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    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    The burden of trauma at a district hospital in Malawi.
    Trop Doct 2017 Jan 1:49475517690333. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    4 Professor of Orthopaedics and Head of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi.
    Trauma disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries, many of which do not have the surveillance systems required to design effective prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to establish such a system at a district hospital in Malawi. Data on all trauma patients presenting to Mulanje District Hospital from 14 April 2013 to 30 December 2014 were collected using a form based on the core minimum data points for injuries recommended by the World Health Organization and an injury severity assessment. Read More

    Trombiculiasis in domestic goats and humans in the state of Maranhão, Brazil.
    Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2017 Jan 26. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Laboratório de Parasitologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larval mites (chiggers) of the family Trombiculidae. Here, we provide the first report on parasitism by the chigger species Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans) and Eutrombicula batatas (Linnaeus) in goats and humans on farms in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. Severe itching and dermatitis caused by the chiggers' bites were seen. Read More

    Immune and biochemical responses in skin differ between bovine hosts genetically susceptible and resistant to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 31;10(1):51. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Departament of Biochemistry and Immunology, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.
    Background: Ticks attach to and penetrate their hosts' skin and inactivate multiple components of host responses in order to acquire a blood meal. Infestation loads with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, whereas in others, few ticks feed and reproduce efficiently.

    Methods: In order to elucidate the mechanisms that result in the different outcomes of infestations with cattle ticks, we examined global gene expression and inflammation induced by tick bites in skins from one resistant and one susceptible breed of cattle that underwent primary infestations with larvae and nymphs of R. Read More

    Mandatory desexing of dogs: one step in the right direction to reduce the risk of dog bite? A systematic review.
    Inj Prev 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    School of Animal & Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, South Australia, Australia.
    Introduction: Preventing dog bites is an intractable problem given the complex dog bite injury environment. Desexing of dogs has the opportunity of creating a safer injury environment, given the potential links between desexing and behaviour change in dogs.

    Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the evidence for desexing of dogs to reduce dog bite risk within a population health paradigm. Read More

    Burden of Bites by Dogs and Other Animals in Los Angeles County, California, 2009-2011.
    Public Health Rep 2016 Nov 27;131(6):800-808. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Epidemiology, Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze all animal-to-human bite reports during a 3-year period from a regional surveillance database. Results helped to inform local efforts to reduce and prevent animal-to-human bites.

    Methods: We reviewed all cases of animal-to-human bites occurring from 2009 through 2011 that were reported to the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health's Animal Bites Database. Read More

    Grammomys surdaster, the Natural Host for Plasmodium berghei Parasites, as a Model to Study Whole-Organism Vaccines against Malaria.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology (LMIV), National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Rockville, Maryland
    Inbred mice are commonly used to test candidate malaria vaccines, but have been unreliable for predicting efficacy in humans. To establish a more rigorous animal model, we acquired African woodland thicket rats of the genus Grammomys, the natural hosts for Plasmodium berghei Thicket rats were acquired and identified as Grammomys surdaster by skull and teeth measurements and mitochondrial DNA genotyping. Herein, we demonstrate that thicket rats are highly susceptible to infection by P berghei, and moderately susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium chabaudi: 1-2 infected mosquito bites or 25-100 sporozoites administered by intravenous injection consistently resulted in patent parasitemia with P. Read More

    Probability of Transmission of Malaria from Mosquito to Human Is Regulated by Mosquito Parasite Density in Naïve and Vaccinated Hosts.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jan 12;13(1):e1006108. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom.
    Over a century since Ronald Ross discovered that malaria is caused by the bite of an infectious mosquito it is still unclear how the number of parasites injected influences disease transmission. Currently it is assumed that all mosquitoes with salivary gland sporozoites are equally infectious irrespective of the number of parasites they harbour, though this has never been rigorously tested. Here we analyse >1000 experimental infections of humans and mice and demonstrate a dose-dependency for probability of infection and the length of the host pre-patent period. Read More

    Two rare case reports of confirmed Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) envenoming in Sri Lanka.
    Toxicon 2017 Mar 4;127:44-48. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Medical Unit, Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka.
    The Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a deadly venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Its habitat is mainly in the wet zone of the island. Despite its frequent encounters in and near human dwellings, reports of envenoming are rare and limited to four in the literature. Read More

    Human Rabies - Puerto Rico, 2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jan 6;65(52):1474-1476. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    On December 1, 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) was notified by a local hospital of a suspected human rabies case. The previous evening, a Puerto Rican man aged 54 years arrived at the emergency department with fever, difficulty swallowing, hand paresthesia, cough, and chest tightness. The next morning the patient left against medical advice but returned to the emergency department in the afternoon with worsening symptoms. Read More

    Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2016 Oct-Dec;53(4):305-311
    Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. Read More

    Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).
    J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 26. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Centro de Biodiversidad y Descubrimiento de Drogas, Instituto de Investigaciones, Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT-AIP), City of Knowledge, Panama, 7 0843-01103, Republic of Panama. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers.

    Overarching Objective: In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented. Read More

    Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 29;10(12):e0005227. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Communicable Diseases Branch, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Read More

    Insecticide and Repellent Mixture Pour-On Protects Cattle against Animal Trypanosomosis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 27;10(12):e0005248. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France.
    Background: African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous. Read More

    Disruption of the Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle Involving Astrocytes in an Animal Model of Depression for Males and Females.
    Front Behav Neurosci 2016 6;10:231. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College School of Medicine Nashville, TN, USA.
    Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. Read More

    Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins.
    Toxicon 2017 Feb 23;126:79-89. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection. Read More

    Acute fluoxetine treatment increases aggressiveness in juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).
    Fish Physiol Biochem 2016 Dec 24. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
    Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências agrárias e Veterinárias/Centro de Aquicultura (CAUNESP), Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.
    Fluoxetine (FLX) is a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor known for its effects modifying aggressiveness, personality traits, and anxiety-like behaviors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the acute treatment, by immersion, with FLX on aggressive behavior of resident Brycon amazonicus fish. Fish pretreated with FLX presented an increase in aggressiveness, evidenced by the increase on the number of bites and chases against the intruder and a decrease in latency for the first attack, when compared to control fish. Read More

    Pasteurella multocida Infective Endocarditis.
    J Heart Valve Dis 2015 Nov;24(6):778-779
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kamakura City, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic coccobacillus, is a common oral flora of dogs and cats. P. multocida often causes infection in humans after animal bites and scratches, and human pasteurellosis is generally a locoregional infection. Read More

    A survey of straw use and tail biting in Swedish pig farms rearing undocked pigs.
    Acta Vet Scand 2016 Dec 5;58(1):84. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO-Box 234, 532 23, Skara, Sweden.
    Background: Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. Read More

    Genomic analysis reveals the presence of a class D beta-lactamase with broad substrate specificity in animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 1. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. Read More

    Effects of varying floor space on aggressive behavior and cortisol concentrations in group-housed sows.
    J Anim Sci 2016 Nov;94(11):4809-4818
    Floor space is an important determinant of aggression and stress in group-housed sows, and the aim of the present experiment was to comprehensively examine the effects of floor space in the range of 1.45 to 2.90 m/sow from mixing until 27 d after insemination on aggression, stress, and reproduction of group-housed sows. Read More

    Osteomyelitis following Domestic Animal Bites to the Hand: Two Case Reports and Practical Guidelines.
    Arch Plast Surg 2016 Nov 18;43(6):590-594. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    Department of Radiology, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Recently, the number of cases of animal bite wounds has increased significantly in concordance with an increase in the pet population around the world. The authors report two rare cases of osteomyelitis of the phalanx following cat and dog bites. On initial physical examination, signs of a severe infection were observed. Read More

    Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated from the Red Seaweed Laurencia aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis muta.
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2016 Dec 25;18(6):619-629. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-141, Brazil.
    Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Read More

    Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Nov 24;16(1):701. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    China Animal Health and Epidemiology Centre, Ministry of Agriculture of the Peoples Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong, China.
    Background: In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS) and rabies health information sessions (IS). Read More

    Protective immunity to liver-stage malaria.
    Clin Transl Immunology 2016 Oct 21;5(10):e105. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Peter Doherty Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; The ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control. Read More

    Clinical and serological one-year follow-up of patients after the bite of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
    Infect Dis (Lond) 2017 Apr 21;49(4):277-285. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    a Department of Infectious Diseases , Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca , Romania.
    Background: The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) after the bite of a Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. Read More

    A Morphological and Morphometric Study of Bite Marks Caused by Mice (Mus Musculus) on Different Baits for Forensic Purposes.
    J Forensic Sci 2016 Nov 16. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Central Criminalistics Laboratory (LACRIM), Chilean Investigative Police (PDI), Avda. Carlos Silva Vildósola 9783, Santiago, 7860379, Chile.
    In animal bites, the dental attributes can be fundamental in identifying the marks made by various species on different matrices. Although rodent bite marks have been studied in the context of postmortem interference, little research has used different baits to analyze these marks linking not only specific behavior patterns but also the possibility of structural damage. Twenty mice (Mus musculus) were exposed to different baits to study their bite marks in a controlled model. Read More

    Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 26;2016:6101742. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    TECBIOFAR, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Read More

    [Mammal bite management].
    Cir Cir 2016 Nov - Dec;84(6):525-530. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Servicio de Cirugía Plástica y Reconstructiva, Hospital Central Militar, Ciudad de México, México.
    Background: Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Read More

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus – an underestimated danger after dog or cat bite – review of literature
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016;70(2):289-295
    Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections
    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative, capnophilic rod constituting normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity of dogs and cats. It is also considered to be an etiological factor of infections in human that may lead to multiple complications, i.a. Read More

    First Draft Genome Sequences of Neisseria sp. Strain 83E34 and Neisseria sp. Strain 74A18, Previously Identified as CDC Eugonic Fermenter 4b Species.
    Genome Announc 2016 Nov 10;4(6). Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA
    We report the first draft genome sequences of two isolates previously classified as CDC EF-4b species, Neisseria sp. 83E34 and Neisseria sp. 74A18. Read More

    Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Nov;95(45):e5310
    aDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Wenzhou Medical University bWenzhou Medical University, Linhai, China.
    The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite.On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. Read More

    Is there a link between treatments with exogenous corticosteroids and dog behaviour problems?
    Vet Rec 2016 Nov 15;179(18):462. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Group, School of Life Sciences, Joseph Banks Laboratories, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7DL, UK.
    Possible side effects of exogenous corticosteroids have been described in both humans and laboratory animals, with recent studies highlighting this issue in dogs. In this paper the behaviour of 345 dogs drawn from the caseload of a behaviour clinic based in the north of Italy between February 2012 and November 2014 were analysed. Possible relationships between dogs that received treatment with corticosteroids versus dogs that received treatment with drugs other than corticosteroids and positive or negative affective states, aggression towards people, other behaviour problems apart from aggression, occurrence of severe bites, and prescription of psychoactive drugs were initially assessed using a Pearson's chi-squared test. Read More

    A case of Bacteroides pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess.
    Anaerobe 2016 Dec 8;42:78-80. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. Read More

    Snakebite in bedroom kills a physician in Cameroon: a case report.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 13;24:231. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    Cameroon Society of Epidemiology, CaSE, Cameroon; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; Laboratory of Public Health for Research Biotechnologies, Biotechnology Center, UY I, Cameroon.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Read More

    Travel-related illness at a tertiary care hospital in Osaka, Japan.
    Int J Gen Med 2016 20;9:355-359. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan.
    We analyzed the travel-related health problems in persons returning to Japan from overseas. Data were extracted retrospectively for all patients visiting the infectious diseases department of Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan, between July 2012 and September 2013. There were 209 sick returning travelers during the period of the study. Read More

    Prevalence of serological response to Borrelia burgdorferi in farmers from eastern and central Poland.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Mar 31;36(3):437-446. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Department for Women's Health, Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090, Lublin, Poland.
    Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochete is the most common tick-borne infection manifested by a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. In Poland, the preventive health care does not comprise individual farmers as it is practiced in foresters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Polish farmers to infection with B. Read More

    High seroprevalence for indigenous spotted fever group rickettsiae in forestry workers from the federal state of Brandenburg, Eastern Germany.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Jan 22;8(1):132-138. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany; German Center of Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Munich, Germany.
    In the last decade six Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia slovaca have been characterized in Germany. All of these species could be linked to distinct clinical syndromes in humans. However, due to lack of seroepidemiological data an estimation of the prevalence and the public health impact of rickettsial infections in Germany is difficult. Read More

    Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 19;164:216-225. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Laboratório de Genética de Populações e Evolução de Mosquitos Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, n° 2936, Bairro Aleixo, CEP 69.067-375 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Read More

    Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 2;164:369-374. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan 00920, Puerto Rico. Electronic address:
    An important step to incriminate a mosquito as a vector of a disease pathogen is finding evidence of direct contact between the mosquito and humans. Typically, this is accomplished through landing/biting catches, or host blood meal analysis in engorged mosquitoes via immunologic assays. An alternate approach is to identify the presence of specific mosquito anti-saliva protein antibodies in the blood of exposed hosts. Read More

    DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.
    Acta Trop 2016 Dec 16;164:33-40. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Walai Rukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham, 44150 Thailand,. Electronic address:
    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. Read More

    Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom.
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jan 30;191:86-100. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126, 13083-887, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, and assessed their neutralization by commercial bothropic antivenom (CAv). Cross-reactivity of venom with CAv was also assessed by immunoblotting and size-exclusion high performance chromatography (SE-HPLC). Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA2, proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity). Read More

    Insect Repellants During Pregnancy in the Era of the Zika Virus.
    Obstet Gynecol 2016 Nov;128(5):1111-1115
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, the Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, and the Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Health care providers must be equipped to provide appropriate advice to reproductive-aged patients for protection against the potentially devastating consequences of prenatal Zika virus exposure. The goal of this commentary is to summarize what is known about the safety and toxicity of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a topical insect repellant and the pyrethroid permethrin for treatment of fabric, endorsed in the fight against Zika virus. Reviews assessing the safety and toxicity of DEET conducted by the U. Read More

    Bacteroides pyogenes causing serious human wound infection from animal bites.
    Anaerobe 2016 Dec 19;42:172-175. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Monash Infectious Diseases, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Australia; Department of Microbiology, Monash Health, Clayton, Australia.
    Bacteroides pyogenes is part of the normal oral flora of domestic animals. There is one previous report of human infection, with B. pyogenes bacteremia following a cat bite (Madsen 2011). Read More

    Neurosurgical sequelae of domestic dog attacks in children.
    J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Jan 21;19(1):24-31. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado.
    OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period. Read More

    Transient distal renal tubular acidosis following hump nosed viper bite: Two cases from Sri Lanka.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016 Sep-Oct;27(5):1018-1020
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Read More

    [Surgical management of animal bites in children].
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2016 Oct 18;61(5):560-567. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Chirurgie plastique reconstructrice et esthétique, hôpital Maison-Blanche, CHU de Reims, 45, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France; Chirurgie pédiatrique, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France; EA 3801, université de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, 51, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France. Electronic address:
    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. Read More

    [Scar revision in children: Clinical situations and solutions].
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2016 Oct 23;61(5):578-588. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthétique, hôpital Roger-Salengro, CHRU Lille, rue Emile-Laine, 59037 Lille cedex, France.
    The scar of soft tissues is a permanent stigma of a trauma but it can sometimes be improved. It is more or less accepted by the patient and may be the source of a significant physical and psychosocial impact that leads to a request for a scar revision. Even if the child presents generally an excellent ability to heal, the quality of the scar depends on many factors such as the age, the type of scar or trauma and the affected body area. Read More

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