We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Read More
Background: The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) baited with CO2 and human sweat compounds is attractive to Simulium ochraceum s.l., the primary vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the historically largest endemic foci in México and Guatemala. Read More
Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. Read More
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the Americas, and elsewhere in the world. ZIKV and CHIKV co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There is a growing number of case reports of ZIKV and CHIKV co-infections in humans, but it is uncertain whether co-infection occurs via single or multiple mosquito bites. Read More
DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More
Objective: To review allergenic extracts used to diagnose or treat insect allergies, including how the extracts are manufactured and their measurements of potency or concentration.
Data Sources: Peer-reviewed articles derived from searching PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) about insect allergies and extract preparation. Encyclopedia of Life (http://www. Read More
Background: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. Read More
Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More
Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Read More
In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More
Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More
The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17β-estradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the purification and crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in lower mammals and arthropods. Read More
Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans primarily via the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The virus caused a major epidemic in the Indian Ocean in 2004, affecting millions of inhabitants, while cases have also been observed in Europe since 2007. We developed a stochastic spatiotemporal model of Aedes albopictus-borne chikungunya transmission based on our recently developed environmentally-driven vector population dynamics model. Read More
Purpose: To describe a man with an adherent tick mimicking a melanoma, summarize the salient features of this condition, and review other cases of ticks mistaken for dermatoses. Background: Ticks are obligatory ectoparasites. Disease-causing ticks belong to two families: Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks). Read More
Background & Objectives: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. Read More
Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. Read More
Background: Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. The role of the blood or skin as a source of infection to sand flies remains unclear, and the possible effect of multiple exposures to fly bites on transmissibility has not been addressed.
The transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains puzzling although a number of hypothesis including through bites of infected aquatic insects have been proposed. We report the results of experiments using ICR mice that give credence to our hypothesis that Acanthamoeba species may play a role in BU transmission. We cocultured MU N2 and MU 1615 which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP), and confirmed infected AP by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. Read More
Am J Public Health 2017 May 21;107(5):724-731. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
Enbal Shacham is with the Department of Behavioral Science and Health Education, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO. Erik J. Nelson is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington. Daniel F. Hoft is with the Departments of Internal Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University. Mario Schootman and Alexander Garza are with the Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University.
Objectives: To understand where transmission of Zika virus has the highest likelihood to occur in the contiguous United States with regard to its transmission both sexually and via Aedes aegypti mosquito bites.
Methods: We evaluated the 2 routes of transmission risk with predictors of sexually transmitted infections (percentage women of childbearing age, birthrate, gonorrhea and chlamydia rates, concentrated disadvantage) as a surrogate for unprotected sexual activity and the demographic distribution of the A. aegypti mosquito across 3108 counties in the contiguous United States. Read More
Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, the leading cause of death amongst the parasitic diseases. The disease is transmitted to human by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) data, there were an estimated 214 million malaria cases and estimated 438. Read More
Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. Read More
(1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. Read More
University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine - Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Gainesville, Florida, USA (Buckley, Corrie, Schaer); Canada West Veterinary Specialists - Emergency & Critical Care, Vancouver, British Columbia (Bandt).
This report describes a case of honeybee envenomation in a dog that developed anaphylaxis after being stung by approximately 10 bees. The dog subsequently developed acute kidney injury. The dog had a previous mild increase in blood urea nitrogen with normal creatinine, possibly indicating an insidious chronic renal degenerative process that went into acute decompensation at the time of bee envenomation. Read More
Background: Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.
Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons. Read More
Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Read More
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. Read More
Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Read More
In this review, the Hymenoptera Allergy Committee of the SEAIC analyzes the most recent scientific literature addressing problems related to the diagnosis of hymenoptera allergy and to management of venom immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis and molecular risk profiles are the key areas addressed. The appearance of new species of hymenoptera that are potentially allergenic in Spain and the associated diagnostic and therapeutic problems are also described. Read More
Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P < 5×10-8) associations were identified. Read More
Whole malaria sporozoite vaccine regimens are promising new strategies, and some candidates have demonstrated high rates of durable clinical protection associated with memory T cell responses. Little is known about the anatomical distribution of memory T cells following whole sporozoite vaccines, and immunization of nonhuman primates can be used as a relevant model for humans. We conducted a chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite (CPS) immunization in P. Read More
Background: Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. Read More
American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum and transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, canine cases have been reported in the absence of this species in the Greater São Paulo region, where Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei are the predominant species. This raises the suspicion that they could be acting as vectors. Read More
The anthropophilic and peridomestic female mosquito Aedes aegypti bites humans to suck blood to maturate fertilized eggs, during which dengue virus can be spread between mosquito and human populations. Besides this route of transmission, there is a possibility of dengue virus being passed directly to offspring through transovarial (or vertical) transmission. The effects of both horizontal and transovarial transmission routes on the dengue virus transmission are assessed by mathematical modeling. Read More
Experimental huts are part of the WHO process for testing and evaluation of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in semi-field conditions. Experimental Hut Trials (EHTs) mostly focus on two main indicators (i.e. Read More
AbstractInbred mice are commonly used to test candidate malaria vaccines, but have been unreliable for predicting efficacy in humans. To establish a more rigorous animal model, we acquired African woodland thicket rats of the genus Grammomys, the natural hosts for Plasmodium berghei. Thicket rats were acquired and identified as Grammomys surdaster by skull and teeth measurements and mitochondrial DNA genotyping. Read More
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Read More
Background: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. Read More
Background: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. Read More
Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a vector of many pathogens of humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Personal protection, reduction of larval habitats, and chemical control are the best ways to reduce mosquito bites and, therefore, the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. Currently, to reduce the risk of transmission, the pyrethroids, and other insecticide groups have been extensively used to control both larvae and adult mosquitoes. Read More
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Read More
Background: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.
Methods: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Read More
Background: Lymphangitic streaking, characterized by linear erythema on the skin, is most commonly observed in the setting of bacterial infection. However, a number of nonbacterial causes can result in lymphangitic streaking. We sought to elucidate the nonbacterial causes of lymphangitic streaking that may mimic bacterial infection to broaden clinicians' differential diagnosis for patients presenting with lymphangitic streaking. Read More
Little is known about cimicosis, the resultant dermal reaction from feeding activity by the common bedbug, Cimex lectularius L. We fed C. lectularius on human study subjects four times over four weeks and measured serum cytokine and antibody levels, and subjects recorded any cimicosis. Read More
Background: Malaria is still a major public health issue worldwide, and one of the best approaches to fight the disease remains vector control. The current methods for mosquito identification include morphological methods that are generally time-consuming and require expertise, and molecular methods that require laboratory facilities with relatively expensive running costs. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology, routinely used for bacterial identification, has recently emerged in the field of entomology. Read More
The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. Read More