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    Human bite injuries to the head and neck: current trends and management protocols in England and Wales.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jan 14. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    Prince Charles Hospital, Gurnos Road, Merthyr Tydfil, CF47 9DT, UK.
    Introduction: Human bite injuries can be challenging in their presentation to the examining physician. In a study by Merchant et al., 18% of patients presenting with a human bite injury had suffered wounds to the head and neck region. Read More

    Barriers of attendance to dog rabies static point vaccination clinics in Blantyre, Malawi.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 11;12(1):e0006159. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Mission Rabies, Cranborne, Dorset, United Kingdom.
    Rabies is a devastating yet preventable disease that causes around 59,000 human deaths annually. Almost all human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies-infected dogs. A large proportion of these cases occur in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Read More

    Deletion of the MFS transporter fptB alters host cell interactions and attenuates the virulence of Type A Francisella tularensis.
    Infect Immun 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Institute for Global Health, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
    Francisella tularensis is a Gram negative facultative intracellular coccobacillus that can infect a wide variety of hosts. In humans, F. tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia following insect bites, ingestion, inhalation, and the handling of infected animals. Read More

    Injuries and envenomation by exotic pets in Hong Kong.
    Hong Kong Med J 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Accident and Emergency Department, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.
    Introduction: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis of human rabies in Chongqing, China, 2007-2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jan 3;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No.8, Changjiang 2nd Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China.
    Background: According to the global framework of eliminating human rabies, China is responding to achieve the target of zero human death from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Chongqing is the largest municipality directly under central government in China. We described the epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of human rabies in this area, in order to provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. Read More

    Protecting children from rabies with education and pre-exposure prophylaxis: A school-based campaign in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines.
    PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0189596. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Laguna, Philippines.
    Background: Rabies remains endemic in the Philippines. A study was conducted in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines to: (i) detect the true incidence of animal bites in school children aged 5-14 years using active surveillance and compare these data to estimates from the existing passive surveillance system, (ii) evaluate the impact of rabies prevention education and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on animal bite incidence, and (iii) assess the health economic impact of the interventions.

    Methodology And Principal Findings: A cohort of 4,700 school children was followed-up for any suspect rabies exposures between January 2011 and December 2012. Read More

    Attraction of Culex mosquitoes to aldehydes from human emanations.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 21;7(1):17965. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
    Anecdotes related to preferential mosquito bites are very common, but to date there is no complete explanation as to why one out of two people systematically receives more mosquito bites than the other when both are equally accessible. Here we tested the hypothesis that two constituents of skin emanations, 6-methyl-5-heptan-2-one (6-MHO) and geranylacetone (GA), are natural repellents and may account for differential attraction in different ratios. We studied skin emanations from two human subjects, confirmed in behavioral assays that female southern house mosquitoes are significantly more attracted to subject A (attractant) than to subject N (non-attractant), and tested their 6-MHO/GA ratios in a dual-choice olfactometer. Read More

    Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(12):e0189971. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. Read More

    Pit Bull attack causing limb threatening vascular trauma -A case series.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 Dec 8;42:133-137. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Vascular Unit, Department of General Surgery, San Fernando Teaching Hospital, Independence Avenue, Paradise Pasture, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago; Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Introduction: Non-fatal human dog bites are commonplace amongst animal attacks on human beings and these present with mainly skin and soft tissue injuries. However, they can also present with life threatening head and neck injuries, massive soft tissue trauma, as well as combined orthopedic and vascular extremity injuries where a high possibility of limb loss exists.

    Presentation Of Cases: We present two adult dog bite victims with multiple bites inflicted by large canines identified as Pit-Bull Terriers. Read More

    Current priorities in the Zika response.
    Immunology 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, it only recently emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. Read More

    Buruli Ulcer, a Prototype for Ecosystem-Related Infection, Caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 Jan 13;31(1). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
    Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. Read More

    A retrospective study of clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite related deaths at a Tertiary care hospital in Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
    Toxicol Rep 2018 24;5:1-5. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Paschim Medinipur, 721102, West Bengal, India.
    Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India.

    Methods & Materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. Read More

    A randomized trial of the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum controlled human malaria infection by mosquito bites and direct venous inoculation.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Seattle Malaria Clinical Trials Center, Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center, United States of America.
    Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered one day pre-challenge and provided partial protection when administered seven days pre-challenge.

    Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of one oral dose of 400 mg DSM265 pre-CHMI. Three cohorts were studied with DSM265 dosing three or seven days before direct venous inoculation of sporozoites or seven days before five infected mosquito bites. Read More

    Review of Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Euclea natalensis A.DC.
    Molecules 2017 Dec 2;22(12). Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
    Euclea natalensis is traditionally used as herbal medicine for several human diseases and ailments in tropical Africa. This study reviews information on ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemical constituents, pharmacology and toxicity of E. natalensis. Read More

    Attacking the mosquito on multiple fronts: Insights from the Vector Control Optimization Model (VCOM) for malaria elimination.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(12):e0187680. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Divisions of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
    Background: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions. Read More

    The course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient with malaria.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(10):574-575
    Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute in Łódź, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338, Lodz, Poland.
    Malaria is one of the most common lethal parasitic diseases. Infection is transmitted when an infected female mosquito bites a human introducing the sporozoites into human blood. The article presents the course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient complicated by Plasmodium infection. Read More

    A View on the Importance of "Multi-Attribute Method" for Measuring Purity of Biopharmaceuticals and Improving Overall Control Strategy.
    AAPS J 2017 Nov 30;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA.
    Today, we are experiencing unprecedented growth and innovation within the pharmaceutical industry. Established protein therapeutic modalities, such as recombinant human proteins, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and fusion proteins, are being used to treat previously unmet medical needs. Novel therapies such as bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), chimeric antigen T cell receptors (CARTs), siRNA, and gene therapies are paving the path towards increasingly personalized medicine. Read More

    Rabies.
    Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017 Nov 30;3:17091. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector Borne Diseases Research Group, (WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Reference Laboratory for Rabies), Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK.
    Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. Read More

    Functional anatomy of a giant toothless mandible from a bird-like dinosaur: Gigantoraptor and the evolution of the oviraptorosaurian jaw.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16247. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China.
    The Oviraptorosauria are a group of theropod dinosaurs that diverged from the typical carnivorous theropod diet. It includes two main lineages - Caenagnathidae and Oviraptoridae - that display a number of differences in mandibular morphology, but little is known about their functional consequences, hampering our understanding of oviraptorosaurian dietary evolution. This study presents the first in-depth description of the giant toothless mandible of Gigantoraptor, the only well-preserved stemward caenagnathid mandible. Read More

    Quantifying seasonal and diel variation in Anopheline and Culex human biting rates in Southern Ecuador.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 22;16(1):479. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Center for Global Health and Translational Science and Department of Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Background: Quantifying mosquito biting rates for specific locations enables estimation of mosquito-borne disease risk, and can inform intervention efforts. Measuring biting itself is fraught with ethical concerns, so the landing rate of mosquitoes on humans is often used as a proxy measure. Southern coastal Ecuador was historically endemic for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), although successful control efforts in the 2000s eliminated autochthonous transmission (since 2011). Read More

    Upregulation of Aedes aegypti Vago1 by Wolbachia and its effect on dengue virus replication.
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Nov 21;92:45-52. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Electronic address:
    Dengue infection along with its related disease conditions poses a significant threat to human health. The pathogen responsible for this infection is dengue virus (DENV) which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Unavailability of a potent vaccine has recently sparked renewed research endeavours aimed at vector control. Read More

    Prevention Practices among the United States Pregnant Women Who Travel to Zika Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We surveyed pregnant women from the United States to assess the prevention practices they used when traveling to countries with ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks. Of the 749 who agreed to participate, 710 completed the survey's travel questions and 59 of those had traveled to a ZIKV outbreak area in the past 12 months. Only 43% of the women who had traveled to ZIKV outbreak areas reported frequently using mosquito repellant with 32% stating they did not use it at all. Read More

    Changes in total and differential leukocyte counts during the clinically silent liver phase in a controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naïve Dutch volunteers.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 10;16(1):457. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Institute for Tropical Diseases, Harbour Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Both in endemic countries and in imported malaria, changes in total and differential leukocyte count during Plasmodium falciparum infection have been described. To study the exact dynamics of differential leukocyte counts and their ratios, they were monitored in a group of healthy non-immune volunteers in two separate Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) studies.

    Methods: In two CHMI trials, CHMI-a and CHMI-b, 15 and 24 healthy malaria-naïve volunteers, respectively, were exposed to bites of infected mosquitoes, using the P. Read More

    Can you catch Ebola from a stork bite? Inductive reasoning influences generalization of perceived zoonosis risk.
    PLoS One 2017 8;12(11):e0186969. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America.
    Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Read More

    Indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western Kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 6;16(1):443. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.
    Background: The widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in Africa. There is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. This study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western Kenya. Read More

    A Public Health Opportunity Found in Food Waste.
    Prev Chronic Dis 2017 Nov 2;14:E108. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    The University of Texas School of Public Health, Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, Houston, Texas.
    A food waste problem coexists with food insecurity and obesity. Brighter Bites, a school-based food cooperative program, successfully channels primarily donated produce to low-income communities and provides nutrition education, creating an increased demand for and intake of fruits and vegetables. We present the framework used in Brighter Bites and results of operationalizing this framework during 3 years of implementation in Houston, Texas. Read More

    Trigonostemon reidioides modulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation via downregulation of the Akt signaling pathway.
    Oncol Lett 2017 Oct 17;14(4):4677-4683. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Bio-Center, Gyeonggi Institute of Science and Technology Promotion, Suwon, Gyeonggi 16229, Republic of Korea.
    Trigonostemon reidi`oides (TR) is used as a Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of drug addiction, asthma, food poisoning, constipation and snake bites. The present study investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of TR (ETR) on mitogen-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) responses, proliferation, adhesion, migration and tube formation. ETR treatment inhibited mitogen-induced HUVEC proliferation by downregulation of cell cycle-associated proteins, including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, which induced retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation. Read More

    A Retrospective Cohort Study of Tick Paralysis in British Columbia.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 12 30;17(12):821-824. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    1 Zoonotic Diseases and Emerging Pathogens Section, BC Centre of Disease Control Public Health Laboratory , Vancouver, Canada .
    Background: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations.

    Methods: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed. Read More

    Examining the human infectious reservoir for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 26;8(1):1133. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
    A detailed understanding of the human infectious reservoir is essential for improving malaria transmission-reducing interventions. Here we report a multi-regional assessment of population-wide malaria transmission potential based on 1209 mosquito feeding assays in endemic areas of Burkina Faso and Kenya. Across both sites, we identified 39 infectious individuals. Read More

    Defaming Rover: Error-Based Latent Rhetoric in the Medical Literature on Dog Bites.
    J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2017 Oct 25:1-13. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    b National Canine Research Council, Animal Farm Foundation, Inc ., Bangall, New York.
    This article examines the accuracy and rhetoric of reports by human health care professionals concerning dog bite injuries published in the peer-reviewed medical literature, with respect to nonclinical issues, such as dog behavior. A qualitative content analysis examined 156 publications between 1966 and 2015 identified by terms such as "dog bite" or "dangerous dogs." The analysis revealed misinformation about human-canine interactions, the significance of breed and breed characteristics, and the frequency of dog bite-related injuries. Read More

    A Role for Prefrontal Cortical NMDA Receptors in Murine Alcohol-Heightened Aggression.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Psychology Department, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
    Alcohol is associated with nearly half of all violent crimes committed in the United States; yet, a potential neural basis for this type of pathological aggression remains elusive. Alcohol may act on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) within cortical circuits to impede processing and to promote aggression. Here, male mice were characterized as alcohol-heightened (AHAs) or alcohol non-heightened aggressors (ANAs) during resident-intruder confrontations after self-administering 1. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology of mosquitoes for the transmission of forest malaria in south-central Vietnam.
    Trop Med Health 2017 12;45:27. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Kutsukake, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192 Japan.
    Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P. Read More

    Exposure to allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke during gestation and postnatal development affects reproductive function in male offspring of rat.
    Inhal Toxicol 2017 Jul;29(8):374-385
    a Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences , University of Hyderabad , Hyderabad , India.
    The threat of zika virus looms throughout the world and the use of allethrin-based mosquito coils to prevent mosquito bites during and postpregnancy is on the rise. The aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of exposure to allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke in rats under conditions that reflect human settings. Pregnant female rats were exposed to mosquito coil smoke and same was continued to the male pups up to 111 days postparturition (21-day weaning plus up to 90 days postweaning). Read More

    Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Jan 13;1862(1):40-50. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA; Center for Molecular Medicine, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz. Read More

    Stings of the Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as Cause of Punctate Corneal Lesions in Humans and Other Animals.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Nov;54(6):1783-1785
    Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, 5353 Parkside Drive, Jupiter, FL 33458.
    Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce. Read More

    Public Health Considerations Associated with the Location and Operation of Off-Leash Dog Parks.
    J Community Health 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.
    Off-leash dog parks may enhance human health, but may also lead to health risk through infection or canine aggression. Published evidence was reviewed to examine positive and negative public health impacts of off-leash dog parks, as well as strategies for enhancing benefits and mitigating risks. Evidence suggests that off-leash dog parks can benefit physical and social health, as well as community connectedness. Read More

    Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).
    J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):105-115. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
    Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.

    Methods: The essential oils (EOs) of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field collected fleas. Read More

    Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 12;11(10):e0005905. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnologies and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. Read More

    Geographic variations of the bird-borne structural risk of West Nile virus circulation in Europe.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0185962. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Cirad, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, France.
    The structural risk of West Nile Disease results from the usual functioning of the socio-ecological system, which may favour the introduction of the pathogen, its circulation and the occurrence of disease cases. Its geographic variations result from the local interactions between three components: (i) reservoir hosts, (ii) vectors, both characterized by their diversity, abundance and competence, (iii) and the socio-economic context that impacts the exposure of human to infectious bites. We developed a model of bird-borne structural risk of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Europe, and analysed the association between the geographic variations of this risk and the occurrence of WND human cases between 2002 and 2014. Read More

    Comparison of a novel human rabies monoclonal antibody to human rabies immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis: A phase 2/3 randomized, single blind, non-inferiority, controlled study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Lack of access to rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) contributes to the high rabies mortality. A recombinant human monoclonal antibody (SII RMAb) was tested in a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in comparison to a human RIG (HRIG)-containing PEP regimen.

    Methods: This was a Phase 2/3 randomized, single blind, non-inferiority study conducted in 200 participants with WHO category III suspected rabies exposures. Read More

    Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Noncompletion After Dog Bites: Estimating the Unseen to Meet the Needs of the Underserved.
    Am J Epidemiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Post exposure prophylaxis prevents human rabies and is accessible in Cambodia principally in Phnom Penh, the capital. Timely, affordable access to post-exposure prophylaxis is a challenge for the mainly rural population. We aimed to identify districts independently associated with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) noncompletion to position frontline vaccination centers. Read More

    A hospital based epidemiological study of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India.
    Toxicol Rep 2017 24;4:415-419. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Medicine, Midnapur Medical College, Paschim Medinipur-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Objective: Snakebite is a serious medical problem in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. In the present study, hospital based data on snakebite cases and deaths were collected from 10 blocks of the district to obtain a picture of this neglected public health issue.

    Methods: Retrospective data of snakebite and deaths from 2012 to 2016 was collected from the 5 Rural hospitals (RH) and 5 Block level Primary Health Centres(BPHC) of the ten blocks of Paschim Medinipur district in a prescribed format addressing issues including the demographic factors regarding the victims, seasonal pattern, history of snakebite in previous 5 years, outcome of the bite, any reporting of death. Read More

    Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: An exploratory study.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(9):e0185300. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom.
    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18) and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18) who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified. Read More

    Shark Spotters: Successfully reducing spatial overlap between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and recreational water users in False Bay, South Africa.
    PLoS One 2017 25;12(9):e0185335. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators that play an important role in the structure and stability of marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance and protected status, white sharks are still subject to lethal control to reduce the risk of shark bites for recreational water users. The Shark Spotters program, pioneered in Cape Town, South Africa, provides a non-lethal alternative for reducing the risk of human-shark conflict. Read More

    Gastrointestinal Tract As Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:1721. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Institute of Clinical Physiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany.
    Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. Read More

    CD3xPDL1 bi-specific T cell engager (BiTE) simultaneously activates T cells and NKT cells, kills PDL1+ tumor cells, and extends the survival of tumor-bearing humanized mice.
    Oncotarget 2017 Aug 3;8(35):57964-57980. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Bi-specific T cell engagers (BiTEs) activate T cells through CD3 and target activated T cells to tumor-expressed antigens. BiTEs have shown therapeutic efficacy in patients with liquid tumors; however, they do not benefit all patients. Anti-tumor immunity is limited by Programmed Death 1 (PD1) pathway-mediated immune suppression, and patients who do not benefit from existing BiTES may be non-responders because their T cells are anergized via the PD1 pathway. Read More

    Recent advances of bispecific antibodies in solid tumors.
    J Hematol Oncol 2017 Sep 20;10(1):155. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, China.
    Cancer immunotherapy is the most exciting advancement in cancer therapy. Similar to immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T), bispecific antibody (BsAb) is attracting more and more attention as a novel strategy of antitumor immunotherapy. BsAb not only offers an effective linkage between therapeutics (e. Read More

    Zoonotic infection of Brazilian primate workers with New World simian foamy virus.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184502. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Read More

    PRESUMPTIVE PIT VIPER ENVENOMATION IN PSITTACINES IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO.
    J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 Sep;48(3):868-873
    Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. Read More

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