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    Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535.
    PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3292. Epub 2017 May 18.
    UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, CIPEIN, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More

    Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Apr;95(8):507-513
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Read More

    Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Benjamín Franklin 132, Col. Escandón, C.P. 11800, Mexico City, Mexico
    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More

    On gonads and gadflies: the estrus angle.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    S Hillier, MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17βestradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in mammals and arthropods. Read More

    Ticks and Tick Bites Presenting as "Funny Moles": A Review of Different Presentations and a Focus on Tick-borne Diseases.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Mar 1;10(3):46-50. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
    Purpose: To describe a man with an adherent tick mimicking a melanoma, summarize the salient features of this condition, and review other cases of ticks mistaken for dermatoses. Background: Ticks are obligatory ectoparasites. Disease-causing ticks belong to two families: Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks). Read More

    Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):44-53
    Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background & Objectives: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. Read More

    Experimental demonstration of the possible role of Acanthamoeba polyphaga in the infection and disease progression in Buruli Ulcer (BU) using ICR mice.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(3):e0172843. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    The transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains puzzling although a number of hypothesis including through bites of infected aquatic insects have been proposed. We report the results of experiments using ICR mice that give credence to our hypothesis that Acanthamoeba species may play a role in BU transmission. We cocultured MU N2 and MU 1615 which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP), and confirmed infected AP by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. Read More

    MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 9;11(3):e0005245. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. Read More

    American Academy of Asthma, Allergy & Immunology membership experience with venom immunotherapy in chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2017 Mar;38(2):121-129
    Background: Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.

    Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons. Read More

    GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 Apr;26(7):1391-1406
    Pfizer WRD, Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, The Portway Building, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GS, UK.
    Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P < 5×10-8) associations were identified. Read More

    Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions: a retrospective study.
    Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2017 Jan 14;25(1). Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Center, Odense Research Center for Anaphylaxis (ORCA), Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, Odense, DK-5000, Denmark.
    Background: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. Read More

    Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 11;10(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 813- Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.

    Methods: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Read More

    Nonbacterial Causes of Lymphangitis with Streaking.
    J Am Board Fam Med 2016 11/12;29(6):808-812
    From the New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (BEC); and the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York (ARN, MKP).
    Background: Lymphangitic streaking, characterized by linear erythema on the skin, is most commonly observed in the setting of bacterial infection. However, a number of nonbacterial causes can result in lymphangitic streaking. We sought to elucidate the nonbacterial causes of lymphangitic streaking that may mimic bacterial infection to broaden clinicians' differential diagnosis for patients presenting with lymphangitic streaking. Read More

    Mosquito Behavior Change After Distribution of Bednets Results in Decreased Protection Against Malaria Exposure.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Mar;215(5):790-797
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Background.: Behavioral resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behavior changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission. Read More

    A review of recommendations on the safe and effective use of topical mosquito repellents.
    Public Health Res Pract 2016 Dec 14;26(5). Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Health Risk Policy Unit, Health Protection NSW, NSW Health, Sydney, Australia.
    Mosquito-borne disease is an annual problem in Australia, with endemic pathogens such as Ross River virus infecting thousands of people each year. The recent emergence of Zika virus in South America and the Pacific, together with ongoing outbreaks of dengue viruses in Southeast Asia, generated great community interest in the most effective strategies to avoid mosquito bites. Large-scale mosquito control programs are not common in Australia and are limited in New South Wales (NSW). Read More

    Papular urticaria: A review of causal agents in Colombia.
    Biomedica 2016 Dec 1;36(4):632-645. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia.
    Papular urticaria is a chronic allergic reaction induced by insect bites, which is common in the tropics. The objective of this review was to deepen on epidemiological and immunological aspects of this disease, focused on data published in Latin American countries.We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature through electronic search on the epidemiology of papular urticaria, the entomological characteristics of the causative agents and associated immunological mechanisms. Read More

    Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut.
    Malar J 2016 Nov 22;15(1):564. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifkara, Tanzania.
    Background: Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts, not fully protected from mosquitoes. These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers. Read More

    Cimex lectularius ("Bed Bugs"): Recognition, Management, and Eradication.
    Pediatr Emerg Care 2016 Nov;32(11):801-806
    *Senior Resident (McMenaman), Department of Pediatrics, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance; †Medical Director (Gausche-Hill), Los Angeles County EMS Agency, Santa Fe Springs; ‡Professor of Clinical Medicine and Pediatrics (Gausche-Hill), David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles; and §EMS Fellowship Director (Gausche-Hill), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Torrance, CA.
    Reports of bed bug infestations in major cities in the United States and abroad have been in the public press. Physicians and other clinicians who care for children need to be able to recognize bed bug bites and understand the social, psychological, and medical implications that this diagnosis will have on patients and their families. In this article, a case presentation serves to guide discussion regarding establishing the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the management of bed bug bites and their complications. Read More

    Possible complication of bee stings and a review of the cardiac effects of bee stings.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Nov 1;2016. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Cardiology, Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
    We report the case of a patient who, ∼3 weeks after multiple bee stings, developed a prolonged heart block, syncope and cardiac arrest. This required a temporary pacemaker to be implanted, which was later replaced with a permanent pacemaker. An ECG taken following surgery for a fractured humerus 6 years earlier was reportedly normal. Read More

    Fatal anaphylaxis from hymenoptera stings.
    Med Leg J 2016 Dec 26;84(4):212-214. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.
    Venomous insect stings are a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The sting reactions are unpredictable and vary among individuals. A case of fatal insect sting in an elderly female is presented to discuss the associated challenges during necropsy. Read More

    Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 19;164:216-225. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Laboratório de Genética de Populações e Evolução de Mosquitos Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, n° 2936, Bairro Aleixo, CEP 69.067-375 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Read More

    Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 2;164:369-374. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan 00920, Puerto Rico. Electronic address:
    An important step to incriminate a mosquito as a vector of a disease pathogen is finding evidence of direct contact between the mosquito and humans. Typically, this is accomplished through landing/biting catches, or host blood meal analysis in engorged mosquitoes via immunologic assays. An alternate approach is to identify the presence of specific mosquito anti-saliva protein antibodies in the blood of exposed hosts. Read More

    DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 16;164:33-40. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Walai Rukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham, 44150 Thailand,. Electronic address:
    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. Read More

    Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulating among Ruminants, Mosquitoes and Humans in the Central African Republic.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct 19;10(10):e0005082. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Bangui, Central African Republic.
    Background: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Read More

    Protective Efficacy of Plasmodium vivax Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoites in Colombian Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct 19;10(10):e0005070. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center (MVDC), Cali, Colombia.
    Background: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. Read More

    Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibilitystatus of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) in some sites in Accra, Ghana.
    Ghana Med J 2016 Sep;50(3):136-141
    Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Dept. of Parasitology, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    Background: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease.

    Objective: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. Read More

    [Mortal poisoning by bee stings in a child: Study of a case observed in the regional hospital of Maradi (Niger)].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Dec 13;109(5):325-328. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Service de pédiatrie, hôpital national de Lamordé, université Abdou-Moumouni-Dioffo, Niamey, Niger.
    We report a fatal case due to a massive attack by a swarm of bees in a nine-year-old child. The accident was fatal because of two aggravating factors: the cephalic location and the large number of stings (about 300). Complications were coagulopathy, anemia, hemorrhage, coma, and oligoanuria. Read More

    Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.
    Genet Mol Res 2016 Aug 26;15(3). Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brasil.
    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. Read More

    Coping with cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in allergy diagnosis.
    Allergo J Int 2016;25(4):98-105. Epub 2016 Jun 25.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria.
    A relevant proportion of allergy diagnosis is accomplished by in vitro determination of specific immunglobulin E (sIgE) to extracts from suspected allergens. Such extracts inevitably contain glycoproteins, which may react with patients' IgE. In the case of plant and insect allergens, the relevant epitope structure is an α-1,3-fucose on the Asn-linked sugar residue of so-called N-glycans. Read More

    High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2016 Sep;111(9):561-9
    Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Unité d'Entomologie Médicale, Cayenne, Guyane, France.
    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. Read More

    Honey Bee Swarms Aboard the USNS Comfort: Recommendations for Sting Prevention, Swarm Removal, and Medical Readiness on Military Ships.
    US Army Med Dep J 2016 Oct-Dec(3-16):29-37
    Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center, Portsmouth, Virginia.
    The article provides observations of multiple honey bee (Apis mellifera) swarms aboard the USNS Comfort (TAH-20) during the Continuing Promise 2015 mission. A brief overview of swarming biology is given along with control/removal recommendations to reduce sting exposures. The observations suggest that preventive medicine personnel should provide adequate risk communications about the potential occurrence of bee swarms aboard military ships, and medical department personnel should be prepared for the possibility of treating of multiple sting exposures, especially in the Southern Command Area of Operations where the Africanized genotype of A mellifera is common. Read More

    Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Nov 8;23(22):23228-23238. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. Read More

    rAed a 4: A New 67-kDa Aedes aegypti Mosquito Salivary Allergen for the Diagnosis of Mosquito Allergy.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 8;170(3):206-10. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man., Canada.
    Background: Accurate diagnosis of mosquito allergy has been hampered by the laborious task of obtaining mosquito salivary allergens. We have previously studied 3 recombinant (r) Aedes aegypti mosquito salivary allergens: rAed a 1, rAed a 2 and rAed a 3. Here, we report the expression, purification, identification and evaluation of rAed a 4, a 67-kDa α-glucosidase. Read More

    Zika: what we know and don't know.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 9;24:33. Epub 2016 May 9.
    Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Since the initial reports of a link between Zika and microcephaly, researchers across the world began working toward understanding the virus. In a short amount of time, Zika has become a household name, prompting worldwide concern. The virus is spread rapidly by mosquito bites. Read More

    Protection of horse ears against Simulid parasitism: Efficacy of a mammal semiochemical solution over 10hours.
    Vet Parasitol 2016 Aug 9;227:15-9. Epub 2016 Jul 9.
    IRSEA, Quartier Salignan 84400 Apt, France. Electronic address:
    Hematophagous insects can be vectors of pathogens and cause significant economic loss in zootechnical production. Among biting insects, many dipteran species feed on horse blood. The black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) group, is responsible for several disorders in horses and inflicts painful bites that lead to undesirable behaviours in horses, particularly when bites occur in sensitive areas such as the inner ear. Read More

    Specific IgE sensitization to honey bee venom and auto-injector adrenaline prescriptions for Japanese beekeepers.
    Allergol Int 2017 Jan 8;66(1):149-151. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

    [Not Available].
    Lakartidningen 2016 Aug 4;113. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Futurum - Akademin för hälsa och vård - Länssjukhuset Ryhov Jönköping, Sweden Futurum - Akademin för hälsa och vård - Länssjukhuset Ryhov Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bee and wasp stings can cause allergic reactions. Although the local reactions are more frequent, anaphylaxis due to insect stings can be potentially fatal. Rapid recognition of anaphylaxis is therefore critical and reactions should immediately be treated with i. Read More

    Composition and genetics of malaria vector populations in the Central African Republic.
    Malar J 2016 Jul 26;15(1):387. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Unit of Insect Vector Genetics and Genomics, Department of Parasites and Insect Vectors, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015, Paris, France.
    Background: In many African countries malaria has declined sharply due to a synergy of actions marked by the introduction of vector control strategies, but the disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Central African Republic (CAR). An entomological study was initiated with the aim to characterize the malaria vectors in Bangui, the capital of CAR, and determine their vector competence.

    Methods: A cross-sectional entomological study was conducted in 15 sites of the district of Bangui, the capital of CAR, in September-October 2013 and a second collection was done in four of those sites between November and December 2013. Read More

    Mosquito bite immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites: safety, tolerability, protective efficacy and humoral immunogenicity.
    Malar J 2016 Jul 22;15(1):377. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    US Military Malaria Vaccine Program, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
    Background: In this phase 1 clinical trial, healthy adult, malaria-naïve subjects were immunized with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfRAS) by mosquito bite and then underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). The PfRAS model for immunization against malaria had previously induced >90 % sterile protection against homologous CHMI. This study was to further explore the safety, tolerability and protective efficacy of the PfRAS model and to provide biological specimens to characterize protective immune responses and identify protective antigens in support of malaria vaccine development. Read More

    Changes in the Expression of MicroRNA in the Buildup Phase of Wasp Venom Immunotherapy: A Pilot Study.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 22;170(2):97-100. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Department of Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective method of treatment in allergy to wasp venom. However, its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The aim of this study is to describe changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in patients undergoing the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy. Read More

    LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF MALARIA EPIDEMIOLOGY IN AN ISOLATED VILLAGE IN WESTERN THAILAND: I. STUDY SITE AND ADULT ANOPHELINE BIONOMICS.
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2016 May;47(3):341-65
    This is the first in a series of papers describing the epidemiology of malaria in an isolated village in western Thailand. The study site was the village of Kong Mong Tha, located in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. In this paper we present an overview of the study site and results from our adult anopheline mosquito surveillance conducted over 56 consecutive months from June 1999 until January 2004. Read More

    Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.
    Autoimmun Rev 2016 Sep 8;15(9):923-30. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. Read More

    Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2016 May-Jun;49(3):361-4
    Laboratório de Patologia de Moléstias Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.
    Introduction: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated.

    Methods: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. Read More

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