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    Ticks, Ixodes scapularis, Feed Repeatedly on White-Footed Mice despite Strong Inflammatory Response: An Expanding Paradigm for Understanding Tick-Host Interactions.
    Front Immunol 2017 18;8:1784. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Vector Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH), Rockville, MD, United States.
    Ticks transmit infectious agents including bacteria, viruses and protozoa. However, their transmission may be compromised by host resistance to repeated tick feeding. Increasing host resistance to repeated tick bites is well known in laboratory animals, including intense inflammation at the bite sites. Read More

    Sepsis by Pasteurella multocida in an Elderly Immunocompetent Patient after a Cat Bite.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 26;2017:2527980. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    First Clinic of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 6 Viale Benedetto XV, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
    Pasteurella multocida colonizes animal scratches and bites. This bacterium was described to cause sepsis or endocarditis mainly in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 92-year-old woman presenting at the Emergency Department with coma and fever a week after the bite of her cat. Read More

    A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders' Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England.
    Vet Sci 2018 Jan 9;5(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Animal Production, Welfare and Veterinary Sciences, Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB, UK.
    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Read More

    Protecting children from rabies with education and pre-exposure prophylaxis: A school-based campaign in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines.
    PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0189596. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Laguna, Philippines.
    Background: Rabies remains endemic in the Philippines. A study was conducted in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines to: (i) detect the true incidence of animal bites in school children aged 5-14 years using active surveillance and compare these data to estimates from the existing passive surveillance system, (ii) evaluate the impact of rabies prevention education and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on animal bite incidence, and (iii) assess the health economic impact of the interventions.

    Methodology And Principal Findings: A cohort of 4,700 school children was followed-up for any suspect rabies exposures between January 2011 and December 2012. Read More

    Evaluation and validation of an automatic jaw movement recorder (RumiWatch) for ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows during grazing and supplementation.
    J Dairy Sci 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Agroscope, Tioleyre 4, 1725 Posieux, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Observation of ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows may assist in detecting diseases, controlling reproductive status, and estimating intake. However, direct observation of cows on pasture is time consuming and can be difficult to realize. Consequently, different systems have been developed to automatically record behavioral characteristics; among them is the RumiWatch System (RWS; Itin and Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland). Read More

    Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(12):e0189971. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. Read More

    Pit Bull attack causing limb threatening vascular trauma -A case series.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 Dec 8;42:133-137. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Vascular Unit, Department of General Surgery, San Fernando Teaching Hospital, Independence Avenue, Paradise Pasture, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago; Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Introduction: Non-fatal human dog bites are commonplace amongst animal attacks on human beings and these present with mainly skin and soft tissue injuries. However, they can also present with life threatening head and neck injuries, massive soft tissue trauma, as well as combined orthopedic and vascular extremity injuries where a high possibility of limb loss exists.

    Presentation Of Cases: We present two adult dog bite victims with multiple bites inflicted by large canines identified as Pit-Bull Terriers. Read More

    Flaccid skin protects hagfishes from shark bites.
    J R Soc Interface 2017 Dec;14(137)
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Hagfishes defend themselves from fish predators by releasing large volumes of gill-clogging slime when they are attacked. Slime release is not anticipatory, but is only released after an attack has been initiated, raising the question of how hagfishes survive the initial attack, especially from biting predators such as sharks. We tested two hypotheses that could explain how hagfishes avoid damage from shark bites: puncture-resistant skin, and a loose and flaccid body design that makes it difficult for teeth to penetrate body musculature and viscera. Read More

    Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189071. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.
    The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients. While experimental studies in animals have offered evidence of post-treatment persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi, variations in methodology, detection methods and limitations of the models have led to some uncertainty with respect to translation of these results to human infection. With all stages of clinical Lyme disease having previously been described in nonhuman primates, this animal model was selected in order to most closely mimic human infection and response to treatment. Read More

    Attacking the mosquito on multiple fronts: Insights from the Vector Control Optimization Model (VCOM) for malaria elimination.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(12):e0187680. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Divisions of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
    Background: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions. Read More

    Rabies.
    Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017 Nov 30;3:17091. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector Borne Diseases Research Group, (WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Reference Laboratory for Rabies), Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK.
    Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. Read More

    [Leg ulcer revealing cutaneous leishmaniasis].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 23;27:287. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Service de Traumatologie Orthopedie du Groupe Hospitalier Publique du Sud de l'Oise(GHPSO), bp60100 Creil, France.
    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases occurring in endemic tropical and subtropical areas and caused by protozoa of the genus leishmania, transmitted by a diptera (sand fly). We here report a case of topical cutaneous leishmaniasis discovered in a 15-year old boy with painless ulcer on his left leg, who had been staying in South Africa. Clinical examination showed painless non-itchy ulcer, occurred 1 month before, on the antero-internal part of his left leg with crusts and scars caused by insect bites, all evolving in a context of patient's general health status, without mucosal or visceral lesions. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of a freeze-dried trivalent antivenom for snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: An open randomized controlled phase IIb clinical trial.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 27;11(11):e0006068. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Escola Superior de Saúde, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
    Background: In tropical areas, a major concern regarding snakebites treatment effectiveness relates to the failure in liquid antivenom (AV) distribution due to the lack of an adequate cold chain in remote areas. To minimize this problem, freeze-drying has been suggested to improve AV stability.

    Methods And Findings: This study compares the safety and efficacy of a freeze-dried trivalent antivenom (FDTAV) and the standard liquid AV provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (SLAV) to treat Bothrops, Lachesis and Crotalus snakebites. Read More

    Intranasal infection and contact transmission of Zika virus in guinea pigs.
    Nat Commun 2017 Nov 21;8(1):1648. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Virology, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 100071, China.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or sexual contact. The excretion and persistence of contagious ZIKV in various body fluids have been well documented in ZIKV patients; however, the risk of direct contact exposure remains unclear. Here, we show that guinea pigs are susceptible to ZIKV infection via subcutaneous inoculation route; infected guinea pigs exhibit seroconversion and significant viral secretion in sera, saliva, and tears. Read More

    In Response to "The Efficacy of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) Antivenom Versus Placebo Plus Optional Rescue Therapy on Recovery from Copperhead Snake Envenomation".
    Ann Emerg Med 2017 12;70(6):930-931
    Division of Medical Toxicology, Ronald O. Perelman Department of Emergency Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY; New York City Poison Control Center, New York, NY.

    Work environment and occupational risk assessment for small animal Portuguese veterinary activities.
    J Occup Environ Hyg 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    a Instituto Universitário da Maia, CIDESD-ISMAI , Castêlo da Maia , Portugal.
    The professional work of small animal veterinary staff encompasses a wide diversity of demanding tasks. This has prompted a number of studies covering physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic or psychological hazards, as well as their health effects upon veterinary workers. However, such results were obtained from self-reported surveys (via paper or online). Read More

    Residual Effectiveness of Permethrin-Treated Clothing for Prevention of Mosquito Bites Under Simulated Conditions.
    J Environ Health 2017 04;79(8):8-15
    Biological hazards such as exposure to ticks and mosquitoes can affect health. Permethrin-treated clothing is available to the public. We don’t currently understand, however, the effects of environmental factors such as fabric type, washing, sunlight, and temperature on permethrin content in treated clothing with respect to mosquito knockdown and mortality. Read More

    The sting of a honey bee: An unusual subconjunctival foreign body.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;65(11):1226-1228
    Tej Kohli Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Ocular foreign bodies (FBs) are often encountered in clinical practices. However, there are cases in which the presence of the FB is difficult to diagnose based on mere history taking and/or clinical examination. We herein present a case of unusual subconjunctival foreign body in the form of the sting of a honey bee in a 63-year-old farmer. Read More

    Skin Test Reactivity to Hymenoptera Venom after Venom Immunotherapy Correlates Inversely with the IgG/IgE Ratio.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2017 9;174(3-4):190-199. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University and University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Skin test reactivity to hymenoptera venom and venom-specific IgE are important for diagnosing venom allergy and deciding on the appropriate allergen for venom immunotherapy (VIT). Longitudinal data on skin test reactivity during VIT and their correlation with venom-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG are scarce.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed shifts in skin test reactivity and serum levels of venom-specific IgE and IgG in patients allergic to hymenoptera venom before the initiation of VIT with ultrarush therapy and after ≥3 years of VIT. Read More

    Can you catch Ebola from a stork bite? Inductive reasoning influences generalization of perceived zoonosis risk.
    PLoS One 2017 8;12(11):e0186969. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America.
    Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Read More

    Intrauterine infection with bovine leukemia virus in pregnant dam with high viral load.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Dec 6;79(12):2036-2039. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
    Enzootic bovine leukemia is caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). BLV is transmitted vertically or horizontally through the transfer of infected cells via direct contact, through milk, insect bites and contaminated iatrogenic procedures. However, we lacked direct evidence of intrauterine infection. Read More

    Improved capture of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) by placement of knight stick sticky fly traps protected by electric fence inside animal exhibit yards at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.
    Zoo Biol 2017 Dec 5;36(6):382-386. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Center for Animal Care Sciences, Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. Read More

    Assessment of the speed of flea kill of lotilaner (Credelio™) throughout the month following oral administration to dogs.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 1;10(1):529. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Elanco Animal Health, Mattenstrasse 24a, 4058, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: Lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco), a novel isoxazoline, is a systemic insecticide and acaricide that is rapidly absorbed following oral administration to dogs and has a half-life of 30 days. As part of a development program, studies were undertaken to investigate lotilaner's initial and sustained efficacy and speed of kill against fleas.

    Methods: Four studies were conducted to evaluate the onset of lotilaner's speed of flea knockdown at the time of treatment, and to determine the sustained speed of flea kill (SOK) up to 35 days post-treatment. Read More

    A Retrospective Cohort Study of Tick Paralysis in British Columbia.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 12 30;17(12):821-824. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    1 Zoonotic Diseases and Emerging Pathogens Section, BC Centre of Disease Control Public Health Laboratory , Vancouver, Canada .
    Background: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations.

    Methods: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed. Read More

    Advances in environmental and occupational disorders in 2016.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Dec;140(6):1683-1692
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass; Division of Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:
    In this review we highlight recent studies that advance the knowledge and understanding of the effects of various environmental factors and associated immune responses in patients with allergic diseases. This review will focus on new literature regarding allergic and immune responses to a variety of environmental factors, including aeroallergens, stinging insects, fungi, pollutants, viral respiratory tract infections, climate change, and microbial exposures. Read More

    The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review.
    Insects 2017 Oct 27;8(4). Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
    The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. Read More

    Gerbil bite anaphylaxis.
    Am J Emerg Med 2018 Jan 16;36(1):171.e5-171.e6. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA. Electronic address:
    Household pets are well known to cause allergic symptoms in susceptible individuals, most commonly conjunctivitis, rhinitis, bronchospasm or urticaria. The increasing prevalence of exotic pets, including rodents, may introduce novel allergens into the household setting. We describe the case of a 16-year-old female who presented to the emergency department (ED) with an immediate systemic reaction consistent with anaphylaxis following a bite injury from a pet Mongolian gerbil. Read More

    Watch Out for Wild Animals: A Systematic Review of Upper Extremity Injuries Caused by Uncommon Species.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Nov;140(5):1008-1022
    Madison, Wis.; and Fort Collins, Colo. From the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison; and Northern Colorado Plastic and Hand Surgery.
    Background: Across the world, many species of nondomesticated animals dwell among humans in metropolitan areas. Rare animal bites pose a dilemma for hand surgeons, as they often result in operative injuries and recalcitrant infections. The authors treated an 85-year-old man who experienced severe cellulitis of the index finger following an opossum bite. Read More

    Defaming Rover: Error-Based Latent Rhetoric in the Medical Literature on Dog Bites.
    J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2017 Oct 25:1-13. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    b National Canine Research Council, Animal Farm Foundation, Inc ., Bangall, New York.
    This article examines the accuracy and rhetoric of reports by human health care professionals concerning dog bite injuries published in the peer-reviewed medical literature, with respect to nonclinical issues, such as dog behavior. A qualitative content analysis examined 156 publications between 1966 and 2015 identified by terms such as "dog bite" or "dangerous dogs." The analysis revealed misinformation about human-canine interactions, the significance of breed and breed characteristics, and the frequency of dog bite-related injuries. Read More

    Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.
    J Feline Med Surg 2017 Nov;19(11):1131-1147
    Centre for Animal Referral and Emergency, Melbourne, Australia.
    Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Read More

    Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
    Ecotoxicology 2018 Jan 23;27(1):12-22. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Alfred Nobels allé 7, SE-141 89, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Selective Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to long-lasting behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRIs which last into adulthood. In fish however, studies on effects of developmental exposure to SSRIs appears to be non-existent. Read More

    A Role for Prefrontal Cortical NMDA Receptors in Murine Alcohol-Heightened Aggression.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Psychology Department, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
    Alcohol is associated with nearly half of all violent crimes committed in the United States; yet, a potential neural basis for this type of pathological aggression remains elusive. Alcohol may act on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) within cortical circuits to impede processing and to promote aggression. Here, male mice were characterized as alcohol-heightened (AHAs) or alcohol non-heightened aggressors (ANAs) during resident-intruder confrontations after self-administering 1. Read More

    Comparative Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Coils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia: A Nationwide Report.
    J Econ Entomol 2017 Oct;110(5):2247-2251
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.
    This study was conducted using the glass chamber method to determine the susceptibility status of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) from 11 states in Malaysia to commercial mosquito coils containing four different active ingredients, namely metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin. Aedes aegypti exhibited various knockdown rates, ranging from 14. Read More

    Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 18;11(10):e0005969. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    The Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom.
    Background: Antivenom is the treatment of choice for snakebite, which annually kills an estimated 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa and leaves approximately 100,000 survivors with permanent physical disabilities that exert a considerable socioeconomic burden. Over the past two decades, the high costs of the most polyspecifically-effective antivenoms have sequentially reduced demand, commercial manufacturing incentives and production volumes that have combined to create a continent-wide vacuum of effective snakebite therapy. This was quickly filled with new, less expensive antivenoms, many of which are of untested efficacy. Read More

    Exposure to allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke during gestation and postnatal development affects reproductive function in male offspring of rat.
    Inhal Toxicol 2017 Jul;29(8):374-385
    a Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences , University of Hyderabad , Hyderabad , India.
    The threat of zika virus looms throughout the world and the use of allethrin-based mosquito coils to prevent mosquito bites during and postpregnancy is on the rise. The aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of exposure to allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke in rats under conditions that reflect human settings. Pregnant female rats were exposed to mosquito coil smoke and same was continued to the male pups up to 111 days postparturition (21-day weaning plus up to 90 days postweaning). Read More

    Facial dog bite injuries in children: A case report.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 10;41:57-60. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.
    Introduction: Dog bites are common and can affect victims of different ages, from children to the elderly. Injuries are usually located in different body regions, including head and face. The treatment of choice for injuries is the suture of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and tetanus and anti-rabies vaccination. Read More

    Stings of the Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as Cause of Punctate Corneal Lesions in Humans and Other Animals.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Nov;54(6):1783-1785
    Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, 5353 Parkside Drive, Jupiter, FL 33458.
    Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce. Read More

    Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).
    J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):105-115. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
    Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.

    Methods: The essential oils (EOs) of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field collected fleas. Read More

    First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae), with recommendations for spider bite management.
    S Afr Med J 2017 Jun 30;107(7):576-577. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Wits Research Institute for Malaria, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Centre for Emerging, Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as 'running spiders', these are not considered to be harmful to humans. Read More

    Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 12;11(10):e0005905. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnologies and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. Read More

    Geographic variations of the bird-borne structural risk of West Nile virus circulation in Europe.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0185962. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Cirad, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, France.
    The structural risk of West Nile Disease results from the usual functioning of the socio-ecological system, which may favour the introduction of the pathogen, its circulation and the occurrence of disease cases. Its geographic variations result from the local interactions between three components: (i) reservoir hosts, (ii) vectors, both characterized by their diversity, abundance and competence, (iii) and the socio-economic context that impacts the exposure of human to infectious bites. We developed a model of bird-borne structural risk of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Europe, and analysed the association between the geographic variations of this risk and the occurrence of WND human cases between 2002 and 2014. Read More

    Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.
    Animal 2017 Oct 10:1-10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    5Department of Plant Sciences,University of California,One Shields av.,Davis,CA 95616,USA.
    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24. Read More

    Epidemiological consequences of immune sensitisation by pre-exposure to vector saliva.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 9;11(10):e0005956. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Read More

    Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 9;11(10):e0005946. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    University of Zambia School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Background: The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden. Read More

    [Epidemiological characterization of bites on people, as emergency care record: Province of Los Andes, Chile].
    Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Jun;34(3):212-220
    Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile,
    Background: Bites constitute a public health problem worldwide.

    Aim: To characterize epidemiologically bites by animals happened in the province of Los Andes (2005-2007).

    Method: Descriptive, retrospective epidemiological study. Read More

    [History of the study, epidemiology of the disease and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi infection].
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2017 Sep;43(255):99-103
    EMC Medical Institute SA - Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Disease, Hospital st. Anna in Piaseczno, Poland.
    From the beginning of the twentieth century interest in tick-borne borreliosis continues to be an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. In 1977, in Lyme and Old Lyme, Cunnecticut, in the United States, arthritis and skin lesions were described in 12 children, which were associated with tick bites. The name of the place was called a syndrome of Lyme disease. Read More

    Do weaner pigs need in-feed antibiotics to ensure good health and welfare?
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(10):e0185622. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Pig Development Department, Teagasc Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.
    Antibiotics (AB) are used in intensive pig production systems to control infectious diseases and they are suspected to be a major source of antibiotic resistance. Following the ban on AB use as growth promoters in the EU, their prophylactic use in-feed is now under review. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing prophylactic in-feed AB on pig health and welfare indicators. Read More

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