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    Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in asymptomatic individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: a retrospective study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 18;18(1):227. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, 3C Pawińskiego Street, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: The studies on the occurrence and diversity of tick-borne infections in HIV-infected individuals have been few, and the subject has been relatively neglected when compared with other common infections associated with HIV. In HIV-positive patients in whom a serological diagnostics is complicated due to reduced positive predictive value, a method where the microorganism is detected directly is of great value. Therefore, we performed a molecular study to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of tick-borne infections in HIV-infected persons in Poland, an endemic area for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Read More

    Mosquito saliva alone has profound effects on the human immune system.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 May 17;12(5):e0006439. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
    Mosquito saliva is a very complex concoction of >100 proteins, many of which have unknown functions. The effects of mosquito saliva proteins injected into our skin during blood feeding have been studied mainly in mouse models of injection or biting, with many of these systems producing results that may not be relevant to human disease. Here, we describe the numerous effects that mosquito bites have on human immune cells in mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. Read More

    Uneven malaria transmission in geographically distinct districts of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 May 11;11(1):296. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé/Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, BP 545, Burkina Faso.
    Background: Urbanization is a main trend in developing countries and leads to health transition. Although non-communicable diseases are increasing in cities of low-income countries, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, are still present. In the case of malaria, transmission is lower than in rural areas, but is uneven and not well documented. Read More

    Online videos indicate human and dog behaviour preceding dog bites and the context in which bites occur.
    Sci Rep 2018 May 8;8(1):7147. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7BE, UK.
    YouTube videos of dog bites present an unexplored opportunity to observe dog bites directly. We recorded the context of bites, bite severity, victim and dog characteristics for 143 videos and for 56 videos we coded human and dog behaviour before the bite. Perceived bite severity was derived from visual aspects of the bite. Read More

    Identification of tick-borne pathogen diversity by metagenomic analysis in Haemaphysalis longicornis from Xinyang, China.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 May 7;7(1):45. Epub 2018 May 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, People's Republic of China.
    Background: A wide variety of pathogens could be maintained and transmitted by Haemaphysalis longicornis. The aim of this study is to systematically examine the variety of pathogens carried by Haemaphysalis longicornis, an importnatn vector, in tick-borne diseases epidemic area, and to estimate the risk of human infection imposed by tick bites.

    Methods: Adult questing ticks were collected in Xinyang, central China. Read More

    Selective eating behaviors in children: An observational validation of parental report measures.
    Appetite 2018 May 3;127:163-170. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, and Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, 300 N. Ingalls Street, 1109 SE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5456, USA. Electronic address:
    Selective eating in children is commonly measured by parental report questionnaires, yet it is unknown if parents accurately estimate their child's selective eating behavior. The objectives of this study were to test the validity and stability of two measures of selective eating using observed child behavior. Low-income mother-child dyads participated in a videotaped laboratory eating protocol at two time points (baseline: mean child age = 5. Read More

    Skin manifestations of tick bites in humans.
    An Bras Dermatol 2018 03;93(2):251-255
    Clínica Dermatológica Ubatuba, Ubatuba, SP, Brazil.
    Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods that attach to human skin through oral devices causing diverse initial cutaneous manifestations, and may also transmit serious infectious diseases. In certain situations, the Health Teams (and especially dermatologists) may face difficulties in identifying the lesions and associating them to the parasites. To assist them in clinical diagnosis, we suggest a classification of the skin manifestations in primary lesions, which occur by the attachment the tick to the host (for toxicity and the anticoagulant substances in the saliva and/or marked inflammation by the penetration and permanence of the mouthparts) and secondary lesions that are manifestations of infections caused by rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa and fungi inoculated by the ticks. Read More

    Risk factors associated with seropositivity to California serogroup viruses in humans and pet dogs, Quebec, Canada.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 May 2:1-10. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Groupe de recherche en épidémiologie des zoonoses et santé publique, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire,Université de Montréal,Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec,Canada.
    Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses are two emerging human pathogens associated with cases of neuroinvasive disease in North America. This study aimed to identify environmental and individual risk factors for seropositivity to these arboviruses in humans and pet dogs from Québec, Canada, 2012-2014. In humans, areas with moderate densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were associated with higher odds of seropositivity compared with areas with low densities of white-tailed deer (OR 2. Read More

    Ocular abnormalities in congenital Zika syndrome: are the ophthalmoscopic findings "the top of the iceberg"?
    Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Vision Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Paulista Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Brazilian Institute of Fight Against Blindness, Assis and Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus mainly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes from Aedes genus. Other ways of transmission include the perinatal and sexual routes, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure. Although the first human cases were registered in 1952 in African countries, outbreaks were only reported since 2007, when entire Pacific islands were affected. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Dengue Virus, West Nile Virus, Chikungunya Virus, and Zika Virus in International Travelers Attending a Travel and Migration Center in 2015-2017, Southern Italy.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Section of Hygiene, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari , Bari, Italy .
    International travelers to areas endemic for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be at risk of contracting and spreading these diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that are specific for Dengue Virus (DV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), or Zika Virus (ZV) in a cohort of international travelers. The study enrolled travelers who attended the Travel Medicine and Migration outpatient service of Local Health Unit of Bari, Italy, in March 2015-June 2017 for counseling and vaccine prophylaxis before travel. Read More

    The Immune Responses of the Animal Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Comparison of Insects, Birds, and Mammals.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 3;8:96. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.
    Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV), are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. Read More

    Repellent efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Lutzomyia longipalpis.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 16;11(1):247. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Blvd., Duluth, GA, 30096, USA.
    Background: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis in the Americas. Considering that the dog is the main domestic host of the parasite, repellent treatment is a measure that might contribute to the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniosis. The repellent efficacy of a single treatment of a new spot-on topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®, Merial, now part of Boehringer-Ingelheim) to repel Lu. Read More

    Inspective and toxicological survey of the poisoned baits and bites.
    Forensic Sci Int 2018 Jun 31;287:108-112. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, via Salute 2, 80055, Portici, Napoli, Italy.
    Cases of intentional animal poisonings are still widespread in Italy, even if the improper or malicious use of poisoned baits is banned. This represents a serious threat to pets as well as wildlife species, but also an environmental and human health concern. A retrospective study was performed based on baits sent for toxicological analysis to the laboratories of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno (IZSM) in Southern Italy over a five year period. Read More

    Bacterial and protozoal pathogens found in ticks collected from humans in Corum province of Turkey.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Apr 12;12(4):e0006395. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey.
    Background: Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey.

    Methodology/principal Findings: From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Read More

    Potential benefits of combining transfluthrin-treated sisal products and long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling indoor-biting malaria vectors.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 10;11(1):231. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: Transfluthrin vapour prevents mosquito bites by disrupting their host-seeking behaviors. We measured the additional benefits of combining transfluthrin-treated sisal decorations and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) with an aim of extending protection against early evening, indoor-biting malaria vectors when LLINs are ineffective.

    Methods: We investigated the indoor protective efficacy of locally made sisal decorative baskets (0. Read More

    Primary blood-hosts of mosquitoes are influenced by social and ecological conditions in a complex urban landscape.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 10;11(1):218. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, 12545, USA.
    Background: Temperate urban landscapes support persistent and growing populations of Culex and Aedes mosquito vectors. Large urban mosquito populations can represent a significant risk for transmission of emergent arboviral infection. However, even large mosquito populations are only a risk to the animals they bite. Read More

    Increased Relative Risk of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Warmer Weather.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 22;8:90. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a serious acute neuroinfection of humans caused by a tick-borne flavivirus. The disease is typically seasonal, linked to the host-seeking activity of (predominantly nymphs), the principal European tick vector species. To address the need for accurate risk predictions of contracting TBE, data on 4,044 TBE cases reported in the Czech Republic during 2001-2006 were compared with questing activity of nymphs monitored weekly at a defined location for the same 6-year period. Read More

    Spectral components in electromyograms from four regions of the human masseter, in natural dentate and edentulous subjects with removable prostheses and implants.
    Arch Oral Biol 2018 Jun 26;90:130-137. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Laboratorio de Biomecánica, Kinesiología y Cineantropometría, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km 1, Seville, Spain.
    Objective: To compare the frequency or spectral components between different regions of the superficial masseter in young natural dentate and total edentulous older adults rehabilitated with removable prostheses and fixed-implant support. A secondary objective was to compare these components between the three groups.

    Design: 21 young natural dentate and 28 edentulous (14 with removable prostheses and 14 with fixed-implant support) were assessed. Read More

    Clinical signs and blood-test results of humans infected with zoonotic simian foamy viruses: a case-control study.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Unité d'épidémiologie et Physiopathologie des Virus Oncogènes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Background: A spillover of simian foamy virus (SFV) to humans, following bites from infected nonhuman primates (NHPs), is ongoing in exposed populations. These retroviruses establish persistent infections of unknown physiological consequences to the human host.

    Methods: We performed a case-control study to compare 24 Cameroonian hunters infected with gorilla SFV and 24 controls matched for age and ethnicity. Read More

    Improving CART-Cell Therapy of Solid Tumors with Oncolytic Virus-Driven Production of a Bispecific T-cell Engager.
    Cancer Immunol Res 2018 May 27;6(5):605-616. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CART) have shown significant promise in clinical trials to treat hematologic malignancies, but their efficacy in solid tumors has been limited. Oncolytic viruses have the potential to act in synergy with immunotherapies due to their immunogenic oncolytic properties and the opportunity of incorporating therapeutic transgenes in their genomes. Here, we hypothesized that an oncolytic adenovirus armed with an EGFR-targeting, bispecific T-cell engager (OAd-BiTE) would improve the outcome of CART-cell therapy in solid tumors. Read More

    Nationwide insecticide resistance status and biting behaviour of malaria vector species in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Malar J 2018 Mar 27;17(1):129. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    PMI Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project, Abt Associates 4550 Montgomery Ave, Suite 800 North, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.
    Background: Globally, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) accounted for 9% of malaria cases and 10% of malaria deaths in 2015. As part of control efforts, more than 40 million long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed between 2008 and 2013, resulting in 70% of households owning one or more LLINs in 2014. To optimize vector control efforts, it is critical to monitor vector behaviour and insecticide resistance trends. Read More

    Spatial modeling of rat bites and prediction of rat infestation in Peshawar valley using binomial kriging with logistic regression.
    Environ Monit Assess 2018 Mar 24;190(4):245. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Department of Space Science, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.
    In this study, we propose to develop a geostatistical computational framework to model the distribution of rat bite infestation of epidemic proportion in Peshawar valley, Pakistan. Two species Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus are suspected to spread the infestation. The framework combines strengths of maximum entropy algorithm and binomial kriging with logistic regression to spatially model the distribution of infestation and to determine the individual role of environmental predictors in modeling the distribution trends. Read More

    Splenic Rupture as the First Manifestation of Babesia Microti Infection: Report of a Case and Review of Literature.
    Am J Case Rep 2018 Mar 23;19:335-341. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    BACKGROUND Babesiosis is an emerging, tick-borne zoonosis caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. Babesia microti is the main pathogen causing human disease and is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern parts of the USA. Severity of infection ranges from mild, self-limited, febrile viral-like illness accompanied by nonspecific symptoms to life-threatening infection complicated by severe hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and renal or/and hepatic failure. Read More

    The Impact of Periodic Distribution Campaigns of Long-Lasting Insecticidal-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Vector Dynamics and Human Exposure in Dielmo, Senegal.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 May 15;98(5):1343-1352. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Aix Marseille University, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IDR) (Dakar, Marseille, Papeete), AP-HM, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire-Méditerranée Infection, UMR Vecteurs-Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Marseille, France.
    The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly's new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission. Read More

    Rat-bites of an epidemic proportion in Peshawar vale; a GIS based approach in risk assessment.
    Environ Monit Assess 2018 Mar 19;190(4):233. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Zoology Department, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.
    Contemporary studies demonstrate that rodent bites do not occur frequently. However, a huge number of cases were reported from Peshawar vale, Pakistan during 2016. Two species, the local black rat Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the invasive brown rat Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) might be the suspected cause. Read More

    First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 20;11(1):130. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Italy.
    Background: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. Read More

    Repellent Activity of TRIG (N-N Diethyl Benzamide) against Man-Biting Mosquitoes.
    J Trop Med 2018 9;2018:9037616. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Division of Livestock and Human Disease Vector Control, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI), P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania.
    A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Read More

    Human Babesiosis Caused by a Babesia crassa-like Pathogen: A Case Series.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Fengtai District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China.

    Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. Read More

    A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 9;12(3):e0006293. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Mission Rabies, Cranborne, Dorset, United Kingdom.
    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Read More

    Elevated Plasmodium infection rates and high pyrethroid resistance in major malaria vectors in a forested area of Cameroon highlight challenges of malaria control.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 8;11(1):157. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Vector group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Background: High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is the cornerstone of the malaria control strategy of the national malaria control program (NMCP) in Cameroon, with a target of reducing malaria transmission to less than 10% by 2035. To this end, more than 20 million LLINs have been distributed to populations countrywide since 2011. The present study evaluated entomological indices and Anopheles susceptibility to pyrethroids in a rural forested area of south Cameroon with high coverage of LLINs. Read More

    Combining abundance and performance data reveals how temperature regulates coastal occurrences and activity of a roaming apex predator.
    Glob Chang Biol 2018 May 8;24(5):1884-1893. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    University of Roehampton, London, UK.
    The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals. Read More

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis triggered by electrocoagulation.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Jan-Feb;51(1):108-110
    Pós-graduação de Ciências da Saúde da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brasil .
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Read More

    Evaluation of Malaria Urban Risk Using an Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker of Human Exposure to Bites.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 May 1;98(5):1353-1359. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), UMR IRD.224-CNRS.5290, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Urban malaria is an underestimated serious health concern in African countries. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of malaria transmission in an urban area by evaluating the level of human exposure to bites using an salivary biomarker ( Salivary Gland Protein-6 peptide 1 [gSG6-P1] peptide). Two multidisciplinary cross-sectional studies were undertaken in five sites of Bouaké city (three urban districts and two surrounding villages, used as control; Côte d'Ivoire) during the rainy season and the dry season. Read More

    Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.
    PLoS One 2018 6;13(3):e0193493. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Instituto de Geografía, Quito, Ecuador.
    Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Read More

    [Tularemia in a jogger woman after the attack by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo): A "One Health" case report].
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2018 Mar;160(3):185-188
    Infektiologie und Spitalhygiene, Kantonsspital Baden.
    Introduction: A female jogger was attacked by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and was scratched lightly at the back of the head. One week later she was taken ill with high fever and headache which was later diagnosed as ulcero-glandular tularemia in regional lymph nodes, caused by Francisella tularensis. Recovery was only achieved after several weeks of systemic antibiotic treatment (Gentamicin/ Ciprofloxacine). Read More

    Non-traumatic splenic rupture in a patient with human granulocytic anaplasmosis and focused review of the literature.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 22;9(3):735-737. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.
    We report a rare case of a 53-year-old man with no significant past medical history who reported multiple tick bites within a 2-month period. The patient reported not "feeling well" for the 2 ½ weeks. He complained of generalized body aches, pains, and chills. Read More

    Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women - Vietnam, 2015-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 2;67(8):250-252. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. Read More

    The clinical characteristics and the features of immunophenotype of peripheral lymphocytes of adult onset chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Beijing.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(9):e9854
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a rare disease with high mortality. Most of CAEBV patients have been reported from Japan and are pediatric cases.The goal was to describe the clinical characteristics and the immunophenotypic features of peripheral lymphocytes in adult onset CAEBV patients. Read More

    A randomized feasibility trial comparing four antimalarial drug regimens to induce gametocytemia in the controlled human malaria infection model.
    Elife 2018 Feb 27;7. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Malaria elimination strategies require a thorough understanding of parasite transmission from human to mosquito. A clinical model to induce gametocytes to understand their dynamics and evaluate transmission-blocking interventions (TBI) is currently unavailable. Here, we explore the use of the well-established Controlled Human Malaria Infection model (CHMI) to induce gametocyte carriage with different antimalarial drug regimens. Read More

    Spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes and risk of malaria infection in Rwanda.
    Acta Trop 2018 Jun 21;182:149-157. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    To date, the Republic of Rwanda has not systematically reported on distribution, diversity and malaria infectivity rate of mosquito species throughout the country. Therefore, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as the nocturnal biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. For this purpose, mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Read More

    Estimating the burden of rabies in Ethiopia by tracing dog bite victims.
    PLoS One 2018 21;13(2):e0192313. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    In developing countries where financial resources are limited and numerous interests compete, there is a need for quantitative data on the public health burden and costs of diseases to support intervention prioritization. This study aimed at estimating the health burden and post-exposure treatment (PET) costs of canine rabies in Ethiopia by an investigation of exposed human cases. Data on registered animal bite victims during the period of one year were collected from health centers in three districts, i. Read More

    Serosurvey of in high risk population in Turkey, endemic to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Oct-Dec;54(4):341-347
    Vocational School of Health Services, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.
    Background & Objectives: Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic infection that spreads to human beings from animals. This study was aimed to demographically examine the C. burnetii seroprevalence in the people living in villages where Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic, in terms of various risk factors such as tick bites, tick contact, and occupational groups. Read More

    Assessing dengue transmission risk and a vector control intervention using entomological and immunological indices in Thailand: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
    Trials 2018 Feb 20;19(1):122. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London, UK.
    Background: Dengue fever is the most common and widespread mosquito-borne arboviral disease in the world. There is a compelling need for cost-effective approaches and practical tools that can reliably measure real-time dengue transmission dynamics that enable more accurate and useful predictions of incidence and outbreaks. Sensitive surveillance tools do not exist today, and only a small handful of new control strategies are available. Read More

    The biomechanical significance of the frontal sinus in Kabwe 1 (Homo heidelbergensis).
    J Hum Evol 2018 Jan 21;114:141-153. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Archaeology, University of York, King's Manor, York, YO1 7EP, United Kingdom; Hull York Medical School (HYMS), John Hughlings Jackson Building, University of York, Heslington, York, North Yorkshire YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
    Paranasal sinuses are highly variable among living and fossil hominins and their function(s) are poorly understood. It has been argued they serve no particular function and are biological 'spandrels' arising as a structural consequence of changes in associated bones and/or soft tissue structures. In contrast, others have suggested that sinuses have one or more functions, in olfaction, respiration, thermoregulation, nitric oxide production, voice resonance, reduction of skull weight, and craniofacial biomechanics. Read More

    A Human Bite on the Scrotum: Case Report and Review of Management in the Emergency Department.
    J Emerg Med 2018 Apr 10;54(4):537-539. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: Human bites involving the genitalia rarely present to the emergency department (ED). They have the potential to cause life-threatening secondary infections as well as serious physical and functional damage.

    Case Report: We report a case of an adult male who sustained a human bite to the scrotum, resulting in a ragged laceration on the anterior scrotum, with a devascularized flap and necrotic edges overlying the wound. Read More

    Characterization of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in a region of the eastern Amazon, state of Pará, Brazil, between 2000 and 2014.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Jun 8;65(4):395-403. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Laboratório de Epidemiologia e Geoprocessamento (EpiGeo), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Animal na Amazônia, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Castanhal, PA, Brasil.
    Animal bites are a serious public health issue, and prevention strategies have been consistently documented worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize human anti-rabies treatment in 11 counties of the Salgado microregion, Pará state, Brazil, which borders the Bragantina microregion, where exposures of human rabies were reported in 2004 and 2005. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using anti-rabies treatment notifications registered in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) database of the State Department of Public Health of Pará (SESPA) from January 2000 to December 2014. Read More

    Rates and risk factors for human cutaneous anthrax in the country of Georgia: National surveillance data, 2008-2015.
    PLoS One 2018 7;13(2):e0192031. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Branch of Battelle Memorial Institute in Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Introduction: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. Read More

    Neutrophils kill the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis using trogocytosis.
    PLoS Biol 2018 Feb 6;16(2):e2003885. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
    T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. Read More

    [Renaissance medicine and the discovery of the lesser circulation: the role of Michael Servetus (1511-1553)].
    Acta Med Hist Adriat 2017 Dec;15(2):271-282
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Sezione di Storia della Medicina ed Etica, Università di Genova, Genova, Italia.
    Human urine is currently the subject of biomedical investigations as a potential therapeutic resource and it continues to be used in remedies in different cultures and societies, including the Spanish culture. In this study we gather etnomedical knowledge about urotherapy and determine their associated symbolisms in Spain. A literature overview and a case study were carried out to compile urine-based remedies and as a direct analysis of symbolic systems. Read More

    Surveillance for Tick-Borne Viruses Near the Location of a Fatal Human Case of Bourbon Virus (Family Orthomyxoviridae: Genus Thogotovirus) in Eastern Kansas, 2015.
    J Med Entomol 2018 May;55(3):701-705
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.
    Bourbon virus (Family Orthomyxoviridae: Genus Thogotovirus) was first isolated from a human case-patient residing in Bourbon County, Kansas, who subsequently died. Before becoming ill in late spring of 2014, the patient reported several tick bites. In response, we initiated tick surveillance in Bourbon County and adjacent southern Linn County during spring and summer of 2015. Read More

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