5,494 results match your criteria Bites Human

Molecular analyses of human rabies virus associated with encephalitis in two children in Gabon.

IJID Reg 2022 Mar 13;2:180-183. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Département de Virologie, Unité Emergence des Maladies Virales, Franceville, Gabon, BP 769 CIRMF Franceville, Gabon.

Rabies is a zoonotic neurological life-threatening neglected tropical disease present worldwide, and Gabon is listed as an endemic country. However, despite strong clinical suspicion in humans and molecular confirmation of rabies virus (RABV) infections in dogs for several decades, no molecularly confirmed human case in Gabon has ever been reported. In this study, we describe two cases of human rabies and provide the first molecular diagnostic report on suspected human rabies cases in Gabon. Read More

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Molecular Detection of and Species in Ticks Removed from Humans in the Republic of Korea.

Microorganisms 2022 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, 187 Osongsaenmyeong 2-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju 28159, Chungbuk, Korea.

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) are zoonotic tick-borne diseases transmitted via tick bites. To determine the state of human and infections caused by tick bites in the Republic of Korea (ROK), we conducted a nationwide investigation of human cases of tick bites in 2020. A total of 180 ticks were obtained, comprising (70. Read More

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Spreading of Infection in a Pet Rabbit Breeding and Possible Implications on Healed Bunnies.

Vet Sci 2022 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", S. P. Casamassima km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Italy.

The number of pets such as dogs, cats, rabbits, and parrots has increased in European families. Social benefits to owners such as decreasing feelings of loneliness and anxiety are provided by pets which are also used in Animal-assisted Therapy (AAT). Nevertheless, human-animal interactions are also associated with health problems including allergies, asthma, and zoonosis. Read More

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Description of human anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis care notifications in Brazil, 2014-2019.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2022 ;31(2):e2021627

Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Objective: To analyze human anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis notifications in Brazil.

Methods: This was a descriptive study using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System in Brazil, from 2014 to 2019.

Results: A total of 4,033,098 anti-rabies medical consultations were notified, averaging 672,183 a year. Read More

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Assessment of malaria transmission intensity and insecticide resistance mechanisms in three rural areas of the Moyen Ogooué Province of Gabon.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 20;15(1):217. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon.

Background: Vector control is considered to be the most successful component of malaria prevention programs and a major contributor to the reduction of malaria incidence over the last two decades. However, the success of this strategy is threatened by the development of resistance to insecticides and behavioural adaptations of vectors. The aim of this study was to monitor malaria transmission and the distribution of insecticide resistance genes in Anopheles populations from three rural areas of the Moyen Ogooué Province of Gabon. Read More

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Potential distributions of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and its vector Dipetalogaster maxima highlight areas at risk of Chagas disease transmission in Baja California Sur, Mexico, under climate change.

Med Vet Entomol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Dipetalogaster maxima is a primary vector of Chagas disease in the Cape region of Baja California Sur, Mexico. The geographic distribution of D. maxima is limited to this small region of the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico. Read More

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Proteomic insight into the venom composition of the largest European rear-fanged snake, .

Toxicon X 2022 Sep 10;15:100130. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

IBMM, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, ENSCM, 34095, Montpellier, France.

Snake envenomations constitute a worldwide neglected tropical disease, with the vast majority of lethal bites inflicted by front-fanged snakes from the viperid and elapid groups. Rear-fanged snakes (colubrids) were often considered harmless and as a result, are much less studied, but several documented deaths have suggested potent venom in this group as well. The largest European snake (), known as the "Montpellier snake", is such a rear-fanged snake that belongs to the Lamprophiidae family. Read More

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September 2022

nAnopheles blood meal sources and entomological indicators related to Plasmodium transmission in malaria endemic areas of Colombia.

Acta Trop 2022 Jun 14:106567. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Grupo de Microbiología Molecular, Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address:

Malaria is an important public health problem, caused by Plasmodium parasites which are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes that bite humans to obtain blood. The aim of this work was to identify the blood feeding sources of Anopheles female mosquitoes and calculate their entomological indices in relation to Plasmodium transmission. Mosquitoes were collected in malaria endemic localities of the Bajo Cauca and Pacific regions of Colombia using human landing catch and barrier screens, from 18:00 - 24:00 hr, in 2018-2021. Read More

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Retrograde Lymph Flow in the Lymphatic Vessels in Limb Lymphedema.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Australian Lymphoedema Education, Research and Treatment (ALERT), Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Retrograde movement of lymph due to damaged and/or incompetent valves in the lymphatic vessels has been considered a pathological feature of lymphedema. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of retrograde lymph flow and the characteristics of patients with this condition using indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography.

Methods: An audit of 679 patients with upper or lower limb swelling who underwent ICG lymphography was undertaken over a 4-year period. Read More

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Entomological indicators of malaria transmission prior to a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a 'lethal house lure' intervention in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Malar J 2022 Jun 15;21(1):188. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Vector Control Product Evaluation Centre-Institut Pierre Richet (VCPEC-IPR), Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.

Background: A study was conducted prior to implementing a cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRT) of a lethal house lure strategy in central Côte d'Ivoire to provide baseline information on malaria indicators in 40 villages across five health districts.

Methods: Human landing catches (HLC) were performed between November and December 2016, capturing mosquitoes indoors and outdoors between 18.00 and 08. Read More

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discovery of a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes lethality of cobra snake venom.

MAbs 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2085536

IONTAS Ltd .; Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom.

The monocled cobra () is among the most feared snakes in Southeast Asia due to its toxicity, which is predominantly derived from long-chain α-neurotoxins. The only specific treatment for snakebite envenoming is antivenom based on animal-derived polyclonal antibodies. Despite the lifesaving importance of these medicines, major limitations in safety, supply consistency, and efficacy create a need for improved treatments. Read More

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Global seroprevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of in human populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 06;7(6)

The Institute for Tropical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China

Introduction: () infection, the most frequent tick-transmitted disease, is distributed worldwide. This study aimed to describe the global seroprevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of in human populations.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and other sources for relevant studies of all study designs through 30 December 2021 with the following keywords: '' AND 'infection rate'; and observational studies were included if the results of human antibody seroprevalence surveys were reported, the laboratory serological detection method reported and be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Read More

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Assessment of rabies immune globulin dose rounding at a university health system.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 Jun 3;58:141-147. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Wellstar Kennestone Hospital, 677 Church St., , Marietta, GA 30060, United States of America. Electronic address:

Purpose: Describe a dose rounding strategy for rabies immune globulin (RIG) administration.

Methods: Multicenter, retrospective, observational review of patients that received RIG following an exposure from an animal with potential to transmit rabies infection in one health-system from March 2011 through December 2021. The primary outcome was to describe the RIG dose rounding strategy and population of patients that received RIG rounded to the nearest vial size compared to those that did not. Read More

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Circulation of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 in Humans and Mosquitoes During an Outbreak in El Quseir City, Egypt.

Infect Drug Resist 2022 30;15:2713-2721. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

Introduction: In recent decades, the rate of infection with dengue virus (DENV) has risen significantly, now affecting nearly 400 million individuals annually. Dengue fever among humans is caused via specific mosquito vectors bites. Sporadic cases have been reported in Egypt. Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus native mitral valve endocarditis associated with bed bug bites - A case report and review of the literature.

IDCases 2022 20;29:e01517. Epub 2022 May 20.

Internal Medicine department, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA.

is a leading cause of community acquired bacteremia and infective endocarditis is a part of the normal skin flora in approximately one third of the human population. Infective endocarditis due to can cause several complications and is associated with increased mortality. A 48-year-old female with no significant medical history presented with bacteremia and native mitral valve endocarditis. Read More

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Vesicular Eruption Secondary to Bites by Larval Amblyomma americanum.

Cutis 2022 Apr;109(4):224-227

Department of Dermatology, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, New York.

Tick-borne illness is an increasingly concerning cause of human infectious disease. Not only do ticks transmit disease, but their bites also may cause impressive local reactions. This report highlights a case of a widespread vesicular eruption secondary to bites by larval Amblyomma americanum sustained by a 58-year-old woman. Read More

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Novel Case Presentation of Abulia After Lone Star Tick Bite As Evidenced by Raised Titers of Alpha-Gal Specific IgM Immunoglobulin and a Possibility of Alpha-Gal Driven Hypothalamic Dysfunction As the Pathomechanism.

Cureus 2022 Apr 28;14(4):e24551. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Neurology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.

Galactose-α-1,3-galactose, an oligosaccharide epitope better acknowledged as α-Gal, is present in non-primate mammal meat, tick bites, microorganisms, and vaccines as a glycoprotein or glycolipid moiety. This can manifest hyperimmune reactions as it enters the human body, known as α-Gal syndrome (AGS). AGS and Guillain-Barré syndrome share cognate immunogenic pathomechanism via conquering immune tolerance further speculating galactose navigated neurological sequel. Read More

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Time to Revise the WHO Categories for Severe Rabies Virus Exposures-Category IV?

Viruses 2022 05 22;14(5). Epub 2022 May 22.

LYSSA LLC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Rabies is a devastating disease and affects millions of people globally, yet it is preventable with appropriate and timely postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The current WHO exposure categories (Categories I, II, and III) need revision, with a special Category IV for severe exposures. Rare cases of PEP failure have occurred in severe bites to the head and neck. Read More

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Ornithodoros cf. mimon infected with a spotted fever group Rickettsia in Brazil.

Acta Trop 2022 May 24;233:106541. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick primarily associated with bats that also infest other animals including birds, opossums and humans. In this paper, we report the finding of an argasid species resembling O. mimon, which similarly may be found in human dwellings and parasitize humans in Brazil. Read More

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Attempt for a Recombinant Thrombomodulin Alpha Treatment in a Rat Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Model Using Yamakagashi () Venom.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 05 2;14(5). Epub 2022 May 2.

Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo 104-8560, Japan.

Yamakagashi () inhabits Japan widely, and incidents involving its bites occur every year. Its bite causes disseminated intravascular coagulation when the amount of infused venom is high, and it can be fatal if treatment with Yamakagashi antivenom is delayed. Although Yamakagashi antivenom is used for treating Yamakagashi bites, it is an unapproved drug and its capacity for storage is limited. Read More

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Identification and Distribution of Human-Biting Ticks in Northwestern Spain.

Insects 2022 May 18;13(5). Epub 2022 May 18.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Group (e-INTRO), Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca-Research Centre for Tropical Diseases at the University of Salamanca (IBSAL-CIETUS), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.

Ticks transmit a wide diversity of pathogens to a great variety of hosts, including humans. We conducted a tick surveillance study in northwestern Spain between 2014 and 2019. Ticks were removed from people and identified. Read More

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Food Insecurity and Health-Related Concerns Among Elementary Schoolteachers During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Prev Chronic Dis 2022 05 26;19:E27. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1200 Herman Pressler RAS E-643, Houston, TX 77030. Email:

Introduction: US school systems underwent major upheaval, including closures, implementation of virtual and/or hybrid learning, and stringent infection mitigation protocols, during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to examine the association between food insecurity and perceived health, perceived stress, and social determinants of health concerns among elementary schoolteachers serving predominantly low-income children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Brighter Bites, a nonprofit organization that weekly distributes fresh fruits and vegetables and nutrition education materials to more than 300 schools serving racial and ethnic minority populations with low income, conducts annual surveys of participating teachers to help determine subsequent efforts to support schools and families during the school year. Read More

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Mast Cell-Derived Proteases Induce Endothelial Permeability and Vascular Damage in Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 25:e0129422. Epub 2022 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, Hebei, China.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever acquired by tick bites. Whether mast cells (MCs), the body's first line of defense against pathogens, might influence immunity or pathogenesis during SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection remained unknown. Here, we found that SFTSV can cause MC infection and degranulation, resulting in the release of the vasoactive mediators, chymase, and tryptase, which can directly act on endothelial cells, break the tight junctions of endothelial cells and threaten the integrity of the microvascular barrier, leading to microvascular hyperpermeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Read More

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Immunogenicity of snake α-neurotoxins and the CD4 T cell epitopes.

Toxicon 2022 Jul 21;214:136-144. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

Snakebite envenomation is an important medical problem in numerous parts of the world causing about 2.7 million envenomations and between 81,000 and 138,000 deaths ayear. Antivenoms (AVs) are time proven effective therapeutics for snakebite envenomation. Read More

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JMM Profile: Louping ill virus.

J Med Microbiol 2022 May;71(5)

Vector-borne diseases, Virology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, Weybridge, KT15 3NB, UK.

Louping ill virus (LIV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus within the genus that is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by bites from infected ticks, the arthropod vector. The virus affects livestock in upland areas of Great Britain and Ireland, resulting in a febrile illness that can progress to fatal encephalitis. Prevention of the disease is facilitated by combining acaricide treatment, land management and vaccination strategies. Read More

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Factors Limiting the Appropriate Use of Rabies Post-exposure Prophylaxis by Health Professionals in Brazil.

Front Vet Sci 2022 6;9:846994. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Public Health, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil.

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is necessary to prevent the fatal onset of rabies but requires optimization to avoid overuse in populations at risk of rabies. In Brazil, the incidence of dog bites remains high, with almost half of dog-bite patients not receiving the PEP recommended by the Ministry of Health guidelines between 2008 and 2017. In this study, we aimed to identify the factors that limit the appropriate prescribing of PEP by interviewing health professionals responsible for PEP administration and completion of the 'Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration' (SINAN) form reporting human anti-rabies care for patients seeking health care after a dog bite. Read More

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Combining passive eating monitoring and ecological momentary assessment to characterize dietary lapses from a lifestyle modification intervention.

Appetite 2022 May 20;175:106090. Epub 2022 May 20.

Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital, 196 Richmond St., Providence, RI, 02903, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 222 Richmond St., Providence, RI, 02903, USA.

Dietary lapses (i.e., specific instances of nonadherence to recommended dietary goals) contribute to suboptimal weight loss outcomes during lifestyle modification programs. Read More

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Safety and immunogenicity of four-segmented Rift Valley fever virus in the common marmoset.

NPJ Vaccines 2022 May 18;7(1):54. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Virology and Molecular Biology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Wageningen University & Research, Lelystad, The Netherlands.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging mosquito-borne bunyavirus that is highly pathogenic to wild and domesticated ruminants, camelids, and humans. While animals are exclusively infected via mosquito bites, humans can also be infected via contact with contaminated tissues or blood. No human vaccine is available and commercialized veterinary vaccines do not optimally combine efficacy with safety. Read More

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Clinico-epidemiology and management of hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale spp.) bites in dogs.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):8232. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Human envenoming from the bite of the abundant hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale spp.) (HNPV) is a frequent occurrence with victims experiencing unpleasant and sometimes life-threatening consequences. Further, clinico-pathology, treatment and management measures in HNPV envenomed dogs are under recognized. Read More

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A mechanistic model of snakebite as a zoonosis: Envenoming incidence is driven by snake ecology, socioeconomics and its impacts on snakes.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 12;16(5):e0009867. Epub 2022 May 12.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Snakebite is the only WHO-listed, not infectious neglected tropical disease (NTD), although its eco-epidemiology is similar to that of zoonotic infections: envenoming occurs after a vertebrate host contacts a human. Accordingly, snakebite risk represents the interaction between snake and human factors, but their quantification has been limited by data availability. Models of infectious disease transmission are instrumental for the mitigation of NTDs and zoonoses. Read More

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