209 results match your criteria Blepharospasm Benign Essential


The good toxin: 10 years of experience with botulinum toxin A in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2020 May 26:1120672120925630. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To describe the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A (Botox) in patients with benign essential blepharospasm.

Methods: Retrospective review of operation, injection, and medical records.

Results: Information of 29 patients (nine males) was reviewed, and the average age of benign essential blepharospasm onset was 59. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672120925630DOI Listing

Blepharospasm, dry eye and extractable nuclear antigen antibodies.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Département de santé publique, hôpital Tenon, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 4, rue de-la-Chine, 75970 Paris cedex 20, France; INSERM, institut Pierre-Louis de santé publique, UPMC Sorbonne université, Paris, France.

Purpose: To study whether there is an association between benign essential blepharospasm and Sjögren's syndrome by analyzing the presence of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens in this population.

Methods: Seventy-two patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) were included in this study. We excluded patients with hemifacial spasm or blepharospasm secondary to known corneal pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfo.2020.06.001DOI Listing

Medical and Surgical Treatments for Dystonia.

Authors:
H A Jinnah

Neurol Clin 2020 05 2;38(2):325-348. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Suite 6305 Woodruff Memorial Building, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Suite 6305 Woodruff Memorial Building, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

The dystonias are a large and heterogenous group of disorders characterized by excessive muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. Their clinical manifestations vary widely, and there are many potential causes. Despite the heterogeneity, helpful treatments are available for the vast majority of patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2020.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156436PMC

Serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in benign essential blepharospasm.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Jun 31;258(6):1293-1297. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

University of Health Sciences, Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Bereketzade Mahallesi, Bereketzade Camii Sokak, NO:2, Pbx: 34420 Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: This study aims to compare serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxy (OH)-vitamin D levels in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and healthy subjects and to determine their association with disease severity and frequency.

Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty patients (female, 39; male, 11) with BEB and 22 healthy subjects (female, 15; male, 7) included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-020-04650-7DOI Listing

Which factors impact on quality of life for adults with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm?

Orbit 2020 Mar 1:1-10. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are debilitating conditions causing spasms to the eyes and/or face and can significantly impact on quality of life (QoL). Initial research has highlighted potential factors impacting on QoL in BEB, but there remains a wealth of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors that may contribute to QoL but have not received attention.: Cross-sectional baseline data were collected before a single-masked randomised controlled trial from 130 adults with BEB and HFS recruited from botulinum toxin clinics at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01676830.2020.1733028DOI Listing

Screening Gene Mutations in Chinese Patients With Benign Essential Blepharospasm.

Front Neurol 2019 23;10:1387. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

This study aimed to screen gene mutations in Chinese patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) to understand its etiology. Twenty BEB patients diagnosed by clinical manifestations between April 2015 and October 2015 were enrolled. All the cases were investigated by questionnaires about general conditions, social behavioral factors, environmental factors, psychological factors, genetic factors, and previous diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989602PMC
January 2020

Sex, blinking, and dry eye.

J Neurophysiol 2020 Feb 15;123(2):831-842. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

Blinking sustains the corneal tear film generated by sexually dimorphic lacrimal and meibomian glands. Our study examines whether trigeminal control of blinking is also sexually dimorphic by investigating trigeminal reflex blinking, associative blink modification, and spontaneous blinking in male and female rats before and after unilateral dry eye caused by exorbital gland removal. Before gland removal, female rats exhibited a lower threshold for evoking trigeminal reflex blinks, a weaker effect of associative blink modification, and longer-duration spontaneous blinks than males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00635.2019DOI Listing
February 2020

Risk of spread in adult-onset isolated focal dystonia: a prospective international cohort study.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 Mar 17;91(3):314-320. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Neurology, Radiology, Neuroscience, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Isolated focal dystonia can spread to muscles beyond the initially affected body region, but risk of spread has not been evaluated in a prospective manner. Furthermore, body regions at risk for spread and the clinical factors associated with spread risk are not well characterised. We sought here to prospectively characterise risk of spread in recently diagnosed adult-onset isolated focal dystonia patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-321794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024047PMC

Myotomy In Situ for Essential Blepharospasm Refractory to Botulinum Toxin.

Ann Plast Surg 2020 01;84(1S Suppl 1):S74-S79

From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital.

Background: Full myectomy is recommended for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) refractory to botulinum toxin (BT) treatment, but long-term swelling, scar contracture, hollow appearance, and unnatural contour of the eyelids are common postoperative complications. We present myotomy in situ to minimize these adverse outcomes.

Methods: The redundant eyelid skin with its underlying muscle is resected first, and myotomy in situ is performed by completely cutting the residual orbicularis oculi muscles into multiple cubes and down to the subcutaneous layer, and then cutting the procerus and corrugator muscles down to the periosteum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002182DOI Listing
January 2020

Characteristics of tear abnormalities associated with benign essential blepharospasm and amelioration by means of botulinum toxin type A treatment.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan 10;64(1):45-53. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of tear abnormalities with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment.

Study Design: Prospective and clinical study.

Methods: Forty eyes of 40 patients (12 men and 28 women, ages 63. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-019-00705-3DOI Listing
January 2020

Dry eye syndrome in benign essential blepharospasm.

Authors:
B C Girard P Lévy

J Fr Ophtalmol 2019 Dec 14;42(10):1062-1067. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Département de Santé Publique, Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 4, rue de la Chine, 75970 Paris cedex 20, France; Institut Pierre-Louis de Santé Publique, UPMC Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Paris, France.

Purpose: To determine the significance of dry eye syndrome in benign essential blepharospasm.

Design: Retrospective consecutive case series.

Participants: One hundred and forty-four patients (288 eyes) with benign essential blepharospasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfo.2019.06.007DOI Listing
December 2019

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2019 Oct;33(5):430-435

Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of Botox and Neuronox in the management of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Methods: We performed a triple-masked, randomized control study to compare Botox and Neuronox in 48 eyes of 24 patients with BEB. All 24 patients randomly received Botox or Neuronox in the periorbital region in a masked, randomized split-face manner, keeping the injection sites and doses uniform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2016.0123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791955PMC
October 2019
3 Reads

Increased pupillary constriction velocity in benign essential blepharospasm associated with photophobia.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(6):e0217924. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated whether the pupillary light reflex is altered in benign essential blepharospasm patients. Twenty-three patients with benign essential blepharospasm, 47 with reflex blepharospasm, and 29 dry eye disease controls were included. Pupillary light reflex-related parameters were measured under mesopic (10 lux) and photopic illuminance (200 lux) using an infrared pupillometer. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217924PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548394PMC
February 2020
8 Reads

[Therapy of Benign Essential Blepharospasm with Botulinum Toxin].

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2019 Jul 10;87(7):355-360. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Bruder Trier.

Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia and a rare disease of the brain that causes involuntary spasms of the muscles responsible for eyelid closure. The diagnosis is made clinically and in unclear cases on the basis of results of electrophysiological tests. Therapy of choice consists of local injections with botulinum toxin that have to be repeated on a regular basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0677-2122DOI Listing
July 2019
14 Reads

Sensory Trick Frames: A New Device for Blepharospasm Patients.

J Mov Disord 2019 01 16;12(1):22-26. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Adnexal Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: To determine whether the use of unique customized spectacles provided with modified side arms may be helpful in reducing benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) in patients describing periocular sensory tricks (ST).

Methods: A prospective descriptive study of patients with BEB with positive periocular or temporal region ST phenomenon response under the care of the Botox Clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK. Nine consecutive patients with BEB describing ST were recruited, and the disease frequency and severity were assessed with the Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) and the Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI) before and after the use of the sensory trick frames (STF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369377PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

Botulinum toxin relieves anxiety and depression in patients with hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2019 19;15:33-36. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China,

Objective: To explore the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) therapy in relieving anxiety and depression in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Patients And Method: Ninety idiopathic HFS patients and 90 BEB patients were enrolled. The anxiety and depression status were evaluated by self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS), respectively, before and after the injection of BTX-A. Read More

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https://www.dovepress.com/botulinum-toxin-relieves-anxiety-a
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S181820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304258PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Epidemiology of benign essential blepharospasm: A nationwide population-based retrospective study in Taiwan.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(12):e0209558. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Importance: This study provides a nationwide, population-based data on the incidence of benign essential blepharospasm in Asian adults.

Background: To describe the incidence, patient demographics, and risk factors associated with benign essential blepharospasm.

Design: Population-based retrospective study. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209558PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306223PMC
May 2019
38 Reads

Quality of life in idiopathic dystonia: a systematic review.

