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    Nonbacterial Causes of Lymphangitis with Streaking.
    J Am Board Fam Med 2016 11/12;29(6):808-812
    From the New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (BEC); and the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York (ARN, MKP).
    Background: Lymphangitic streaking, characterized by linear erythema on the skin, is most commonly observed in the setting of bacterial infection. However, a number of nonbacterial causes can result in lymphangitic streaking. We sought to elucidate the nonbacterial causes of lymphangitic streaking that may mimic bacterial infection to broaden clinicians' differential diagnosis for patients presenting with lymphangitic streaking. Read More

    Papular urticaria: A review of causal agents in Colombia.
    Biomedica 2016 Dec 1;36(4):632-645. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia.
    Papular urticaria is a chronic allergic reaction induced by insect bites, which is common in the tropics. The objective of this review was to deepen on epidemiological and immunological aspects of this disease, focused on data published in Latin American countries.We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature through electronic search on the epidemiology of papular urticaria, the entomological characteristics of the causative agents and associated immunological mechanisms. Read More

    Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 19;164:216-225. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Laboratório de Genética de Populações e Evolução de Mosquitos Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, n° 2936, Bairro Aleixo, CEP 69.067-375 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Read More

    Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 2;164:369-374. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan 00920, Puerto Rico. Electronic address:
    An important step to incriminate a mosquito as a vector of a disease pathogen is finding evidence of direct contact between the mosquito and humans. Typically, this is accomplished through landing/biting catches, or host blood meal analysis in engorged mosquitoes via immunologic assays. An alternate approach is to identify the presence of specific mosquito anti-saliva protein antibodies in the blood of exposed hosts. Read More

    DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 16;164:33-40. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Walai Rukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham, 44150 Thailand,. Electronic address:
    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. Read More

    Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.
    Genet Mol Res 2016 Aug 26;15(3). Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brasil.
    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. Read More

    Coping with cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in allergy diagnosis.
    Allergo J Int 2016;25(4):98-105. Epub 2016 Jun 25.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria.
    A relevant proportion of allergy diagnosis is accomplished by in vitro determination of specific immunglobulin E (sIgE) to extracts from suspected allergens. Such extracts inevitably contain glycoproteins, which may react with patients' IgE. In the case of plant and insect allergens, the relevant epitope structure is an α-1,3-fucose on the Asn-linked sugar residue of so-called N-glycans. Read More

    High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2016 Sep;111(9):561-9
    Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Unité d'Entomologie Médicale, Cayenne, Guyane, France.
    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. Read More

    rAed a 4: A New 67-kDa Aedes aegypti Mosquito Salivary Allergen for the Diagnosis of Mosquito Allergy.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 8;170(3):206-10. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man., Canada.
    Background: Accurate diagnosis of mosquito allergy has been hampered by the laborious task of obtaining mosquito salivary allergens. We have previously studied 3 recombinant (r) Aedes aegypti mosquito salivary allergens: rAed a 1, rAed a 2 and rAed a 3. Here, we report the expression, purification, identification and evaluation of rAed a 4, a 67-kDa α-glucosidase. Read More

    Protection of horse ears against Simulid parasitism: Efficacy of a mammal semiochemical solution over 10hours.
    Vet Parasitol 2016 Aug 9;227:15-9. Epub 2016 Jul 9.
    IRSEA, Quartier Salignan 84400 Apt, France. Electronic address:
    Hematophagous insects can be vectors of pathogens and cause significant economic loss in zootechnical production. Among biting insects, many dipteran species feed on horse blood. The black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) group, is responsible for several disorders in horses and inflicts painful bites that lead to undesirable behaviours in horses, particularly when bites occur in sensitive areas such as the inner ear. Read More

    Specific IgE sensitization to honey bee venom and auto-injector adrenaline prescriptions for Japanese beekeepers.
    Allergol Int 2017 Jan 8;66(1):149-151. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

    Changes in the Expression of MicroRNA in the Buildup Phase of Wasp Venom Immunotherapy: A Pilot Study.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 22;170(2):97-100. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Department of Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective method of treatment in allergy to wasp venom. However, its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The aim of this study is to describe changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in patients undergoing the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy. Read More

    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2016 May;47(3):341-65
    This is the first in a series of papers describing the epidemiology of malaria in an isolated village in western Thailand. The study site was the village of Kong Mong Tha, located in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. In this paper we present an overview of the study site and results from our adult anopheline mosquito surveillance conducted over 56 consecutive months from June 1999 until January 2004. Read More

    Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.
    Autoimmun Rev 2016 Sep 8;15(9):923-30. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. Read More

    [Main parasitic skin disorders].
    Rev Med Interne 2017 Jan 29;38(1):17-27. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Service de dermatologie, hôpital Henri Mondor, AP-HP, université Paris-Est, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.
    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. Read More

