5,022 results match your criteria Blast Injuries


Assessment of Brain Venous Structure in Military TBI Patients Using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8395, National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Bethesda, Maryland, United States ;

Brain venous volume above the lateral ventricle in military patients with TBI was assessed using two segmentation approaches on susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM). This retrospective study included a total of 147 subjects: 14 patients with severe TBI; 38 patients with moderate TBI; 58 patients with mild TBI (28 with blast related injuries and 30 with nonblast related injuries) and 37 control subjects without history of TBI. Using the multiscale vessel enhancement filter on SWI images, patients with severe TBI demonstrated significantly higher segmented venous volumes compared to the controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.5970DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A clinical and pathophysiological approach to traumatic brain injury-induced pituitary dysfunction.

Pituitary 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Kosuyolu Hospital, 34718, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the data underlying the pathophysiology of TBI-induced hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction.

Methods: Recent literature about the pathophysiology of TBI-induced hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction reviewed.

Results: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide epidemic that frequently leads to death; TBI survivors tend to sustain cognitive, behavioral, psychological, social, and physical disabilities in the long term. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11102-019-00941-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11102-019-00941-3DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Emergency Treatment of Blast, Shell Fragment and Bullet Injuries to the Central Midface Complex.

Authors:
Sabri T Shuker

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2019 Mar 29;18(1):124-130. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

1Formerly Head of Department of Maxillofacial Surgeon, Baghdad Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.

Purpose: Current ballistics and high-energy explosion possess unnoticed, new and significant biophysics and pathophysiology wounding effects that are unique in comparison with civilian trauma. The primary blast wave effects of compressed air due to explosion lead to tattered and crushed eggshell injuries to the upper central midface (UCM). High-energy shell fragments of various shapes and sizes cause extensive destruction and are different from assault rifle's bullets that cause high energy transfer to the  creating a temporary cavitation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12663-018-1107-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-018-1107-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328821PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Feasibility and safety of enzymatic debridement for the prevention of operative escharotomy in circumferential deep burns of the distal upper extremity.

Surgery 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Department for Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Microsurgery, Burn Center, University of Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Burn-induced compartment syndrome is a severe sequela after circumferential burns of the extremities and is avoidable by immediate release of the underlying pressure under the eschar. Although the current gold standard is operative escharotomy, this procedure carries considerable morbidity. Our study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of immediate enzymatic debridement to prevent the need for operative escharotomy because of burn-induced compartment syndrome in selected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.11.019DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Multi-Scale Modeling of Head Kinematics and Brain Tissue Response to Blast Exposure.

Ann Biomed Eng 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of MME, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Injuries resulting from blast exposure have been increasingly prevalent in recent conflicts, with a particular focus on the risk of head injury. In the current study, a multibody model (GEBOD) was used to investigate the gross kinematics resulting from blast exposure, including longer duration events such as the fall and ground impact. Additionally, detailed planar head models, in the sagittal and transverse planes, were used to model the primary blast wave interaction with the head, and resulting tissue response. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10439-018-02193-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-018-02193-xDOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Multifocal Neuronal Ultrastructural Abnormalities and Synaptic Alterations in Mice after Low-Intensity Blast Exposure.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

University of Missouri Columbia, 14716, Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, Columbia, Missouri, United States ;

Service members during military actions or combat training frequently are exposed to primary blast generated by explosive weaponry. The majority of military-related neurotrauma are classified as mild and designated as "invisible injuries" that is prevalent during current conflicts. While the previous experimental blast injury studies using moderate- to high-intensity exposures focused mainly on gross and microscopic neuropathology, our prior studies have shown that low-intensity blast (LIB) exposures resulted in nanoscale subcellular myelin and mitochondrial damages and subsequent behavioral disorders in the absence of gross or detectable cellular damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6260DOI Listing
January 2019

Fatal delayed hemopericardium and hemothorax following blunt chest trauma.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, CZ-708 52, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Cardiac injury following blunt chest trauma is common in motor vehicle accidents due to a crush or blast injury. Severe cardiac trauma is associated with a very high mortality. If a cardiac injury develops several weeks after non-penetrating chest trauma, establishing a causal link between the traumatic event and the cardiac injury becomes complicated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-018-0069-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Association Between 5-Year Clinical Outcome in Patients With Nonmedically Evacuated Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury and Clinical Measures Collected Within 7 Days Postinjury in Combat.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Jan 4;2(1):e186676. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Although previous work has examined clinical outcomes in combat-deployed veterans, questions remain regarding how symptoms evolve or resolve following mild blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in theater and their association with long-term outcomes.

Objective: To characterize 5-year outcome in patients with nonmedically evacuated blast concussion compared with combat-deployed controls and understand what clinical measures collected acutely in theater are associated with 5-year outcome.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study including 45 service members with mild blast TBI within 7 days of injury (mean 4 days) and 45 combat deployed nonconcussed controls was carried out. Read More

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http://jamanetworkopen.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324322PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Positron emission tomography of tau in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with blast neurotrauma.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Jan 3:101651. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS), VA Boston Healthcare System, United States; Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Core, VA Boston Healthcare System, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, United States.

Military personnel are often exposed to multiple instances of various types of head trauma. As a result, there has been increasing concern recently over identifying when head trauma has resulted in a brain injury and what, if any, long-term consequences those brain injuries may have. Efforts to develop equipment to protect soldiers from these long-term consequences will first require understanding the types of head trauma that are likely responsible. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22131582193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101651DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Predictors and Timing of Amputations in Military Lower Extremity Trauma With Arterial Injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Vascular Surgery Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center.

Introduction: Military lower extremity arterial injuries present threats to life and limb. These injuries are common and limb salvage is a trauma system priority. Understanding the timing and predictors of amputation through the phases of casualty evacuation can help inform future limb salvage efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002185DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Dual-laser measurement and finite element modeling of human tympanic membrane motion under blast exposure.

Hear Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Hearing damage is one of most prevalent injuries in military personnel and civilians exposed to a blast. However, the mechanism of how the blast overpressure interacts with the tympanic membrane (TM) and impairs the peripheral auditory system still remains unclear. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear has been developed to predict the blast overpressure transmission through the ear (Leckness et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment.

Stapp Car Crash J 2018 Nov;62:489-513

Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD).

During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Injury Risk Curves for the Human Cervical Spine from Inferior-to-Superior Loading.

Stapp Car Crash J 2018 Nov;62:271-292

Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD.

Cervical spine injuries can occur in military scenarios from events such as underbody blast events. Such scenarios impart inferior-to-superior loads to the spine. The objective of this study is to develop human injury risk curves (IRCs) under this loading mode using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS). Read More

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November 2018

Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury and Assessment of Injury Severity.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Laboratory of Neurovascular Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Injury Bio Mechanics, Materials and Medicine, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes a major cause of death, disability, and mental health disorders. Most TBI patients suffer long-term post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive dysfunction, and disability. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of such neuropathology progression in TBI remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1454-5DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Environment at the time of injury determines injury patterns in pelvic blast.

J R Army Med Corps 2019 Feb 22;165(1):15-17. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The use of explosives by terrorists, or during armed conflict, remains a major global threat. Increasingly, these events occur in the civilian domain, and can potentially lead to injury and loss of life, on a very large scale. The environment at the time of detonation is known to result in different injury patterns in casualties exposed to blast, which is highly relevant to injury mitigation analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2018-000977DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Autonomic responses to blast overpressure can be elicited by exclusively exposing the ear in rats.

J Otol 2018 Jun 9;13(2):44-53. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Blast overpressure has become an increasing cause of brain injuries in both military and civilian populations. Though blast's direct effects on the cochlea and vestibular organs are active areas of study, little attention has been given to the ear's contribution to the overall spectrum of blast injury. Acute autonomic responses to blast exposure, including bradycardia and hypotension, can cause hypoxia and contribute to blast-induced neurotrauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joto.2018.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291641PMC

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: the experience from a level I trauma center in southern Thailand.

Neurosurg Focus 2018 Dec;45(6):E7

OBJECTIVEIn the ongoing conflict in southern Thailand, the improvised explosive device (IED) has been a common cause of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The authors investigated the particular characteristics of bTBI and the factors associated with its clinical outcome.METHODSA retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients who had sustained bTBI between 2009 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.8.FOCUS18311DOI Listing
December 2018

En Route Resuscitation - Utilization of CCATT to Transport and Stabilize Critically Injured and Unstable Casualties.

Mil Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Introduction: The U.S. Air Force utilizes specialized Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) for transporting "stabilized" patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy371DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Comprehensive Characterization of Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Using Photoacoustic Microscopy.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading contributor to combat-related injuries and death. Although substantial emphasis has been placed on blast-induced neuronal and axonal injuries, co-existing dysfunctions in the cerebral vasculature, particularly the microvasculature, remain poorly understood. Here, we studied blast-induced cerebrovascular dysfunctions in a rat model of bTBI (blast overpressure: 187. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2018.6062
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6062DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads
3.714 Impact Factor

Distribution characteristics of combat-related shrapnel and relationship to weapon type and conflict location: Experience of an operational field hospital.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2018 Nov;24(6):587-593

Department of Radiology, Dr. Aşkım Tüfekçi State Hospital, Adana-Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of shrapnel distribution in the body and a possible relationship to the type of weapon and type of location of the conflict.

Methods: The records of 246 patients admitted to a level-III trauma center with any kind of firearm injury were examined retrospectively. Ninety patients who had at least 1 radiologically-proven piece of shrapnel in their body were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5505/tjtes.2018.13402DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Gunshot and blast injuries of the extremities: a review of 45 cases.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2019 Feb 29;29(2):295-305. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Upper Limb and Hand Surgery and Microsurgery, KAT Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Gunshot wounds and blast injuries constitute a major public health problem, as the increasing availability of firearms and explosives in conjunction with increasing violence in the city setting have brought this reality into civilian life. Extremities are most commonly involved; therefore, orthopedic surgeons should be trained to manage these types of injuries. Complete and accurate assessment of the injury itself is of great importance, as it will determine the severity and the risk of patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00590-018-2350-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-018-2350-4DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Terrorist explosive belt attacks: specific patterns of bone traumas.

Int J Legal Med 2019 Mar 29;133(2):565-569. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institut Médico Légal, 2 place Mazas, 75012, Paris, France.

In cases of terrorist bomb attacks, the issue of victim identification is the principal aim. For investigators and justice, terrorists must also be identified in a timely manner. The fragmentation of bodies caused by explosive devices however makes this operation difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1977-3DOI Listing

Apoptotic mechanisms in rabbits with blast-induced acute lung injury 1.

Acta Cir Bras 2018 Oct;33(10):896-903

Master degree candidate, Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Center, 128th Hangzhou Hospital, Military Hangzhou Clinical College, Anhui Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Sample extraction, analysis of data.

Purpose: To investigate the apoptotic mechanisms in rabbits with blast-induced acute lung injury (ALI).

Methods: A total of 40 rabbits were randomly divided into a blank control group (A, n=10) and an experimental group (EXP, n=30). Explosion-induced chest-ALI models were prepared and sampled at different time points (4, 12, and 24h after modeling, T1-T3) to test the lung dry weight/wet weight ratio (W/D) and arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), apoptosis of lung tissue by the TUNEL assay, and Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 levels by immunohistochemical analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020180100000004DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Proteomic Analysis and Biochemical Correlates of Mitochondrial Dysfunction after Low-Intensity Primary Blast Exposure.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

1 Department of Pathology & Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri.

Service members during military actions or combat training are frequently exposed to primary blasts by weaponry. Most studies have investigated moderate or severe brain injuries from blasts generating overpressures >100 kPa, whereas understanding the pathophysiology of low-intensity blast (LIB)-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) leading to neurological deficits remains elusive. Our recent studies, using an open-field LIB-induced mTBI mouse model with a peak overpressure at 46. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6114DOI Listing
January 2019
3.714 Impact Factor

MISSILE AND BLAST INJURIES IN NIGERIA - THE SOUTHEAST EXPERIENCE.

J West Afr Coll Surg 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):18-33

Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Background: Missile injuries occupy a large segment of injuries treated in Southeast Nigeria, accounting for a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality. However, blast injuries are uncommon in this region. This study became necessary as a result of the rising spate of violence in various parts of Nigeria, particularly in the Northeast and in the Niger Delta regions, as well as the ever-present fear of kidnappers, armed robbers and occasionally, trigger-happy security agents. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237320PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Towards Identification of Correspondence Rules to Relate Traumatic Brain Injury in Different Species.

Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC, 20375, USA.

Traumatic brain injury analysis in humans is exceedingly difficult due to the intrusive methods by which data can be collected; thus, many researchers commonly implement animal surrogates. However, ethical concerns and cost limit the scope of these tests on animal subjects too. Computational models, which provide an alternative method to data collection, are not constrained by these concerns and are able to generate significant amounts of data in relatively short time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-018-02157-1DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Repeated blast model of mild traumatic brain injury alters oxycodone self-administration and drug seeking.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Each year, traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions worldwide. Mild TBIs (mTBI) are the most prevalent and can lead to a range of neurobehavioral problems, including substance abuse. A single blast exposure, inducing mTBI alters the medial prefrontal cortex, an area implicated in addiction, for at least 30 days post injury in rats. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14281
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14281DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

An Injury Risk Function for the Leg, Foot, and Ankle Exposed to Axial Impact Loading Using Force and Impulse.

J Biomech Eng 2019 Feb;141(2)

Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, , Charlottesville, VA 22911 e-mail: .

Most injury risk functions (IRFs) for dynamic axial loading of the leg have been targeted toward automotive applications such as predicting injury caused by intrusion into the occupant compartment from frontal collisions. Recent focus on leg injuries in the military has led to questions about the applicability of these IRFs shorter duration, higher amplitude loading associated with underbody blast (UBB). To investigate these questions, data were collected from seven separate test series that subjected post-mortem human legs to axial impact. Read More

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http://biomechanical.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4042012DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

E-cigarette burn injuries: Comprehensive review and management guidelines proposal.

Burns 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Plastic Surgery, St. John Hospital, Livingston EH54 6PP, Scotland, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (EC) have been reported to be associated with burns secondary to explosions of the device or battery, or contact from overheating, resulting in flame, contact or chemical burns. In addition to this, there have also been reported cases of soft tissue and bony trauma with or without associated burns. Using collective evidence, this review aims to summarise all reported burns associated with ECs, and its implications on immediate management with a particular focus on surgical treatment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03054179183027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2018.09.015DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Caffeine attenuates brain injury but increases mortality induced by high-intensity blast wave exposure.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 10;301:90-97. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Molecular Biology Center, Research Institute of Surgery and Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400042, China; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Caffeine is a substance that is consumed worldwide, and it may exert neuroprotective effects against various cerebral insults, including neurotrauma, which is the most prevalent injury among military personnel. To investigate the effects of caffeine on high-intensity blast wave-induced severe blast injury in mice, three different paradigms of caffeine were applied to male C57BL/6 mice with severe whole body blast injury (WBBI). The results demonstrated that chronic caffeine treatment alleviated blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI); however, both chronic and acute caffeine treatments exacerbated blast-induced lung injuries and, more importantly, increased both the cumulative and time-segmented mortalities postinjury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.004DOI Listing
February 2019
20 Reads

Neuropsychology and clinical health psychology in the UK Ministry of Defence.

J R Army Med Corps 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Defence Clinical Psychology Service, Ministry of Defence, UK & School of Psychology, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Neuropsychological testing has been used in a wide range of applications across military settings, including the selection of personnel to engage in covert operations, battlefield assessment and rehabilitation following blast exposure, traumatic brain injury, other neurological conditions and assessments of malingering. Over recent decades, military psychologists have helped to shape the advances in assessing and remediating the psychological sequela that is associated with operationally related neurological and other physical injuries. This paper will present an overview of some of the neuropsychological and related services within the UK Armed Forces, which are provided to service personnel with traumatic brain and other physical injuries. Read More

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http://jramc.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jramc-2018-001049
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2018-001049DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

A Six-month Retrospective Study of Resources Burden by Trauma Victims in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital in Pakistan.

Cureus 2018 Aug 30;10(8):e3236. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Trauma is the fourth leading cause of death globally and constitutes a huge burden on limited critical care resources. Aim ​​​​This study aimed to identify the trauma patient burden in terms of resources used in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan which also included characteristics and outcomes of trauma and non-trauma patients. ​​​Methods ​​​We retrospectively reviewed all patient data for adult patients (>16 years old) admitted to the SICU from July through December 2014. Read More

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https://www.cureus.com/articles/12686-a-six-month-retrospect
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207497PMC
August 2018
1 Read

Exposure to mild blast forces induces neuropathological effects, neurophysiological deficits and biochemical changes.

Mol Brain 2018 11 9;11(1):64. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Departments of Surgery, Neurobiology, and Neurology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, 1720 2nd Ave S, THT 1052, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Direct or indirect exposure to an explosion can induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severity levels. Primary TBI from blast exposure is commonly characterized by internal injuries, such as vascular damage, neuronal injury, and contusion, without external injuries. Current animal models of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) have helped to understand the deleterious effects of moderate to severe blast forces. Read More

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https://molecularbrain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-018-0408-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225689PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Retrospective analyses of high-energy explosive devicerelated injuries of the ear and auricular region: experiences in an operative field hospital emergency room.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2018 Sep;24(5):450-455

Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Gülhane Training and Research Hospital, Ankara-Turkey.

Background: With the changing conditions of terrorism, particularly in urban areas, high-energy explosive devices such as improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and projectile missiles (PMs) are frequently used. Traumas caused by these devices particularly affect the maxillofacial region and typically lead to otologic problems. In this study, we aimed to evaluate otologic complaints, otoscopic and auricular examinations, and tuning-fork tests of patients who were exposed to high-energy blast-related injuries and perform a comparison between trauma patients injured by IEDs and PMs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5505/tjtes.2017.60649DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Points & Pearls: Electrical injuries in the emergency department: an evidence-based review

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Nov 1;20(Suppl 11):1-2. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Electrical injuries can be caused by exposure to current from low-voltage and high-voltage sources as well as lightning strikes, and the circumstances of the exposure will dictate management strategies. Human tissues have varying resistance characteristics and susceptibility to damage, so injuries may be thermal, electrical, and/or mechanical, potentially causing burns, thrombosis, tetany, falls, and blast injury. This issue reviews the types of trauma seen with electrical injury and how body systems can be affected by occult or delayed effects, and the optimal evidence-based resuscitation and management strategies associated with each. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Association of Specific Lower Extremity Injuries With Delayed Amputation.

Mil Med 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Operational Readiness Directorate, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA.

Introduction: Despite medical interventions to preserve viability and functionality of injured limb(s) among combat-injured service members, delayed amputations may occur. The goal of this study was to determine whether specific lower extremity (LE) injuries were associated with delayed amputations.

Methods: The Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database was queried for combat-related LE injuries between 2003 and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy271DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Electrical injuries in the emergency department: an evidence-based review.

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Nov 1;20(11):1-20. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Oklahoma University School of Community Medicine, the University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK.

Electrical injuries can be caused by exposure to current from low-voltage and high-voltage sources as well as lightning strikes, and the circumstances of the exposure will dictate management strategies. Human tissues have varying resistance characteristics and susceptibility to damage, so injuries may be thermal, electrical, and/or mechanical, potentially causing burns, thrombosis, tetany, falls, and blast injury. This issue reviews the types of trauma seen with electrical injury and how body systems can be affected by occult or delayed effects, and the optimal evidence-based resuscitation and management strategies associated with each. Read More

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November 2018
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Blast-induced brain injury in rats leads to transient vestibulomotor deficits and persistent orofacial pain.

Brain Inj 2018 22;32(13-14):1866-1878. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

a Program in Neuroscience and Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology , University of Maryland School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (blast-TBI) is associated with vestibulomotor dysfunction, persistent post-traumatic headaches and post-traumatic stress disorder, requiring extensive treatments and reducing quality-of-life. Treatment and prevention of these devastating outcomes require an understanding of their underlying pathophysiology through studies that take advantage of animal models. Here, we report that cranium-directed blast-TBI in rats results in signs of pain that last at least 8 weeks after injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2018.1536282DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Study of Radial Nerve Injury Caused By Gunshot Wounds and Explosive Injuries among Iraqi Soldiers.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Sep 21;6(9):1622-1626. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the upper limbs produce complex wounds requiring management by multiple surgical specialities.

Aim: We sought to determine the pattern of peripheral nerve injuries among Iraqi soldiers in the war.

Methods: We performed a 3 year retrospective cohort analysis based on medical records of patients with sustaining gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the upper limbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182541PMC
September 2018

Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Triggered by Moderate Intensity Shock Wave Using a Modified Experimental Model of Injury in Mice.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Oct;131(20):2447-2460

Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, Jinling School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210002, China.

Background: The increasing frequency of explosive injuries has increased interest in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). Various shock tube models have been used to study bTBI. Mild-to-moderate explosions are often overlooked because of the slow onset or mildness of the symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.243558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202591PMC
October 2018

An electrochemically deposited collagen wound matrix combined with adipose-derived stem cells improves cutaneous wound healing in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

J Biomater Appl 2018 Oct;33(4):553-565

1 Southwest Research Institute, Department of Pharmaceuticals and Bioengineering, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Chronic wounds complicated by diabetes are a significant clinical issue, and their occurrence is expected to continue to rise due to an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes. Diabetic wounds frequently lead to nonhealing ulcers, and often eventually result in limb amputation due to the high risk of infection of the chronic wound. Here, we present a tissue-engineered treatment that combines a novel electrochemically deposited collagen wound matrix and human adipose-derived stem cells. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0885328218803754
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328218803754DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads
2.200 Impact Factor

Pathophysiology of primary blast injury.

J R Army Med Corps 2019 Feb 12;165(1):57-62. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of General Surgery, The Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust and Major Trauma Consultant, Sheffield Major Trauma Centre, Sheffield, UK.

The majority of patients injured in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan were as a result of explosion, and terrorist incidents have brought blast injuries to the front door of many civilian hospitals that had not previously encountered such devastation. This article reviews the physics and pathophysiology of blast injury with particular relevance to the presentation and management of primary blast injury, which is the mechanism least familiar to most clinicians and which may cause devastating injury without externals signs. Read More

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http://jramc.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jramc-2018-001058
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2018-001058DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A finite element model of an anthropomorphic test device lower limb to assess risk of injuries during vertical accelerative loading.

J Biomech 2018 Nov 29;81:104-112. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, United States. Electronic address:

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were used extensively to target occupants of military vehicles during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (2003-2011). War fighters exposed to an IED attack were highly susceptible to lower limb injuries. To appropriately assess vehicle safety and make informed improvements to vehicle design, a novel Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD), called the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan), was designed for vertical loading. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.09.020DOI Listing
November 2018
2.751 Impact Factor

Biomechanical Changes of Tympanic Membrane to Blast Waves.

Authors:
Rong Z Gan

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1097:321-334

Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.

Eardrum or tympanic membrane (TM) is a multilayer soft tissue membrane located at the end of the ear canal to receive sound pressure and transport the sound into the middle ear and cochlea. Rupture of the TM is one of the most frequent injuries of the ear after blast exposure in military service members. The TM mechanical property changes induced by blast waves also affect progressive hearing loss in veterans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96445-4_17DOI Listing
January 2018

Penetrating shrapnel injury to the chest presenting as a delayed tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). A case report.

Trauma Case Rep 2018 Oct 26;17:5-8. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Lebanon.

Tracheo-esophageal fistulae (TEF) due to trauma are rare. We report a case of a delayed TEF caused by a shrapnel from a blast. A 25-year-old male was admitted to the hospital after sustaining a blast injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcr.2018.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178131PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

The role of co-administration of damage control surgery and vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of perineal wounds.

Turk J Surg 2018 3;34(3):229-230. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Department of General Surgery, Mustafa Kemal University School of Medicine, Hatay, Turkey.

Perineal wounds caused by high-kinetic-energy shotgun blasts have a high mortality risk because they are often accompanied by injuries of the anus, rectum, genitourinary system, and extremities. Mortality often results from hemorrhage in the early stage and from multiple organ failure caused by sepsis in the late stage. The primary step in the treatment of patients presenting with perineal wound and hemodynamic instability caused by severe hemorrhage is to control hemorrhage and contamination using damage control surgery. Read More

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https://www.turkjsurg.com/abstract/1531/eng
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/turkjsurg.2017.3257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173606PMC
January 2018
7 Reads

[Occupational activity disorders of extremely severe mass burn patients in recovery period after injury: a cross-sectional survey].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2018 Sep;34(9):624-628

Department of Rehabilitation, Kunshan Rehabilitation Hospital, Kunshan 215300, China.

To observe the distribution of occupational activity disorders of extremely severe mass burn patients in recovery period after injury. From December 2014 to December 2015, 65 extremely severe burn patients conforming to the inclusion criteria involved in August 2 Kunshan factory aluminum dust explosion accident were admitted to Kunshan Rehabilitation Hospital. They received comprehensive rehabilitation treatment after burns, including wearing pressure clothes, ultrasound treatment, semiconductor laser and red light irradiation, motor function training, and so on. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2018.09.012DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads