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    Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Transmission of Plague Disease in Eastern Zambia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Pest Management Centre, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Plague is a fatal, primarily rodent-flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis. The identification of risk factors of plague was investigated through questionnaire interview and conducting focus group discussion (FGD) in Sinda and Nyimba of eastern Zambia. A total of 104 questionnaires were administered to individual respondents and 20 groups consisting of 181 discussants, which comprised FGD team in this study. Read More

    Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):155-162
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More

    A New Clade of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses from Australian Anopheles Mosquitoes Displays Species-Specific Host Restriction.
    mSphere 2017 Jul-Aug;2(4). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Read More

    The incidence of public sector hospitalisations due to dog bites in Australia 2001-2013.
    Aust N Z J Public Health 2017 Jul 16. Epub 2017 Jul 16.
    Advanced Animal Dentistry, Queensland.
    Objective: To estimate the incidence of dog bite-related injuries requiring public sector hospitalisation in Australia during the period 2001-13.

    Methods: Summary data on public sector hospitalisations due to dog bite-related injuries with an ICD 10-AM W54.0 coding were sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the study period 2001-2013. Read More

    Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Jul;22(27)
    Surveillance and Response Support Unit, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden (affiliation when the work was performed).
    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Read More

    The esperanza window trap reduces the human biting rate of Simulium ochraceum s.l. in formerly onchocerciasis endemic foci in Southern Mexico.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 7;11(7):e0005686. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
    Background: The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) baited with CO2 and human sweat compounds is attractive to Simulium ochraceum s.l., the primary vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the historically largest endemic foci in México and Guatemala. Read More

    Dog-bites, rabies and One Health: Towards improved coordination in research, policy and practice.
    Soc Sci Med 2017 Aug 28;187:126-133. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Canada.
    Dog-bites and rabies are neglected problems worldwide, notwithstanding recent efforts to raise awareness and to consolidate preventive action. As problems, dog-bites and rabies are entangled with one another, and both align with the concept of One Health. This concept emphasizes interdependence between humans and non-human species in complex socio-ecological systems. Read More

    Bites from the same dog, different outcomes for two patients: a case report.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Jul 5;6(1):107. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China.
    Background: Rabies is a serious reemerging zoonosis in China. At present human rabies cases are primarily diagnosed based on clinical presentation.

    Case Presentation: In August 2012, a woman and her son were attacked by a stray dog in Henan, China. Read More

    Incidence and mortality due to snakebite in the Americas.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 21;11(6):e0005662. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    CERPAGE, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin.
    Background: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality. Read More

    [Tetanus after cat scratch and bites in a previously immunized patient].
    Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Apr;34(2):181-185
    Universidad de los Andes, Chile.
    Tetanus is declining due to vaccination, professional labor management and appropriate wound care. Tetanus cases have been reported despite immunization. We report the case of a previously healthy 21 years old female patient that presented a mild generalized tetanus requiring admission after mild and recurrent cat scratch and bites. Read More

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: A State-of-the-Art Review Focused in Pulmonary Involvement.
    Lung 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dengue fever is an arboviral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, and human infection can be caused by any of the four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). The infection has become recognized as the most important and prevalent arboviral disease in humans, endemic in almost 100 countries worldwide. Read More

    Sri Lanka takes action towards a target of zero rabies death by 2020.
    WHO South East Asia J Public Health 2016 Sep;5(2):113-116
    Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Rabies is a 100% vaccine-preventable and 100% fatal zoonotic, viral disease. It is usually spread to humans by saliva, through bites or scratches. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human deaths from rabies. Read More

    Animal, Microbial, and Fungal Borne Skin Pathology in the Mountain Wilderness: A Review.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2017 Jun;28(2):127-138
    School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (Drs Brandenburg, Califf, Manly, and Levandowski).
    Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. Read More

    Dog rabies data reported to multinational organizations from Southern and Eastern African countries.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Jun 8;10(1):199. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706KN, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Objective: Rabies is one of the viral diseases with the highest case fatality rate in humans. The main transmission route to humans is through bites, especially of infected dogs. Decisions on the allocation of resources to control and reduce the socio-economic impacts of rabies require reliable data. Read More

    Shortcomings in snake bite management in rural Cameroon: a case report.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Jun 8;10(1):196. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Health and Human Development (2HD) Research Network, Douala, Cameroon.
    Background: Snake bites are an important public health problem in developing countries with most bites occurring in rural areas. Severe envenomation often occurs in children and following bites to the face. Prompt administration of potent anti-venom remains the mainstay of management. Read More

    Going beyond personal protection against mosquito bites to eliminate malaria transmission: population suppression of malaria vectors that exploit both human and animal blood.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 Mar 26;2(2):e000198. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Oxford Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Protecting individuals and households against mosquito bites with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) can suppress entire populations of unusually efficient malaria vector species that predominantly feed indoors on humans. Mosquitoes which usually feed on animals are less reliant on human blood, so they are far less vulnerable to population suppression effects of such human-targeted insecticidal measures. Fortunately, the dozens of mosquito species which primarily feed on animals are also relatively inefficient vectors of malaria, so personal protection against mosquito bites may be sufficient to eliminate transmission. Read More

    Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - a review.
    Acta Trop 2017 Jun 3. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80,56124 Pisa, Italy.
    The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Read More

    Extensiometric analysis of strain in craniofacial bones during implant-supported palatal expansion.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Materials Science Department, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pr Gen Tiburcio 80, 22290-270, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Palatal expansion has several orthodontic and orthopedic applications, such as increasing maxillary transverse dimensions and correcting maxillary atresia, oral breathing, and skeletal cross-bites. Little is known about the strain to which craniofacial bones are submitted when a palatal expander is loaded. The objectives of the present work were to propose a new palatal bone-borne titanium device (expansion screw), to determine patterns of strain distribution in craniofacial bones during palatal expansion and to show the clinical results of a new palatal expander supported by implants. Read More

    Supervised Machine-Learning Reveals That Old and Obese People Achieve Low Dapsone Concentrations.
    CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
    The human species is becoming increasingly obese. Dapsone, which is extensively used across the globe for dermatological disorders, arachnid bites, and for treatment of several bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, could be affected by obesity. We performed a clinical experiment, using optimal design, in volunteers weighing 44-150 kg, to identify the effect of obesity on dapsone pharmacokinetic parameters based on maximum-likelihood solution via the expectation-maximization algorithm. Read More

    A New In Vitro Bioassay System for the Discovery and Quantitative Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents.
    J Med Entomol 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    National Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677
    Mosquitoes vector many pathogens that cause human diseases. Repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. In this paper, we are reporting an Ali and Khan (A & K), large cage in vitro bioassay system that can effectively be used to measure repellency of compounds against mosquitoes. Read More

    Knowledge about the human immunodeficiency syndrome among elders in a unit for the care of the elderly.
    Rev Gaucha Enferm 2017 May 18;37(spe):e20160039. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM). Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem. Departamento de Enfermagem e Educação em Saúde Comunitária. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
    Objective: To analyze the knowledge of elders regarding HIV/AIDS.

    Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study, with 457 elders from the Unit for the Care of Elders in Uberaba - Minas Gerais, lasting 3 months. The instruments used were the Mental State Mini-exam and a questionnaire on the human immunodeficiency virus for elders, together with frequency measures for their analysis. Read More

    Yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium punctorium) bites in Slovenia: case series and review.
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Centre for Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Division of Internal Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloška cesta 7, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    In Central Europe, reports of human envenomation by Cheiracanthium punctorium, commonly known as the yellow sac spider, are sporadic, despite the fact that this species is widespread in Europe. However, in recent years, C. punctorium has been repeatedly described globally in medical and toxicological literature. Read More

    Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus).
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 May 19;9(5). Epub 2017 May 19.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
    Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. Read More

    NKG2D Ligand-Targeted Bispecific T-Cell Engagers Lead to Robust Antitumor Activity against Diverse Human Tumors.
    Mol Cancer Ther 2017 Jul 12;16(7):1335-1346. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
    Two new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) molecules with specificity for NKG2D ligands were developed and functionally characterized. One, huNKG2D-OKT3, was derived from the extracellular portion of the human NKG2D receptor fused to a CD3ε binding single-chain variable fragment (scFv), known as OKT3. NKG2D has multiple ligands, including MICA, which are expressed by a variety of malignant cells. Read More

    Accuracy of a computed tomography scanning procedure to manufacture digital models.
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 May;151(5):995-1003
    Department of Dentistry, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Accurate articulation of the digital dental casts is crucial in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. We aimed to determine the accuracy of manufacturing digital dental casts from computed tomography scanning of plaster casts regarding linear dimensions and interarch relationships and to test whether eventual differences in interarch relationships between plaster and digital casts would affect orthodontic diagnostics.

    Methods: Plaster casts with the wax bites of 2 patients were used to create digital dental casts with a computed tomography scanner. Read More

    The cost of Lyme borreliosis.
    Eur J Public Health 2017 Jun;27(3):538-547
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequently reported tick-borne infection in Europe and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-of-illness of LB in the Netherlands. We used available incidence estimates from 2010 for tick bite consultations and three symptomatic LB outcomes: erythema migrans (EM), disseminated LB and Lyme-related persisting symptoms. Read More

    Human fatalities caused by animal attacks: A six-year autopsy study.
    Med Leg J 2017 Jan 1:25817217707166. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College & Hospital, Nagpur, India.
    Deaths caused by animal attacks in urban as well as rural areas are rising. With dwindling forest cover and with more interaction of animals with humans in day-to-day life, we need to understand the reasons, manner and causes of these fatal events. We studied 151 cases of fatal animal/human conflicts and in particular, the manner and mechanism of causation of injuries with respect to different types of animals. Read More

    Tick bite and Lyme disease-related emergency department encounters in New Hampshire, 2010-2014.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Concord, NH, USA.
    Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in New Hampshire (NH). While LD is a reportable condition and cases are counted for public health surveillance, many more people receive care for tick bites or diagnoses of LD than are reflected in surveillance data. NH's emergency department (ED) data system was queried for tick bite and LD-related encounters. Read More

    Efficacy and user acceptability of transfluthrin-treated sisal and hessian decorations for protecting against mosquito bites in outdoor bars.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 20;10(1):197. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, P.O Box 53, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. Read More

    Haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteases and human ADAMs cleave LRP5/6, which disrupts cell-cell adhesions in vitro and induces haemorrhage in vivo.
    FEBS J 2017 Jun 20;284(11):1657-1671. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Japan.
    Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are members of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteins, as they possess similar domains. SVMPs are known to elicit snake venom-induced haemorrhage; however, the target proteins and cleavage sites are not known. In this work, we identified a target protein of vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), an SVMP, relevant to its ability to induce haemorrhage. Read More

    Community-based survey during rabies outbreaks in Rangjung town, Trashigang, eastern Bhutan, 2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 17;17(1):281. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Regional Livestock Development Centre, Department of Livestock, Khangma, Trashigang, Bhutan.
    Background: Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. Read More

    Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 14;11(4):e0005553. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More

    Distribution and medical aspects of Loxosceles rufescens, one of the most invasive spiders of the world (Araneae: Sicariidae).
    Toxicon 2017 Jun 10;132:19-28. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
    Loxosceles rufescens is a circum-Mediterranean spider species, potentially harmful to humans. Its native area covers the Mediterranean Basin and Near East. Easily spread with transported goods, it is meanwhile an alien and invasive species to nearly all other continents and many islands. Read More

    Anti-Trypanosomatid Elemanolide Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 8;22(4). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry (IPBP), University of Münster, PharmaCampus Corrensstraße 48, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) threatening millions of peoples' lives with thousands infected. The disease is endemic in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the kinetoplastid "protozoan" parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of infected tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    Successful strategies implemented towards the elimination of canine rabies in the Western Hemisphere.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 4;143:1-12. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, 30329 GA, USA.
    Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. Read More

    Unusual Aetiology of Pasteurella canis Biovar 2 Causing Dacryocystitis in HIV Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):DD01-DD03. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Senior Resident, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India .
    Pasteurella species are zoonotic bacterial pathogens implicated very infrequently in various human infections following animal bites or licks usually of dogs and cats. This case report described a rare clinical presentation of dacryocystitis caused by P.canis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive young male patient involved in caring of cattle. Read More

    Temporal dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus in northern Europe: epidemiological implications.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Mar 31;10(1):166. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Background: Tick-borne pathogens pose an increasing threat to human and veterinary health across the northern hemisphere. While the seasonal activity of ticks is largely determined by climatic conditions, host-population dynamics are also likely to affect tick abundance. Consequently, abundance fluctuations of rodents in northern Europe are expected to be translated into tick dynamics, and can hence potentially affect the circulation of tick-borne pathogens. Read More

    HUMAN BITE INJURIES ON THE JOS PLATEAU.
    J West Afr Coll Surg 2016 Apr-Jun;6(2):1-19
    Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
    Background: Human bite injuries with the associated morbidity are not uncommon in this environment.

    Objective: To determine the pattern, management modalities and treatment outcome of human bites in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Design: A prospective study of all human bite injuries managed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2014. Read More

    How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Mar 13;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. Read More

    The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 23;11(3):e0005435. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Division of Health and Environmental Sciences, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Japan.
    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. Read More

    From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?
    PeerJ 2017 16;5:e2998. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Dipartimento di Sanitá Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Laboratory affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia - Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
    Background: Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. Read More

    What's eating you? lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
    Cutis 2017 Feb;99(2):111-114
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
    Amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern United States. Since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. Today, A americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. Read More

    There Is a Method to the Madness: Strategies to Study Host Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes.
    Front Microbiol 2017 2;8:328. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health Albany, NY, USA.
    Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. Read More

    [The Vulnerable Heel of Achilles: Intratendinous Abscess Following a Cat Bite].
    Z Orthop Unfall 2017 Jun 16;155(3):324-327. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Klinik für Unfallchirurgie und Orthopädie, BG Klinikum Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin.
    An 83-year-old patient suffered a cat bite dorsally to the Achilles tendon. In the further course, he developed an isolated intratendinous abscess of the Achilles tendon, which was surgically revised twice and subsequently healed with antibiotic treatment. In Germany, about 40,000 bite injuries of different origins occur annually. Read More

    Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 16;11(3):e0005249. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Read More

    Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Jun - Jul;35(6):344-347. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Centro de Rickettsiosis y Enfermedades Transmitidas por Artrópodos Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. Read More

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