    Got the Travel Bug? A Review of Common Infections, Infestations, Bites, and Stings Among Returning Travelers.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Oct;17(5):451-462
    Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    The popularity of international travel continues to increase among Americans, even though they often experience subsequent illness on return from their journey. The pathogens responsible are not necessarily endemic to the destination itself but are often the result of poor sanitary conditions or activities engaged in while away. Skin disease ranks third among all medical concerns in returning travelers. Read More

    Zika--an emerging infectious disease. The risk assessment from Polish perspective.
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016 ;70(1):1-6, 93-7
    Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Department of Public Health.
    In the last years, attention has been paid to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, the emerging vector-borne disease. It is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area, South America and Caribbean. The etiology, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the diagnostic possibilities in the aim to assessing the risk of its introduction to Poland. Read More

    [Zika virus: a public health overview on epidemiology, clinical practice and prevention].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2016 Mar-Apr;72(2):161-80
    Dipartimento di Biomedicina e Prevenzione Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italia.
    Zika virus is an arbovirus mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. During the last months, the attention of Public Health Institutions has been drawn by a significant increase of microcephaly cases in Brasil and analyses highlighted a connection between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and fetal microcephaly. Since 2015, many Zika virus outbreaks have been identified in South America and there is concern about the spread of the virus in areas where competent vectors are present. Read More

    Analysis of a model of gambiense sleeping sickness in humans and cattle.
    J Biol Dyn 2016 ;10:347-65
    a Centre Régional de Formation Doctorale en Mathématiques et Informatique (C.R.F.D.M.I), Faculté des Sciences , Université de Kinshasa , Kinshasa , R.D. Congo.
    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Nagana in cattle, commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by trypanosome protozoa transmitted by bites of infected tsetse flies. We present a deterministic model for the transmission of HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense between human hosts, cattle hosts and tsetse flies. The model takes into account the growth of the tsetse fly, from its larval stage to the adult stage. Read More

    [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].
    Bing Du Xue Bao 2016 Jan;32(1):121-7
    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. Read More

    New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2016 Jun;32(2):117-23
    3  Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Read More

    Ethnobotanical knowledge on botanical repellents employed in the African region against mosquito vectors - A review.
    Exp Parasitol 2016 Aug 31;167:103-8. Epub 2016 May 31.
    Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have. Read More

    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016 24;58:40. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil.
    In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Read More

    In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Jun 7;106:14-22. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Malaria transmission is a serious emergence in urban and semiurban areas worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. Malaria is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The extensive employ of synthetic pesticides leads to negative effects on human health and the environment. Read More

    [If you go looking for trouble you'll find it. Urticarial reactions to insects of our local areas].
    Rev Med Suisse 2016 Apr;12(513):691-7
    Itchy skin rashes are a frequent reason to seek medical advice. The symptoms may be caused by hypersensitivity reactions to arthropod bites, waterborne parasites or setae from moth caterpillars and are sometimes mistaken for spontaneous urticaria or eczema. Some of these pests are resurging in Switzerland and elsewhere and increasingly responsible for emergency consultation. Read More

    Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 May 13;65(18):479-80. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Read More

    The site of the bite: Leishmania interaction with macrophages, neutrophils and the extracellular matrix in the dermis.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 May 4;9:264. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Programa de Terapia Celular e Bioengenharia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis, are intracellular parasites, transmitted to humans via the bite of their sand fly vectors. Once inoculated, the promastigotes are exposed to the dermis, which is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), growth factors and its resident cells. Read More

    The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?
    Infect Dis Poverty 2016 Apr 19;5:37. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
    Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Medical & Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, 4702, QLD, Australia.
    Background: Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil.

    Discussion: Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A. Read More

    Clinacanthus nutans: A review of the medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 2016 Apr 10;9(4):402-9. Epub 2016 Mar 10.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. Read More

    Efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) against tabanid flies on horses evaluated in a field test in Switzerland.
    Vet Parasitol 2016 May 18;221:64-7. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Science, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland.
    Female tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance for horses because of their painful bites during blood feeding. They also play a primary role in mechanical transmission of a lentivirus causing Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a virus that has spread within Europe in recent years. According to the European law for products intended for use as a repellent on horses (recreational and sport horses), a field test is mandatory to demonstrate sufficient repellency of such a substance against the specific target fly species, but currently no agreed protocols are available for testing of potential repellents. Read More

    A highly infectious Plasmodium yoelii parasite, bearing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein.
    Malar J 2016 Apr 12;15:201. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    HIV and Malaria Vaccine Program, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Affiliate of The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is a major surface antigen present in the sporozoite (Spz) stage of a malaria parasite. RTS, S vaccine, the most clinically advanced malaria vaccine, consists of a large portion of Plasmodium falciparum CSP (PfCSP). A highly infectious, recombinant rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii parasite bearing a full-length PfCSP, PfCSP/Py Spz, was needed as a tool to evaluate the role of PfCSP in mediating, protective, anti-malaria immunity in a mouse model. Read More

    Correlations between household occupancy and malaria vector biting risk in rural Tanzanian villages: implications for high-resolution spatial targeting of control interventions.
    Malar J 2016 Apr 12;15:199. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Background: Fine-scale targeting of interventions is increasingly important where epidemiological disease profiles depict high geographical stratifications. This study verified correlations between household biomass and mosquito house-entry using experimental hut studies, and then demonstrated how geographical foci of mosquito biting risk can be readily identified based on spatial distributions of household occupancies in villages.