J Neurol 2019 Dec 20;266(12):2897-2906. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Academic Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Objective: Dystonia is characterised by sustained muscular contractions frequently producing repetitive, twisting and patterned movements. The primary aim of this systematic review was to establish how quality of life (QoL) is affected in idiopathic focal, multifocal and segmental dystonia. This review aimed to evaluate variations in QoL between different subtypes of dystonia, identify the determinants of QoL and assess the effects of different treatments on QoL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9119-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851210PMC
December 2019
36 Reads

Effects of Repeated Eyelid Injections with Botulinum Toxin A on Innervation of Treated Muscles in Patients with Blepharospasm.

Curr Eye Res 2019 03 23;44(3):257-263. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , Minnesota , USA.

Purpose: To assess changes in innervation and muscle morphology after repeated botulinum toxin A injections in subjects with benign essential blepharospasm.

Methods: Surgical waste specimens were processed for histologic examination of nerve fibers, neuromuscular junctions, fiber size, and central nucleation and compared to age matched controls and to two subjects with blepharospasm that had not received botulinum toxin A injections.

Results: There was a significant increase in amount of nerve fibers and numbers of neuromuscular junctions in the orbicularis oculi muscles from subjects with blepharospasm treated repetitively with botulinum toxin A. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02713683.2018.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2018.1543707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397080PMC
March 2019
14 Reads

Clinical Features of Benign Essential Blepharospasm in Korean Patients.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct;32(5):339-343

Department of Ophthalmology, Kim's Eye Hospital, Myung-Gok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To analyze the clinical features of benign essential blepharospasm in Korean patients.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with benign essential blepharospasm in Kim's Eye Hospital from November 2014 to December 2016 were evaluated using a clinical examination and questionnaire. The questionnaire reviewed personal medical history, demographic factors, risk factors for blepharospasm development, and relieving and aggravating factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2018.0038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182215PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Injecting botulinum toxin into the treatment of blepharospasm.

Rom J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr-Jun;62(2):162-165

Ophthalmology Department, "Dr. Carol Davila" Central University Military Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; Elias University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.

The present paper is an introduction to this category of therapy, the injection of botulinum toxin into blepharospasm and, at the same time, an attempt to familiarize our readers with this concept. Our activity in this field started in 2014; the favorable results we have obtained since then have made us write this article. BEB = Abnormal Benign Essential Blepharospasm, TXB = Botulinum Toxin. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117523PMC
February 2019
45 Reads

Long-term outcome of flexible onabotulinum toxin A treatment in facial dystonia.

Eye (Lond) 2019 03 10;33(3):349-352. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Corneo Plastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, UK.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of onabotulinum used to treat facial dystonia and compare a flexible and fixed treatment regimen.

Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study looking at benign essential blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and aberrant facial nerve regeneration synkinesis (AFR) treatment with onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) over a minimum of 10 years. Fifty-one patients were recruited into the study, with each dystonia subgroup having 17 patients. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41433-018-0203-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41433-018-0203-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460690PMC
March 2019
41 Reads

Stroke-induced resolution of primary blepharospasm: evidence for the lenticular nucleus as a control candidate.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 25;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Oculoplastics, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

Primary blepharospasm is an adult-onset focal dystonia characterised by involuntary contractions of the orbicularis oculi, leading to bilateral spasmodic closure of the eyelids. While spasms of this muscle constitute the hallmark of disease, other motor manifestations include increased spontaneous blinking and apraxia of eyelid opening. Originally misdiagnosed as a psychiatric condition, blepharospasm is now well established as being of neurological origin although questions remain as to its pathophysiological mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224339DOI Listing
July 2018
17 Reads

Botulinum toxin injection and tear production.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):428-433

Department of Ophthalmology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Purpose Of Review: In 1980, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was introduced for the treatment of strabismus and benign essential blepharospasm. Since then, a number of additional indications have been introduced, which continue to expand, providing less invasive solutions in managing different ophthalmic conditions.

Recent Findings: Successful trials of BTX-A injection into the lacrimal gland have been reported for the treatment of epiphora caused by primary lacrimal gland hyperlacrimation, functional tearing, gustatory tearing, and lacrimal outflow obstruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000506DOI Listing
September 2018
52 Reads

Developments in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm.

Authors:
Michael T Yen

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):440-444

Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review new developments in the medical and surgical treatment options for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Recent Findings: Botulinum toxin injections remain the mainstay treatment for BEB with several formulations currently commercially available. Reports in the medical literature support photochromatic modulation for the symptoms of photophobia, as well as oral medications and surgical myectomy for control of the motor signs of eyelid protractor spasm. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00055735-900000000-9925
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000500DOI Listing
September 2018
39 Reads

Increase lipid tear thickness after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.

Sci Rep 2018 05 30;8(1):8367. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and aqueous tear production after botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) injection in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). Eleven and six patients with BEB and HFS, respectively, who received BoNT injection were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The blepharospasm disability index (BSDI), blink pattern, dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test 1 findings, LLT, eyelid performance, and corneal integrity were evaluated before and after treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26750-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976660PMC
May 2018
6 Reads

Diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm.

Neurochirurgie 2018 May 16;64(2):82-86. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Service de neurochirurgie, fondation ophtalmologique Adolphe-de-Rothschild, 75019 Paris, France.

The diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm (pHFS), due to a benign compression of the facial motor nerve by a vessel, within or close to its root exit zone, is often made with delay. Misdiagnosis includes psychogenic spasm, tics, facial myokymia or blepharospasm, but in fact post-facial palsy synkinesis (post-paralytic HFS) is the closest clinical condition, because it is limited to the territory of the facial nerve of a single hemiface. The differential diagnosis between these two entities, whose pathophysiological mechanisms are very different, can be made by electroneuromyographic (ENMG) examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuchi.2017.12.003DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

Chemodenervation for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2018 09 10;125(9):1459-1467. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: To review the medical literature on the outcomes and complications of various Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxins for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).

Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in February 2017 in PubMed for articles published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without language limitations; studies published before 2000 were excluded. The combined searches yielded 127 citations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01616420183068
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.03.013DOI Listing
September 2018
22 Reads

Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm.

Curr Eye Res 2018 07 19;43(7):896-901. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

a Department of Ophthalmology , Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine , Toon , Japan.

Objective: To determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on the eyelid pressure in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).

Methods: Twenty normal volunteers (10 men, 10 women; average age 59.7 ± 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2018.1464191DOI Listing
July 2018
7 Reads

Combined effects of rTMS and botulinum toxin therapy in benign essential blepharospasm.

Brain Stimul 2018 May - Jun;11(3):645-647. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Human Motor Control, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.02.004DOI Listing
February 2018
13 Reads

Surgical approach to limiting skin contracture following protractor myectomy for essential blepharospasm.

Digit J Ophthalmol 2017 5;23(4):8-12. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Purpose: To report our experience with protractor myectomy in patients with benign essential blepharospasm who did not respond to serial botulinum toxin injection, and to describe intra- and postoperative techniques that limited skin contracture while also providing excellent functional and cosmetic results.

Methods: The medical records of patients with isolated, benign, essential blepharospasm who underwent protractor myectomy from 2005 to 2008 by a single surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. The technique entailed operating on a single eyelid during each procedure, using a complete en bloc resection of all orbicularis tissue, leaving all eyelid skin intact at the time of surgery, and placing the lid under stretch with Frost suture and applying a pressure dressing for 5-7 days. Read More

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http://www.djo.harvard.edu/site.php?url=/physicians/oa/2898
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.5693/djo.01.2016.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791625PMC
March 2018
16 Reads

Long-term Efficacy of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Treatment for Essential Blepharospasm.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 02 24;32(1):1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: In the present study, we investigated the treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) administered for longer than 5 years to patients with essential blepharospasm.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients (male : female = 8 : 11) diagnosed with essential blepharospasm between March 2006 and July 2016 who underwent BoNT-A injections for over 5 years and were followed. Efficacy of 297 injections of Botox (n = 162), Meditoxin (n = 75), Hugel-tox (n = 40), or Dysport (n = 20) was based on the symptom improvement score at the final injection (-1, worse; 0, same; 1, better). Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.3341/kjo.2017.00
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2017.0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5801084PMC
February 2018
40 Reads

Medical Cannabis, a Beneficial High in Treatment of Blepharospasm? An Early Observation.

Neuroophthalmology 2017 Oct 18;41(5):253-258. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

The objective of this study was to observe the effect of medical cannabis in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) as an adjunct to botulinum toxin. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients certified for medical cannabis use for BEB from September 2015 to May 2016. Patient demographics and responses, cannabis history, and severity indices were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01658107.2017.1318150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764009PMC
October 2017
24 Reads

Physiological effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgery in cervical dystonia.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 12 11;89(12):1296-1300. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia.

Methods: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration. Read More

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http://jnnp.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jnnp-2017-317098
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2017-317098DOI Listing
December 2018
29 Reads

Surgical Myectomy for Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm.

Authors:
Michael T Yen

Int Ophthalmol Clin 2018 ;58(1):63-70

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IIO.0000000000000206DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Oral Pharmacotherapy for Benign Essential Blepharospasm.

Int Ophthalmol Clin 2018 ;58(1):33-47

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IIO.0000000000000208DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

The Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation.

Int Ophthalmol Clin 2018 ;58(1):25-31

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IIO.0000000000000211DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

A comparative crossover study on the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: preseptal and pretarsal botulinum toxin injection techniques.

Neurol Sci 2017 Nov 7;38(11):2031-2036. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Neurology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) are chronic and disabling abnormal craniofacial movements that produce involuntary eyelid twitching and closure. The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections have been accepted and widely used for the treatment of HFS and BEB. However, different injection sites may influence the effectiveness, doses, and side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-017-3107-2DOI Listing
November 2017
14 Reads

A Dynamic Circuit Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Blepharospasm.

Front Comput Neurosci 2017 7;11:11. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological StudiesSan Diego, CA, USA; Institute for Neural Computation, University of California, San DiegoSan Diego, CA, USA.

Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2017.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340098PMC
March 2017
12 Reads

Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy.

PLoS One 2016 16;11(12):e0168652. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Department of Neurology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Objective: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168652PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161386PMC
July 2017
38 Reads

Persistent hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression: a risk assessment model.

Br J Neurosurg 2017 Jun 1;31(3):327-335. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

b Pennsylvania Brain and Spine Institute , Butler , PA , USA.

Objective: Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) provides resolution of disabling symptoms such as eyelid twitching and muscle contractions of the entire hemiface. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of patient demographics and spasm characteristics on long-term outcomes, with or without intraoperative lateral spread response (LSR) as an additional variable in a risk assessment model.

Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the associations of pre-operative patient characteristics, as well as intraoperative LSR and need for a staged procedure on the presence of persistent or recurrent HFS at the time of hospital discharge and at follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2016.1257110DOI Listing
June 2017
4 Reads

Changes in ocular higher-order aberrations following botulinum toxin treatment in patients with blepharospasm : BTX improves dry eye in patients with BEB.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov 8;60(6):486-491. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.

Background/aims: To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) by monitoring the ocular surface and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) before and after treatment.

Methods: The present study reports a prospective case series of 38 patients (76 eyes, 11 men and 27 women; mean age 66.8 ± 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-016-0469-6DOI Listing
November 2016
33 Reads

Transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with benign essential blepharospasm: a case report.

Neurol Sci 2017 Jan 26;38(1):201-202. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Unité de recherche clinique, Pôle G03, EPS Ville Evrard, 202 avenue Jean Jaurès, 93330, Neuilly sur Marne, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-016-2703-xDOI Listing
January 2017
35 Reads

Alleviating Maneuvers for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 11;134(11):1253-1254

Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Wilmer Eye Institute, and Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.2983DOI Listing
November 2016
20 Reads

Use of Alleviating Maneuvers for Periocular Facial Dystonias.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;134(11):1247-1252

Adnexal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England.

Importance: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm are known to use botulinum toxin injections and alleviating maneuvers to help control their symptoms. The clinical correlates between the use of botulinum toxin injections and the use of alleviating maneuvers are not well established.

Objective: To determine whether the use of alleviating maneuvers for benign essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm correlates with disease severity or botulinum toxin treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.3277DOI Listing
November 2016
37 Reads

Photophobia in primary headaches, in essential blepharospasm and in major depression.

Int J Neurosci 2017 Aug 13;127(8):673-679. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

a Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital , University of Athens , Athens , Greece.

Objectives: Although photophobia is a well-known symptom in various disorders, it has rarely been studied explicitly and its definition in a clinical setting can be somewhat elusive. Here, we assessed photophobia with a common psychometric tool in different conditions, in which light intolerance is considered part of the syndrome.

Patients And Methods: A prospective study was undertaken in patients with migraine (MH), cluster headache (CH), tension-type headache (TH), essential blepharospasm (BS) and major depression (MD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2016.1231185DOI Listing
August 2017
7 Reads

Screening for Cognitive Impairments in Primary Blepharospasm.

PLoS One 2016 15;11(8):e0160867. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Backgrounds: Studies have reported that non-motor symptoms are an important component of primary dystonia. However, evidence supporting cognitive impairment in primary dystonia is limited and contradictory.

Methods: We applied the Chinese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to screen for cognitive impairment in patients with primary blepharospasm. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160867PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4985064PMC
July 2017
20 Reads