entailed operating on a single eyelid during each procedure, using a complete en bloc resection of all orbicularis tissue, leaving all eyelid skin intact at the time of surgery, and placing the lid under stretch with Frost suture and applying a pressure dressing for 5-7 days. Read More

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http://www.djo.harvard.edu/site.php?url=/physicians/oa/2898
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5693/djo.01.2016.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791625PMC
March 2018
10 Reads

Long-term Efficacy of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Treatment for Essential Blepharospasm.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 02 24;32(1):1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: In the present study, we investigated the treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) administered for longer than 5 years to patients with essential blepharospasm.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients (male : female = 8 : 11) diagnosed with essential blepharospasm between March 2006 and July 2016 who underwent BoNT-A injections for over 5 years and were followed. Efficacy of 297 injections of Botox (n = 162), Meditoxin (n = 75), Hugel-tox (n = 40), or Dysport (n = 20) was based on the symptom improvement score at the final injection (-1, worse; 0, same; 1, better). Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.3341/kjo.2017.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2017.0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5801084PMC
February 2018
18 Reads

Medical Cannabis, a Beneficial High in Treatment of Blepharospasm? An Early Observation.

Neuroophthalmology 2017 Oct 18;41(5):253-258. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

The objective of this study was to observe the effect of medical cannabis in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) as an adjunct to botulinum toxin. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients certified for medical cannabis use for BEB from September 2015 to May 2016. Patient demographics and responses, cannabis history, and severity indices were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01658107.2017.1318150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764009PMC
October 2017
15 Reads

Physiological effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgery in cervical dystonia.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 11;89(12):1296-1300. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia.

Methods: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration. Read More

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http://jnnp.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jnnp-2017-317098
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2017-317098DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Surgical Myectomy for Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm.

Authors:
Michael T Yen

Int Ophthalmol Clin 2018 ;58(1):63-70

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IIO.0000000000000206DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Oral Pharmacotherapy for Benign Essential Blepharospasm.

Int Ophthalmol Clin 2018 ;58(1):33-47

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IIO.0000000000000208DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

The Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation.

Int Ophthalmol Clin 2018 ;58(1):25-31

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IIO.0000000000000211DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of Botox and Neuronox in the management of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Methods: We performed a triple-masked, randomized control study to compare Botox and Neuronox in 48 eyes of 24 patients with BEB. All 24 patients randomly received Botox or Neuronox in the periorbital region in a masked, randomized split-face manner, keeping the injection sites and doses uniform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2016.0123DOI Listing
June 2017
20 Reads

A comparative crossover study on the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: preseptal and pretarsal botulinum toxin injection techniques.

Neurol Sci 2017 Nov 7;38(11):2031-2036. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Neurology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) are chronic and disabling abnormal craniofacial movements that produce involuntary eyelid twitching and closure. The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections have been accepted and widely used for the treatment of HFS and BEB. However, different injection sites may influence the effectiveness, doses, and side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-017-3107-2DOI Listing
November 2017
7 Reads

A Dynamic Circuit Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Blepharospasm.

Front Comput Neurosci 2017 7;11:11. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological StudiesSan Diego, CA, USA; Institute for Neural Computation, University of California, San DiegoSan Diego, CA, USA.

Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2017.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340098PMC
March 2017
7 Reads

Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy.

PLoS One 2016 16;11(12):e0168652. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Department of Neurology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Objective: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168652PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161386PMC
July 2017
10 Reads

Persistent hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression: a risk assessment model.

Br J Neurosurg 2017 Jun 1;31(3):327-335. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

b Pennsylvania Brain and Spine Institute , Butler , PA , USA.

Objective: Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) provides resolution of disabling symptoms such as eyelid twitching and muscle contractions of the entire hemiface. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of patient demographics and spasm characteristics on long-term outcomes, with or without intraoperative lateral spread response (LSR) as an additional variable in a risk assessment model.

Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the associations of pre-operative patient characteristics, as well as intraoperative LSR and need for a staged procedure on the presence of persistent or recurrent HFS at the time of hospital discharge and at follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2016.1257110DOI Listing

Changes in ocular higher-order aberrations following botulinum toxin treatment in patients with blepharospasm : BTX improves dry eye in patients with BEB.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov 8;60(6):486-491. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.

Background/aims: To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) by monitoring the ocular surface and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) before and after treatment.

Methods: The present study reports a prospective case series of 38 patients (76 eyes, 11 men and 27 women; mean age 66.8 ± 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-016-0469-6DOI Listing
November 2016
8 Reads

Transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with benign essential blepharospasm: a case report.

Neurol Sci 2017 Jan 26;38(1):201-202. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Unité de recherche clinique, Pôle G03, EPS Ville Evrard, 202 avenue Jean Jaurès, 93330, Neuilly sur Marne, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-016-2703-xDOI Listing
January 2017
12 Reads

Alleviating Maneuvers for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 11;134(11):1253-1254

Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Wilmer Eye Institute, and Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.2983DOI Listing
November 2016
10 Reads

Use of Alleviating Maneuvers for Periocular Facial Dystonias.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;134(11):1247-1252

Adnexal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England.

Importance: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm are known to use botulinum toxin injections and alleviating maneuvers to help control their symptoms. The clinical correlates between the use of botulinum toxin injections and the use of alleviating maneuvers are not well established.

Objective: To determine whether the use of alleviating maneuvers for benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm correlates with disease severity or botulinum toxin treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.3277DOI Listing
November 2016
7 Reads

Photophobia in primary headaches, in essential blepharospasm and in major depression.

Int J Neurosci 2017 Aug 13;127(8):673-679. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

a Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital , University of Athens , Athens , Greece.

Objectives: Although photophobia is a well-known symptom in various disorders, it has rarely been studied explicitly and its definition in a clinical setting can be somewhat elusive. Here, we assessed photophobia with a common psychometric tool in different conditions, in which light intolerance is considered part of the syndrome.

Patients And Methods: A prospective study was undertaken in patients with migraine (MH), cluster headache (CH), tension-type headache (TH), essential blepharospasm (BS) and major depression (MD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2016.1231185DOI Listing
August 2017
2 Reads

Screening for Cognitive Impairments in Primary Blepharospasm.

PLoS One 2016 15;11(8):e0160867. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Backgrounds: Studies have reported that non-motor symptoms are an important component of primary dystonia. However, evidence supporting cognitive impairment in primary dystonia is limited and contradictory.

Methods: We applied the Chinese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to screen for cognitive impairment in patients with primary blepharospasm. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160867PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4985064PMC
July 2017
13 Reads

Cognitive Flexibility in Primary Dystonia.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2016 07;22(6):662-70

Department of Neurology,Hannover Medical School,Hannover,Germany.

Objectives Although primary dystonia is typically characterized as a movement disorder, it is also associated with cognitive alterations in the domain of executive functioning which may arise from changes in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, patients with dystonia show deficits in neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility. However, it is unclear whether cognitive inflexibility is caused by the pathomechanisms underlying primary dystonia or by confounding factors such as depression or symptom-related distraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S135561771600045XDOI Listing
July 2016
8 Reads

Five-Year Retrospective Review of Cases with Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Presenting in a Tertiary Eye Care Center in North India.

Semin Ophthalmol 2017 14;32(3):371-376. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

a Department of Ophthalmology , Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH) , Chandigarh , India.

Retrospective analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who reported to the oculoplasty clinic of a tertiary eye care center in north India between January 2010 and April 2015 was carried out. Dry eye, as well as all the local factors that can cause blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm, was ruled out. Systemic evaluation was done to rule out any neurological disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2015.1096401DOI Listing
June 2017
16 Reads

Language modulation of benign essential blepharospasm.

Mov Disord 2016 05 17;31(5):764-5. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

University College London, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.26531DOI Listing
May 2016
7 Reads

Comparison of Two Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injection Patterns with or without the Medial Lower Eyelid in the Treatment of Blepharospasm.

J Ophthalmol 2016 14;2016:5957812. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection patterns with or without the medial lower eyelid (MLE) in treating benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and influencing lacrimal drainage. Two different injection patterns of BoNT-A were randomly applied to 98 eyes of 49 BEB patients: MLE Group received a full injection pattern of 5 sites and non-MLE Group received a MLE waived injection pattern of 4 sites. Tear breakup time (BUT), Schirmer I test, lagophthalmos height, and lower lid tear meniscus height (TMH) were measured and Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) was surveyed before injection and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5957812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4738946PMC
February 2016
12 Reads

Paroxysmal eyelid movements in patients with visual-sensitive reflex seizures.

Epileptic Disord 2015 Dec;17(4):372-83

Department of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Interdepartmental Research Centre for Social Diseases (CIMS), Childhood Epilepsy Section, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Aim: Paroxysmal eyelid movements (PEM) are non-epileptic episodes characterized by eyelid closure, upturning of the eyes, and rapid eyelid flutter. The aim of this study was to report clinical and EEG data of patients with PEM and its relationship with visual sensitivity.

Methods: We studied 26 patients with epilepsy (12 males and 14 females; mean age: 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2015.0773DOI Listing
December 2015
8 Reads

Benign Essential Blepharospasm--There Is More to It Than Just Blinking.

Authors:
Kathleen B Digre

J Neuroophthalmol 2015 Dec;35(4):379-81

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000316DOI Listing
December 2015
5 Reads

Benign Essential Blepharospasm is a Disorder of Neuroplasticity: Lessons From Animal Models.

Authors:
Craig Evinger

J Neuroophthalmol 2015 Dec;35(4):374-9

Department Neurobiology and Behavior and Ophthalmology, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000317DOI Listing
December 2015
5 Reads

Blepharospasm in children and adolescents.

Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Feb 28;32(2):355-8. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.

Purpose: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) generally is considered a disorder of adults; however, it rarely can present in childhood or adolescence. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BEB in children and adolescents. Our research question was whether blepharospasm is seen in children or adolescents as well as in the adult population. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00381-015-2938-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-015-2938-5DOI Listing
February 2016
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Corneal and Tear Film Changes After Botulinum Toxin-A in Blepharospasm or Hemifacial Spasm.

Cornea 2015 Aug;34(8):906-10

Departments of *Ophthalmology, and †Neurology, Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Medicine, Isparta, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate changes in corneal parameters and the tear film after botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection in patients with blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm.

Methods: Twelve patients with benign essential blepharospasm and 30 with hemifacial spasm treated with BTX-A were included in this study. Disease severity was evaluated using the Jankovic scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000000482DOI Listing
August 2015
7 Reads

A struggle to forgive: my long battle with dystonia.

Authors:
Aaron Needle

Psychiatr Serv 2015 Jun;66(6):568-9

Mr. Needle lives in Newton, Massachusetts (e-mail: Jeffrey L. Geller, M.D., M.P.H., is editor of this column.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.660601DOI Listing
June 2015
5 Reads

Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China.

Eur Neurol 2015 19;73(5-6):337-41. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Purpose: This study explored the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatments of primary blepharospasm.

Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 100 patients with blepharospasm were enrolled. Data were collected from medical records and face-to-face interviews with patients and their families. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/381707
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000381707DOI Listing
January 2016
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Oral methylphenidate for the treatment of refractory facial dystonias.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2015 May-Jun;31(3):e65-6

*Oculofacial and Orbital Surgery Division, Scheie Eye Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and †Division of Oculoplastic, Orbital and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Oral methylphenidate (Ritalin, Novartis) has been reported to alleviate symptoms of benign essential blepharospasm in an off-label application. This series presents 3 patients with refractory periorbital and facial dystonias, including blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, and oromandibular dystonia unresponsive to standard treatments who experienced a response to oral methylphenidate therapy. While the mechanisms for facial dystonias have not been elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that they are on the spectrum with Parkinson disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000000079DOI Listing
February 2016
44 Reads