    Methods: A controlled 4 × 4 Latin square experiment was conducted in rural Tanzania, in which no, one, three or six adult male volunteers slept under intact bed nets, in experimental huts. Read More

    The Basophil Activation Test Is Not a Useful Screening Tool for Hymenoptera Venom-Related Anaphylaxis in Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 8;169(2):125-9. Epub 2016 Apr 8.
    Section of Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients are at a high risk for anaphylaxis, with Hymenoptera as the main culprit. A screening instrument to identify which patients are sensitized to Hymenoptera before they experience anaphylaxis would therefore be of great value. The basophil activation test (BAT) is proposed as a possible tool for diagnosing Hymenoptera venom-related allergy (HVA), especially in patients in whom conventional allergy tests yield contradictory results. Read More

    IgE Reactivity of Recombinant Pac c 3 from the Asian Needle Ant (Pachycondyla chinensis).
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 5;169(2):93-100. Epub 2016 Apr 5.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Allergy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Stings from the Asian needle ant are an important cause of anaphylaxis in East Asia. A 23-kDa protein homologous to antigen 5 is the major allergen produced by these ants. In this study, we aimed to produce a recombinant antigen 5 allergen, Pac c 3. Read More

    West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.
    Acta Trop 2016 Jul 31;159:106-10. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Laboratory of Vector Ecology, 13 Place Pasteur, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia. Electronic address:
    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. Read More

    A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2016 Apr 2;172:14-20. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Institute for Experimental Pathology, Biomedical Center, University of Iceland, Keldur, Keldnavegur 3, 112 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Read More

    Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2016 Jan-Mar(1):26-32
    The attempt to combine Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis into one species has been unsupported by microbiologists due to the specific features of the epidemiology and clinical presentations of their induced diseases and to basic differences in their virulence. Pseudotuberculosis is predominantly a relatively mild human intestinal infection transmitted through contaminated food and plague is an acute generalized disease with high mortality, which is most frequently transmitted by the bites of infected fleas. Y. Read More

    Night of the living thrips: an unusual outbreak of Thysanoptera dermatitis.
    Cutis 2016 Mar;97(3):E13-6
    Juva Skin and Laser Center, New York, New York, USA.
    Identifying the etiology of a cutaneous eruption in the setting of an acute cluster outbreak is of utmost importance due to the inherent potential public health impact. The differential diagnosis ranges from innocuous arthropod bites to more concerning causes such as infection, medication reaction, and environmental exposure. We report the simultaneous presentation of 15 US Marines who presented with numerous discrete papular skin eruptions. Read More

    Safety of Ultrarush Venom Immunotherapy: Comparison Between Children and Adults.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2016 ;26(1):40-7
    Background: The ultrarush protocol is an attractive approach in the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy (VIT-UR). However, the degree of risk of VIT-UR in children remains unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the safety of VIT-UR in children and adults. Read More

    Relationship of annual entomological inoculation rates to malaria transmission indices, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2016 Mar;53(1):46-53
    Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Port Harcourt, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.
    Background & Objectives: Generally, indepth understanding of the epidemiology of malaria is considered a prerequisite for planning effective control measures in the endemic regions like sub-Saharan Africa. This study focuses on the relationship of entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) to malaria incidence and prevalence rates across eco-vegetational zones in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

    Methods: Mosquito sampling was undertaken in seven towns/villages in seven local government areas (LGAs) in three eco-vegetational zones. Read More

    Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar 21;10(3):e0004509. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
    Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. Read More

    Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar 17;10(3):e0004553. Epub 2016 Mar 17.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Background: Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. Read More

    Identification of a Tsal152-75 salivary synthetic peptide to monitor cattle exposure to tsetse flies.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 Mar 15;9:149. Epub 2016 Mar 15.
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Unité Mixte de Recherche IRD-CIRAD 177, Interactions hôtes-vecteurs-parasites dans les maladies dues aux Trypanosomatidae, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, 34398 Cedex 5, France.
    Background: The saliva of tsetse flies contains a cocktail of bioactive molecules inducing specific antibody responses in hosts exposed to bites. We have previously shown that an indirect-ELISA test using whole salivary extracts from Glossina morsitans submorsitans was able to discriminate between (i) cattle from tsetse infested and tsetse free areas and (ii) animals experimentally exposed to low or high numbers of tsetse flies. In the present study, our aim was to identify specific salivary synthetic peptides that could be used to develop simple immunoassays to measure cattle exposure to tsetse flies. Read More

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