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    A New Clade of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses from Australian Anopheles Mosquitoes Displays Species-Specific Host Restriction.
    mSphere 2017 Jul-Aug;2(4). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Read More

    Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings - a review.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e25. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
    Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. Read More

    Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 1;11(6):e0005654. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the Americas, and elsewhere in the world. ZIKV and CHIKV co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There is a growing number of case reports of ZIKV and CHIKV co-infections in humans, but it is uncertain whether co-infection occurs via single or multiple mosquito bites. Read More

    Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535.
    PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3292. Epub 2017 May 18.
    UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, CIPEIN, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More

    Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 14;11(4):e0005553. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More

    Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Apr;95(8):507-513
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Read More

    Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Benjamín Franklin 132, Col. Escandón, C.P. 11800, Mexico City, Mexico
    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    On gonads and gadflies: the estrus angle.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 6;233(3):C1-C8. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive HealthUniversity of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17β-estradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the purification and crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in lower mammals and arthropods. Read More

    Ticks and Tick Bites Presenting as "Funny Moles": A Review of Different Presentations and a Focus on Tick-borne Diseases.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Mar 1;10(3):46-50. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
    Purpose: To describe a man with an adherent tick mimicking a melanoma, summarize the salient features of this condition, and review other cases of ticks mistaken for dermatoses. Background: Ticks are obligatory ectoparasites. Disease-causing ticks belong to two families: Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks). Read More

    Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):44-53
    Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background & Objectives: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. Read More

    Preparing the United States for Zika Virus: Pre-emptive Vector Control and Personal Protection.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2016 Dec 27;27(4):450-457. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Program in Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA. Electronic address:
    Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. Read More

    Experimental demonstration of the possible role of Acanthamoeba polyphaga in the infection and disease progression in Buruli Ulcer (BU) using ICR mice.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(3):e0172843. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    The transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains puzzling although a number of hypothesis including through bites of infected aquatic insects have been proposed. We report the results of experiments using ICR mice that give credence to our hypothesis that Acanthamoeba species may play a role in BU transmission. We cocultured MU N2 and MU 1615 which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP), and confirmed infected AP by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. Read More

    Potential High-Risk Areas for Zika Virus Transmission in the Contiguous United States.
    Am J Public Health 2017 May 21;107(5):724-731. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Enbal Shacham is with the Department of Behavioral Science and Health Education, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO. Erik J. Nelson is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington. Daniel F. Hoft is with the Departments of Internal Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University. Mario Schootman and Alexander Garza are with the Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University.
    Objectives: To understand where transmission of Zika virus has the highest likelihood to occur in the contiguous United States with regard to its transmission both sexually and via Aedes aegypti mosquito bites.

    Methods: We evaluated the 2 routes of transmission risk with predictors of sexually transmitted infections (percentage women of childbearing age, birthrate, gonorrhea and chlamydia rates, concentrated disadvantage) as a surrogate for unprotected sexual activity and the demographic distribution of the A. aegypti mosquito across 3108 counties in the contiguous United States. Read More

    MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 9;11(3):e0005245. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. Read More

    "Looking over the Backyard Fence": Householders and Mosquito Control.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Mar 2;14(3). Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.
    (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. Read More

    American Academy of Asthma, Allergy & Immunology membership experience with venom immunotherapy in chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2017 Mar;38(2):121-129
    Background: Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.

    Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons. Read More

    Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 23;11(2):e0005337. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, United States of America.
    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Read More

    Distribution and abundance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 17;11(2):e0005341. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Read More

    Key Issues in Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: An Update.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2017;27(1):19-31
    Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    In this review, the Hymenoptera Allergy Committee of the SEAIC analyzes the most recent scientific literature addressing problems related to the diagnosis of hymenoptera allergy and to management of venom immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis and molecular risk profiles are the key areas addressed. The appearance of new species of hymenoptera that are potentially allergenic in Spain and the associated diagnostic and therapeutic problems are also described. Read More

    GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 Apr;26(7):1391-1406
    Pfizer WRD, Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, The Portway Building, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GS, UK.
    Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P < 5×10-8) associations were identified. Read More

    Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions: a retrospective study.
    Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2017 Jan 14;25(1). Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Center, Odense Research Center for Anaphylaxis (ORCA), Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, Odense, DK-5000, Denmark.
    Background: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. Read More

    Comparison of two adult mosquito sampling methods with human landing catches in south-central Ethiopia.
    Malar J 2017 Jan 13;16(1):30. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 5003, 1432, Ås, Norway.
    Background: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. Read More

    Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 11;10(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 813- Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.

    Methods: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Read More

    Nonbacterial Causes of Lymphangitis with Streaking.
    J Am Board Fam Med 2016 11/12;29(6):808-812
    From the New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (BEC); and the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York (ARN, MKP).
    Background: Lymphangitic streaking, characterized by linear erythema on the skin, is most commonly observed in the setting of bacterial infection. However, a number of nonbacterial causes can result in lymphangitic streaking. We sought to elucidate the nonbacterial causes of lymphangitic streaking that may mimic bacterial infection to broaden clinicians' differential diagnosis for patients presenting with lymphangitic streaking. Read More

    MALDI-TOF MS as an innovative tool for detection of Plasmodium parasites in Anopheles mosquitoes.
    Malar J 2017 Jan 3;16(1). Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, IHU - Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385, Marseille Cedex 05, France.
    Background: Malaria is still a major public health issue worldwide, and one of the best approaches to fight the disease remains vector control. The current methods for mosquito identification include morphological methods that are generally time-consuming and require expertise, and molecular methods that require laboratory facilities with relatively expensive running costs. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology, routinely used for bacterial identification, has recently emerged in the field of entomology. Read More

    Insecticide and Repellent Mixture Pour-On Protects Cattle against Animal Trypanosomosis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 27;10(12):e0005248. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France.
    Background: African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous. Read More

    Mosquito Behavior Change After Distribution of Bednets Results in Decreased Protection Against Malaria Exposure.
    J Infect Dis 2017 03;215(5):790-797
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Background: Behavioral resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behavior changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission.

    Methods: In this study, we quantified human exposure to both bites and infective bites of a major malaria vector in Papua New Guinea over the course of 4 years surrounding nationwide bednet distribution. Read More

    A review of recommendations on the safe and effective use of topical mosquito repellents.
    Public Health Res Pract 2016 Dec 14;26(5). Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Health Risk Policy Unit, Health Protection NSW, NSW Health, Sydney, Australia.
    Mosquito-borne disease is an annual problem in Australia, with endemic pathogens such as Ross River virus infecting thousands of people each year. The recent emergence of Zika virus in South America and the Pacific, together with ongoing outbreaks of dengue viruses in Southeast Asia, generated great community interest in the most effective strategies to avoid mosquito bites. Large-scale mosquito control programs are not common in Australia and are limited in New South Wales (NSW). Read More

    Papular urticaria: A review of causal agents in Colombia.
    Biomedica 2016 Dec 1;36(4):632-645. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia.
    Papular urticaria is a chronic allergic reaction induced by insect bites, which is common in the tropics. The objective of this review was to deepen on epidemiological and immunological aspects of this disease, focused on data published in Latin American countries.We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature through electronic search on the epidemiology of papular urticaria, the entomological characteristics of the causative agents and associated immunological mechanisms. Read More

    Molecular Analysis of Pfs47-Mediated Plasmodium Evasion of Mosquito Immunity.
    PLoS One 2016 19;11(12):e0168279. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.
    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that is transmitted through the bites of infected anopheline mosquitoes. P. falciparum dispersal from Africa, as a result of human migration, required adaptation of the parasite to several different indigenous anopheline species. Read More

    Use of an Anopheles Salivary Biomarker to Assess Malaria Transmission Risk Along the Thailand-Myanmar Border.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Feb;215(3):396-404
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs, Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle, Montpellier, and.
    Background: The modalities of malaria transmission along the Thailand-Myanmar border are poorly understood. Here we address the relevance of using a specific Anopheles salivary biomarker to measure the risk among humans of exposure to Anopheles bites.

    Methods: Serologic surveys were conducted from May 2013 to December 2014 in 4 sentinel villages. Read More

    Operational Assessment of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by Using an Anopheles Salivary Biomarker of Human-Vector Contact.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 Dec 24;95(6):1376-1382. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Bénin.
    The widespread implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a major intervention method for malaria control. Although the LLINs coverage increases, information available on the physical integrity (PI) of implemented LLINs is incomplete. This study aimed to validate human IgG antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide antigen, previously demonstrated as a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, for evaluating the PI of LLINs in field conditions. Read More

    Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 1;10(12):e0005109. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs, Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), Montpellier, FRANCE.
    Background: Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Read More

    Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Districts of High and Low Endemicity in Mali.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Nov 29;10(11):e0005141. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    International Center of excellence in research (ICER-MALI), University of Sciences, Techniques and Technology of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
    Historically the western sahelian dry regions of Mali are known to be highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major, while cases are rarely reported from the Southern savanna forest of the country. Here, we report baseline prevalence of CL infection in 3 ecologically distinct districts of Mali (dry sahelian, north savanna and southern savanna forest areas). We screened 195 to 250 subjects from 50 to 60 randomly selected households in each of the 6 villages (four from the western sahelian district of Diema in Kayes region, one from the central district of Kolokani and one from the southern savanna district of Kolodieba, region of Sikasso). Read More

    Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Paederus Dermatitis Among Nut Farm Workers in Turkey.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 22;96(2):483-487. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Giresun University Medicine Faculty, Giresun, Turkey.
    Paederus dermatitis is an acute irritant dermatitis resulting from contact with the hemolymph of Paederus beetles. This dermatitis mimics other infectious skin disorders, often resulting in diagnostic dilemmas. This study of 46 patients was conducted to increase awareness about Paederus dermatitis. Read More

    Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut.
    Malar J 2016 Nov 22;15(1):564. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifkara, Tanzania.
    Background: Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts, not fully protected from mosquitoes. These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers. Read More

    Cimex lectularius ("Bed Bugs"): Recognition, Management, and Eradication.
    Pediatr Emerg Care 2016 Nov;32(11):801-806
    *Senior Resident (McMenaman), Department of Pediatrics, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance; †Medical Director (Gausche-Hill), Los Angeles County EMS Agency, Santa Fe Springs; ‡Professor of Clinical Medicine and Pediatrics (Gausche-Hill), David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles; and §EMS Fellowship Director (Gausche-Hill), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Torrance, CA.
    Reports of bed bug infestations in major cities in the United States and abroad have been in the public press. Physicians and other clinicians who care for children need to be able to recognize bed bug bites and understand the social, psychological, and medical implications that this diagnosis will have on patients and their families. In this article, a case presentation serves to guide discussion regarding establishing the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the management of bed bug bites and their complications. Read More

    A Case of Cardboard Boxes Likely Facilitating the Biting of a Patient by Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Triatomine Bugs.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 Nov 6;95(5):1115-1117. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
    Dolhun Clinic, San Francisco, California.
    Chagas disease is a vector-borne and potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted by the triatomine bug, a nocturnal feeding, flying arthropod, often referred to by its colloquial name, the "kissing bug." Vector-borne transmission is considered the most important means of spreading Chagas disease in endemic and nonendemic areas. Corrugated cardboard boxes may accelerate the spread of these insect vectors to nonendemic areas through their ability to harbor and transport small terrestrial arthropods such as silverfish, termites, and cockroaches. Read More

    Supersuppression: Reservoir Competency and Timing of Mosquito Host Shifts Combine to Reduce Spillover of West Nile Virus.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 Nov 8;95(5):1174-1184. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
    In the eastern United States, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) result from spillover from urban epizootic transmission between passerine birds and Culex mosquitoes. In Atlanta, GA, substantial WNV presence in hosts and vectors has not resulted in the human disease burden observed in cities with similar infection pressure. Our study goal was to investigate extrinsic ecological conditions that potentially contribute to these reduced transmission rates. Read More

    Possible complication of bee stings and a review of the cardiac effects of bee stings.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Nov 1;2016. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Cardiology, Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
    We report the case of a patient who, ∼3 weeks after multiple bee stings, developed a prolonged heart block, syncope and cardiac arrest. This required a temporary pacemaker to be implanted, which was later replaced with a permanent pacemaker. An ECG taken following surgery for a fractured humerus 6 years earlier was reportedly normal. Read More

    Fatal anaphylaxis from hymenoptera stings.
    Med Leg J 2016 Dec 26;84(4):212-214. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.
    Venomous insect stings are a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The sting reactions are unpredictable and vary among individuals. A case of fatal insect sting in an elderly female is presented to discuss the associated challenges during necropsy. Read More

    Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 19;164:216-225. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Laboratório de Genética de Populações e Evolução de Mosquitos Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, n° 2936, Bairro Aleixo, CEP 69.067-375 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Read More

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