340,572 results match your criteria Birth defects research. Part C Embryo today : reviews[Journal]


[Maternal Emergencies: Methodically qualified - Conclusive Treatment].

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2019 Apr 17;223(2):73-84. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institut für Rettungs- und Notfallmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig Holstein.

Maternal emergencies can significantly affect the outcome of pregnancy and childbirth. Since obstetrical emergencies may happen at any time during pregnancy an emergency transport to a hospital nearby may not always be possible. So, obstetrical emergency-management may already become mandatory in a prehospital setting. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/a-0762-1024
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0762-1024DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[The Stepwise Care of Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Germany and Internationally].

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Kompetenz-Centrum Qualitätssicherung / Qualitätsmanagement, MDK Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart.

Objective: In Germany the care of newborn infants is regulated by directives of the Federal Joint Committee. Assignment to the four levels of care, with level 1 being the highest level, is based on maternal risk factors, maternal and fetal diseases, birth weight and gestational age. This article compares birth weight and gestational age limits used in Germany with international regulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0868-2513DOI Listing

Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection for the Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Med Princ Pract 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a single injection of 0.3 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity.

Methods: We conducted this retrospective case series study in King Abdul Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500310DOI Listing
April 2019
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Optimal oxygenation and role of free radicals in PPHN.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Pediatrics, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Effective ventilation of the lungs is essential in mediating pulmonary vasodilation at birth to allow effective gas exchange and an increase in systemic oxygenation. Unsuccessful transition prevents the increase in pulmonary blood flow after birth resulting in hypoxemia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Management of neonates with PPHN includes ventilation of the lungs with supplemental oxygen to correct hypoxemia. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915849193023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
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Reactive oxygen species as mediators of oxygen signaling during fetal-to-neonatal circulatory transition.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are frequently seen as pathological agents of oxidative stress. However, ROS are not always deleterious and can also act as cell signaling molecules. Vascular oxygen sensing and signaling during fetal-to-neonatal circulatory transition is a remarkable example of the physiological regulatory actions of ROS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Comparing pregnancy outcomes and loss rates in elective twin pregnancy reduction to ongoing twin gestations in a large contemporary cohort.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Background: As compared to singleton gestations, twin pregnancies are associated with a significantly higher risk of preterm birth, maternal complications, as well as fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR) is a technique developed in the 1980s to reduce the fetal number in higher-order multiple pregnancies to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, most importantly preterm birth.

Objective: To compare pregnancy outcomes and loss rates in elective twin pregnancy reduction to ongoing twin gestations in a large contemporary cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.04.001DOI Listing

MATERNAL THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE LEVEL IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER AND SEX RATIO AT BIRTH.

Endocr Pract 2019 Apr;25(4):315-319

Few studies have explored the influence of thyroid status on sex ratio at birth, and conclusions are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in first trimester and sex ratio at birth. The study was a retrospective cohort study performed at a tertiary care center. Read More

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http://journals.aace.com/doi/10.4158/EP-2018-0348
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2018-0348DOI Listing
April 2019
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Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Previous studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency fields from cell phones on birth outcomes are inconsistent. We explored if maternal cell phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. We used information from 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008) and Korea (2006-2011). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz092DOI Listing

Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 17;13(4):e0007343. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; St. Paul, MN, United States of America.

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was first linked to birth defects during the American outbreak in 2015/2016. It has been proposed that mutations unique to the Asian/American-genotype explain, at least in part, the ability of Asian/American ZIKV to cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Recent studies identified mutations in ZIKV infecting humans that arose coincident with the outbreak in French Polynesia and were stably maintained during subsequent spread to the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007343DOI Listing

Screen-time is associated with inattention problems in preschoolers: Results from the CHILD birth cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213995. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Pre-school children spend an average of two-hours daily using screens. We examined associations between screen-time on pre-school behavior using data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study.

Methods: CHILD participant parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at five-years of age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213995PLOS

Maternal hemoglobin concentrations across pregnancy and maternal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Maternal anemia is a well-recognized global health problem; however, there remain questions on specific hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds that predict health risk or protection for mother and child. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of maternal Hb concentrations with a range of maternal and infant health outcomes, accounting for the timing of measurement (preconception, and first, second, and third trimesters), etiology of anemia, and cutoff category. The systematic review included 272 studies and the meta-analysis included 95 studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14093DOI Listing

Maternal heavy metal exposure, thyroid hormones, and birth outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Environment Health (Incubation), Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (Wuhan), Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Context: Maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy play a critical role in fetal development. However, whether maternal heavy metal exposure affects their thyroid hormones and the effects on fetal growth are still unclear.

Objective: To explore the impact of heavy metal exposure on maternal thyroid hormones and the potential mediation role of thyroid hormones on birth outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02492DOI Listing

[Effects of post-natal inhibition of RANKL on molar eruption and root formation in C57BL/6 mice].

Orthod Fr 2019 Mar 17;90(1):55-63. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, USPC, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot, Équipe BERDAL, 75006 Paris, France - Service d'Orthopédie Dento-faciale, Hôpital la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Introduction: Recent observations performed in the orthodontic department of La Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital in Paris reported an increase of non-familial eruption defects of permanent molars. Our recent data have evidenced the involvement of osteoclasts (OC) in both the eruption and the dental retention processes through the RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway. These facts are at the origin of the hypothesis of the existence of an environmental etiology for those eruption defects that would correspond to the perturbation of cellular autocrine/paracrine signaling pathways as the RANKL/ RANK/OPG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/orthodfr/2019008DOI Listing

Outcome of a screening program for the prevention of neonatal early-onset group B Streptococcus infection: a population-based cohort study in Inner Mongolia, China.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Invasive early-onset group B Streptococcus infection (EOGBS) is an important cause of severe neonatal complications but study on comprehensive GBS screening is lacking in China. This study aims to investigate the outcome of a regional anterpartum screening program for EOGBS prevention and to estimate the pros and cons of a new GBS screening strategy employed.

Methods: We performed an optimized hospital strategy for GBS screening, which targeted expectant mothers (including those with preterm births) from January 2016 to December 2016 in a population-based cohort. Read More

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https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000976DOI Listing
April 2019
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Adolescent girls' perceptions of breastfeeding in two low-income periurban communities in South Africa.

Health Care Women Int 2019 Apr 17:1-17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

c Health Economics Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Cape Town , Observatory , South Africa.

In South Africa, exclusive breastfeeding rates are low, and rates of teenage pregnancy are high. Educational policy enables mothers' return to school, which conflicts with policy emphasizing exclusive breastfeeding. We elicited adolescent women's perceptions and experiences of infant feeding choices, and conducted six focus groups (N = 57) in two periurban settlements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2018.1549043DOI Listing

Missense changes in the catalytic domain of coagulation factor X account for minimal function preventing a perinatal lethal condition.

Haemophilia 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Introduction: Inherited deficiencies in the coagulation pathway provide diversified models to investigate the molecular bases of perinatal lethality associated with null-like variants. Differently from X-linked haemophilias, homozygous/doubly heterozygous null variants in the rare autosomally inherited deficiency of factor X (FX) might be incompatible with perinatal survival.

Aim: To provide experimental evidence about the null/close-to-null FX function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13761DOI Listing

Fertility preservation in female cancer patients-state of the art.

Minerva Ginecol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department for Gynecology, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg, Germany.

Protecting fertility in the presence of cancer has become highly significant, as the desire to give birth to a child is increasingly postponed to later in life, and long-term survival with cancer has increased. A variety of fertility-preserving methods have been developed. To find them we did a literature search in Medline with the term "female fertility preservation in cancer" in December 2017. Read More

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https://www.minervamedica.it/index2.php?show=R09Y9999N00A190
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4784.19.04387-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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miRNA-210-3p regulates trophoblast proliferation and invasiveness through fibroblast growth factor 1 in selective intrauterine growth restriction.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fetal Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), which affects approximately 10%-15% of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies, is highly associated with intrauterine foetal death and neurological impairment in both twins. Data suggest that unequal sharing of the single placenta is the main contributor to birth weight discordance. While MC twins and their placenta derive from a single zygote and harbour almost identical genetic material, the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic discrepancies in MC twins remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14335DOI Listing

Influence of male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the reproductive outcomes in serodiscordant couples: a case-control study.

Andrology 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Nowadays, serodiscordant couples (SDCs) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected men have the chance to conceive safely, giving birth with a minimum risk of cross-infection.

Objective: To assess the impact of male HIV and HCV infection on the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes in SDCs, with HIV or HCV seropositive men and negative partners.

Materials And Methods: Of 153 couples: 24 in Group 1 (HIV-seropositive men), 60 in Group 2 (HCV-seropositive men) and 69 in Group 3 (controls). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.12623DOI Listing

A case review of neonates with elevated C-reactive protein in umbilical cord blood.

Pediatr Int 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Nara, Japan.

Objectives: C-reactive protein (CRP) has limited placental transportability. Relying on CRP level in umbilical cord blood alone is an inaccurate way to predict early-onset neonatal sepsis, and we retrospectively reviewed the clinical courses of neonates with elevated CRP levels in umbilical cord blood.

Methods: This study was a retrospective case review of neonates with elevated CRP levels in umbilical cord blood (>0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13866DOI Listing

Scaling of cardiac morphology is interrupted by birth in the developing sheep Ovis aries.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Zoological Sciences, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Scaling of the heart across development can reveal the degree to which variation in cardiac morphology depends on body mass. In this study, we assessed the scaling of heart mass, left and right ventricular masses, and ventricular mass ratio, as a function of eviscerated body mass across fetal and postnatal development in Horro sheep Ovis aries (~50-fold body mass range; N = 21). Whole hearts were extracted from carcasses, cleaned, dissected into chambers and weighed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12990DOI Listing

Sex ratio and maternal age in a natural fertility, subsistence population: Daughters, sons, daughters.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Maternal and Child Health Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate putative links between birth sex ratios (BSR = male:female births) and maternal age in a traditional, agricultural, natural fertility population. Metabolic energy, social support, and the costs and benefits associated with producing sons versus daughters can affect BSR. These variables fluctuate with maternal age. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23838
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23838DOI Listing
April 2019
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Reproductive history and breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study in Japan.

Breast Cancer 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Breast Surgery, Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital, 47-1 Nodayama, Medeshima-Shiode, Natori, Miyagi, 981-1239, Japan.

Background: Reproductive factors may influence breast cancer progression and patient survival; however, evidence has been limited.

Methods: The associations of reproductive factors with tumor characteristics and patient survival were analyzed among 1468 breast cancer patients diagnosed during 1997-2013 at a single institute in Japan. The patients were followed until 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-019-00972-5DOI Listing

Risk factors for recurrent macrosomia and child outcomes.

World J Pediatr 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Disease, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, 128 Shen Yang Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: Women who had delivered a macrosomic newborn will have a higher risk to deliver another macrosomia. We aimed to examine the recurrence risk of macrosomia in the subsequent pregnancy and the implications in long-term child health.

Methods: Data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a longitudinal birth cohort with 54,371 singleton births, were used. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12519-019-00249-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-019-00249-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Health Extension Workers Involvement in the Utilization of Focused Antenatal Care Service in Rural Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol 2019 Jan-Dec;6:2333392819835138. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Public Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: Health extension workers (HEWs) are primarily been assigned in rural areas of Ethiopia to provide maternal and child health services. Few studies have been done to investigate HEWs' contributions towards maternal health services. This study describes HEWs involvement in the utilization of focused antenatal care (FANC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333392819835138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449814PMC

Interaction Effect Between Breast Density and Reproductive Factors on Breast Cancer Risk in Korean Population.

J Cancer Prev 2019 Mar 30;24(1):26-32. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: This study was conducted to explore the effect of known risk factors, focusing on risk factors including age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, family history of breast cancer, and age at first birth according to breast density, in consideration of interaction among East-Asian women.

Methods: Case-control study with 2,123 cases and 2,121 controls with mammographic density was conducted. Using the mammographic film, breast density was measured using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2019.24.1.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453588PMC

The Prevalence of Complications of Prematurity among 1000 Newborns in Isfahan, Iran.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 21;8:12. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Different morbidity conditions are globally reported from different nations for premature infants. The aim of this study was to identify the relative frequency of some of the most important complications of prematurity in a population of about 1000 of very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e. Read More

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http://www.advbiores.net/text.asp?2019/8/1/12/252652
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_84_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425744PMC
February 2019
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Refusal of antenatal care and the applicable conceptual models.

Case Rep Womens Health 2019 Apr 28;22:e00110. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Klerksdorp Hospital, North West Province, South Africa.

•The 'five-prong purpose' model describes the functions of antenatal care.•Addressing challenges identified with the five 'A's model prevents refusal of antenatal care.•Refusal of antenatal care leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes and socio-economic challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2019.e00110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449732PMC

Countdown to 2030: eliminating hepatitis B disease, China.

Bull World Health Organ 2019 Mar 28;97(3):230-238. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, No.38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. China has the world's largest burden of HBV infection and will be a major contributor towards the global elimination of hepatitis B disease by 2030. The country has made good progress in reducing incidence of HBV infection in the past three decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.219469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453311PMC

Aberrant DNA methylation as a diagnostic biomarker of diabetic embryopathy.

Genet Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Maternal diabetes is a known teratogen that can cause a wide spectrum of birth defects, collectively referred to as diabetic embryopathy (DE). However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying DE remain uncertain and there are no definitive tests to establish the diagnosis. Here, we explore the potential of DNA methylation as a diagnostic biomarker for DE and to inform disease pathogenesis. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41436-019-0516-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0516-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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The relationship between maternal body mass index and pregnancy outcomes in twin compared with singleton pregnancies.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objecive: Women with twins have an a priori increased risk for many of the complications associated with maternal obesity. Thus, the impact of maternal obesity in twins may differ from that reported in singletons. In addition, given the increased metabolic demands in twin pregnancies, the impact of maternal underweight may be greater in twin compared with singleton gestations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-019-0362-8DOI Listing

Diabetes in pregnancy in associations with perinatal and postneonatal mortality in First Nations and non-Indigenous populations in Quebec, Canada: population-based linked birth cohort study.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 15;9(4):e025084. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Both pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM, GDM) occur more frequently in First Nations (North American Indians) pregnant women than their non-Indigenous counterparts in Canada. We assessed whether the impacts of PGDM and GDM on perinatal and postneonatal mortality may differ in First Nations versus non-Indigenous populations.

Design: A population-based linked birth cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025084DOI Listing

Antigen specific vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

School of Medicine, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Vaccinations in pregnancy are recommended for the potential benefits of preventing severe pertussis disease in newborns and for preventing the impact of influenza on the pregnant woman, her foetus in utero and, the newborn in the first six months of life. Published data in Australia suggested that coverage rates were sub-optimal so the reasons for this were reviewed.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1014 postnatal women, aged 18 years and older, who had given birth in the previous six months was undertaken on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.021DOI Listing

Safety of Intratracheal Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

J Pediatr 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL.

In a phase 1 dose-escalation trial at 2 dosing levels, we assessed the safety of intratracheal administration of a single-dose of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in 12 extremely low birth weight infants <28 weeks of gestation and <1000 g at birth at 5-14 days of life. The treatment was well tolerated and appears to be safe and feasible, and warrants a larger randomized-controlled blinded study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223476193026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.02.029DOI Listing
April 2019
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Preterm Birth as a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease in Adult Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Pediatr 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

First Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine if preterm birth is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in adult life.

Study Design: A structured literature search was performed using PubMed. All comparative studies reported metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes in adults (≥18 years of age) born preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) compared with adults born at term (37-42 weeks of gestation) and published through March 2018 were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.02.041DOI Listing

[12-months efficacy of option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Yaoundé, Cameroon].

Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Département de statistiques, université panafricaine de Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Cameroon has adopted the option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) program of HIV in August 2014 in order to eradicate MTCT of HIV.

Objective: To analyze in routine life settings, efficacy of option B+ for PMTCT and associate factors.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a 6-month period in the ESSOS hospital center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respe.2019.03.119DOI Listing

Preference for caesarean attitudes toward birth in a Chilean sample of young adults.

Women Birth 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Birth Place Lab., University of British Columbia, BC Women's Hospital Shaughnessy Building E418 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Little empirical research exists about what motivates birth mode preferences, and even less about this topic in Latin America, where obstetric interventions and caesareans are some of the highest worldwide.

Aim: To identify factors associated with caesarean preference among Chilean men and women who plan to have children and to inform childbirth education and informed consent procedures.

Methods: An online cross-sectional survey measuring attitudes toward birth was administered to graduate students at a large public university in Chile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Towards precision quantification of contamination in metagenomic sequencing experiments.

Microbiome 2019 Apr 16;7(1):62. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) experiments involving small amounts of nucleic acid input are highly susceptible to erroneous conclusions resulting from unintentional sequencing of occult contaminants, especially those derived from molecular biology reagents. Recent work suggests that, for any given microbe detected by mNGS, an inverse linear relationship between microbial sequencing reads and sample mass implicates that microbe as a contaminant. By associating sequencing read output with the mass of a spike-in control, we demonstrate that contaminant nucleic acid can be quantified in order to identify the mass contributions of each constituent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0678-6DOI Listing

Abnormal level of CUL4B-mediated histone H2A ubiquitination causes disruptive HOX gene expression.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2019 Apr 16;12(1):22. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Child Development and Nutriomics, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, 100020, China.

Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects involving the central nervous system. Recent studies on the etiology of human NTDs have raised the possibility that epigenetic regulation could be involved in determining susceptibility to them.

Results: Here, we show that the H2AK119ub1 E3 ligase CUL4B is required for the activation of retinoic acid (RA)-inducible developmentally critical homeobox (HOX) genes in NT2/D1 embryonal carcinoma cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-019-0268-7DOI Listing

Women's experiences of participating in a randomised trial comparing alternative policies for timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth: a questionnaire study.

Trials 2019 Apr 16;20(1):225. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

Background: The Cord Pilot Trial compared two alternative policies for cord-clamping at very preterm birth at eight UK tertiary maternity units: clamping after at least 2 min and immediate neonatal care with cord intact, or clamping within 20 s and neonatal care after clamping. This paper reports views and experiences of the women who participated in the trial (261 randomised), based on data from two self-completed questionnaires.

Methods: Women were given or posted the first questionnaire between 4 and 8 weeks after birth, and posted a second similar questionnaire at 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3325-4DOI Listing

A gestational vulnerability window for smoking exposure and the increased risk of preterm birth: how timing and intensity of maternal smoking matter.

Reprod Health 2019 Apr 16;16(1):43. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Public Health, Department of Family Science, University of Maryland, 4200 Valley Drive, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

Background: Reducing the incidence of preterm birth is a national priority. Maternal cigarette smoking is strongly and consistently associated with preterm birth. The objective of this study was to examine prenatal exposure based on combined measures of timing (by trimester) and intensity level (the number of cigarettes smoked per day) of maternal smoking to identify a pregnancy period with the highest risk of preterm birth. Read More

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https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articl
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0705-xDOI Listing
April 2019
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Effects of high-fat diets on fetal growth in rodents: a systematic review.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2019 Apr 16;17(1):39. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.

Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has life-long consequences for offspring. However, the effects of maternal overnutrition and/ or obesity on fetal growth remain poorly understood, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-019-0482-yDOI Listing

Derivation and validation of a model predicting the likelihood of vaginal birth following labour induction.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Apr 16;19(1):130. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: There is high-quality evidence supporting induction of labour (IOL) for a number of maternal and fetal indications. However, one fifth of inductions fail to result in vaginal births, requiring cesarean deliveries. This has negative clinical, emotional and resource implications. Read More

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https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2232-8DOI Listing
April 2019
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Undifferentiated spermatogonia regulate expression through NOTCH signaling and drive germ cell differentiation.

FASEB J 2019 Apr 16:fj201802361R. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Cytochrome P450 family 26 subfamily B member 1 (CYP26B1) regulates the concentration of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and plays a key role in germ cell differentiation by controlling local distribution of RA. The mechanisms regulating expression in postnatal Sertoli cells, the main components of the stem cell niche, are so far unknown. During gonad development, expression of is maintained by Steroidogenic Factor 1 (SF-1) and Sex-Determining Region Y Box-9 (SOX9), which ensure that RA is degraded and germ cell differentiation is blocked. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802361RDOI Listing

Aboriginal Status and Neighborhood Income Inequality Moderate the Relationship between School Absenteeism and Early Childhood Development.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 15;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada.

The negative impact of school absenteeism on children's academic performance has been documented in the educational literature, yet few studies have used validated development indicators, or investigated individual and neighborhood characteristics to illuminate potential moderating factors. Using cross-sectional Early Development Instrument (EDI) panel data (2001-2005) we constructed multilevel linear and logistic regression models to examine the association between school absenteeism and early childhood development, moderated by Aboriginal status, length of school absence, neighborhood-level income inequality, and children's sex assigned at birth. Our study included 3572 children aged four to eight in 56 residential neighborhoods in Saskatoon, Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081347DOI Listing

Determinants of Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides in the VHEMBE Cohort, South Africa.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Nov 17;52(21):12108-12121. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health , University of California at Berkeley , Berkeley , California 94720 , United States.

Exposure to pyrethroid insecticides has been linked to adverse health effects, and can originate from several sources, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control, home pest control, food contamination, and occupational exposure. We aimed to explore the determinants of urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in a rural population with high pesticide use. The Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE) is a birth cohort of 752 mother-child pairs in Limpopo, South Africa. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.8b02767
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b02767DOI Listing
November 2018
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Cross sex hormone treatment is linked with a reversal of cerebral patterns associated with gender dysphoria to the baseline of cisgender controls.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Transgender persons experience incongruence between their gender identity and birth-assigned sex. The resulting gender dysphoria (GD), is frequently treated with cross-sex hormones. However, very little is known about how this treatment affects the brain of individuals with GD,nor do we know the neurobiology of GD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14420DOI Listing

Screening hysteroscopy in subfertile women and women undergoing assisted reproduction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Apr 16;4:CD012856. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ida Scudder Road, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, 632004.

Background: Screening hysteroscopy in infertile women with unexplained infertility, or prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilisation (IVF) may reveal intrauterine pathology that may not be detected by routine transvaginal ultrasound. Hysteroscopy, whether purely diagnostic or operative may improve reproductive outcomes.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of screening hysteroscopy in subfertile women undergoing evaluation for infertility, and subfertile women undergoing IUI or IVF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012856.pub2DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sex-Specific Differences in Late Preterm Neonatal Outcomes.

Am J Perinatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Objective:  To estimate sex-specific differences in late preterm outcomes and evaluate whether betamethasone modifies this association.

Study Design:  We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter trial of women at risk for late preterm birth randomized to receive betamethasone or placebo. We included women who delivered at 34 to 37 weeks and excluded major fetal anomalies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1683886DOI Listing

SENTINEL1: Two-Season Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations among U.S. Infants Born at 29 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age Not Receiving Immunoprophylaxis.

Am J Perinatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Objective:  The SENTINEL1 observational study characterized confirmed respiratory syncytial virus hospitalizations (RSVH) among U.S. preterm infants born at 29 to 35 weeks' gestational age (wGA) not receiving respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis (IP) during the 2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 RSV seasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1681014DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads