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    Prevention Practices among the United States Pregnant Women Who Travel to Zika Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We surveyed pregnant women from the United States to assess the prevention practices they used when traveling to countries with ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks. Of the 749 who agreed to participate, 710 completed the survey's travel questions and 59 of those had traveled to a ZIKV outbreak area in the past 12 months. Only 43% of the women who had traveled to ZIKV outbreak areas reported frequently using mosquito repellant with 32% stating they did not use it at all. Read More

    Changes in total and differential leukocyte counts during the clinically silent liver phase in a controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naïve Dutch volunteers.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 10;16(1):457. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Institute for Tropical Diseases, Harbour Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Both in endemic countries and in imported malaria, changes in total and differential leukocyte count during Plasmodium falciparum infection have been described. To study the exact dynamics of differential leukocyte counts and their ratios, they were monitored in a group of healthy non-immune volunteers in two separate Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) studies.

    Methods: In two CHMI trials, CHMI-a and CHMI-b, 15 and 24 healthy malaria-naïve volunteers, respectively, were exposed to bites of infected mosquitoes, using the P. Read More

    Can you catch Ebola from a stork bite? Inductive reasoning influences generalization of perceived zoonosis risk.
    PLoS One 2017 8;12(11):e0186969. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America.
    Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Read More

    Indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western Kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 6;16(1):443. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.
    Background: The widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in Africa. There is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. This study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western Kenya. Read More

    A Public Health Opportunity Found in Food Waste.
    Prev Chronic Dis 2017 Nov 2;14:E108. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    The University of Texas School of Public Health, Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, Houston, Texas.
    A food waste problem coexists with food insecurity and obesity. Brighter Bites, a school-based food cooperative program, successfully channels primarily donated produce to low-income communities and provides nutrition education, creating an increased demand for and intake of fruits and vegetables. We present the framework used in Brighter Bites and results of operationalizing this framework during 3 years of implementation in Houston, Texas. Read More

    Trigonostemon reidioides modulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation via downregulation of the Akt signaling pathway.
    Oncol Lett 2017 Oct 17;14(4):4677-4683. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Bio-Center, Gyeonggi Institute of Science and Technology Promotion, Suwon, Gyeonggi 16229, Republic of Korea.
    Trigonostemon reidi`oides (TR) is used as a Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of drug addiction, asthma, food poisoning, constipation and snake bites. The present study investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of TR (ETR) on mitogen-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) responses, proliferation, adhesion, migration and tube formation. ETR treatment inhibited mitogen-induced HUVEC proliferation by downregulation of cell cycle-associated proteins, including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, which induced retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation. Read More

    A Retrospective Cohort Study of Tick Paralysis in British Columbia.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    1 Zoonotic Diseases and Emerging Pathogens Section, BC Centre of Disease Control Public Health Laboratory , Vancouver, Canada .
    Background: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations.

    Methods: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed. Read More

    Examining the human infectious reservoir for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 26;8(1):1133. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
    A detailed understanding of the human infectious reservoir is essential for improving malaria transmission-reducing interventions. Here we report a multi-regional assessment of population-wide malaria transmission potential based on 1209 mosquito feeding assays in endemic areas of Burkina Faso and Kenya. Across both sites, we identified 39 infectious individuals. Read More

    Defaming Rover: Error-Based Latent Rhetoric in the Medical Literature on Dog Bites.
    J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2017 Oct 25:1-13. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    b National Canine Research Council, Animal Farm Foundation, Inc ., Bangall, New York.
    This article examines the accuracy and rhetoric of reports by human health care professionals concerning dog bite injuries published in the peer-reviewed medical literature, with respect to nonclinical issues, such as dog behavior. A qualitative content analysis examined 156 publications between 1966 and 2015 identified by terms such as "dog bite" or "dangerous dogs." The analysis revealed misinformation about human-canine interactions, the significance of breed and breed characteristics, and the frequency of dog bite-related injuries. Read More

    A Role for Prefrontal Cortical NMDA Receptors in Murine Alcohol-Heightened Aggression.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Psychology Department, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
    Alcohol is associated with nearly half of all violent crimes committed in the United States; yet, a potential neural basis for this type of pathological aggression remains elusive. Alcohol may act on NMDA receptors (NMDARs) within cortical circuits to impede processing and to promote aggression. Here, male mice were characterized as alcohol-heightened (AHAs) or alcohol non-heightened aggressors (ANAs) during resident-intruder confrontations after self-administering 1. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology of mosquitoes for the transmission of forest malaria in south-central Vietnam.
    Trop Med Health 2017 12;45:27. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Kutsukake, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192 Japan.
    Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P. Read More

    Exposure to allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke during gestation and postnatal development affects reproductive function in male offspring of rat.
    Inhal Toxicol 2017 Jul;29(8):374-385
    a Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences , University of Hyderabad , Hyderabad , India.
    The threat of zika virus looms throughout the world and the use of allethrin-based mosquito coils to prevent mosquito bites during and postpregnancy is on the rise. The aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of exposure to allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke in rats under conditions that reflect human settings. Pregnant female rats were exposed to mosquito coil smoke and same was continued to the male pups up to 111 days postparturition (21-day weaning plus up to 90 days postweaning). Read More

    Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Jan 13;1862(1):40-50. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA; Center for Molecular Medicine, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz. Read More

    Public Health Considerations Associated with the Location and Operation of Off-Leash Dog Parks.
    J Community Health 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.
    Off-leash dog parks may enhance human health, but may also lead to health risk through infection or canine aggression. Published evidence was reviewed to examine positive and negative public health impacts of off-leash dog parks, as well as strategies for enhancing benefits and mitigating risks. Evidence suggests that off-leash dog parks can benefit physical and social health, as well as community connectedness. Read More

    Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).
    J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):105-115. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
    Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.

    Methods: The essential oils (EOs) of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field collected fleas. Read More

    Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 12;11(10):e0005905. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnologies and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. Read More

    Geographic variations of the bird-borne structural risk of West Nile virus circulation in Europe.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0185962. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Cirad, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, France.
    The structural risk of West Nile Disease results from the usual functioning of the socio-ecological system, which may favour the introduction of the pathogen, its circulation and the occurrence of disease cases. Its geographic variations result from the local interactions between three components: (i) reservoir hosts, (ii) vectors, both characterized by their diversity, abundance and competence, (iii) and the socio-economic context that impacts the exposure of human to infectious bites. We developed a model of bird-borne structural risk of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Europe, and analysed the association between the geographic variations of this risk and the occurrence of WND human cases between 2002 and 2014. Read More

    Comparison of a novel human rabies monoclonal antibody to human rabies immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis: A phase 2/3 randomized, single blind, non-inferiority, controlled study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Lack of access to rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) contributes to the high rabies mortality. A recombinant human monoclonal antibody (SII RMAb) was tested in a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in comparison to a human RIG (HRIG)-containing PEP regimen.

    Methods: This was a Phase 2/3 randomized, single blind, non-inferiority study conducted in 200 participants with WHO category III suspected rabies exposures. Read More

    Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Noncompletion After Dog Bites: Estimating the Unseen to Meet the Needs of the Underserved.
    Am J Epidemiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Post exposure prophylaxis prevents human rabies and is accessible in Cambodia principally in Phnom Penh, the capital. Timely, affordable access to post-exposure prophylaxis is a challenge for the mainly rural population. We aimed to identify districts independently associated with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) noncompletion to position frontline vaccination centers. Read More

    A hospital based epidemiological study of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India.
    Toxicol Rep 2017 24;4:415-419. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Medicine, Midnapur Medical College, Paschim Medinipur-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Objective: Snakebite is a serious medical problem in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. In the present study, hospital based data on snakebite cases and deaths were collected from 10 blocks of the district to obtain a picture of this neglected public health issue.

    Methods: Retrospective data of snakebite and deaths from 2012 to 2016 was collected from the 5 Rural hospitals (RH) and 5 Block level Primary Health Centres(BPHC) of the ten blocks of Paschim Medinipur district in a prescribed format addressing issues including the demographic factors regarding the victims, seasonal pattern, history of snakebite in previous 5 years, outcome of the bite, any reporting of death. Read More

    Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: An exploratory study.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(9):e0185300. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom.
    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18) and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18) who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified. Read More

    Shark Spotters: Successfully reducing spatial overlap between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and recreational water users in False Bay, South Africa.
    PLoS One 2017 25;12(9):e0185335. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators that play an important role in the structure and stability of marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance and protected status, white sharks are still subject to lethal control to reduce the risk of shark bites for recreational water users. The Shark Spotters program, pioneered in Cape Town, South Africa, provides a non-lethal alternative for reducing the risk of human-shark conflict. Read More

    Gastrointestinal Tract As Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:1721. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Institute of Clinical Physiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany.
    Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. Read More

    CD3xPDL1 bi-specific T cell engager (BiTE) simultaneously activates T cells and NKT cells, kills PDL1(+) tumor cells, and extends the survival of tumor-bearing humanized mice.
    Oncotarget 2017 Aug 3;8(35):57964-57980. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Bi-specific T cell engagers (BiTEs) activate T cells through CD3 and target activated T cells to tumor-expressed antigens. BiTEs have shown therapeutic efficacy in patients with liquid tumors; however, they do not benefit all patients. Anti-tumor immunity is limited by Programmed Death 1 (PD1) pathway-mediated immune suppression, and patients who do not benefit from existing BiTES may be non-responders because their T cells are anergized via the PD1 pathway. Read More

    Recent advances of bispecific antibodies in solid tumors.
    J Hematol Oncol 2017 Sep 20;10(1):155. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, China.
    Cancer immunotherapy is the most exciting advancement in cancer therapy. Similar to immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T), bispecific antibody (BsAb) is attracting more and more attention as a novel strategy of antitumor immunotherapy. BsAb not only offers an effective linkage between therapeutics (e. Read More

    Zoonotic infection of Brazilian primate workers with New World simian foamy virus.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184502. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Read More

    PRESUMPTIVE PIT VIPER ENVENOMATION IN PSITTACINES IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO.
    J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 Sep;48(3):868-873
    Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. Read More

    How often do mosquitoes bite humans in southern England? A standardised summer trial at four sites reveals spatial, temporal and site-related variation in biting rates.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Sep 15;10(1):420. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, UK.
    Background: This field-based study examined the abundance and species complement of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) attracted to humans at four sites in the United Kingdom (UK). The study used a systematic approach to directly measure feeding by mosquitoes on humans at multiple sites and using multiple volunteers. Quantifying how frequently humans are bitten in the field by mosquitoes is a fundamental parameter in assessing arthropod-borne virus transmission. Read More

    Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia.
    Front Vet Sci 2017 31;4:141. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW Australia.
    Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. Read More

    Effect of counselling on health-care-seeking behaviours and rabies vaccination adherence after dog bites in Haiti, 2014-15: a retrospective follow-up survey.
    Lancet Glob Health 2017 Oct;5(10):e1017-e1025
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Background: Haiti has an integrated bite case management (IBCM) programme to counsel animal-bite victims on the risk of rabies and appropriate treatment, as well as the Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) to examine the animals. We assessed the usefulness of the IBCM programme to promote best practices for rabies prophylaxis after exposure in a low-income rabies-endemic setting.

    Methods: We did a retrospective follow-up survey of randomly selected bite victims who were counselled by Haiti's IBCM programme between May 15, 2014, and Sept 15, 2015. Read More

    Animal and human bite injuries: a 5-year retrospective study in a large urban public hospital in Venezuela.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 13;21(4):425-428. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, "Dr. Angel Larralde" University Hospital, Carabobo University, Altos De La Colina De Bárbula 15-25, Naguanagua, Carabobo, 2042, Venezuela.
    Introduction: Animal bite injuries to the head and neck regions are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are from dogs. A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of animal and human bites. Read More

    HIV-related knowledge, attitude and practices of healthy adults in Cross River State Nigeria: a population based-survey.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;27:170. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Chemical pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.
    Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a global health problem disproportionately distributed across Nigeria. Cross river state (CRS), a tourist state, located in the Niger delta, has one of the highest prevalence rates. There is evidence that poor knowledge and stigmatization are obstacles to achieving universal access to HIV prevention programs. Read More

    Modest heterologous protection after Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
    BMC Med 2017 Sep 13;15(1):168. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 28, Microbiology 268, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. Read More

    The TREX1 Dinosaur Bites the Brain through the LINE.
    Cell Stem Cell 2017 Sep;21(3):287-288
    Pfizer - University of Granada - Andalusian Government Center for Genomics and Oncological Research (GENYO), PTS, 18016, Granada, Spain; Unit for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, Institute for Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Solna, 171 77, Sweden. Electronic address:
    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Thomas et al. (2017) define the nature of accumulated ssDNA present in the neuron and astrocyte cytoplasm of TREX1 mutated stem cell-derived organoids. Accumulated ssDNAs are derived from LINE-1 endogenous retroelements, providing new clues as to the development of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in the neural system. Read More

    Heat deactivation of the stonefish Synanceia horrida venom - implications for first-aid management.
    Diving Hyperb Med 2017 Sep;47(3):155-158
    Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
    Objectives: To investigate the effects of temperature and hot water immersion time on neutralising venom lethality of the Australian estuarine stonefish (Synanceia horrida).

    Design: Depths of the spines were measured while venom was extracted from S. horrida individuals. Read More

    Dangerous arachnids-Fake news or reality?
    Toxicon 2017 Nov 1;138:173-183. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:
    The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans. Read More

    The role of asymptomatics and dogs on leishmaniasis propagation.
    Math Biosci 2017 Nov 31;293:46-55. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Hospital General Dr. Eduardo Liceaga, México, D.F. 06726, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a parasite disease transmitted by the bites of sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease and it is endemic in the Americas. Around 70 animal species, including humans, have been found as natural reservoir hosts of leishmania parasites. Read More

    Differential procoagulant effects of saw-scaled viper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Echis) snake venoms on human plasma and the narrow taxonomic ranges of antivenom efficacies.
    Toxicol Lett 2017 Oct 25;280:159-170. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072 Australia. Electronic address:
    Saw-scaled vipers (genus Echis) are one of the leading causes of snakebite morbidity and mortality in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and vast regions of Asia, constituting a public health burden exceeding that of almost any other snake genus globally. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy, owing to the action of potent procoagulant toxins, is one of the most relevant clinical manifestations of envenomings by Echis spp. Clinical experience and prior studies examining a limited range of venoms and restricted antivenoms have demonstrated for some antivenoms an extreme lack of antivenom cross-reactivity between different species of this genus, sometimes resulting in catastrophic treatment failure. Read More

    Plaque accumulation on titanium disks with different surface treatments: an in vivo investigation.
    Odontology 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with Transplant Surgery, Oncology and Regenerative Medicine Relevance, School of Dentistry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Implants with rough surfaces are today widely used. It has been speculated that rough surfaces (Ra > 0.2 μm) provide a better "substrate" for retention and accumulation of plaque in terms of area, thickness and colony-forming unit that can eventually lead to peri mucositis and/or peri-implantitis. Read More

    Case Report: Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of Tick Bite Site Samples for the Diagnosis of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug;97(2):403-406
    Division of Zoonoses, Center for Immunology and Pathology, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. Read More

    [Responsible ownership of dogs and human health in neighborhoods of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina].
    Medicina (B Aires) 2017 ;77(4):309-313
    Departamento Zoología, Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Argentina.
    Human relationship with dogs associates with numerous and varied benefits on human health; however, it also presents significant risks. The goal of this study was to describe demographic parameters and characteristics of dog ownership with possible implications on human health and to evaluate the prevalence of dog bites and traffic accidents due to dogs. Interviews were conducted in the neighborhoods of Nuestras Malvinas and Nahuel Hue in San Carlos de Bariloche. Read More

    MALDI-TOF MS identification of Anopheles gambiae Giles blood meal crushed on Whatman filter papers.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(8):e0183238. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Aix Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198 (Dakar, Sénégal), Inserm 1095, AP-HM, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
    Background: Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals. Read More

    Pharmacological analysis of Poecilotheria spider venoms in mice provides clues for human treatment.
    Toxicon 2017 Nov 12;138:59-67. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    M.M. Shemyakin & Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:
    Bites of tiger spiders belonging to Poecilotheria genus cause moderate to severe pain and long-lasting local or generalized muscle cramps in humans. Bites occur in regions of the spiders' natural habitat, India and Sri Lanka, but the popularity of these colorful tarantulas as pets leads to reports of envenomation cases worldwide. Treatment is predominantly symptomatic and often inadequate since there is almost no clinical or toxicology research data available, and physicians outside India or Sri Lanka typically have no experience in treating such cases. Read More

    A reduction in malaria transmission intensity in Northern Ghana after 7 years of indoor residual spraying.
    Malar J 2017 Aug 10;16(1):324. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.
    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is being implemented as one of the malaria prevention methods in the Northern Region of Ghana. Changes in longevity, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) of major malaria vectors were monitored to assess the impact of IRS in selected districts.

    Methods: Monthly human landing catches (HLCs) were used to collect mosquitoes from sentinel sites in three adjacent districts between July 2009 and December 2014: Savelugu Nanton (SND) where IRS had been implemented from 2008 to 2014; Tolon Kumbungu (TKD) where IRS had been implemented between 2008 and 2012 and Tamale Metropolis (TML) with no history of IRS. Read More

    Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 8;14(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department/School Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, within their flight range. Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus. Read More

    Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Pediatrics 2017 08;140(2)
    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Read More

    Human urine-based therapeutics in Spain from the early 20th century to the present: a historical literature overview and a present-day case study.
    Acta Med Hist Adriat 2017 Jun;15(1):73-108
    Departamento de Terapéutica Médico-Quirúrgica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain.
    Human urine is currently the subject of biomedical investigations as a potential therapeutic resource and it continues to be used in remedies in different cultures and societies, including the Spanish culture. In this study we gather etnomedical knowledge about urotherapy and determine their associated symbolisms in Spain. A literature overview and a case study were carried out to compile urine-based remedies and as a direct analysis of symbolic systems. Read More

    Bioassays to evaluate non-contact spatial repellency, contact irritancy, and acute toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing against nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Oct 1;8(6):837-849. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Western Connecticut State University, 181 White Street, Danbury, CT, 06810, United States.
    Summer-weight clothing articles impregnated with permethrin are available as a personal protective measure against human-biting ticks in the United States. However, very few studies have addressed the impact of contact with summer-weight permethrin-treated textiles on tick vigor and behavior. Our aim was to generate new knowledge of how permethrin-treated textiles impact nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks, the primary vectors in the eastern United States of the causative agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and human babesiosis. Read More

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