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    Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(12):e0189971. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. Read More

    Attacking the mosquito on multiple fronts: Insights from the Vector Control Optimization Model (VCOM) for malaria elimination.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(12):e0187680. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Divisions of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
    Background: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions. Read More

    Residual Effectiveness of Permethrin-Treated Clothing for Prevention of Mosquito Bites Under Simulated Conditions.
    J Environ Health 2017 04;79(8):8-15
    Biological hazards such as exposure to ticks and mosquitoes can affect health. Permethrin-treated clothing is available to the public. We don’t currently understand, however, the effects of environmental factors such as fabric type, washing, sunlight, and temperature on permethrin content in treated clothing with respect to mosquito knockdown and mortality. Read More

    The sting of a honey bee: An unusual subconjunctival foreign body.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;65(11):1226-1228
    Tej Kohli Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Ocular foreign bodies (FBs) are often encountered in clinical practices. However, there are cases in which the presence of the FB is difficult to diagnose based on mere history taking and/or clinical examination. We herein present a case of unusual subconjunctival foreign body in the form of the sting of a honey bee in a 63-year-old farmer. Read More

    Skin Test Reactivity to Hymenoptera Venom after Venom Immunotherapy Correlates Inversely with the IgG/IgE Ratio.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2017 9;174(3-4):190-199. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University and University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Skin test reactivity to hymenoptera venom and venom-specific IgE are important for diagnosing venom allergy and deciding on the appropriate allergen for venom immunotherapy (VIT). Longitudinal data on skin test reactivity during VIT and their correlation with venom-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG are scarce.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed shifts in skin test reactivity and serum levels of venom-specific IgE and IgG in patients allergic to hymenoptera venom before the initiation of VIT with ultrarush therapy and after ≥3 years of VIT. Read More

    Improved capture of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) by placement of knight stick sticky fly traps protected by electric fence inside animal exhibit yards at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.
    Zoo Biol 2017 Dec 5;36(6):382-386. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Center for Animal Care Sciences, Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. Read More

    Advances in environmental and occupational disorders in 2016.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Dec;140(6):1683-1692
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass; Division of Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:
    In this review we highlight recent studies that advance the knowledge and understanding of the effects of various environmental factors and associated immune responses in patients with allergic diseases. This review will focus on new literature regarding allergic and immune responses to a variety of environmental factors, including aeroallergens, stinging insects, fungi, pollutants, viral respiratory tract infections, climate change, and microbial exposures. Read More

    The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review.
    Insects 2017 Oct 27;8(4). Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
    The cat flea(Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology ofand its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated withand their implications for humans and their pets. Read More

    Watch Out for Wild Animals: A Systematic Review of Upper Extremity Injuries Caused by Uncommon Species.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Nov;140(5):1008-1022
    Madison, Wis.; and Fort Collins, Colo. From the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison; and Northern Colorado Plastic and Hand Surgery.
    Background: Across the world, many species of nondomesticated animals dwell among humans in metropolitan areas. Rare animal bites pose a dilemma for hand surgeons, as they often result in operative injuries and recalcitrant infections. The authors treated an 85-year-old man who experienced severe cellulitis of the index finger following an opossum bite. Read More

    Comparative Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Coils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia: A Nationwide Report.
    J Econ Entomol 2017 Oct;110(5):2247-2251
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.
    This study was conducted using the glass chamber method to determine the susceptibility status of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) from 11 states in Malaysia to commercial mosquito coils containing four different active ingredients, namely metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin. Aedes aegypti exhibited various knockdown rates, ranging from 14. Read More

    Stings of the Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as Cause of Punctate Corneal Lesions in Humans and Other Animals.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Nov;54(6):1783-1785
    Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, 5353 Parkside Drive, Jupiter, FL 33458.
    Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce. Read More

    Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 12;11(10):e0005905. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnologies and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. Read More

    Epidemiological consequences of immune sensitisation by pre-exposure to vector saliva.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 9;11(10):e0005956. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Read More

    ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2017 Sep 5;24(3):428-430. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Allergology, Clinical Immunology and Internal Diseases, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Introduction: Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings.

    Material And Methods: A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. Read More

    Insights into the epidemiological link between biting flies and pemphigus foliaceus in southeastern Brazil.
    Acta Trop 2017 Dec 21;176:455-462. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Black fly and sandfly bites are related to the endemicity of pemphigus foliaceus (PF); however, an immune reaction against the salivary proteins from these flies still requires confirmation in the case of PF patients living in southeastern Brazil.

    Purpose: To georeference the distribution of Simuliidae (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) and of PF cases in the northeastern region of São Paulo State, and to assess the humoral immune response against salivary gland extracts (SGEs) from biting flies in PF patients, relatives, and neighbours.

    Methods: PF patients' medical information recorded between 1965 and 2014 were obtained from the database of the University Hospital. Read More

    Effectiveness and economic assessment of routine larviciding for prevention of chikungunya and dengue in temperate urban settings in Europe.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005918. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics and Public Policy, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy.
    In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control vector abundance can be implemented by local authorities. We assessed the epidemiological effectiveness and economic costs and benefits of routine larviciding in European towns with temperate climate, using a mathematical model of Aedes albopictus populations and viral transmission, calibrated on entomological surveillance data collected from ten municipalities in Northern Italy during 2014 and 2015. Read More

    The effect of alphacypermethrin-treated mesh protection against African horse sickness virus vectors on jet stall microclimate, clinical variables and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites of horses.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Sep 9;13(1):283. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Equine Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.
    Background: African horse sickness (AHS) is of importance to health and international trade in horses worldwide. During export from and transit through AHS endemic countries or zones, physical and chemical measures to protect horses from the vectors of AHS virus (AHSV) are recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health. Protection of containerized air transport systems for horses (jet stalls) with alphacypermethrin insecticide-treated high density polyethylene mesh is effective in reducing the Culicoides midge vector attack rate. Read More

    Imported fire ant envenomation: A clinicopathologic study of a recognizable form of arthropod assault reaction.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Dec 21;44(12):1012-1017. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.
    Background: Skin reactions to the sting of the imported fire ant have characteristic clinicopathological features.

    Methods: One case of experimental envenomation was prospectively followed during 48 hours, with biopsies. In addition, 6 cases from our laboratory were retrospectively evaluated histopathologically for the following features: spongiosis, exocytosis (and type of cells), pustule formation, erosion/ulceration, epidermal necrosis, scale/crust, papillary dermal edema, inflammatory dermal infiltrate (cell type, density, depth, distribution, shape), red blood cell extravasation, vasculopathy and vasculitis. Read More

    Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes.
    Naturwissenschaften 2017 Aug 30;104(9-10):76. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Wetland Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio 26, 41092, Seville, Spain.
    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits-in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior-and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Read More

    Comparative 2-D electrophoresis of salivary proteins in Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and major cross-reactive antigens
    Ann Parasitol 2017;63(2):121-125
    Centro Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Autonoma Campeche, Patricio Trueba s/n, Campeche 24090, Mexico
    An immune response to triatomine’s saliva is an immunological marker of exposure to triatomine bites. However, considerable variability in salivary protein profiles did exist among species. In the present work, we compare salivary proteins from Mexican Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus using 2-D electrophoresis. Read More

    MALDI-TOF MS identification of Anopheles gambiae Giles blood meal crushed on Whatman filter papers.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(8):e0183238. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Aix Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198 (Dakar, Sénégal), Inserm 1095, AP-HM, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
    Background: Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals. Read More

    Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 8;14(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department/School Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector,, within their flight rangeBiophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female. The spatio-temporal correlations between VHC data and 33 variables, including climate, land use-land cover (LULC), socioeconomic, and land surface terrain were analyzed using stepwise linear regression models (RM). Read More

    Stinging caterpillars from the genera Podalia, Leucanella and Lonomia in Misiones, Argentina: A preliminary comparative approach to understand their toxicity.
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Nov 2;202:55-62. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ministerio de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación Productiva, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical (INMeT), Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Neuquén y Jujuy s/n, 3370 Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Dermal contact with Lepidoptera specimens at their larval stage (caterpillar) may cause systemic and/or local envenomation. There are multiple venomous species of them in Argentina, but their overall venom composition is poorly known. Lately, several cases of envenomation have been reported in the Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.
    BMC Public Health 2017 07 20;18(1):41. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Wits Research Institute of Malaria, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Background: In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. Read More

    Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Transmission of Plague Disease in Eastern Zambia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep 19;97(3):826-830. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Pest Management Centre, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Plague is a fatal, primarily rodent-flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by. The identification of risk factors of plague was investigated through questionnaire interview and conducting focus group discussion (FGD) in Sinda and Nyimba districts of eastern Zambia. A total of 104 questionnaires were administered to individual respondents and 20 groups consisting of 181 discussants, which comprised FGD team in this study. Read More

    Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):155-162
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (= 390) versus those born in the United States (= 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More

    A New Clade of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses from AustralianMosquitoes Displays Species-Specific Host Restriction.
    mSphere 2017 Jul-Aug;2(4). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses frommosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologousspecies, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Read More

    The esperanza window trap reduces the human biting rate of Simulium ochraceum s.l. in formerly onchocerciasis endemic foci in Southern Mexico.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 7;11(7):e0005686. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
    Background: The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) baited with CO2 and human sweat compounds is attractive to Simulium ochraceum s.l., the primary vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the historically largest endemic foci in México and Guatemala. Read More

    Which immunotherapy product is better for patients allergic to Polistes venom? A laboratory and clinical study.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(7):e0180270. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Background: Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in preventing allergic reactions to insect stings, but the appropriate venom must be used to achieve clinical protection. In patients with multiple positive results to venoms, molecular allergy diagnostics or CAP-inhibition may identify the causative venom. Concerning allergy to venom from Polistes spp. Read More

    Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings - a review.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e25. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
    Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. Read More

    Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 1;11(6):e0005654. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the Americas, and elsewhere in the world. ZIKV and CHIKV co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There is a growing number of case reports of ZIKV and CHIKV co-infections in humans, but it is uncertain whether co-infection occurs via single or multiple mosquito bites. Read More

    Effects of sublethal exposure to metofluthrin on the fitness of Aedes aegypti in a domestic setting in Cairns, Queensland.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 May 31;10(1):274. Epub 2017 May 31.
    College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, QLD, Cairns, 4870, Australia.
    Background: Metofluthrin is highly effective at reducing biting activity in Aedes aegypti. Its efficacy lies in the rapid onset of confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. In the field, there are a variety of scenarios that might result in sublethal exposure to metofluthrin, including mosquitoes that are active at the margins of the chemical's lethal range, brief exposure as mosquitoes fly in and out of treated spaces or decreasing efficacy of the emanators with time. Read More

    Molecular studies with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), mosquito transmitting the dengue virus.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Aug 30;116(8):2057-2063. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Programa de Pós-Gradução em Biotecnologia da Rede Renorbio, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Vila Bacanga, São Luís, MA, 65065-545, Brazil.
    Dengue is an infectious viral disease, which can present a wide clinical picture, ranging from oligo or asymptomatic forms, to bleeding and shock, and can progress to death. The disease problem has increased in recent years, especially in urban and suburban areas of tropical and subtropical regions. There are five dengue viruses, called serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, and DEN-5), which belong to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites, with the main vector the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Linnaeus, 1762). Read More

    A New In Vitro Bioassay System for the Discovery and Quantitative Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Sep;54(5):1328-1336
    National Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677.
    Mosquitoes vector many pathogens that cause human diseases. Repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. In this paper, we are reporting an Ali and Khan (A & K), large cage in vitro bioassay system that can effectively be used to measure repellency of compounds against mosquitoes. Read More

    Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in(Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535.
    PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3292. Epub 2017 May 18.
    UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, CIPEIN, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bugKlug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More

    Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2017 Jun;17(6):38
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Biederstein, Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Straße 29, 80802, Munich, Germany.
    Purpose Of Review: Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Read More

    Allergenic extracts to diagnose and treat sensitivity to insect venoms and inhaled allergens.
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 05;118(5):531-536
    Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. Electronic address:
    Objective: To review allergenic extracts used to diagnose or treat insect allergies, including how the extracts are manufactured and their measurements of potency or concentration.

    Data Sources: Peer-reviewed articles derived from searching PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) about insect allergies and extract preparation. Encyclopedia of Life (http://www. Read More

    Serological measures to assess the efficacy of malaria control programme on Ambae Island, Vanuatu.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 26;10(1):204. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Island Malaria Group, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Seroepidemiology can provide evidence for temporal changes in malaria transmission and is an important tool to evaluate the effectiveness of control interventions. During the early 2000s, Vanuatu experienced an acute increase in malaria incidence due to a lapse in funding for vector control. After the distribution of subsidised insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) resumed in 2003, malaria incidence decreased in the subsequent years. Read More

    Wasp venomic: Unravelling the toxins arsenal of Polybia paulista venom and its potential pharmaceutical applications.
    J Proteomics 2017 May 19;161:88-103. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Artrópodes-LBMA-IBRC-UNESP (Univ Estadual Paulista), Av. 24-A, n° 1515, CEP 13506-900, Bela Vista, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil; Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos-CEVAP (Univ Estadual Paulista), Rua José Barbosa de Barros, 1780, Fazenda Experimental Lageado, Botucatu 18610-307, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a neotropical social wasp from southeast Brazil. As most social Hymenoptera, venom from P. paulista comprises a complex mixture of bioactive toxins ranging from low molecular weight compounds to peptides and proteins. Read More

    Efficacy and user acceptability of transfluthrin-treated sisal and hessian decorations for protecting against mosquito bites in outdoor bars.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 20;10(1):197. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, P.O Box 53, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. Read More

    Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 14;11(4):e0005553. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More

    Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Apr;95(8):507-513
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Read More

    Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Sep;54(5):1305-1311
    Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Benjamín Franklin 132, Col. Escandón, C.P. 11800, Mexico City, Mexico.
    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More

    The Western Conifer Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Has the Potential to Bite Humans.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jul;54(4):1073-1075
    Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1022, Hungary.
    Among true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera), only hematophagous species (families Reduviidae, Cimicidae) have high veterinary and medical significance. In addition, several predatory and plant-feeding bug species, which also have piercing-sucking mouthparts, are known to occasionally bite humans. The majority of such examples are known from the New World. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    On gonads and gadflies: the estrus angle.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 6;233(3):C1-C8. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive HealthUniversity of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17β-estradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the purification and crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in lower mammals and arthropods. Read More

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