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    Tick bite and Lyme disease-related emergency department encounters in New Hampshire, 2010-2014.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Concord, NH, USA.
    Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in New Hampshire (NH). While LD is a reportable condition and cases are counted for public health surveillance, many more people receive care for tick bites or diagnoses of LD than are reflected in surveillance data. NH's emergency department (ED) data system was queried for tick bite and LD-related encounters. Read More

    Efficacy and user acceptability of transfluthrin-treated sisal and hessian decorations for protecting against mosquito bites in outdoor bars.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 20;10(1):197. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, P.O Box 53, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. Read More

    Haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteases and human ADAMs cleave LRP5/6, which disrupts cell-cell adhesions in vitro and induces haemorrhage in vivo.
    FEBS J 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Japan.
    Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are members of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteins, as they possess similar domains. SVMPs are known to elicit snake venom-induced haemorrhage; however, the target proteins and cleavage sites are not known. In this work, we identified a target protein of vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), an SVMP, relevant to its ability to induce haemorrhage. Read More

    Community-based survey during rabies outbreaks in Rangjung town, Trashigang, eastern Bhutan, 2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 17;17(1):281. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Regional Livestock Development Centre, Department of Livestock, Khangma, Trashigang, Bhutan.
    Background: Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. Read More

    Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 14;11(4):e0005553. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More

    Distribution and medical aspects of Loxosceles rufescens, one of the most invasive spiders of the world (Araneae: Sicariidae).
    Toxicon 2017 Jun 10;132:19-28. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
    Loxosceles rufescens is a circum-Mediterranean spider species, potentially harmful to humans. Its native area covers the Mediterranean Basin and Near East. Easily spread with transported goods, it is meanwhile an alien and invasive species to nearly all other continents and many islands. Read More

    Anti-Trypanosomatid Elemanolide Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 8;22(4). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry (IPBP), University of Münster, PharmaCampus Corrensstraße 48, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) threatening millions of peoples' lives with thousands infected. The disease is endemic in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the kinetoplastid "protozoan" parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of infected tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    Successful strategies implemented towards the elimination of canine rabies in the Western Hemisphere.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Apr 4;143:1-12. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, 30329 GA, USA.
    Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. Read More

    Unusual Aetiology of Pasteurella canis Biovar 2 Causing Dacryocystitis in HIV Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):DD01-DD03. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Senior Resident, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India .
    Pasteurella species are zoonotic bacterial pathogens implicated very infrequently in various human infections following animal bites or licks usually of dogs and cats. This case report described a rare clinical presentation of dacryocystitis caused by P.canis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive young male patient involved in caring of cattle. Read More

    Temporal dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus in northern Europe: epidemiological implications.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Mar 31;10(1):166. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Background: Tick-borne pathogens pose an increasing threat to human and veterinary health across the northern hemisphere. While the seasonal activity of ticks is largely determined by climatic conditions, host-population dynamics are also likely to affect tick abundance. Consequently, abundance fluctuations of rodents in northern Europe are expected to be translated into tick dynamics, and can hence potentially affect the circulation of tick-borne pathogens. Read More

    HUMAN BITE INJURIES ON THE JOS PLATEAU.
    J West Afr Coll Surg 2016 Apr-Jun;6(2):1-19
    Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
    Background: Human bite injuries with the associated morbidity are not uncommon in this environment.

    Objective: To determine the pattern, management modalities and treatment outcome of human bites in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Design: A prospective study of all human bite injuries managed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2014. Read More

    How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Mar 13;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. Read More

    From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?
    PeerJ 2017 16;5:e2998. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Dipartimento di Sanitá Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Laboratory affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia - Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
    Background: Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. Read More

    What's eating you? lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
    Cutis 2017 Feb;99(2):111-114
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
    Amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern United States. Since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. Today, A americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. Read More

    There Is a Method to the Madness: Strategies to Study Host Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes.
    Front Microbiol 2017 2;8:328. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health Albany, NY, USA.
    Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. Read More

    [The Vulnerable Heel of Achilles: Intratendinous Abscess Following a Cat Bite].
    Z Orthop Unfall 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Klinik für Unfallchirurgie und Orthopädie, BG Klinikum Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin.
    An 83-year-old patient suffered a cat bite dorsally to the Achilles tendon. In the further course, he developed an isolated intratendinous abscess of the Achilles tendon, which was surgically revised twice and subsequently healed with antibiotic treatment. In Germany, about 40,000 bite injuries of different origins occur annually. Read More

    Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 16;11(3):e0005249. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Read More

    Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Mar 10. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Centro de Rickettsiosis y Enfermedades Transmitidas por Artrópodos Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies risk in community members and healthcare professionals: Pétionville, Haiti, 2013.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Mar 14:1-11. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology,Atlanta,GA,USA.
    Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. Read More

    A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China.
    Korean J Parasitol 2017 Feb 28;55(1):61-64. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.
    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son's feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Read More

    [Production and molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum recombinant circumsporozoite protein with 37 NANP and 4 NVDP epitopes].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Jan;51(1):41-51
    Turkish Red Crescent Blood Donation Center, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, the leading cause of death amongst the parasitic diseases. The disease is transmitted to human by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) data, there were an estimated 214 million malaria cases and estimated 438. Read More

    Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Are Highly Permissive To Productive Infection by Zika Virus.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 10;7:44286. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a recently re-emerged flavivirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bites but also from mother to fetus and by sexual intercourse. We here show that primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) are highly permissive to ZIKV infection and support its in vitro replication. ZIKV envelope expression was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas double-stranded viral RNA colocalized with vimentin filaments to the perinuclear region. Read More

    MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 9;11(3):e0005245. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. Read More

    Bites before and after bedtime can carry a high risk of human malaria infection.
    Malar J 2017 Feb 28;16(1):91. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, PO Box 78373, Kiko Avenue, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: Understanding biting distribution of potentially infectious (parous) mosquitoes at various hours of the night would be useful in establishing the likely impact of bed nets on malaria transmission. Bed nets are highly effective at preventing biting by older malaria vectors, which occurs when most people are in bed. However, this behaviour is likely to vary across ecological settings and among mosquito populations. Read More

    American Academy of Asthma, Allergy & Immunology membership experience with venom immunotherapy in chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2017 Mar;38(2):121-129
    Background: Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.

    Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons. Read More

    Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Mar;23(3):463-467
    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. Read More

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 Apr;26(7):1391-1406
    Pfizer WRD, Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, The Portway Building, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GS, UK.
    Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P < 5×10-8) associations were identified. Read More

    Clinacanthus nutans: a review on ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological properties.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1093-1113
    a Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link , Gadong , Brunei Darussalam.
    Context: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention for their hidden therapeutic potential. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f) Lindau (Acanthaceae) (CN) is endemic in Southeast Asia. Read More

    New records of Ornithodoros puertoricensis Fox 1947 (Ixodida: Argasidae) parasitizing humans in rural and urban dwellings, Panama.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Feb 5. Epub 2017 Feb 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, TX, USA; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, TX, USA.
    The presence of ticks inside human constructions was evaluated in two localities from Colon province (Charco La Piedra and Espinar) and one from Panama province (Ancon, City of Panama). In two of houses, eight people from Charco La Piedra and one from Ancón reported "insect bites," which produced blisters for several weeks. The investigation resulted in the collection of argasid ticks, which were identified by morphology and sequencing the 16s ribosomal RNA gene, and later evaluated for the presence of relapsing fever Borrelia DNA. Read More

    Prevalence of dengue and diversity of cultivable bacteria in vector Aedes aegypti (L.) from two dengue endemic districts, Kanchanpur and Parsa of Nepal.
    J Health Popul Nutr 2017 Feb 13;36(1). Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Institute of science and technology, Tribhuvan University, Natural History Museum, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Dengue fever, an endemic arboviral disease, represents one of the major public health concerns in Nepal. It is transmitted by bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the former being primary vector. The bacterial community plays a significant role in biology of mosquitoes; however, the bacterial communities of primary vector A. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    The effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork on eating rate, satiation, and food intake.
    Appetite 2017 Jun 10;113:7-13. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    The Caregiver Network, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:
    Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation, as people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. Without assistance, eating rate is difficult to modify due to its automatic nature. In the current study, participants used an augmented fork that aimed to decelerate their rate of eating. Read More

    Modeling the transmission dynamics and control of rabies in China.
    Math Biosci 2017 Apr 8;286:65-93. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA. Electronic address:
    Human rabies was first recorded in ancient China in about 556 BC and is still one of the major public-health problems in China. From 1950 to 2015, 130,494 human rabies cases were reported in Mainland China with an average of 1977 cases per year. It is estimated that 95% of these human rabies cases are due to dog bites. Read More

    Arboviruses and the eye.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2017 1;3. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista Medical School, Rua Botucatu, 821, 1st Floor, São Paulo, SP 04023-062 Brazil.
    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease, however no specific treatment or vaccine is available for them. Read More

    Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 1;25(Suppl 1):12. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana.
    Introduction: Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. Read More

    Simian Immunodeficiency Virus seroreactivity in inhabitants from rural Cameroon frequently in contact with non-human primates.
    Virology 2017 Mar 27;503:76-82. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Virology Unit, Associated National Reference Center for HIV, University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Rouen, France; EA2656, GRAM, Rouen University, Rouen, France. Electronic address:
    Central African tropical forests are home to several species of non-human primates (NHPs), infected by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). It is well-known that HIV-1 epidemic is due to cross-transmission and adaptation of SIV to humans. The main goal of this work was to investigate if a NHP bite is a risk factor for SIV acquisition. Read More

    The transovarial transmission in the dynamics of dengue infection: Epidemiological implications and thresholds.
    Math Biosci 2017 Apr 25;286:1-15. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    UNICAMP - IMECC - DMA, Praça Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, 651, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The anthropophilic and peridomestic female mosquito Aedes aegypti bites humans to suck blood to maturate fertilized eggs, during which dengue virus can be spread between mosquito and human populations. Besides this route of transmission, there is a possibility of dengue virus being passed directly to offspring through transovarial (or vertical) transmission. The effects of both horizontal and transovarial transmission routes on the dengue virus transmission are assessed by mathematical modeling. Read More

    Uniqueness of the anterior dentition three-dimensionally assessed for forensic bitemark analysis.
    J Forensic Leg Med 2017 Feb 21;46:58-65. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Oral Health Sciences - Forensic Dentistry, KU Leuven & Dentistry, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    The uniqueness of the human dentition (UHD) is an important concept in the comparative process in bitemark analysis. During this analysis, the incisal edges of the suspects' teeth are matched with the bitemarks collected from the victim's body or crime scenes. Despite playing an essential part to exclude suspects, the UHD contained in the involved incisal tooth edges remains an assumption on bitemark level. Read More

    Remote Effect of Insecticide-Treated Nets and the Personal Protection against Malaria Mosquito Bites.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(1):e0170732. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    MIVEGEC (IRD 224 - CNRS 5290 - Université de Montpellier), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France.
    Experimental huts are part of the WHO process for testing and evaluation of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in semi-field conditions. Experimental Hut Trials (EHTs) mostly focus on two main indicators (i.e. Read More

    Burden of Bites by Dogs and Other Animals in Los Angeles County, California, 2009-2011.
    Public Health Rep 2016 Nov 27;131(6):800-808. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Epidemiology, Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze all animal-to-human bite reports during a 3-year period from a regional surveillance database. Results helped to inform local efforts to reduce and prevent animal-to-human bites.

    Methods: We reviewed all cases of animal-to-human bites occurring from 2009 through 2011 that were reported to the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health's Animal Bites Database. Read More

    Beyond the entomological inoculation rate: characterizing multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Zambia.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 26;10(1):45. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    The W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.
    Background: A commonly used measure of malaria transmission intensity is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR), defined as the product of the human biting rate (HBR) and sporozoite infection rate (SIR). The EIR excludes molecular parameters that may influence vector control and surveillance strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate Anopheles multiple blood feeding behavior (MBF) and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) within the mosquito host in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia. Read More

    Phlebotomine sandfly ecology on the Indian subcontinent: does village vegetation play a role in sandfly distribution in Bihar, India?
    Med Vet Entomol 2017 Jun 20;31(2):207-213. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Genesis Laboratories, India Private Ltd, Patna, India.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Read More

    Kinetics Extraction Modelling and Antiproliferative Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Water Extract.
    ScientificWorldJournal 2016 26;2016:7370536. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known "belalai gajah" or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg's model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549). Read More

    Comparison of two adult mosquito sampling methods with human landing catches in south-central Ethiopia.
    Malar J 2017 Jan 13;16(1):30. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 5003, 1432, Ås, Norway.
    Background: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. Read More

    Host-Seeking Phenology of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs in Northwestern California in Relation to Calendar Week, Woodland Type, and Weather Conditions.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jan 5;54(1):125-131. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Vectorborne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control
    Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal density is elevated. Models based on calendar week alone performed similarly to models based on calendar week and woodland type, or meteorological variables. Read More

    Probability of Transmission of Malaria from Mosquito to Human Is Regulated by Mosquito Parasite Density in Naïve and Vaccinated Hosts.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jan 12;13(1):e1006108. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom.
    Over a century since Ronald Ross discovered that malaria is caused by the bite of an infectious mosquito it is still unclear how the number of parasites injected influences disease transmission. Currently it is assumed that all mosquitoes with salivary gland sporozoites are equally infectious irrespective of the number of parasites they harbour, though this has never been rigorously tested. Here we analyse >1000 experimental infections of humans and mice and demonstrate a dose-dependency for probability of infection and the length of the host pre-patent period. Read More

    Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 11;10(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 813- Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.

    Methods: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Read More

    The risk of exposure to rickettsial infections and human granulocytic anaplasmosis associated with Ixodes ricinus tick bites in humans in Romania: A multiannual study.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Mar 29;8(3):375-378. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj Napoca, Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Cluj Napoca, Cluj, Romania.
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and spotted fever group Rickettsia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative tick-borne bacteria, among which several may cause clinical infections in humans. Several Rickettsia spp. and A. Read More

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