5,068 results match your criteria Blast Injuries


The mechanical behavior of brain surrogates manufactured from silicone elastomers.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2019 Apr 16;95:180-190. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 2529 Union Drive, Ames, IA, 50011, USA. Electronic address:

The ongoing conflict against terrorism has resulted in an escalation of blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (bTBI) caused by improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The destructive IEDs create a blast wave that travels through the atmosphere. Blast-induced traumatic brain injuries, attributed to the blast wave, can cause life-threatening injuries and fatalities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S17516161183167
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Infection prevalence and patterns in self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the face.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Head and Neck Institute, Portland, OR, USA.

Objective: Self-inflicted gunshot wounds (SIGSWs) to the craniomaxillofacial region are uncommon injuries but are associated with a high mortality rate. Therefore, treating these patients is a rare occurrence even in the largest trauma centers. As with many rare conditions, data specifically addressing this injury pattern are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2019.02.022DOI Listing
February 2019

Blast Exposure Induces Ocular Functional Changes with Increasing Blast Over-pressures in a Rat Model.

Curr Eye Res 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

d Former Director Ocular Trauma Division , US Army Institute of Surgical Research.

Purpose: Blast-related brain and ocular injuries can lead to acute and chronic visual dysfunction. The chronic visual consequences of blast exposure and its progression remain unclear. The goal of this study is to analyze ocular functional response to four levels of blast exposure and identify a threshold of blast exposure leading to acute and chronic visual dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1567791DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Impact of Blast Implosions and Bullet Injury on Maxillary Air Sinus.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Almaamun Dental Care Center, Baghdad, Iraq.

Background: Successive waves and generations of terrorists attacked the Iraqis in the years following the fall of the regime in Iraq in 2003, after the US invasion of the country under the pretext of weapons of mass destruction. Hence, the Iraqi people enrolled in ongoing war with these armed groups which led to massive casualties due to blasts and missile injuries.Mechanism of blasts injury can be classified into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005354DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Cortical thinning in military blast compared to non-blast persistent mild traumatic brain injuries.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Mar 26;22:101793. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE), Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 4860 South Palmer Road, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

In the military, explosive blasts are a significant cause of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs). The symptoms associated with blast mTBIs causes significant economic burdens and a diminished quality of life for many service members. At present, the distinction of the injury mechanism (blast versus non-blast) may not influence TBI diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446073PMC
March 2019
1 Read

A Retrospective Comparison of Five-Year Health Outcomes Following Upper Limb Amputation and Serious Upper Limb Injury in the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts.

PM R 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Medical Modeling, Simulation, and Mission Support, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA.

Background: Limited population-based research has described long-term health outcomes following combat-related upper limb amputation.

Objective: To compare health outcomes following upper limb amputation with outcomes following serious upper limb injury during the first 5 years postinjury.

Design: Retrospective cohort. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pmrj.12047
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmrj.12047DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Blast injures to the thorax.

J Thorac Dis 2019 Feb;11(Suppl 2):S167-S171

University of Pécs, Department of Operational Medicine, Medical Humanities Unit, Pécs, Hungary.

One out of 10 of military casualties and 6-9 out of 10 civilian victims of terror incidents suffer pulmonary blast injuries when the attackers use explosives as weapon. No specific therapy exists for the primary, shock-wave injury to the lung. The treatment protocols are based on mechanical ventilation, intensive therapy and supportive care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.11.106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389562PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Pulmonary contusion.

J Thorac Dis 2019 Feb;11(Suppl 2):S141-S151

Department of Operational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Medical School University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Lung contusion resulting from chest trauma may be present various clinical pictures. It quite often remains unrecognized and is only suspected later when severe complications have developed. Lung contusion may present in association with chest trauma but may also occur alone. Read More

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http://jtd.amegroups.com/article/view/25393/19961
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.11.53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389561PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Syria civil war pediatric casualties treated at a single medical center.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel; Azrieli Faculty of Medicine-Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel. Electronic address:

Purpose: We describe the medical and surgical treatment outcomes of Syrian civil war pediatric casualties admitted to our tertiary medical center in northern Israel and compare them to reports of pediatric war victims in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Methods: 117 pediatric casualties up to age 18 (median age: 12 years, 91 males) were admitted from 2013 to 2016. We measured demographics, injury mechanism, wound type, injury severity, surgical interventions, morbidity, and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.02.022DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

On the Development of Interspecies Traumatic Brain Injury Correspondence Rules.

Mil Med 2019 03;184(Suppl 1):181-194

Multifunctional Materials Branch, Materials Science and Technology Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW., Washington, DC.

Traumatic brain injury analysis in human is exceedingly difficult due to the methods in which data can be collected, thus many researchers commonly implement animal surrogates. However, use of these surrogates is costly and restricted by ethical concerns and test logistics. Computational models and simulations do not have these constraints and can produce significant amounts of data in relatively short periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy360DOI Listing

Early Complement and Fibrinolytic Activation in a Rat Model of Blast-Induced Multi-Organ Damage.

Mil Med 2019 03;184(Suppl 1):282-290

U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass Road, Joint Base San Antonio, Fort Sam Houston, TX.

Objective: Blast injury is associated with multi-organ failure (MOF), causing significant morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. However, the pathogenesis of blast-induced MOF still remains obscure. In this study, we evaluate the pathophysiological changes related to blast-induced MOF in a clinically relevant rat model of blast injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy412DOI Listing

A Military Case Review Method to Determine and Record the Mechanism of Injury (BioTab) from In-Theater Attacks.

Mil Med 2019 03;184(Suppl 1):374-378

U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate, 328 Hopkins Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

A recent study of all mounted vehicle underbody blast attacks found that 21% of Abbreviated Injury Scale Severity 2+ injuries in the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat network were injuries to the leg and ankle. To develop effective countermeasure systems for these attacks, the epidemiology and mechanisms of injury from this loading environment need to be quantified. The goal of this study was to develop a military correlate of an existing civilian case review framework, the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), to consider the differences in military event types and the amount of available vehicle/attack information. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/184/Supplement_1/374
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy396DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Prominent Injury Types in Vehicle Underbody Blast.

Mil Med 2019 03;184(Suppl 1):261-264

Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Armor Mechanisms Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, APG, MD.

Background: To fully understand the injury mechanisms during an underbody blast (UBB) event with military vehicles and develop new testing standards specific to military vehicles, one must understand the injuries sustained by the occupants.

Methods: Injury data from Service Members (SM) involved in UBB theater events that occurred from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. Analysis included the investigation of prominent skeletal and visceral torso injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy322DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The dermatologist's role in amputee skin care.

Cutis 2018 Feb;102(2):86-90

Department of Dermatology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Amputees face many challenges associated with residual limbs. Overall, amputees have an increased risk for skin disease occurring at residual limb sites. Although prosthetists and primary care physicians often accomplish routine care, the dermatologist plays a very important role within the multidisciplinary team. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Trauma electives in South Africa provide valuable training for international surgeons.

S Afr Med J 2019 Feb 26;109(3):182-185. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Surgery, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Trauma electives in South Africa (SA) are common and many foreign-based surgeons have undertaken such electives over the past 3 decades. Despite this, little academic attention has been paid to these electives, which remain largely informal and unstructured. This project aims to redress this deficit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i3.13551DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Anatomy of Mine Rescue Teams' Casualty Incidents: A Basis for Medical Emergency Preparedness and Injury Prevention.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2019 Mar 5:1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

4The Beijing Prevention and Treatment Hospital of Occupational Disease for Chemical Industry,Beijing,China.

Objective: Mine rescue teams bear a high risk of injury. To improve medical emergency preparedness and injury prevention, this work analyzed the causes and severity of mine rescue teams' casualty incidents, the primary injuries, and the link between the causes and the occurrences of the casualty incidents.

Methods: A total of 81 cases from 1953 to 2013 were used to analyze the casualty incidents of mine rescue teams based on the frequency of accidents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2018.140DOI Listing

Intrawound Antibiotic Powder Decreases Frequency of Deep Infection and Severity of Heterotopic Ossification in Combat Lower Extremity Amputations.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Apr;477(4):802-810

Uniformed Services University - Walter Reed Department of Surgery, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Amputations sustained owing to combat-related blast injuries are at high risk for deep infection and development of heterotopic ossification, which can necessitate reoperation and place immense strain on the patient. Surgeons at our institution began use of intrawound antibiotic powder at the time of closure in an effort to decrease the rate of these surgical complications after initial and revision amputations, supported by compelling clinical evidence and animal models of blast injuries. Antibiotic powder may be useful in reducing the risk of these infections, but human studies on this topic thus far have been inconclusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999.0000000000000090DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Union Rates and Reported Range of Motion Are Acceptable After Open Forearm Fractures in Military Combatants.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Apr;477(4):813-820

K. E. Nappo, B. W. Hoyt, G. C. Balazs, G. P. Nanos, D. F. Ipsen, S. M. Tintle, E. M. Polfer, Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA; and the Department of Orthopaedics, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: High-energy open forearm fractures are unique injuries frequently complicated by neurovascular and soft tissue injuries. Few studies have evaluated the factors associated with nonunion and loss of motion after these injuries, particularly in the setting of blast injuries.

Questions/purposes: (1) In military service members with high-energy open forearm fractures, what proportion achieved primary or secondary union? (2) What is the pronation-supination arc of motion as stratified by the presence or absence of heterotopic ossification (HO) and synostosis? (3) What are the risks of heterotopic ossification and synostosis? (4) What factors may be associated with forearm fracture nonunion?

Methods: A retrospective study of all open forearm fractures treated at a tertiary military referral center from January 2004 to December 2014 was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000645DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Lung injury risk assessment during blast exposure.

J Biomech 2019 Mar 20;86:210-217. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis, France. Electronic address:

Blast pulmonary trauma are common consequences of modern war and terrorism action. To better protect soldiers from that threat, the injury risk level when protected and unprotected must be assessed. Knowing from the literature that a possible amplification of the blast threat would be provided by some thoracic protective systems, the objective is to propose an original approach to correlate a measurable parameter on a manikin with a pulmonary risk level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.02.011DOI Listing

Medical Missions in Jordan: A Series of Upper-Extremity Orthopedic Injuries.

J Long Term Eff Med Implants 2018 ;28(3):239-245

St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, New Jersey.

Worldwide, a great deal of disability is caused by musculoskeletal injuries from high-energy trauma. In nations affected by war, blast injuries associated with mines, missiles, high-powered gunshots, and bombings are one cause of these injuries. Medical missions carried out by those from developed nations is one way to address this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.2018029099DOI Listing
January 2018

System Setup to Deliver Air Impact Forces to a Sheep Limb: Preparation for Model Development of Blast-Related Heterotopic Ossification.

JMIR Res Protoc 2019 Feb 22;8(2):e12107. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

Background: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a significant complication for wounded warriors with traumatic limb loss. Although this pathologic condition negatively impacts the general population, ectopic bone has been observed with higher frequency for service members injured in Iraq and Afghanistan due to blast injuries. Several factors, including a traumatic insult, bioburden, tourniquet and wound vacuum usage, and bone fractures or fragments have been associated with increased HO for service members. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406231PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Management and outcome of 597 wartime penetrating lower extremity arterial injuries from an international military cohort.

J Vasc Surg 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Surgery at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Md. Electronic address:

Objective: Vascular injury is a leading cause of death and disability in military and civilian settings. Most wartime and an increasing amount of civilian vascular trauma arises from penetrating mechanisms of injury due to gunshot or explosion. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive examination of penetrating lower extremity arterial injury and to characterize long-term limb salvage and differences related to mechanisms of injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.11.024DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
3.021 Impact Factor

Assessment of Brain Venous Structure in Military TBI Patients using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

1 National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

Brain venous volume above the lateral ventricle in military patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was assessed using two segmentation approaches on susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM). This retrospective study included a total of 147 subjects: 14 patients with severe TBI; 38 patients with moderate TBI, 58 patients with mild TBI (28 with blast-related injuries and 30 with non-blast-related injuries), and 37 control subjects without history of TBI. Using the multiscale vessel enhancement filter on SWI images, patients with severe TBI demonstrated significantly higher segmented venous volumes compared with controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.5970DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

A clinical and pathophysiological approach to traumatic brain injury-induced pituitary dysfunction.

Pituitary 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Kosuyolu Hospital, 34718, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the data underlying the pathophysiology of TBI-induced hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction.

Methods: Recent literature about the pathophysiology of TBI-induced hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction reviewed.

Results: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide epidemic that frequently leads to death; TBI survivors tend to sustain cognitive, behavioral, psychological, social, and physical disabilities in the long term. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11102-019-00941-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11102-019-00941-3DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
2.222 Impact Factor

Emergency Treatment of Blast, Shell Fragment and Bullet Injuries to the Central Midface Complex.

Authors:
Sabri T Shuker

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2019 Mar 29;18(1):124-130. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

1Formerly Head of Department of Maxillofacial Surgeon, Baghdad Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.

Purpose: Current ballistics and high-energy explosion possess unnoticed, new and significant biophysics and pathophysiology wounding effects that are unique in comparison with civilian trauma. The primary blast wave effects of compressed air due to explosion lead to tattered and crushed eggshell injuries to the upper central midface (UCM). High-energy shell fragments of various shapes and sizes cause extensive destruction and are different from assault rifle's bullets that cause high energy transfer to the  creating a temporary cavitation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12663-018-1107-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-018-1107-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328821PMC
March 2019
14 Reads

Texas Cardiologist Recalls Boston Marathon Bombing.

Authors:
David Doolittle

Tex Med 2018 Apr 1;114(4):28-29. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

When two pressure-cooker bombs filled with nails, ball bearings, and black powder exploded at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon, killing three people and wounding hundreds more, Jorge Alvarez, MD, did what he believes anybody would do: Run toward the danger. Read More

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Feasibility and safety of enzymatic debridement for the prevention of operative escharotomy in circumferential deep burns of the distal upper extremity.

Surgery 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Department for Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Microsurgery, Burn Center, University of Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Burn-induced compartment syndrome is a severe sequela after circumferential burns of the extremities and is avoidable by immediate release of the underlying pressure under the eschar. Although the current gold standard is operative escharotomy, this procedure carries considerable morbidity. Our study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of immediate enzymatic debridement to prevent the need for operative escharotomy because of burn-induced compartment syndrome in selected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.11.019DOI Listing
January 2019
20 Reads

Multi-Scale Modeling of Head Kinematics and Brain Tissue Response to Blast Exposure.

Ann Biomed Eng 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of MME, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Injuries resulting from blast exposure have been increasingly prevalent in recent conflicts, with a particular focus on the risk of head injury. In the current study, a multibody model (GEBOD) was used to investigate the gross kinematics resulting from blast exposure, including longer duration events such as the fall and ground impact. Additionally, detailed planar head models, in the sagittal and transverse planes, were used to model the primary blast wave interaction with the head, and resulting tissue response. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10439-018-02193-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-018-02193-xDOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Multi-Focal Neuronal Ultrastructural Abnormalities and Synaptic Alterations in Mice after Low-Intensity Blast Exposure.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

1 Department of Pathology & Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri.

Service members during military actions or combat training are exposed frequently to primary blast generated by explosive weaponry. The majority of military-related neurotrauma are classified as mild and designated as "invisible injuries" that are prevalent during current conflicts. While the previous experimental blast injury studies using moderate- to high-intensity exposures focused mainly on gross and microscopic neuropathology, our previous studies have shown that low-intensity blast (LIB) exposures resulted in nanoscale subcellular myelin and mitochondrial damages and subsequent behavioral disorders in the absence of gross or detectable cellular damage. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2018.6260
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6260DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
3.714 Impact Factor

Fatal delayed hemopericardium and hemothorax following blunt chest trauma.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, CZ-708 52, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Cardiac injury following blunt chest trauma is common in motor vehicle accidents due to a crush or blast injury. Severe cardiac trauma is associated with a very high mortality. If a cardiac injury develops several weeks after non-penetrating chest trauma, establishing a causal link between the traumatic event and the cardiac injury becomes complicated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-018-0069-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Association Between 5-Year Clinical Outcome in Patients With Nonmedically Evacuated Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury and Clinical Measures Collected Within 7 Days Postinjury in Combat.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Jan 4;2(1):e186676. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Although previous work has examined clinical outcomes in combat-deployed veterans, questions remain regarding how symptoms evolve or resolve following mild blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in theater and their association with long-term outcomes.

Objective: To characterize 5-year outcome in patients with nonmedically evacuated blast concussion compared with combat-deployed controls and understand what clinical measures collected acutely in theater are associated with 5-year outcome.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study including 45 service members with mild blast TBI within 7 days of injury (mean 4 days) and 45 combat deployed nonconcussed controls was carried out. Read More

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http://jamanetworkopen.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324322PMC
January 2019
10 Reads

Positron emission tomography of tau in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with blast neurotrauma.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 3;21:101651. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS), VA Boston Healthcare System, United States; Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Core, VA Boston Healthcare System, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, United States.

Military personnel are often exposed to multiple instances of various types of head trauma. As a result, there has been increasing concern recently over identifying when head trauma has resulted in a brain injury and what, if any, long-term consequences those brain injuries may have. Efforts to develop equipment to protect soldiers from these long-term consequences will first require understanding the types of head trauma that are likely responsible. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22131582193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412062PMC
January 2019
18 Reads

Predictors and Timing of Amputations in Military Lower Extremity Trauma With Arterial Injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Vascular Surgery Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center.

Introduction: Military lower extremity arterial injuries present threats to life and limb. These injuries are common and limb salvage is a trauma system priority. Understanding the timing and predictors of amputation through the phases of casualty evacuation can help inform future limb salvage efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002185DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Dual-laser measurement and finite element modeling of human tympanic membrane motion under blast exposure.

Hear Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Hearing damage is one of most prevalent injuries in military personnel and civilians exposed to a blast. However, the mechanism of how the blast overpressure interacts with the tympanic membrane (TM) and impairs the peripheral auditory system still remains unclear. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear has been developed to predict the blast overpressure transmission through the ear (Leckness et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment.

Stapp Car Crash J 2018 Nov;62:489-513

Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD).

During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. Read More

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November 2018
14 Reads

Injury Risk Curves for the Human Cervical Spine from Inferior-to-Superior Loading.

Stapp Car Crash J 2018 Nov;62:271-292

Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD.

Cervical spine injuries can occur in military scenarios from events such as underbody blast events. Such scenarios impart inferior-to-superior loads to the spine. The objective of this study is to develop human injury risk curves (IRCs) under this loading mode using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS). Read More

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November 2018

Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury and Assessment of Injury Severity.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Laboratory of Neurovascular Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Injury Bio Mechanics, Materials and Medicine, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes a major cause of death, disability, and mental health disorders. Most TBI patients suffer long-term post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive dysfunction, and disability. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of such neuropathology progression in TBI remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1454-5DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

[The features and treatment of Xixia "May 17th" explosion accident].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018 Dec;30(12):1196-1199

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, the Affiliated Nanshi Hospital of Henan University, Nanyang 473065, Henan, China. Corresponding author: Wang Shuo, Email:

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the injury characteristics of victims and treatment strategies in the explosion accident on the 17th May 2018 in Xixia county (Xixia "May 17th" explosion accident).

Methods: Completion the Level Three treatment on time, which was depended on the leading role played by the regional trauma centers was the main rescuing mode of the work in Xixia county, where the primary and secondary treatments were the key parts. The three-level treatment model includes: the local hospital acts as a level-one emergency medical institution, county hospitals function as secondary emergency medical institutions, and other higher medical institutions are the tertiary first aid medical institutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.012.018DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Environment at the time of injury determines injury patterns in pelvic blast.

J R Army Med Corps 2019 Feb 22;165(1):15-17. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The use of explosives by terrorists, or during armed conflict, remains a major global threat. Increasingly, these events occur in the civilian domain, and can potentially lead to injury and loss of life, on a very large scale. The environment at the time of detonation is known to result in different injury patterns in casualties exposed to blast, which is highly relevant to injury mitigation analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2018-000977DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

Funding falling for mine victim assistance.

Authors:
John Zarocostas

Lancet 2018 12;392(10164):2537-2538

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33168-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Autonomic responses to blast overpressure can be elicited by exclusively exposing the ear in rats.

J Otol 2018 Jun 9;13(2):44-53. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Blast overpressure has become an increasing cause of brain injuries in both military and civilian populations. Though blast's direct effects on the cochlea and vestibular organs are active areas of study, little attention has been given to the ear's contribution to the overall spectrum of blast injury. Acute autonomic responses to blast exposure, including bradycardia and hypotension, can cause hypoxia and contribute to blast-induced neurotrauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joto.2018.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291641PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: the experience from a level I trauma center in southern Thailand.

Neurosurg Focus 2018 Dec;45(6):E7

OBJECTIVEIn the ongoing conflict in southern Thailand, the improvised explosive device (IED) has been a common cause of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The authors investigated the particular characteristics of bTBI and the factors associated with its clinical outcome.METHODSA retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients who had sustained bTBI between 2009 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.8.FOCUS18311DOI Listing
December 2018

En Route Resuscitation - Utilization of CCATT to Transport and Stabilize Critically Injured and Unstable Casualties.

Mil Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Introduction: The U.S. Air Force utilizes specialized Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) for transporting "stabilized" patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy371DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Comprehensive Characterization of Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Using Photoacoustic Microscopy.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading contributor to combat-related injuries and death. Although substantial emphasis has been placed on blast-induced neuronal and axonal injuries, co-existing dysfunctions in the cerebral vasculature, particularly the microvasculature, remain poorly understood. Here, we studied blast-induced cerebrovascular dysfunctions in a rat model of bTBI (blast overpressure: 187. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2018.6062
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6062DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads
3.714 Impact Factor

Distribution characteristics of combat-related shrapnel and relationship to weapon type and conflict location: Experience of an operational field hospital.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2018 Nov;24(6):587-593

Department of Radiology, Dr. Aşkım Tüfekçi State Hospital, Adana-Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of shrapnel distribution in the body and a possible relationship to the type of weapon and type of location of the conflict.

Methods: The records of 246 patients admitted to a level-III trauma center with any kind of firearm injury were examined retrospectively. Ninety patients who had at least 1 radiologically-proven piece of shrapnel in their body were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5505/tjtes.2018.13402DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Amputation-Site Soft-Tissue Restoration Using Adipose Stem Cell Therapy.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 11;142(5):1349-1352

Pittsburgh, Pa.; Bethesda, Md.; and New York, N.Y. From the Departments of Plastic Surgery, Psychiatry, Radiology, Rehabilitation Science and Technology, and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh; the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System; the University of Pittsburgh McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine; the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center; and New York University Langone Medical Center.

Soft-tissue deficits in amputation stumps can lead to significant pain and disability. An emerging treatment option is stem cell-enriched fat grafting. This is the first study assessing the potential for this treatment modality in lower extremity amputation sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000004889DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Gunshot and blast injuries of the extremities: a review of 45 cases.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2019 Feb 29;29(2):295-305. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Upper Limb and Hand Surgery and Microsurgery, KAT Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Gunshot wounds and blast injuries constitute a major public health problem, as the increasing availability of firearms and explosives in conjunction with increasing violence in the city setting have brought this reality into civilian life. Extremities are most commonly involved; therefore, orthopedic surgeons should be trained to manage these types of injuries. Complete and accurate assessment of the injury itself is of great importance, as it will determine the severity and the risk of patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00590-018-2350-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-018-2350-4DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads