5,184 results match your criteria Bites Human

Individuals co-exposed to sand fly saliva and filarial parasites exhibit altered monocyte function.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 9;15(6):e0009448. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Autoimmunity and Translational Immunology, Precigen, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of Intrexon Corporation, Germantown, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: In Mali, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and filariasis are co-endemic. Previous studies in animal models of infection have shown that sand fly saliva enhance infectivity of Leishmania parasites in naïve hosts while saliva-specific adaptive immune responses may protect against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, the human immune response to Phlebotomus duboscqi (Pd) saliva, the principal sand fly vector in Mali, was found to be dichotomously polarized with some individuals having a Th1-dominated response and others having a Th2-biased response. Read More

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Mosquito-bite infection of humanized mice with chikungunya virus produces systemic disease with long-term effects.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 9;15(6):e0009427. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for acute to chronic arthralgias and neuropathies. Although it originated in central Africa, recent reports of disease have come from many parts of the world, including the Americas. While limiting human CHIKV cases through mosquito control has been used, it has not been entirely successful. Read More

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The human immune response to saliva of Phlebotomus alexandri, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq, and its relationship to sand fly exposure and infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 3;15(6):e0009378. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Infectious Diseases Division, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Sand fly saliva exposure plays an important role in immunity against leishmaniasis where it has mostly been associated with protection. Phlebotomus (Ph.) alexandri transmits Leishmania (L. Read More

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Representations of Free-Living and Unrestrained Dogs as an Emerging Public Health Issue in Australian Newspapers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 28;18(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

That dogs can live and breed as free-living animals contributes to public health risks including zoonotic transmission, dog bites, and compromising people's sense of safety in public spaces. In Australia, free-living dog populations are comprised of domestic dogs, dingoes, and dog-dingo hybrids, and are described using various terms (for example, stray or community), depending on social or geographic context. Urban expansion and regional migration mean that risks associated with contact between humans and free-living dogs are increasing. Read More

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Japanese Encephalitis in Small-Scale Pig Farming in Rural Cambodia: Pig Seroprevalence and Farmer Awareness.

Pathogens 2021 May 10;10(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Cambodia, but circulation of JE virus (JEV) among domestic pigs has previously only been studied in the southern part of the country. The main purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of JEV antibodies in smallholder pigs held in rural areas of Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Ratanakiri, and Stung Treng provinces, northeastern Cambodia. Another purpose was to identify possible associations between serologic status and other factors, such as reproductive disorders, and to investigate the farmers' knowledge of mosquito-borne diseases and use of preventive measures. Read More

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First Record of a Suspected Human-Pathogenic Species in Populations of the Bat Tick in Sweden.

Microorganisms 2021 May 20;9(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden.

The bat tick has been reported from Sweden to occasionally feed on humans resulting in disease symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate as a potential vector and reservoir of species. In 2015 and 2018 in south-central Sweden, ticks were collected from a wooden bat box harboring Soprano pipistrelle bats, . Read More

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Profiling Humoral Immune Response Against Pre-Erythrocytic and Erythrocytic Antigens of Malaria Parasites Among Neotropical Primates in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 13;11:678996. Epub 2021 May 13.

Grupo de Pesquisa em Biologia Molecular e Imunologia da malária, Instituto René Rachou/Fiocruz Minas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Human malaria due to zoonotic transmission has been recorded in the Atlantic Forest, an extra-Amazonian area in Brazil, which are a challenge for malaria control. Naturally acquired humoral immune response against pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic antigens of Neotropical primates (NP) was evaluated here to improve the knowledge about the exposure of those animals to the malaria transmission and support the identification of the potential reservoirs of the disease in the Atlantic Forest. Blood samples of 154 monkeys from three areas of the Atlantic Forest were used to identify IgG antibodies against peptides of the repeat region of the major pre-erythrocytic antigen, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), of (PvCSP), (Pb/PmCSP), and (PfCSP) by ELISA. Read More

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Ticking on Pandora's box: a prospective case-control study into 'other' tick-borne diseases.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 29;21(1):501. Epub 2021 May 29.

Amsterdam UMC, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Amsterdam Institute of Infection and Immunology, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22660 (1100 DD), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Tick-borne pathogens other than Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato - the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis - are common in Ixodes ricinus ticks. How often these pathogens cause human disease is unknown. In addition, diagnostic tools to identify such diseases are lacking or reserved to research laboratories. Read More

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Effects of the short-stitch technique for midline abdominal closure: short-term results from the randomised-controlled ESTOIH trial.

Hernia 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Tumorchirurgie, Wilhelminenspital, Montleartstr. 37, 1160, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: The short-stitch technique for midline laparotomy closure has been shown to reduce hernia rates, but long stitches remain the standard of care and the effect of the short-stitch technique on short-term results is not well known. The aim of this study was to compare the two techniques, using an ultra-long-term absorbable elastic suture material.

Methods: Following elective midline laparotomy, 425 patients in 9 centres were randomised to receive wound closure using the short-stitch (USP 2-0 single thread, n = 215) or long-stitch (USP 1 double loop, n = 210) technique with a poly-4-hydroxybutyrate-based suture material (Monomax). Read More

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Misconceptions about COVID-19 among older Rohingya (forcefully displaced Myanmar nationals) adults in Bangladesh: findings from a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 28;11(5):e050427. Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: Due to low health literacy and adverse situation in the camps, there are possibilities of misconceptions related to COVID-19 among the older Rohingya (forcefully displaced Myanmar nationals or FDMNs) adults in Bangladesh. The present research aimed to assess the level of misconceptions and the factors associated with it among the older FDMNs in Bangladesh.

Design: Cross-sectional. Read More

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Evaluation of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students at the University of Abomey-Calavi on rabies in Benin Republic, West Africa.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 4;38:235. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Research Unit on Communicable Diseases, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.

Introduction: rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonotic disease. Once clinical symptoms appear, rabies is fatal in almost 100% of cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students at the University of Abomey-Calavi in Benin on rabies in order to explore the factors that promote the occurrence of this zoonosis. Read More

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Identification of tick-borne pathogens by metagenomic next-generation sequencing in Dermacentor nuttalli and Ixodes persulcatus in Inner Mongolia, China.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 27;14(1):287. Epub 2021 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, PR China.

Background: Hard ticks act as arthropod vectors in the transmission of human and animal pathogens and are widely distributed in northern China. The aim of this study is to screen the important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) carried by hard ticks in Inner Mongolia using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and to estimate the risk of human infection imposed by tick bites.

Methods: The adult Dermacentor nuttalli (n = 203) and Ixodes persulcatus (n = 36) ticks feeding on cattle were collected. Read More

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Serological biomarker for assessing human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites during a randomized vector control intervention trial in northeastern Thailand.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 27;15(5):e0009440. Epub 2021 May 27.

Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Aedes mosquitoes are vectors for several major arboviruses of public health concern including dengue viruses. The relationships between Aedes infestation and disease transmission are complex wherein the epidemiological dynamics can be difficult to discern because of a lack of robust and sensitive indicators for predicting transmission risk. This study investigates the use of anti-Aedes saliva antibodies as a serological biomarker for Aedes mosquito bites to assess small scale variations in adult Aedes density and dengue virus (DENV) transmission risk in northeastern Thailand. Read More

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Knowledge, attitude, and practice study on animal bite, rabies, and its prevention in an urban community.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Feb 27;10(2):850-858. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chrompet, Chennai, India.

Introduction: Rabies is a neglected zoonotic tropical disease that usually affects the poorest communities. Rabies is 100% fatal and at the same time 100% preventable. A huge proportion of death due to rabies occurs in Asia and Africa, and India is reported to have the highest incidence of rabies. Read More

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February 2021

Bites by the noble false widow spider can induce -like symptoms and vector-borne bacterial infections with implications for public health: a case series.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 May 26:1-12. Epub 2021 May 26.

Venom Systems & Proteomics Lab, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Context: In recent years, the Noble false widow spider (Thorell, 1875) has expanded its range globally and may represent a potential threat to native ecosystems and public health. Increasing numbers in synanthropic habitats have led to more human encounters and envenomations. bites were previously classed as medically significant with similarities to bites from true black widows of the genus but deemed milder in onset, with symptoms generally ranging from mild to moderate. Read More

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Epidemiological, humanistic and economic burden of dog-mediated rabies in India: a systematic review protocol.

F1000Res 2021 18;10:32. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Health & Family Welfare, State Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 171009, India.

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. It is transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal and dog bites are responsible for around 95% of human cases. The disease is almost always fatal after the onset of symptoms. Read More

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Predicting potential future reduction in shark bites on people.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 31;8(3):201197. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Southern Shark Ecology Group, College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia.

Despite the low chance of a person being bitten by a shark, there are serious associated costs. Electronic deterrents are currently the only types of personal deterrent with empirical evidence of a substantial reduction in the probability of being bitten by a shark. We aimed to predict the number of people who could potentially avoid being bitten by sharks in Australia if they wear personal electronic deterrents. Read More

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Baby's first bites: Association between observed maternal feeding behavior and infant vegetable intake and liking.

Appetite 2021 May 21;165:105316. Epub 2021 May 21.

Leiden University, Institute of Education and Child Studies, P.O. Box 9555, 2300, RB, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Positive experiences with the introduction of solid food in infancy may lead to positive associations with feeding in both parent and infant. During this transitional period, parental feeding behavior and infant eating behavior might mutually reinforce each other. A feeding style that is found to be associated with positive child eating behavior, is sensitive feeding. Read More

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Human biting rhythm of Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902 (Diptera: Culicidae) and sleeping behaviour of pregnant women in a lagoon area in Southern Benin.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 22;14(1):200. Epub 2021 May 22.

UMR216-MERIT, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 75006, Paris, France.

Objective: In the framework of EVALMOUS study aiming to assess the use and effectiveness of mosquito nets by pregnant women and other members of their household in a lagoon area in southern Benin, the behaviour of pregnant women relative to the time they go to bed using the net were recorded. Malaria vectors biting rhythm, Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance genes in malaria vectors were also determined.

Results: Overall, 3848 females of Anopheles gambiae s. Read More

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High prevalence and low diversity of chigger infestation in small mammals found in Bangkok Metropolitan parks.

Med Vet Entomol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Chiggers are recognized as vectors of scrub typhus disease caused by the bacteria, Orientia tsutsugamushi. The risk of disease exposure is mainly related to chigger bites when humans or animals roam into vector-infested habitats. In big cities, urban public parks could provide areas for the animal-human interface and zoonotic pathogen transmission. Read More

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Semi-field evaluation of the exposure-free mosquito electrocuting trap and BG-Sentinel trap as an alternative to the human landing catch for measuring the efficacy of transfluthrin emanators against Aedes aegypti.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 20;14(1):265. Epub 2021 May 20.

Vector Control Product Testing Unit, Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, P.O. Box 74, Bagamoyo, Tanzania.

Background: The human landing catch (HLC) measures human exposure to mosquito bites and evaluates the efficacy of vector control tools. However, it may expose volunteers to potentially infected mosquitoes. The mosquito electrocuting trap (MET) and BG-Sentinel traps (BGS) represent alternative, exposure-free methods for sampling host-seeking mosquitoes. Read More

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Pre-intervention characteristics of the mosquito species in Benin in preparation for a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of dual active-ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling insecticide-resistant malaria vectors.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0251742. Epub 2021 May 20.

Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin.

Background: This study provides detailed characteristics of vector populations in preparation for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to compare the community impact of dual active-ingredient (AI) long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) that combine two novel insecticide classes-chlorfenapyr or pyriproxifen-with alpha-cypermethrin to improve the prevention of malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors compared to standard pyrethroid LLINs.

Methods: The study was carried out in 60 villages across Cove, Zangnanando and Ouinhi districts, southern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed using human landing catches (HLCs). Read More

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Carios kelleyi (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) Infected With Rickettsial Agents Documented Infesting Housing in Kansas, United States.

J Med Entomol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Naval Medical Research Center, Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

During September-December 2018, 25 live ticks were collected on-post at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in a home with a history of bat occupancy. Nine ticks were sent to the Army Public Health Center Tick-Borne Disease Laboratory and were identified as Carios kelleyi (Cooley and Kohls, 1941), a species that seldom bites humans but that may search for other sources of blood meals, including humans, when bats are removed from human dwellings. The ticks were tested for numerous agents of human disease. Read More

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Host Bloodmeal Source Has No Significant Effect on the Fecundity and Subsequent Larval Development Traits of the Progeny in Culicoides furens Poey (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

J Med Entomol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, UF/IFAS, Vero Beach, FL, USA.

Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are insects of significant medical and veterinary importance worldwide because their bites can cause major annoyance, allergic reactions, and/or pathogen transmission to vertebrates, including humans. In this study, we examined the effect of host bloodmeal source on the fecundity and subsequent larval development traits of the progeny of Culicoides furens Poey, a nuisance species in coastal Florida. Field-collected females were fed on two different classes of hosts: birds (chicken) or mammals (human). Read More

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Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

Arch Virol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Scientific Chair of Sheikh Mohammad Hussein Alamoudi for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: This review article summarizes what has been published on Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a novel flavivirus that was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1995.

Methods: PubMed was used to search for studies published from January 1995 to June 2019 using the key words Alkhumra virus, Alkhurma virus, novel flavivirus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Additionally, records of the Saudi Ministry of Health were reviewed. Read More

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Development and characterization of two equine formulations towards SARS-CoV-2 proteins for the potential treatment of COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 05 10;11(1):9825. Epub 2021 May 10.

Facultad de Microbiología, Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

In the current global emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, passive immunotherapy emerges as a promising treatment for COVID-19. Among animal-derived products, equine formulations are still the cornerstone therapy for treating envenomations due to animal bites and stings. Therefore, drawing upon decades of experience in manufacturing snake antivenom, we developed and preclinically evaluated two anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal equine formulations as potential alternative therapy for COVID-19. Read More

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A Rare Case of Bacteremic Community-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Pasteurella Multocida Presenting With Hemoptysis.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14232. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Infectious Diseases, Ascension St. John Hospital, Detroit, USA.

(PM) is a gram-negative bacterium known to cause soft tissue infections, especially after animal bites, with some human infections occurring after animal exposure, usually via inhalation of contaminated secretions. PM pneumonia mainly affects those who are immunocompromised and in individuals with comorbidities. The spectrum of pulmonary disease due to PM is wide, ranging from pneumonia to empyema. Read More

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Vector role and human biting activity of Anophelinae mosquitoes in different landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 6;14(1):236. Epub 2021 May 6.

Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, SP, 01246-904, Brazil.

Background: Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, which frequently leads to shifts in the composition, abundance and spatial distribution of vector species. The goals of the present study were to: (i) identify anophelines found naturally infected with Plasmodium; (ii) measure the effects of landscape on the number of Nyssorhynchus darlingi, presence of Plasmodium-infected Anophelinae, human biting rate (HBR) and malaria cases; and (iii) determine the frequency and peak biting time of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and Ny. Read More

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Zika Prevention Behaviors Among Women of Reproductive Age in Puerto Rico, 2016.

Am J Prev Med 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: Zika virus is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. Because Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, reproductive-aged women need protection from Zika virus infection. This report describes Zika virus prevention behaviors among women aged 18-49 years and assesses whether pregnancy status and healthcare provider counseling increases Zika virus prevention behaviors. Read More

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