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    The Immune Responses of the Animal Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Comparison of Insects, Birds, and Mammals.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 3;8:96. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.
    Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV), are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. Read More

    Repellent efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Lutzomyia longipalpis.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 16;11(1):247. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Blvd., Duluth, GA, 30096, USA.
    Background: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis in the Americas. Considering that the dog is the main domestic host of the parasite, repellent treatment is a measure that might contribute to the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniosis. The repellent efficacy of a single treatment of a new spot-on topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®, Merial, now part of Boehringer-Ingelheim) to repel Lu. Read More

    Inspective and toxicological survey of the poisoned baits and bites.
    Forensic Sci Int 2018 Mar 31;287:108-112. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, via Salute 2, 80055, Portici, Napoli, Italy.
    Cases of intentional animal poisonings are still widespread in Italy, even if the improper or malicious use of poisoned baits is banned. This represents a serious threat to pets as well as wildlife species, but also an environmental and human health concern. A retrospective study was performed based on baits sent for toxicological analysis to the laboratories of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno (IZSM) in Southern Italy over a five year period. Read More

    Limb salvage and reconstruction following a zebra attack.
    Trauma Case Rep 2017 Jun 14;9:5-9. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Vascular Surgery, 4301 W. Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205, United States.
    Animal bites are fairly rare events but can cause devastating traumatic injuries to the victim. In addition to the soft tissue, vascular, and orthopedic trauma inflicted by these occurrences, bite injuries also have the potential to introduce an inoculum of microbes, which may progress to an infection if not treated properly and expeditiously. We present the case of a healthy male who sustained multiple bite wounds from a domestic zebra to his left upper extremity. Read More

    Serious phlegmonous lesion of the hand following an injury by vegetal thorn: Never forget !
    Trauma Case Rep 2018 Feb 27;13:18-21. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Bacteriology, Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy (University Mohammed V), Rabat, Morocco.
    can cause serious infections after dog or cat bite. We report here a rare case of hand infection caused by consecutive to an injury by a thorn of the prickly pear. It caused an amputation of the distal phalanx of the thumb in a trisomic patient. Read More

    Potential benefits of combining transfluthrin-treated sisal products and long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling indoor-biting malaria vectors.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 10;11(1):231. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: Transfluthrin vapour prevents mosquito bites by disrupting their host-seeking behaviors. We measured the additional benefits of combining transfluthrin-treated sisal decorations and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) with an aim of extending protection against early evening, indoor-biting malaria vectors when LLINs are ineffective.

    Methods: We investigated the indoor protective efficacy of locally made sisal decorative baskets (0. Read More

    Cardiac arrest and atrial fibrillation in a patient after hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) bite.
    Toxicon 2018 Mar 31;148:33-39. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    A 42-year-old previously healthy male patient died 16 days after a proven hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) envenoming due to multi-organ failure. On admission he had cardiac arrest that recovered from cardiopulmonary resuscitation then developed atrial fibrillation which was reverted to normal rhythm by application of synchronized electrical cardioversion. He also had persistent coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy comprising the triad of microangiopathic haemolysis, acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. Read More

    The diversity of tick-borne bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from the Strandja Nature Park in south-eastern Bulgaria.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 20;11(1):165. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Ticks are important carriers of many different zoonotic pathogens. To date, there are many studies about ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP), but only a few were carried out in Bulgaria. The present study intends to detect the prevalence of tick-borne bacteria and parasites occurring at the Black Sea in Bulgaria to evaluate the zoonotic potential of the tick-borne pathogens transmitted by ticks in this area. Read More

    Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Jan-Feb;51(1):80-84
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Tropical, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
    Introduction: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries.

    Methods: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). Read More

    Anaphylactic reaction/angioedema associated with jellyfish sting.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Jan-Feb;51(1):115-117
    Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.
    The most frequent jellyfish in Southern Brazil causes mainly local pain and skin plaques. A 3-year-old female bather presented an erythematous, irregular plaque on the left forearm after contact with a jellyfish and intense facial angioedema with facial flushing. The lungs had vesicular murmur, wheezes, and snorts, and pink and spumous secretion in the airways with intercostal retraction. Read More

    Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women - Vietnam, 2015-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 2;67(8):250-252. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. Read More

    Estimating the burden of rabies in Ethiopia by tracing dog bite victims.
    PLoS One 2018 21;13(2):e0192313. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    In developing countries where financial resources are limited and numerous interests compete, there is a need for quantitative data on the public health burden and costs of diseases to support intervention prioritization. This study aimed at estimating the health burden and post-exposure treatment (PET) costs of canine rabies in Ethiopia by an investigation of exposed human cases. Data on registered animal bite victims during the period of one year were collected from health centers in three districts, i. Read More

    Factor X activating Atractaspis snake venoms and the relative coagulotoxicity neutralising efficacy of African antivenoms.
    Toxicol Lett 2018 May 17;288:119-128. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:
    Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Clinical reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. Read More

    Occupational Animal Allergy.
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2018 Feb 16;18(2):11. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention.

    Recent Findings: (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. Read More

    Pediatric dog bites: a population-based profile.
    Inj Prev 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Background: Previous studies have identified risk factors for dog bites in children, but use data from individual trauma centers, with limited generalizability. This study identifies a population risk profile for pediatric dog bites using the National Trauma Data Bank. We hypothesized that the population at risk was younger boys, that such bites occur at home, are moderately severe, and are on the face or neck. Read More

    Rabies risk and use of post-exposure prophylaxis associated with dog bites in Tennessee.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Tennessee Department of Health, Division of Communicable and Environmental Diseases and Emergency Preparedness, Nashville, TN, USA.
    The canine variant of the rabies virus has been eliminated in the United States. Among the public and many healthcare providers, however, dog bites are still associated with risk for rabies transmission. This study examined the risk of rabies in biting dogs and the use of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (rPEP) for dog bite victims in Tennessee. Read More

    Characterization of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in a region of the eastern Amazon, state of Pará, Brazil, between 2000 and 2014.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Laboratório de Epidemiologia e Geoprocessamento (EpiGeo), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Animal na Amazônia, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Castanhal, PA, Brasil.
    Animal bites are a serious public health issue, and prevention strategies have been consistently documented worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize human anti-rabies treatment in 11 counties of the Salgado microregion, Pará state, Brazil, which borders the Bragantina microregion, where exposures of human rabies were reported in 2004 and 2005. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using anti-rabies treatment notifications registered in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) database of the State Department of Public Health of Pará (SESPA) from January 2000 to December 2014. Read More

    Rates and risk factors for human cutaneous anthrax in the country of Georgia: National surveillance data, 2008-2015.
    PLoS One 2018 7;13(2):e0192031. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Branch of Battelle Memorial Institute in Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Introduction: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. Read More

    [A case of Lyme neuroborreliosis without erythema migrans].
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Feb 31;58(2):124-126. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University.
    A 56-year-old man was sustained ticks at the left axilla and flank. He did not have a rash. About 3 months after the tick bites, he developed back pain, right leg weakness, right abducens nerve palsy, and left facial palsy. Read More

    Outcomes of bee sting injury: comparison of hornet and paper wasp.
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 30;62(2):221-225. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Miyata Eye Hospital, 6-3, Kuraharacho, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki, 885-0051, Japan.
    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of ocular injuries of hornets and paper wasps' stings.

    Study Design: Retrospective case series.

    Methods: Patients diagnosed with ocular injuries sustained by bee stings at Miyata Eye Hospital (Miyazaki, Japan) between August 2000 and July 2016 were enrolled. Read More

    An Update on Fatalities Due to Venomous and Nonvenomous Animals in the United States (2008-2015).
    Wilderness Environ Med 2018 03 17;29(1):36-44. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Introduction: To review recent (2008-2015) United States mortality data from deaths caused by nonvenomous and venomous animals and compare with historical data.

    Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database was queried to return all animal-related fatalities between 2008 and 2015. Mortality frequencies for animal-related fatalities were calculated using the estimated 2011 United States population. Read More

    A Case of Recurrent Pasteurella Bacteremia in an Immunocompetent Patient with No Animal Bite.
    Am J Case Rep 2018 Jan 25;19:95-98. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Medicine, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Binghamton, NY, USA.
    BACKGROUND Pasteurella multocida is a gram negative-penicillin sensitive bacterium and is part of normal respiratory microbiota of animals (e.g., cats and dogs) and some birds. Read More

    First case of Furuncular Myiasis due to Cordylobia anthropophaga in a Latin American resident returning from Central African Republic.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2018 Jan - Feb;22(1):70-73. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Gorgas Memorial Institute, City of Panama, Panama. Electronic address:
    Myiasis is a temporary infection of the skin or other organs with fly larvae. The larvae develop into boil-like lesions. Creeping sensations and pain are usually described by patients. Read More

    Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia Following Three Different Species of Hump-Nosed Pit Viper (Genus: Hypnale) Envenoming in Sri Lanka.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2018 03 1;29(1):94-101. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Medical Unit, Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka (Dr Ranathunga); Haematology Unit, Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka (Dr Jayathunga).
    There are 3 species of hump-nosed pit vipers in Sri Lanka: Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale zara, and Hypnale nepa. The latter 2 are endemic to the country. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a known complication of hump-nosed pit viper bites. Read More

    Ticks, , Feed Repeatedly on White-Footed Mice despite Strong Inflammatory Response: An Expanding Paradigm for Understanding Tick-Host Interactions.
    Front Immunol 2017 18;8:1784. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Vector Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH), Rockville, MD, United States.
    Ticks transmit infectious agents including bacteria, viruses and protozoa. However, their transmission may be compromised by host resistance to repeated tick feeding. Increasing host resistance to repeated tick bites is well known in laboratory animals, including intense inflammation at the bite sites. Read More

    Sepsis by in an Elderly Immunocompetent Patient after a Cat Bite.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 26;2017:2527980. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    First Clinic of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 6 Viale Benedetto XV, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
    colonizes animal scratches and bites. This bacterium was described to cause sepsis or endocarditis mainly in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 92-year-old woman presenting at the Emergency Department with coma and fever a week after the bite of her cat. Read More

    A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders' Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England.
    Vet Sci 2018 Jan 9;5(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Animal Production, Welfare and Veterinary Sciences, Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB, UK.
    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Read More

    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2018 Jan;160(1):61-63
    Schweizerische Vereinigung für Geschichte der Veterinärmedizin.
    Introduction: The veterinary manuals by Vegetius, Pelagonius and Chiron Kentauros, all three dating from the 4th century, contain remarks about livestock being poisoned by animal venoms. It is suggested, that livestock bitten by contaminated shrews, reptiles, scorpions, beetles and spiders shows signs of poisoning. The authors present various possible therapies for the sick livestock. Read More

    Protecting children from rabies with education and pre-exposure prophylaxis: A school-based campaign in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines.
    PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0189596. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Laguna, Philippines.
    Background: Rabies remains endemic in the Philippines. A study was conducted in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines to: (i) detect the true incidence of animal bites in school children aged 5-14 years using active surveillance and compare these data to estimates from the existing passive surveillance system, (ii) evaluate the impact of rabies prevention education and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on animal bite incidence, and (iii) assess the health economic impact of the interventions.

    Methodology And Principal Findings: A cohort of 4,700 school children was followed-up for any suspect rabies exposures between January 2011 and December 2012. Read More

    Evaluation and validation of an automatic jaw movement recorder (RumiWatch) for ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows during grazing and supplementation.
    J Dairy Sci 2018 Mar 28;101(3):2463-2475. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Agroscope, Tioleyre 4, 1725 Posieux, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Observation of ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows may assist in detecting diseases, controlling reproductive status, and estimating intake. However, direct observation of cows on pasture is time consuming and can be difficult to realize. Consequently, different systems have been developed to automatically record behavioral characteristics; among them is the RumiWatch System (RWS; Itin and Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland). Read More

    Epidemiological profile of snake-bite cases from Haryana: A five year (2011-2015) retrospective study.
    J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Feb 20;54:9-13. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Genetics, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana, India. Electronic address:
    Varieties of venomous snakes inhabit in the world which accidentally take thousands of human lives every year. This severe medical emergency constantly persuades national and international health agencies to look at efficient epidemiological profiling of snake-bite cases for the proper management of this sympathetic problem. Establishing the accurate database of snake-bite in humans from different localities of India may perhaps lack certainty due to few inevitable reasons such as consideration of this problem as less emergent problem in disparity to pesticide poisoning, difficulty in the accessibility to rural and tribal areas where chances of snake-bite remain ceiling, lack of inspiring models of snake-bite management training, reduced reporting system, and pitiable maintenance of hospital data in India. Read More

    Berg adder (Bitis atropos): An unusual case of acute poisoning.
    S Afr Med J 2017 Nov 27;107(12):1075-1077. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Tygerberg Poison Information Centre, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    A 5-year-old boy presented to hospital with mild local cytotoxic and severe neurotoxic symptoms. The neurotoxic symptoms included ptosis, fixed dilated pupils and flaccid paralysis with respiratory failure. Mild hyponatraemia was also a clinical feature. Read More

    Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(12):e0189971. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. Read More

    Pit Bull attack causing limb threatening vascular trauma -A case series.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2018 8;42:133-137. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Vascular Unit, Department of General Surgery, San Fernando Teaching Hospital, Independence Avenue, Paradise Pasture, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago; Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Introduction: Non-fatal human dog bites are commonplace amongst animal attacks on human beings and these present with mainly skin and soft tissue injuries. However, they can also present with life threatening head and neck injuries, massive soft tissue trauma, as well as combined orthopedic and vascular extremity injuries where a high possibility of limb loss exists.

    Presentation Of Cases: We present two adult dog bite victims with multiple bites inflicted by large canines identified as Pit-Bull Terriers. Read More

    Analysis of the efficacy of Taiwanese freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom against Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis and Ophiophagus hannah through proteomics and animal model approaches.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 12 15;11(12):e0006138. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. Read More

    Flaccid skin protects hagfishes from shark bites.
    J R Soc Interface 2017 Dec;14(137)
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Hagfishes defend themselves from fish predators by releasing large volumes of gill-clogging slime when they are attacked. Slime release is not anticipatory, but is only released after an attack has been initiated, raising the question of how hagfishes survive the initial attack, especially from biting predators such as sharks. We tested two hypotheses that could explain how hagfishes avoid damage from shark bites: puncture-resistant skin, and a loose and flaccid body design that makes it difficult for teeth to penetrate body musculature and viscera. Read More

    Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189071. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.
    The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients. While experimental studies in animals have offered evidence of post-treatment persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi, variations in methodology, detection methods and limitations of the models have led to some uncertainty with respect to translation of these results to human infection. With all stages of clinical Lyme disease having previously been described in nonhuman primates, this animal model was selected in order to most closely mimic human infection and response to treatment. Read More

    Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 12 4;17(1):744. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200, MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released. Read More

    Attacking the mosquito on multiple fronts: Insights from the Vector Control Optimization Model (VCOM) for malaria elimination.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(12):e0187680. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Divisions of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
    Background: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions. Read More

    Rabies.
    Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017 Nov 30;3:17091. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector Borne Diseases Research Group, (WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Reference Laboratory for Rabies), Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK.
    Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. Read More

    [Leg ulcer revealing cutaneous leishmaniasis].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 23;27:287. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Service de Traumatologie Orthopedie du Groupe Hospitalier Publique du Sud de l'Oise(GHPSO), bp60100 Creil, France.
    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases occurring in endemic tropical and subtropical areas and caused by protozoa of the genus leishmania, transmitted by a diptera (sand fly). We here report a case of topical cutaneous leishmaniasis discovered in a 15-year old boy with painless ulcer on his left leg, who had been staying in South Africa. Clinical examination showed painless non-itchy ulcer, occurred 1 month before, on the antero-internal part of his left leg with crusts and scars caused by insect bites, all evolving in a context of patient's general health status, without mucosal or visceral lesions. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of a freeze-dried trivalent antivenom for snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: An open randomized controlled phase IIb clinical trial.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 27;11(11):e0006068. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Escola Superior de Saúde, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
    Background: In tropical areas, a major concern regarding snakebites treatment effectiveness relates to the failure in liquid antivenom (AV) distribution due to the lack of an adequate cold chain in remote areas. To minimize this problem, freeze-drying has been suggested to improve AV stability.

    Methods And Findings: This study compares the safety and efficacy of a freeze-dried trivalent antivenom (FDTAV) and the standard liquid AV provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (SLAV) to treat Bothrops, Lachesis and Crotalus snakebites. Read More

    Intranasal infection and contact transmission of Zika virus in guinea pigs.
    Nat Commun 2017 Nov 21;8(1):1648. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Virology, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 100071, China.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or sexual contact. The excretion and persistence of contagious ZIKV in various body fluids have been well documented in ZIKV patients; however, the risk of direct contact exposure remains unclear. Here, we show that guinea pigs are susceptible to ZIKV infection via subcutaneous inoculation route; infected guinea pigs exhibit seroconversion and significant viral secretion in sera, saliva, and tears. Read More

    In Response to "The Efficacy of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) Antivenom Versus Placebo Plus Optional Rescue Therapy on Recovery from Copperhead Snake Envenomation".
    Ann Emerg Med 2017 12;70(6):930-931
    Division of Medical Toxicology, Ronald O. Perelman Department of Emergency Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY; New York City Poison Control Center, New York, NY.

    Work environment and occupational risk assessment for small animal Portuguese veterinary activities.
    J Occup Environ Hyg 2018 Mar;15(3):D19-D28
    a Instituto Universitário da Maia , CIDESD-ISMAI, Castêlo da Maia , Portugal.
    The professional work of small animal veterinary staff encompasses a wide diversity of demanding tasks. This has prompted a number of studies covering physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, or psychological hazards, as well as their health effects upon veterinary workers. However, such results were obtained from self-reported surveys (via paper or online). Read More

    Residual Effectiveness of Permethrin-Treated Clothing for Prevention of Mosquito Bites Under Simulated Conditions.
    J Environ Health 2017 04;79(8):8-15
    Biological hazards such as exposure to ticks and mosquitoes can affect health. Permethrin-treated clothing is available to the public. We don’t currently understand, however, the effects of environmental factors such as fabric type, washing, sunlight, and temperature on permethrin content in treated clothing with respect to mosquito knockdown and mortality. Read More

    The sting of a honey bee: An unusual subconjunctival foreign body.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;65(11):1226-1228
    Tej Kohli Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Ocular foreign bodies (FBs) are often encountered in clinical practices. However, there are cases in which the presence of the FB is difficult to diagnose based on mere history taking and/or clinical examination. We herein present a case of unusual subconjunctival foreign body in the form of the sting of a honey bee in a 63-year-old farmer. Read More

    Skin Test Reactivity to Hymenoptera Venom after Venom Immunotherapy Correlates Inversely with the IgG/IgE Ratio.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2017 9;174(3-4):190-199. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University and University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Skin test reactivity to hymenoptera venom and venom-specific IgE are important for diagnosing venom allergy and deciding on the appropriate allergen for venom immunotherapy (VIT). Longitudinal data on skin test reactivity during VIT and their correlation with venom-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG are scarce.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed shifts in skin test reactivity and serum levels of venom-specific IgE and IgG in patients allergic to hymenoptera venom before the initiation of VIT with ultrarush therapy and after ≥3 years of VIT. Read More

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