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    Repellent Activity of TRIG (N-N Diethyl Benzamide) against Man-Biting Mosquitoes.
    J Trop Med 2018 9;2018:9037616. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Division of Livestock and Human Disease Vector Control, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI), P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania.
    A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Read More

    Human Babesiosis Caused by a Babesia crassa-like Pathogen: A Case Series.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Fengtai District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China.

    Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. Read More

    A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 9;12(3):e0006293. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Mission Rabies, Cranborne, Dorset, United Kingdom.
    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Read More

    Elevated Plasmodium infection rates and high pyrethroid resistance in major malaria vectors in a forested area of Cameroon highlight challenges of malaria control.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 8;11(1):157. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Vector group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Background: High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is the cornerstone of the malaria control strategy of the national malaria control program (NMCP) in Cameroon, with a target of reducing malaria transmission to less than 10% by 2035. To this end, more than 20 million LLINs have been distributed to populations countrywide since 2011. The present study evaluated entomological indices and Anopheles susceptibility to pyrethroids in a rural forested area of south Cameroon with high coverage of LLINs. Read More

    Combining abundance and performance data reveals how temperature regulates coastal occurrences and activity of a roaming apex predator.
    Glob Chang Biol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    University of Roehampton, London, UK.
    The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals. Read More

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis triggered by electrocoagulation.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Jan-Feb;51(1):108-110
    Pós-graduação de Ciências da Saúde da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brasil .
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Read More

    Evaluation of Malaria Urban Risk Using an Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker of Human Exposure toBites.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), UMR IRD.224-CNRS.5290, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Urban malaria is an underestimated serious health concern in African countries. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of malaria transmission in an urban area by evaluating the level of human exposure tobites using ansalivary biomarker (Salivary Gland Protein-6 peptide 1 [gSG6-P1] peptide). Two multidisciplinary cross-sectional studies were undertaken in five sites of Bouaké city (three urban districts and two surrounding villages, used as control; Côte d'Ivoire) during the rainy season and the dry season. Read More

    Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.
    PLoS One 2018 6;13(3):e0193493. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Instituto de Geografía, Quito, Ecuador.
    Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Read More

    [Tularemia in a jogger woman after the attack by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo): A "One Health" case report].
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2018 Mar;160(3):185-188
    Infektiologie und Spitalhygiene, Kantonsspital Baden.
    Introduction: A female jogger was attacked by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and was scratched lightly at the back of the head. One week later she was taken ill with high fever and headache which was later diagnosed as ulcero-glandular tularemia in regional lymph nodes, caused by Francisella tularensis. Recovery was only achieved after several weeks of systemic antibiotic treatment (Gentamicin/ Ciprofloxacine). Read More

    Non-traumatic splenic rupture in a patient with human granulocytic anaplasmosis and focused review of the literature.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 22;9(3):735-737. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.
    We report a rare case of a 53-year-old man with no significant past medical history who reported multiple tick bites within a 2-month period. The patient reported not "feeling well" for the 2 ½ weeks. He complained of generalized body aches, pains, and chills. Read More

    Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women - Vietnam, 2015-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 2;67(8):250-252. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. Read More

    The clinical characteristics and the features of immunophenotype of peripheral lymphocytes of adult onset chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Beijing.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(9):e9854
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a rare disease with high mortality. Most of CAEBV patients have been reported from Japan and are pediatric cases.The goal was to describe the clinical characteristics and the immunophenotypic features of peripheral lymphocytes in adult onset CAEBV patients. Read More

    A randomized feasibility trial comparing four antimalarial drug regimens to inducegametocytemia in the controlled human malaria infection model.
    Elife 2018 Feb 27;7. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Malaria elimination strategies require a thorough understanding of parasite transmission from human to mosquito. A clinical model to induce gametocytes to understand their dynamics and evaluate transmission-blocking interventions (TBI) is currently unavailable. Here, we explore the use of the well-established Controlled Human Malaria Infection model (CHMI) to induce gametocyte carriage with different antimalarial drug regimens. Read More

    Spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes and risk of malaria infection in Rwanda.
    Acta Trop 2018 Feb 21;182:149-157. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    To date, the Republic of Rwanda has not systematically reported on distribution, diversity and malaria infectivity rate of mosquito species throughout the country. Therefore, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as the nocturnal biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. For this purpose, mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Read More

    Estimating the burden of rabies in Ethiopia by tracing dog bite victims.
    PLoS One 2018 21;13(2):e0192313. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    In developing countries where financial resources are limited and numerous interests compete, there is a need for quantitative data on the public health burden and costs of diseases to support intervention prioritization. This study aimed at estimating the health burden and post-exposure treatment (PET) costs of canine rabies in Ethiopia by an investigation of exposed human cases. Data on registered animal bite victims during the period of one year were collected from health centers in three districts, i. Read More

    Serosurvey ofin high risk population in Turkey, endemic to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Oct-Dec;54(4):341-347
    Vocational School of Health Services, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.
    Background & Objectives: Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic infection that spreads to human beings from animals. This study was aimed to demographically examine the C. burnetii seroprevalence in the people living in villages where Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic, in terms of various risk factors such as tick bites, tick contact, and occupational groups. Read More

    Assessing dengue transmission risk and a vector control intervention using entomological and immunological indices in Thailand: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
    Trials 2018 Feb 20;19(1):122. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London, UK.
    Background: Dengue fever is the most common and widespread mosquito-borne arboviral disease in the world. There is a compelling need for cost-effective approaches and practical tools that can reliably measure real-time dengue transmission dynamics that enable more accurate and useful predictions of incidence and outbreaks. Sensitive surveillance tools do not exist today, and only a small handful of new control strategies are available. Read More

    The biomechanical significance of the frontal sinus in Kabwe 1 (Homo heidelbergensis).
    J Hum Evol 2018 Jan 21;114:141-153. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Archaeology, University of York, King's Manor, York, YO1 7EP, United Kingdom; Hull York Medical School (HYMS), John Hughlings Jackson Building, University of York, Heslington, York, North Yorkshire YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
    Paranasal sinuses are highly variable among living and fossil hominins and their function(s) are poorly understood. It has been argued they serve no particular function and are biological 'spandrels' arising as a structural consequence of changes in associated bones and/or soft tissue structures. In contrast, others have suggested that sinuses have one or more functions, in olfaction, respiration, thermoregulation, nitric oxide production, voice resonance, reduction of skull weight, and craniofacial biomechanics. Read More

    A Human Bite on the Scrotum: Case Report and Review of Management in the Emergency Department.
    J Emerg Med 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: Human bites involving the genitalia rarely present to the emergency department (ED). They have the potential to cause life-threatening secondary infections as well as serious physical and functional damage.

    Case Report: We report a case of an adult male who sustained a human bite to the scrotum, resulting in a ragged laceration on the anterior scrotum, with a devascularized flap and necrotic edges overlying the wound. Read More

    Characterization of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in a region of the eastern Amazon, state of Pará, Brazil, between 2000 and 2014.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Laboratório de Epidemiologia e Geoprocessamento (EpiGeo), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Animal na Amazônia, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Castanhal, PA, Brasil.
    Animal bites are a serious public health issue, and prevention strategies have been consistently documented worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize human anti-rabies treatment in 11 counties of the Salgado microregion, Pará state, Brazil, which borders the Bragantina microregion, where exposures of human rabies were reported in 2004 and 2005. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using anti-rabies treatment notifications registered in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) database of the State Department of Public Health of Pará (SESPA) from January 2000 to December 2014. Read More

    Rates and risk factors for human cutaneous anthrax in the country of Georgia: National surveillance data, 2008-2015.
    PLoS One 2018 7;13(2):e0192031. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Branch of Battelle Memorial Institute in Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Introduction: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. Read More

    Neutrophils kill the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis using trogocytosis.
    PLoS Biol 2018 Feb 6;16(2):e2003885. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
    T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. Read More

    [Renaissance medicine and the discovery of the lesser circulation: the role of Michael Servetus (1511-1553)].
    Acta Med Hist Adriat 2017 Dec;15(2):271-282
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Sezione di Storia della Medicina ed Etica, Università di Genova, Genova, Italia.
    Human urine is currently the subject of biomedical investigations as a potential therapeutic resource and it continues to be used in remedies in different cultures and societies, including the Spanish culture. In this study we gather etnomedical knowledge about urotherapy and determine their associated symbolisms in Spain. A literature overview and a case study were carried out to compile urine-based remedies and as a direct analysis of symbolic systems. Read More

    Surveillance for Tick-Borne Viruses Near the Location of a Fatal Human Case of Bourbon Virus (Family Orthomyxoviridae: Genus Thogotovirus) in Eastern Kansas, 2015.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.
    Bourbon virus (Family Orthomyxoviridae: Genus Thogotovirus) was first isolated from a human case-patient residing in Bourbon County, Kansas, who subsequently died. Before becoming ill in late spring of 2014, the patient reported several tick bites. In response, we initiated tick surveillance in Bourbon County and adjacent southern Linn County during spring and summer of 2015. Read More

    Can Vaccination Save a Zika Virus Epidemic?
    Bull Math Biol 2018 03 22;80(3):598-625. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez, Mayagüez, 00681-9018, Puerto Rico.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vector-borne disease that has rapidly spread during the year 2016 in more than 50 countries around the world. If a woman is infected during pregnancy, the virus can cause severe birth defects and brain damage in their babies. The virus can be transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes as well as through direct contact from human to human (e. Read More

    Characterization of skin blister fluids from children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease.
    J Dermatol 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T- or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Patients may present with severe skin manifestations, including hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) and hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruption, which are characterized by blister formation and necrotic ulceration. Skin biopsy specimens show inflammatory reactions comprising EBV-infected lymphocytes. Read More

    Borrelia miyamotoi Infections in Humans and Ticks, Northeastern China.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb;24(2):236-241
    We conducted an investigation of Borrelia miyamotoi infections in humans and ticks in northeastern China. Of 984 patients reporting recent tick bites, 14 (1.4%) were found to be infected with B. Read More

    Size Assessment of the Gray Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos Inferred from Teeth Marks on Human Wounds.
    J Forensic Sci 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Laboratory of Excellence «CORAIL», PSL, USR3278 EPHE-CNRS-UPVD, Centre de Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l'Environnement, BP 1013, 98729, Papetoai, Moorea, Polynésie Française.
    An accurate assessment of the biting shark size is paramount for better understanding the agonistic behavior of a species toward humans. The gray reef shark is involved in many accidental bites. Based on the capture of 35 gray sharks, we calculated the algorithm that allows the assessment of the shark size, through the interdental distance (IDD) inferred from teeth marks on human wounds. Read More

    Modelling the large-scale yellow fever outbreak in Luanda, Angola, and the impact of vaccination.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 16;12(1):e0006158. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
    Background: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and became the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Read More

    Human bite injuries to the head and neck: current trends and management protocols in England and Wales.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Mar 14;22(1):77-81. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    Prince Charles Hospital, Gurnos Road, Merthyr Tydfil, CF47 9DT, UK.
    Introduction: Human bite injuries can be challenging in their presentation to the examining physician. In a study by Merchant et al., 18% of patients presenting with a human bite injury had suffered wounds to the head and neck region. Read More

    Barriers of attendance to dog rabies static point vaccination clinics in Blantyre, Malawi.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 11;12(1):e0006159. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Mission Rabies, Cranborne, Dorset, United Kingdom.
    Rabies is a devastating yet preventable disease that causes around 59,000 human deaths annually. Almost all human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies-infected dogs. A large proportion of these cases occur in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Read More

    Deletion of the Major Facilitator Superfamily TransporterAlters Host Cell Interactions and Attenuates Virulence of Type A Francisella tularensis.
    Infect Immun 2018 Mar 20;86(3). Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Institute for Global Health, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    is a Gram-negative, facultative, intracellular coccobacillus that can infect a wide variety of hosts. In humans,causes the zoonosis tularemia following insect bites, ingestion, inhalation, and the handling of infected animals. The fact that a very small inoculum delivered by the aerosol route can cause severe disease, coupled with the possibility of its use as an aerosolized bioweapon, has led to the classification ofas a category A select agent and has renewed interest in the formulation of a vaccine. Read More

    Injuries and envenomation by exotic pets in Hong Kong.
    Hong Kong Med J 2018 Feb 5;24(1):48-55. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Accident and Emergency Department, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.
    Introduction: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries to and envenomation of their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis of human rabies in Chongqing, China, 2007-2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 01 3;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No.8, Changjiang 2nd Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China.
    Background: According to the global framework of eliminating human rabies, China is responding to achieve the target of zero human death from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Chongqing is the largest municipality directly under central government in China. We described the epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of human rabies in this area, in order to provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. Read More

    Protecting children from rabies with education and pre-exposure prophylaxis: A school-based campaign in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines.
    PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0189596. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Laguna, Philippines.
    Background: Rabies remains endemic in the Philippines. A study was conducted in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines to: (i) detect the true incidence of animal bites in school children aged 5-14 years using active surveillance and compare these data to estimates from the existing passive surveillance system, (ii) evaluate the impact of rabies prevention education and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on animal bite incidence, and (iii) assess the health economic impact of the interventions.

    Methodology And Principal Findings: A cohort of 4,700 school children was followed-up for any suspect rabies exposures between January 2011 and December 2012. Read More

    Attraction of Culex mosquitoes to aldehydes from human emanations.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 21;7(1):17965. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
    Anecdotes related to preferential mosquito bites are very common, but to date there is no complete explanation as to why one out of two people systematically receives more mosquito bites than the other when both are equally accessible. Here we tested the hypothesis that two constituents of skin emanations, 6-methyl-5-heptan-2-one (6-MHO) and geranylacetone (GA), are natural repellents and may account for differential attraction in different ratios. We studied skin emanations from two human subjects, confirmed in behavioral assays that female southern house mosquitoes are significantly more attracted to subject A (attractant) than to subject N (non-attractant), and tested their 6-MHO/GA ratios in a dual-choice olfactometer. Read More

    Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(12):e0189971. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. Read More

    Pit Bull attack causing limb threatening vascular trauma -A case series.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2018 8;42:133-137. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Vascular Unit, Department of General Surgery, San Fernando Teaching Hospital, Independence Avenue, Paradise Pasture, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago; Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Introduction: Non-fatal human dog bites are commonplace amongst animal attacks on human beings and these present with mainly skin and soft tissue injuries. However, they can also present with life threatening head and neck injuries, massive soft tissue trauma, as well as combined orthopedic and vascular extremity injuries where a high possibility of limb loss exists.

    Presentation Of Cases: We present two adult dog bite victims with multiple bites inflicted by large canines identified as Pit-Bull Terriers. Read More

    Current priorities in the Zika response.
    Immunology 2018 Apr 2;153(4):435-442. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, it only recently emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. Read More

    Buruli Ulcer, a Prototype for Ecosystem-Related Infection, Caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 Jan 13;31(1). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
    Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent,, derives fromby genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor.-specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Read More

    Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189071. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.
    The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients. While experimental studies in animals have offered evidence of post-treatment persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi, variations in methodology, detection methods and limitations of the models have led to some uncertainty with respect to translation of these results to human infection. With all stages of clinical Lyme disease having previously been described in nonhuman primates, this animal model was selected in order to most closely mimic human infection and response to treatment. Read More

    A retrospective study of clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite related deaths at a Tertiary care hospital in Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
    Toxicol Rep 2018 24;5:1-5. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Paschim Medinipur, 721102, West Bengal, India.
    Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital indistrict, West Bengal, India.

    Methods & Materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH),district, West Bengal. Read More

    A Randomized Trial Evaluating the Prophylactic Activity of DSM265 Against Preerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Infection During Controlled Human Malarial Infection by Mosquito Bites and Direct Venous Inoculation.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Feb;217(5):693-702
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
    Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered 1 day before challenge and provided partial protection when administered 7 days before challenge.

    Methods: A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of 1 oral dose of 400 mg of DSM265 before CHMI. Three cohorts were studied, with DSM265 administered 3 or 7 days before direct venous inoculation of sporozoites or 7 days before 5 bites from infected mosquitoes. Read More

    Review of Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Euclea natalensis A.DC.
    Molecules 2017 Dec 2;22(12). Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
    is traditionally used as herbal medicine for several human diseases and ailments in tropical Africa. This study reviews information on ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemical constituents, pharmacology and toxicity of. Results of this study are based on literature search from several sources including electronic databases, books, book chapters, websites, theses and conference proceedings. Read More

    Attacking the mosquito on multiple fronts: Insights from the Vector Control Optimization Model (VCOM) for malaria elimination.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(12):e0187680. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Divisions of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
    Background: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions. Read More

    The course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient with malaria.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(10):574-575
    Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute in Łódź, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338, Lodz, Poland.
    Malaria is one of the most common lethal parasitic diseases. Infection is transmitted when an infected female mosquito bites a human introducing the sporozoites into human blood. The article presents the course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient complicated by Plasmodium infection. Read More

    A View on the Importance of "Multi-Attribute Method" for Measuring Purity of Biopharmaceuticals and Improving Overall Control Strategy.
    AAPS J 2017 Nov 30;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA.
    Today, we are experiencing unprecedented growth and innovation within the pharmaceutical industry. Established protein therapeutic modalities, such as recombinant human proteins, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and fusion proteins, are being used to treat previously unmet medical needs. Novel therapies such as bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), chimeric antigen T cell receptors (CARTs), siRNA, and gene therapies are paving the path towards increasingly personalized medicine. Read More

    Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017 Nov 30;3:17091. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector Borne Diseases Research Group, (WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Reference Laboratory for Rabies), Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK.
    Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. Read More

    Functional anatomy of a giant toothless mandible from a bird-like dinosaur: Gigantoraptor and the evolution of the oviraptorosaurian jaw.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16247. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China.
    The Oviraptorosauria are a group of theropod dinosaurs that diverged from the typical carnivorous theropod diet. It includes two main lineages - Caenagnathidae and Oviraptoridae - that display a number of differences in mandibular morphology, but little is known about their functional consequences, hampering our understanding of oviraptorosaurian dietary evolution. This study presents the first in-depth description of the giant toothless mandible of Gigantoraptor, the only well-preserved stemward caenagnathid mandible. Read More

    Quantifying seasonal and diel variation in Anopheline and Culex human biting rates in Southern Ecuador.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 22;16(1):479. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Center for Global Health and Translational Science and Department of Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Background: Quantifying mosquito biting rates for specific locations enables estimation of mosquito-borne disease risk, and can inform intervention efforts. Measuring biting itself is fraught with ethical concerns, so the landing rate of mosquitoes on humans is often used as a proxy measure. Southern coastal Ecuador was historically endemic for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), although successful control efforts in the 2000s eliminated autochthonous transmission (since 2011). Read More

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