4,556 results match your criteria Bites Human


Emergence of human infection with Jingmen tick virus in China: A retrospective study.

EBioMedicine 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus called Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was recently identified, variants of which were detected in a non-human primate host and fatal patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. We investigated its infectivity and pathogenicity for humans.

Methods: We obtained skin-biopsy, blood and serum samples from patients with tick bites, and used high-throughput sequencing, in situ hybridisation, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cases of JMTV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Human rabies post exposure prophylaxis at the Pasteur Institute of Dakar, Senegal: trends and risk factors.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 11;19(1):321. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Pasteur Institute of Dakar, Epidemiology unit, Dakar, Senegal.

Background: Rabies remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Most fatal rabies cases, especially in children, result from dog bites and occur in low-income countries, such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rabies can be controlled through mass dog vaccination and human deaths prevented through timely and appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3928-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

NeSt1 protein enhances Zika virus pathogenesis by activating neutrophils.

J Virol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Saliva from the mosquito vector of flaviviruses is capable of changing the local immune environment, leading to an increase of flavivirus-susceptible cells at the infected bite site. Additionally, an antibody response towards specific salivary gland (SG) components changes the pathogenesis of flavivirus in human populations. To investigate if antigenic SG proteins are capable of enhancing Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, a re-emerging flavivirus primarily transmitted by the mosquito, we screened for antigenic SG proteins using a yeast display library, and demonstrate a previously undescribed SG protein, we term neutrophil stimulating factor 1 (NeSt1), activates primary mouse neutrophils Passive immunization against NeSt1 decreases pro-IL-1β and CXCL2 expression, prevents macrophages from infiltrating into the bite site, protects susceptible IFNARIFNGR (AG129) mice from early ZIKV replication, and ameliorates viral-induced pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00395-19DOI Listing

[Animal and human bites : what to do and what to know ?]

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(646):780-785

Service des maladies infectieuses, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

Animal and human bites are a common cause of admission to the emergency room and the infections are common, although they are often trivialized. Complications can range from simple cellulitis to septic shock especially in asplenic patients with Capnoyctophaga canimorsus infection. Other less common infections are possible such as rat-bite fever, leptospirosis, tularemia, and evaluation of post-exposure prophylaxis (anti-tetanus, anti-rabies, HIV, HBV) is essential. Read More

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April 2019
1 Read

Characterization of a strain of quaranfil virus isolated from soft ticks in India. Is quaranfil virus an unrecognized cause of disease in human and animals?"

Heliyon 2019 Mar 20;5(3):e01368. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

The soft ticks collected during a field survey in Karnataka state, India, in 1983, yielded a novel virus isolate, which caused mortality in an infant mouse upon inoculation. Attempts at characterizing the virus using the conventional methods were unsuccessful, which prompted us to study it by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). This virus isolate was obtained from the viral repository of National Institute of Virology, and an initial virus stock was prepared as a mouse brain homogenate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431747PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Within-farm prevalence and environmental distribution of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in farmed mink (Neovison vison).

Vet Microbiol 2019 Apr 23;231:80-86. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to identify the animal prevalence and environmental reservoir of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in mink farms. LA-MRSA on mink constitutes a human health hazard to farmers and farm workers, who handle the animals and are at risk of bites and scratches from colonized sites. The primary route of LA-MRSA colonization of mink is suspected to be by ingestion of contaminated pig by-products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.02.032DOI Listing

The alpha-Gal syndrome: new insights into the tick-host conflict and cooperation.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Apr 3;12(1):154. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

UMR BIPAR, INRA, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, 94700, France.

This primer focuses on a recently diagnosed tick-borne allergic disease known as the alpha-Gal syndrome (AGS). Tick bites induce in humans high levels of IgE antibodies against the carbohydrate Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal) present on tick salivary glycoproteins and tissues of non-catarrhine mammals, leading to the AGS in some individuals. This immune response evolved as a conflict and cooperation between ticks and human hosts including their gut microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3413-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448316PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Seasonal malaria vector and transmission dynamics in western Burkina Faso.

Malar J 2019 Apr 2;18(1):113. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la santé/Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: In the context of widespread mosquito resistance to currently available pesticides, novel, precise genetic vector control methods aimed at population suppression or trait replacement are a potentially powerful approach that could complement existing malaria elimination interventions. Such methods require knowledge of vector population composition, dynamics, behaviour and role in transmission. Here were characterized these parameters in three representative villages, Bana, Pala and Souroukoudingan, of the Sudano-Sahelian belt of Burkina Faso, a region where bed net campaigns have recently intensified. Read More

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https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2747-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444393PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Demographic and urban environmental variables associated with dog bites in Detroit.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019 Apr;254(8):986-990

Objective: To identify demographic and urban environmental variables associated with prevalence rates of dog bites per zip code in Detroit.

Design: Retrospective ecological study.

Sample: 6,540 people who visited any 1 of 15 hospital emergency rooms in the 29 zip codes in Detroit between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013, with a primary complaint of dog bite. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.254.8.986DOI Listing

Tick Bites on Humans in Southwestern Region of Turkey: Species Diversity

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2019 Mar;43(1):30-35

Aydın Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Parasitology, Aydın, Türkiye

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine tick species found on humans who suffered from tick bite in the Southwestern Anatolia Region, Turkey.

Methods: Between January and October 2007, ticks were collected from people admitted to the city and/or town hospitals with complaints of tick bites in nine different provinces of Turkey. Genus and/or species of the ticks in adult, larva and nymph stages were identified microscopically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6219DOI Listing

Blackflies in the ointment: O. volvulus vector biting can be significantly reduced by the skin-application of mineral oil during human landing catches.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 1;13(4):e0007234. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane/ILMD/FIOCRUZ, Laboratório de Ecologia de Doenças Transmissíveis na Amazônia, 476 Rua Teresina, Adrianópolis, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Background: Standard human landing catches (sHLCs) have historically been a key component of Onchocerca volvulus transmission monitoring, but expose health-workers to potentially hazardous vector bites. Novel human-bait-free trapping methods have been developed, but do not always work where they are needed and may not generate O. volvulus surveillance data that is directly comparable with historic data. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007234
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007234DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Nonlinearities in transmission dynamics and efficient management of vector-borne pathogens.

Ecol Appl 2019 Mar 31:e01892. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, 02881.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an approach to minimizing economic and environmental harm caused by pests, and Integrated Vector Management (IVM) uses similar methods to minimize pathogen transmission by vectors. The risk of acquiring a vector-borne infection is often quantified using the density of infected vectors. The relationship between vector numbers and risk of human infection is more or less linear when both vector numbers and pathogen prevalence in vectors are low, but the relationship is nonlinear when vector density and/or infection prevalence are high. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1892DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Use of Anopheles salivary biomarker to assess seasonal variation of human exposure to bites in children living near rubber and oil palm cultivations in Côte d'Ivoire.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2019 May 7;5:e00102. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de Santé Publique (INSP), 01 BP 1500, Bouaké 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

Environmental changes related to agricultural practices and activities can impact malaria transmission. In the objective to evaluate this impact on the human-vector contact, the level of human exposure to vector bites was assess by an immuno-epidemiological indicator based on the assessment of the human IgG antibody response to the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide, previously validated as a pertinent biomarker. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the dry and rainy season in three villages with intensive agricultural plantations (N'Zikro with rubber cultivation, Ehania-V5 and Ehania-V1 with palm oil exploitation) and in a control village without plantations (Ayébo). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2019.e00102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423992PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Treatment of Food Selectivity in a Child with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Through Parent Teleconsultation.

Behav Anal Pract 2019 Mar 25;12(1):33-43. Epub 2018 May 25.

2University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 USA.

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a diagnosis for those who display impaired and distressing eating behaviors and symptoms. Behavioral feeding strategies have been shown to be effective at improving food variety and decrease problematic mealtime behaviors in children and adolescents. This study examined the use of teleconsultation for the implementation of a behavioral feeding intervention to increase food variety with a child with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0251-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411550PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Mosquitoes on a Diet Reduce Those Pesky Bites.

Trends Parasitol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Disease Vector Group, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; The authors made equal contributions. Electronic address:

Targeting the internal regulation of mosquito's human-seeking capacity provides a novel means for vector control. Mosquitoes bite us to obtain blood in order to develop their eggs. Professor Vosshall and colleagues (Cell 2019;176:687-701) have exploited the modulatory pathway to control this hunger for blood by designing drugs based on human diet-suppression pharmaceuticals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Investigating the blood-host plasticity and dispersal of Anopheles coluzzii using a novel field-based methodology.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 25;12(1):143. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The biting behaviour and dispersal of insect vectors in the field underlies the transmission of many diseases. Here, a novel collection methodology coupled with the molecular analysis of blood-meal sources and digestion rates is introduced with the aim of aiding the understanding of two critical and relatively understudied mosquito behaviours: plasticity in blood-host choice and vector dispersal.

Results: A collection strategy utilising a transect of mosquito traps placed at 50 m intervals allowed the collection of blood-fed Anopheles coluzzii from a malaria-endemic village of southern Ghana where human host availability ranged from zero (a cattle pen), increasing until humans were the dominant host choice (the middle of the village). Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3401-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434891PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Species abundance, composition, and nocturnal activity of female Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malaria-endemic villages of Papua New Guinea: assessment with barrier screen sampling.

Malar J 2019 Mar 25;18(1):96. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Background: Community composition of Anopheles mosquitoes, and their host-seeking and peridomestic behaviour, are important factors affecting malaria transmission. In this study, barrier screen sampling was used to investigate species composition, abundance, and nocturnal activity of Anopheles populations in villages of Papua New Guinea.

Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from 6 pm to 6 am in five villages from 2012 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2742-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434780PMC

Incidence and treatment of snakebites in West Bengal, India.

Toxicol Rep 2019 1;6:239-243. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Paschim Medinipur, 721102, West Bengal, India.

Objective: Snake envenomation is a major cause of death and disability in the developing countries. In India and neighboring countries, the four venomous snakes of concern include - Indian cobra(, Common Krait (); Russell's Viper (); Saw Scaled Viper (). We describe the management protocol for snakebite treatment in a tertiary care hospital of district, West Bengal based on case reports of subjects admitted and treated in Ghatal Subdivisional Hospital(GSH) during 2013-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409390PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Mosquito electrocuting traps for directly measuring biting rates and host-preferences of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus outdoors.

Malar J 2019 Mar 18;18(1):83. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania.

Background: Mosquito biting rates and host preferences are crucial determinants of human exposure to vector-borne diseases and the impact of vector control measures. The human landing catch (HLC) is a gold standard method for measuring human exposure to bites, but presents risks to participants by requiring some exposure to mosquito vectors. Mosquito electrocuting traps (METs) represent an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for measuring human exposure to malaria vectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2726-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423841PMC

Age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently.

Food Res Int 2019 May 22;119:143-151. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Top Institute Food & Nutrition, P.O. Box 557, 6700 AN, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Food oral processing depends on food properties and consumer characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability on oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. Oral processing behaviour of 18 commercially available foods, ranging from liquids, semi-solids to solids, was compared between Dutch, Caucasian adults (18-30 yrs), Chinese, Asian adults (18-30 yrs), Dutch, Caucasian elderly (60-80 yrs), and consumers with mild swallowing problems and/or low mastication efficiency (18-80 yrs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.048DOI Listing

Down-selecting circumsporozoite protein-based malaria vaccine: A comparison of malaria sporozoite challenge model.

Parasite Immunol 2019 May;41(5):e12624

Laboratory of Vaccinology and Applied Immunology, Kanazawa University School of Pharmacy, Kanazawa, Japan.

Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is the main target antigen in development of pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines. To evaluate PfCSP vaccines in animal models, challenge by intravenous sporozoite injection is preferentially used. However, in clinical trials, vaccinated human volunteers are exposed to the bites of malaria-infected mosquitoes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12624DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read
2.836 Impact Factor

Leeching as Salvage Venous Drainage in Ear Reconstruction: Clinical Case and Review of Literature.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2018 Nov 5;6(11):e1820. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Clinic of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.

Background: Ear avulsion is a rare complication of different traumas, such as car accidents, human or animal bites and stab wounds, and can result in dramatic cosmetic consequences for the patient. Ear replantation, revascularization, and reattachment are the options offering best aesthetic results. But venous outflow insufficiency is responsible for a high rate of failures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000001820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414113PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Design and analysis of stably integrated reporters for inducible transgene expression in human T cells and CAR NK-cell lines.

BMC Med Genomics 2019 Mar 13;12(Suppl 2):44. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Background: Cytotoxic activity of T- and NK-cells can be efficiently retargeted against cancer cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and rTCRs. In the context of solid cancers, use of armored CAR T- and NK cells secreting additional anti-cancer molecules such as cytokines, chemokines, antibodies, BiTEs, inverted cytokine receptors, and checkpoint inhibitors, appears particularly promising, as this may help overcome immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, attract bystander immune cells, and boost CAR T/NK-cell persistence. Placing the expression of such molecules under the transcriptional control downstream of CAR-mediated T/NK-cell activation offers the advantage of targeted delivery, high local concentration, and reduced toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-019-0489-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6417161PMC

Validation of Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection by Multicamera Video Observation in an Unconstrained Environment.

Nutrients 2019 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.

Video observations have been widely used for providing ground truth for wearable systems for monitoring food intake in controlled laboratory conditions; however, video observation requires participants be confined to a defined space. The purpose of this analysis was to test an alternative approach for establishing activity types and food intake bouts in a relatively unconstrained environment. The accuracy of a wearable system for assessing food intake was compared with that from video observation, and inter-rater reliability of annotation was also evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030609DOI Listing

Evaluation of Unowned Domestic Cat Management in the Urban Environment of Rome After 30 Years of Implementation of the No-Kill Policy (National and Regional Laws).

Front Vet Sci 2019 19;6:31. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Veterinary Service, Local Health Unit Rome 3, Rome, Italy.

Law no. 281, enacted by the Italian Parliament in 1991, was the first that aimed at managing urban free-roaming cats living in colonies, without killing and/or moving them from their site. It had been anticipated by the Lazio Regional Law no. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398421PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Urinary concentrations of permethrin metabolites in US Army personnel in comparison with the US adult population, occupationally exposed cohorts, and other general populations.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Apr 7;222(3):355-363. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Military Performance Division, 10 General Greene Avenue, Natick, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Permethrin is used to treat clothing as a personal protective measure against insect bites in military and recreational settings, and along with other pyrethroid insecticides, is sprayed in agricultural and residential sites for pest control. The widespread use of permethrin and other pyrethroid insecticides creates a potential for human exposure in occupational and non-occupational populations. This study aims to compare urinary biomarkers of pyrethroid exposure in two US military cohorts to the general US adult population from the 2009-2010 Nutritional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14384639183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.02.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of multiple transmission pathways on Zika dynamics.

Infect Dis Model 2018 20;3:331-344. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Arlington, 411 South Nedderman Drive Box 19408 Arlington, TX 76019 USA.

Although the Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected female mosquitoes, it can also be sexually and vertically transmitted within both populations. In this study, we develop a new mathematical model of the Zika virus which incorporates sexual transmission in humans and mosquitos, vertical transmission in mosquitos, and mosquito to human transmission through bites. Analysis of this deterministic model shows that the secondary transmission routes of Zika increase the basic reproductive number ( ) of the virus by 5%, shift the peak time of an outbreak to occur 10% sooner, increase the initial growth of an epidemic, and have important consequences for control strategies and estimates of . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2018.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326220PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

An insight into the sialotranscriptome and virome of Amazonian anophelines.

BMC Genomics 2019 Mar 4;20(1):166. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Saliva of mosquitoes contains anti-platelet, anti-clotting, vasodilatory, anti-complement and anti-inflammatory substances that help the blood feeding process. The salivary polypeptides are at a fast pace of evolution possibly due to their relative lack of structural constraint and possibly also by positive selection on their genes leading to evasion of host immune pressure.

Results: In this study, we used deep mRNA sequence to uncover for the first time the sialomes of four Amazonian anophelines species (Anopheles braziliensis, A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399984PMC
March 2019
15 Reads

Determinants of health seeking behavior of animal bite victims in rabies endemic South Bhutan: a community-based contact-tracing survey.

BMC Public Health 2019 Feb 27;19(1):237. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Zoonosis Program, Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Thimphu, Bhutan.

Background: Dog bites are the main source of rabies infection and death in humans, contributing up to 99% of all cases. We conducted a contact-tracing study to evaluate the health seeking and treatment compliance behaviors of people following potential exposure to rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan.

Methods: Using information from the rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) register, animal-exposed victims who had visited five hospitals in south Bhutan between January and March 2017 were traced and further data were collected from them using a structured questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6559-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391763PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Challenging Dogma: Optimal Treatment of the "Fight Bite".

Hand (N Y) 2019 Feb 27:1558944719831238. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The optimal treatment of human bites to the dorsal metacarpophalangeal region (ie, "fight bite") in the absence of gross purulence is controversial. Few studies have compared the outcomes of operative debridement with expectant wound care and oral antibiotics.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients evaluated at a Level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944719831238DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

wound infection transmitted by a pet dog.

Germs 2018 Dec 3;8(4):214-217. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

PhD, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Introduction: Human pasteurellosis is a severe human infection that accounts for 20-30 human deaths annually worldwide. Mucous secretions derived from pets comprise the primary source of infection, which are transmitted through animal scratches or bites.

Case Report: We describe a case of wound infection in an immunocompetent adult with a decubitus ulcer of the lower extremity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18683/germs.2018.1149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363398PMC
December 2018

Predicting Amputation and Multiple Debridements in Tooth Knuckle Injuries.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2019 Mar;24(1):6-12

* College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Background: Tooth knuckle injuries can be expensive to treat and may necessitate amputation in some cases. Several limitations exist in the literature regarding our knowledge around the factors predicting amputation and the need for multiple debridements in treating this injury.

Methods: A historic cohort study of 321 patients treated for tooth knuckle injuries was undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S2424835519500024DOI Listing

High malaria transmission sustained by s.l. occurring both indoors and outdoors in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 23;3:164. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Malaria Research Laboratory, OCEAC, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Malaria remains a major public health problem in Cameroon; however, despite reports on the adaptation of anopheline species to urban habitats, there is still not enough information on malaria transmission pattern in urban settings. In the frame of a larval control trial in the city of Yaoundé, we conducted baseline surveys to assess malaria transmission dynamics in this city. Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using CDC light traps and human landing catches from March 2017 to March 2018 in 30 districts of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14963.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364383PMC
December 2018

Feasibility of feeding Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on dengue virus-infected human volunteers for vector competence studies in Iquitos, Peru.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 12;13(2):e0007116. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Background: Transmission of dengue virus (DENV) from humans to mosquitoes represents a critical component of dengue epidemiology. Examinations of this process have generally been hampered by a lack of methods that adequately represent natural acquisition of DENV by mosquitoes from humans. In this study, we assessed artificial and natural blood feeding methods based on rates of DENV infection and dissemination within mosquitoes for use in a field-based epidemiological cohort study in Iquitos, Peru. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388938PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Controlling dog rabies in Africa: successes, failures and prospects for the future.

Authors:
C Sabeta E C Ngoepe

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):439-449

Rabies is an acute and progressive encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales). Approximately 99% of the estimated 59,000 annual human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are attributed to dog bites and are preventable through parenteral dog vaccination. In addition to dog rabies, the rabies virus also circulates in wildlife carnivores in southern Africa and virus exchange occurs readily across species barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2813DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Developments in human rabies prophylaxis.

Authors:
M J Warrell

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):629-647

Rabies is entirely preventable. All deaths are the result of failed prophylaxis. Rabies encephalomyelitis has never been reported in anyone who received both pre-exposure vaccination and a post-exposure booster. Read More

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http://doc.oie.int/dyn/portal/index.seam?page=alo&aloId=
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2829DOI Listing
August 2018
10 Reads

Human Tick-Borne Diseases in Australia.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 28;9. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Neuroinflammation Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

There are 17 human-biting ticks known in Australia. The bites of , and can cause paralysis, inflammation, and severe local and systemic reactions in humans, respectively. Six ticks, including , and may transmit , or subsp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360175PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

Acceptability of Aedes aegypti blood feeding on dengue virus-infected human volunteers for vector competence studies in Iquitos, Peru.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 11;13(2):e0007090. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

As part of a study to investigate drivers of dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics, this qualitative study explored whether DENV-infected residents of Iquitos, Peru, considered it acceptable (1) to participate in direct mosquito feeding experiments (lab-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed directly on human volunteers) and (2) to provide blood meals indirectly (Ae. aegypti fed on blood drawn from participants by venipuncture). Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs; 94 participants: 82 females and 12 males) were conducted in January 2014 to explore six themes: (1) concerns and preferences regarding direct mosquito feeds and blood draws, (2) comprehension of and misconceptions about study procedures, (3) motivating factors for participation, (4) acceptability of children's participation, (5) willingness to provide multiple samples over several days, and (6) preference for direct feedings in homes versus the study laboratory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386403PMC
February 2019
1 Read

[Influence of the knowledge of patients consulting at the Treichville antirabies Center on adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis].

Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2019 Apr 8;67(2):92-97. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

UFR Sciences médicales d'Abidjan, université Félix Houphouët Boigny de Cocody, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Institut national d'hygiène publique (Inhp), Cote d'Ivoire.

Aim: Human rabies is a major public health problem in many African countries, including Ivory Coast. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of human rabies knowledge on compliance with post-exposure prophylaxis.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study from September 2014 to May 2015 at the Abidjan Rabid Center, Treichville. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respe.2019.01.118DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Targeting Loxosceles spider Sphingomyelinase D with small-molecule inhibitors as a potential therapeutic approach for loxoscelism.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2019 Dec;34(1):310-321

a Immunochemistry Laboratory , Butantan Institute , São Paulo , SP , Brazil.

Loxosceles spiders' venoms consist of a mixture of proteins, including the sphingomyelinases D (SMases D), which are the main toxic components responsible for local and systemic effects in human envenomation. Herein, based on the structural information of SMase D from Loxosceles laeta spider venom and virtual docking-based screening approach, three benzene sulphonate compounds (named 1, 5 and 6) were identified as potential Loxosceles SMase D inhibitors. All compounds inhibited the hydrolysis of the sphingomyelin substrate by both recombinant and native SMases D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2018.1546698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327989PMC
December 2019
2 Reads

Dissecting Flavivirus Biology in Salivary Gland Cultures from Fed and Unfed (Black-Legged Tick).

MBio 2019 01 29;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Biology of Vector-Borne Viruses Section, Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID/NIH, Hamilton, Montana, USA.

The tick transmits a number of pathogens, including tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs). In the United States, confirmed human infections with the Powassan virus (POWV) TBFV have a fatality rate of ∼10% and are increasing in incidence. Tick salivary glands (SGs) serve as an organ barrier to TBFV transmission, and little is known regarding the location of TBFV infection in SGs from fed ticks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02628-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355982PMC
January 2019
4 Reads
6.786 Impact Factor

Early pathology in venom-induced consumption coagulopathy by Rhabdophis tigrinus (Yamakagashi snake) envenomation.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Jan 28:1-4. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

e Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Science , Kyushu University , Fukuoka , Japan.

Objective: Rhabdophis tigrinus (Yamakagashi in Japanese) is a venomous non-front-fanged colubroid snake capable of inflicting envenoming with life-threatening defibrinating coagulopathy. However, because of the uncommon incidence of bites and tendency for late development of symptoms/signs, the early effects of the venom on the coagulation system are poorly known.

Case Report: We describe a boy bitten by a wild R. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1540045DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Wild banana [Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman.]: Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological overview.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Apr 25;233:218-233. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

National Innovation Foundation-India (Autonomous Body of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India), Grambharti, Amarapur, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382650, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman. (Family: Musaceae), commonly known as "Wild Banana" is well recorded as popular ethnomedicine for medicinal and nutritional uses by different people and communities native to India, Ethiopia, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03788741183297
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.048DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Human Pasteurellosis Health Risk for Elderly Persons Living with Companion Animals.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2):229-235

The necessity for diagnosis and treatment of this infection is emphasized by the high number of complications and death rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.180641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346445PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Neurotoxic envenomation by the South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus): A case report.

Toxicon 2019 Mar 17;159:38-40. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Iroquois Building Suite 400, 3600 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus, Elapidae) has not previously been reported to cause any neurotoxic envenomations in humans. We recently treated a 44-year-old man who was bitten twice, once in each hand, by a captive South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus) while feeding the female snake who had recently laid eggs. Approximately one hour after receiving the bite, he developed vomiting, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and paralysis of the bulbar and upper extremity muscles, with retention of voluntary motor control in the lower extremities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2019
17 Reads

Snakebite accidents in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil: Epidemiology, health management and influence of the environmental scenario.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 Apr 10;24(4):432-441. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Curso de Doutorado em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Objectives: Brazil is home to large variety of snake species, of which about 17% are venomous. A large proportion of reported snakebite accidents in the country take place in northeast Brazil. We aimed to analyse the epidemiology of snakebites as a public health concern in Rio Grande do Norte state. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tmi.13207
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13207DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Naja annulifera Snake: New insights into the venom components and pathogenesis of envenomation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 18;13(1):e0007017. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Naja annulifera is a medically important venomous snake occurring in some of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Accidental bites result in severe coagulation disturbances, systemic inflammation and heart damage, as reported in dogs, and death, by respiratory arrest, in humans. Despite the medical importance of N. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338361PMC
January 2019
10 Reads

Five-year Audit of Infectious Diseases at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Cureus 2018 Nov 5;10(11):e3551. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Miscellaneous, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Purpose To estimate the burden of infectious diseases and the seasonality of mosquito-borne diseases seen at The Indus Hospital, Karachi (TIH). Methodology We performed a retrospective data analysis of all infectious diseases (ID) cases, retrieved from medical records over a five-year period starting from 1 January 2012 till 31 December 2016 at The Indus Hospital (TIH), which is a 150-bed, charity-based, tertiary-care health facility. The collected data has been categorized into three groups: (A) public health-related diseases, including community and environmental IDs, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324853PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Whole genome sequencing suggests transmission of -caused cutaneous diphtheria in two siblings, Germany, 2018.

Euro Surveill 2019 Jan;24(2)

These authors contributed equally to this paper.

In September 2018, a child who had returned from Somalia to Germany presented with cutaneous diphtheria by toxigenic biovar The child's sibling had superinfected insect bites harbouring also toxigenic . Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the same strain in both patients suggesting very recent human-to-human transmission. Epidemiological and NGS data suggest that the two cutaneous diphtheria cases constitute the first outbreak by toxigenic in Germany since the 1980s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.2.1800683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337054PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

EAACI position paper: Comparing insect hypersensitivity induced by bite, sting, inhalation or ingestion in human beings and animals.

Allergy 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Comparative Medicine, The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University of Vienna and University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Adverse reactions to insects occur in both human and veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in all species. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on insect allergy induced via stings, bites, inhalation or ingestion, and compare reactions in companion animals to those in people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13722DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads