340,681 results match your criteria Birth Defects Research Part C-embryo Today-reviews[Journal]


The Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research Program: Assessing the Reproductive Health of U.S. Active-Duty Women.

Semin Reprod Med 2018 Nov 19;36(6):351-360. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland.

As the percentage of women serving in the active-duty military continues to grow, and as their roles continue to expand, the importance of monitoring reproductive health in the military community increases. The Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research (BIHR) program conducts ongoing epidemiologic studies to assess potential increased risks for adverse reproductive and infant health outcomes in the military population. Military personnel endure unique physical and mental demands as a part of their occupational duties (e. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0039-1678751
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678751DOI Listing
November 2018
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Preconception Care in the Veterans Health Administration.

Semin Reprod Med 2018 Nov 19;36(6):327-339. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

VA Central Office, Women's Health Services, Washington, District of Columbia.

Preconception care (PCC), defined as a set of interventions to help women optimize their health and well-being prior to pregnancy, can improve pregnancy outcomes and is recommended by national organizations including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Women Veterans who use the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system may face elevated risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes due to a high prevalence of chronic medical and mental health conditions as well as psychosocial stressors including sexual trauma history and intimate partner violence. Many women Veterans of childbearing age experience poverty and homelessness, which are key social determinants of poor reproductive health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678753DOI Listing
November 2018

Placental programming of neuropsychiatric disease.

Pediatr Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Children's Research Institute at Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

The placenta is vital for fetal growth, and compromised function is associated with abnormal development, especially of the brain. Linking placental function to brain development is a new field we have dubbed neuroplacentology. Approximately 380,000 infants in the United States each year abruptly lose placental support upon premature birth, and more than 10% of pregnancies are affected by more insidious placental dysfunction such as preeclampsia or infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0405-9DOI Listing

Observed and calculated cerebral critical closing pressure are highly correlated in preterm infants.

Pediatr Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Neonatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Cerebrovascular critical closing pressure (CrCP) is the arterial blood pressure (ABP) at which cerebral blood flow ceases. Preterm ABP is low and close to CrCP. The diastolic closing margin (diastolic ABP minus CrCP) has been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0403-yDOI Listing

PCB52 induces hepatotoxicity in male offspring through aggravating loss of clearance capacity and activating the apoptosis: Sex-biased effects on rats.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 12;227:389-400. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Forensic Pathology, School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, No. 1838 North Guangzhou Road, 510515, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a kind of persistent organic pollutant, can induce hepatotoxicity in mammals. However, PCB-induced hepatotoxicity in offspring and the underlying mechanisms have been rarely studied. In the present study, Wistar rats were administered with corn oil or PCB52 (1 mg/kg body weight/day, by gavage) from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 21. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535193072
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.077DOI Listing
April 2019
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Determinants of phthalate exposure and risk assessment in children from Poland.

Environ Int 2019 Apr 16;127:742-753. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM), Lodz, Poland.

Phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. Some phthalates may affect the hormonal balance in both children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the phthalate exposure and its determinants among children at age of 7 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01604120193065
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.04.011DOI Listing
April 2019
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Indigenous Doulas: A literature review exploring their role and practice in western maternity care.

Midwifery 2019 Apr 16;75:52-58. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Charles Darwin University, Australia.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to establish a body of literature exploring the emergent topic of Indigenous doulas, in relation to Indigenous communities in remote locations, where women are routinely evacuated and no longer supported to give birth. In doing so the article will synthesise and critique key concepts in the literature and identify gaps for prioritisation in future research.

Design: The methodology is influenced by Indigenous, decolonising and feminist theoretical standpoints. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02666138193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
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[Perineal risk and obstetrical protection: a survey with birth professionals].

Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Pôle de gynécologie-obstétrique, CHRU de Nancy, 10 rue du Docteur Heydenreich, 54 000 Nancy, France; INSERM U1254, CHRU Nancy, Rue du Morvan, 54 000 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Objectives: The main objective was to evaluate the practices declared by birth professionals in the Lorraine region about perineal obstetric protection (any perineal tear combined). The secondary objective was to evaluate prevention measures performed in practice by birth professionals according to the perineal risk subjectively estimated for each obstetric situation.

Methods: This is a practice survey conducted through an anonymous questionnaire distributed to birth professionals (gynecologists, interns, midwife and midwife student) in October 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gofs.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Age-dependent variations in the expression of myosin isoforms and myogenic factors during the involution of the proximal sesamoidean ligament of sheep.

Res Vet Sci 2019 Apr 11;124:270-279. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, Università di Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

In ungulates the stability of the fetlock joint is dependent on several muscles, which are exposed to high stress and strain. Among those muscles, the proximal sesamoidean ligament or PSL (also known as the suspensory ligament or Ruini's elasto-tendinous organ) is organized at birth in layers of muscle fibres alternated with abundant tendinous tissue that, during the postnatal development, becomes the predominant tissue. In this study we analysed the PSL of the sheep at the age of 1, 30 and 180 days and determined the expression of several genes which either (a) are markers of muscle fibre growth and maturation, or (b) play a role as signal molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Mother-infant interactions with firstborns and secondborns: A within-family study of European Americans.

Infant Behav Dev 2019 Apr 16;55:100-111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK.

Given the large numbers of families with more than one child, understanding similarities and differences in siblings' behaviors and in parents' interactions with their sibling infants is an important goal for advancing more representative developmental science. This study employed a within-family design to examine mean-level consistency and individual-order agreement in 5-month-old sibling behaviors and maternal parenting practices with their firstborns and secondborns (ns = 61 mothers and 122 infants). Each infant was seen independently with mother. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Polygenic Prediction of Weight and Obesity Trajectories from Birth to Adulthood.

Cell 2019 Apr;177(3):587-596.e9

Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Cardiovascular Disease Initiative, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Severe obesity is a rapidly growing global health threat. Although often attributed to unhealthy lifestyle choices or environmental factors, obesity is known to be heritable and highly polygenic; the majority of inherited susceptibility is related to the cumulative effect of many common DNA variants. Here we derive and validate a new polygenic predictor comprised of 2. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00928674193029
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.03.028DOI Listing
April 2019
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SMFM Special Statement: State of the Science on Multifetal Gestations: Unique Considerations and Importance.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

We sought to review the state of the science for research on multiple gestations. A literature search was performed using PubMed to quantify the representation of multiple gestations for a sample period (2012-2016) limited to Phase III and IV randomized controlled trials and written in English addressing at least one of four major pregnancy complications for illustration: fetal growth restriction or small-for-gestational-age fetus, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. Of the 226 studies included in the analysis, multiple pregnancies were most represented in studies of preterm delivery: 17% of trials recruited both singleton and multiple pregnancies, and another 18% of trials recruited only multiple pregnancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.04.013DOI Listing

Cardiometabolic risk factors in children born with marginally low birth weight: A longitudinal cohort study up to 7 years-of-age.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215866. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) may predict an increased risk of an adverse cardiometabolic profile later in life, but long-term effects in different populations and birth weight strata are still unclear. We explored laboratory markers of cardiometabolic risk in children born with marginally LBW (2000-2500 g).

Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study including 285 Swedish marginally LBW children and 95 normal birth weight (NBW, 2501-4500 g) controls. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215866PLOS

Effect of HIV-exposure and timing of anti-retroviral treatment on immunogenicity of trivalent live-attenuated polio vaccine in infants.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215079. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

South African Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: The prevalence of HIV infection in South African pregnant women has been approximately 30% over the past decade; however, there has been a steady decline in mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 8% in 2008 to <2% in 2015. We evaluated the immunogenicity of live-attenuated trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) following the primary vaccination series (doses at birth, 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age) in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU), HIV-infected infants initiated on early anti-retroviral treatment (HIV+/ART+), HIV-infected infants on deferred ART (HIV+/ART-) and HIV-unexposed infants (HU) as the referent group.

Methods: Serum polio neutralization antibody titres were evaluated to serotype-1, serotype-2 and serotype-3 at 6, 10 and 18 weeks of age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215079PLOS

Correlates of continuum of maternal health services among Nepalese women: Evidence from Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215613. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Research Unit of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Continuum of Care (CoC) is an essential strategy to prevent maternal and child deaths where health services are arranged in a pathway throughout pregnancy, childbirth and after delivery. However, CoC is still a challenge in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate the correlates of CoC from pregnancy to the postnatal period in Nepalese women aged 15 to 49 years. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215613PLOS

Improvement of embryonic development and clinical outcomes of germinal vesicle stage oocytes using a microvibration culture system.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Division of Biotechnology , College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University , Seongbuk-gu , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

In vitro maturation (IVM) has evolved as a clinical treatment option in assisted reproductive technology. However, the poor developmental potential of germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes is still suboptimal. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of a microvibration culture system (MVC) during IVM and/or in vitro culture (IVC) on the clinical outcomes and the embryonic development potential of human GV-stage oocytes collected from human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-primed IVM and fertilization-embryo transfer (IVM/F-ET) cycles of patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19396368.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19396368.2019.1602681DOI Listing
April 2019
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Quantitative Lipidomics in Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Regensburg University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany.

Rationale: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is characterized by filling of the alveolar spaces by lipoprotein rich material of ill-defined composition, and which is caused by molecularly different and often rare diseases occurring from birth to old age.

Objectives: Quantitative lipidomic analysis of lipids and surfactant proteins A, B and C from lavage fluids of patients with different causes of proteinosis in comparison to healthy contols.

Methods: During the last decades we collected alveolar lavage samples from patients with PAP due to autoantibodies against GMCSF, genetic mutations in CSF2RA, MARS, FARSB, NPC2 and secondary to myeloid leukemia. Read More

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https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201901-0086OC
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201901-0086OCDOI Listing
April 2019
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Cohort study showed that growth rate increment has not been enough to prevent growth retardation of preterm infants and raised concerns about unbalanced growth.

Acta Paediatr 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Neonatology Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, Madrid, Spain.

Aim: We describe the postnatal weight gain, linear and head growth trends of surviving preterm infants from 2005 to 2017.

Methods: Multicentre cohort study, including surviving preterm infants < 32 weeks (n=21,084), from the Spanish Neonatal Network database, without major congenital malformations who were less than 50 weeks postmenstrual age at discharge. Outcomes were weight gain (g/kg/day), linear and head growth (cm/week) and changes in weight, length and head circumference z-scores from birth to discharge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14819DOI Listing

Association of Maternal Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation With Preterm Birth.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192514. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality.

Objective: To assess the probability of preterm birth among expectant mothers who smoked cigarettes before pregnancy and quit smoking at the start or during pregnancy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed information provided on live birth certificates from 2011 through 2017 that were obtained from US states that implemented the 2003 revision of the US live birth certificate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2514DOI Listing

The qualculative dimension of healthcare data interoperability.

Authors:
Kathleen H Pine

Health Informatics J 2019 Apr 19:1460458219833095. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Arizona State University, USA.

Research on interoperability and information exchange between information technology systems touts the use of secondary data for a variety of purposes, including research, management, quality improvement, and accountability. However, many studies have pointed out that this is difficult to achieve in practice. Hence, this article aims to examine the causes for this by reporting an ethnographic study of the data work performed by medical records coders and birth certificate clerks working in a hospital system to uncover the practices of creating administrative data (e. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1460458219833095
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1460458219833095DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Relative Impacts of Sibling Relationships on Adolescent Body Perceptions.

J Genet Psychol 2019 Apr 19:1-14. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

c University of Missouri-Columbia, USA.

The sibling relationship is the longest relationship of the life course and has been found to influence youth adjustment (Dunn, 2002 ). Given that adolescence is a time of increased body awareness, the authors examined the potential role of siblings' body conceptions and sibling relationship quality on adolescent body conceptions. In a sample of 101 predominantly White, middle-class adolescent sibling dyads, the authors found that positive sibling relationship quality was associated with higher physical self-worth in adolescents, but that this differed by sibling gender and sibling physical self-worth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2019.1602024DOI Listing

Moderate-to-severe psoriasis and pregnancy: impact on fertility, pregnancy outcome and treatment perspectives.

G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2019 Jun;154(3):305-314

Unit of Dermatology, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Psoriasis affects 2-4% of the world's population, with no difference between men and women and 70% of patients experiencing disease onset before the age of 40, which coincides with the reproductive years. Few data are available from literature on impact of psoriasis on fertility, course and outcome of pregnancy and risk associated with treatments. Recent studies on other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, among which psoriasis is also included, indicate that rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases can impact female fertility and pregnancy outcomes especially during active disease episodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-0488.18.06255-7DOI Listing

A Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes and Fatty Liver Scores 9-16 Years After Pregnancy.

J Diabetes 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Background: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may be at an increased risk for liver complications as chronic hyperglycemia is a risk factor for liver fat accumulation and potential liver dysfunction. Large prospective studies examining liver fat accumulation following a GDM pregnancy are lacking.

Methods: In the Diabetes & Women's Health (DWH) Study (2012-2014) we examined the association between GDM and subsequent fatty liver scores among 607 women with and 619 women without GDM in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1753-0407.12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12934DOI Listing
April 2019
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First use and limitations of Magmaris® bioresorbable stenting in a low birth weight infant with native aortic coarctation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

We, herein, report the first use of a Magmaris® magnesium-based vascular scaffold for native aortic coarctation in a 1,980 g infant with multiple malformations. Due to the low body weight, complex illness, and clinical instability, it was decided to delay surgical correction. After insufficient results had been obtained by balloon angioplasty, Magmaris® implantation was chosen to bridge the patient to surgery by stabilizing left ventricular function and to allow for sufficient growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28300DOI Listing

Case series of neck accessory tragus.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

We report three cases of neck accessory tragus, which is the largest number of cases with dermatologists reported in China. Neck accessory tragus belongs to special accessory auricular anomaly. Case 1: A 5-year-old girl presented with a skin-colored mass above her right clavicle since birth. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jocd.12912
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12912DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mitochondria-coupled glucose phosphorylation develops after birth to modulate H O release and calcium handling in rat brain.

J Neurochem 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial Physiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-21941-902, Brazil.

The adult brain is a high-glucose and oxygen-dependent organ, with an extremely organized network of cells and large energy-consuming synapses. To reach this level of organization, early stages in development must include an efficient control of cellular events and regulation of intracellular signaling molecules and ions such as hydrogen peroxide (H O ) and calcium (Ca ), but in cerebral tissue, these mechanisms of regulation are still poorly understood. Hexokinase (HK) is the first enzyme in the metabolism of glucose and, when bound to mitochondria (mtHK), it has been proposed to have a role in modulation of mitochondrial H O generation and Ca handling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14705DOI Listing

Respiratory morbidity, atopy and asthma at school age in preterm infants aged 32-35 weeks.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Paediatric Pneumology Unit, University Clinic Hospital, University of Valencia, Av Blasco Ibáñez, 17, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Little is known about respiratory morbidity and asthma risk in preterm infants (PTIs) with a gestational age (GA) over 32 weeks. This was a prospective study carried out from birth to 7-8 years, comparing two groups: (a) PTIs (GAs 32 weeks + 1 day to 35 weeks + 0 days, without comorbidities) and (b) full-term infants (FTIs; GA ≥ 37 weeks). Risk and protective factors for bronchiolitis and asthma were identified. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00431-019-03372-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03372-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Transition From Phasic to Tonic Contractility in Airway Smooth Muscle After Birth: An Experimental and Computational Modeling Study.

J Eng Sci Med Diagn Ther 2019 Feb 8;2(1). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Western Australia, Australia.

Fetal airway smooth muscle (ASM) exhibits phasic contractile behavior, which transitions to a more sustained "tonic" contraction after birth. The timing and underlying mechanisms of ASM transition from a phasic to a tonic contractile phenotype are yet to be established. We characterized phasic ASM contraction in preterm (128 day gestation), term (~150 day gestation), 1-4 month, 1 yr, and adult sheep (5yr). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4042312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467295PMC
February 2019

Haptoglobin and C-Reactive Protein-Non-specific Markers for Nursery Conditions in Swine.

Front Vet Sci 2019 28;6:92. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute for Animal Hygiene, Animal Welfare and Farm Animal Behaviour, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hanover, Germany.

A quality concept for production in the pork market includes granting a good health status of pigs from birth to slaughter. This concept is a precondition for animal welfare as well as reducing antibiotic usage in farm animals. The demand for fighting bacterial antimicrobial resistance in humans, animals, and in the environment is one driving force for the development of innovative technical solutions to improve husbandry. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fvets.2019.00092
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455069PMC
March 2019
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The Complex Etiology of Childhood Obesity in Arabs Is Highlighted by a Combination of Biological and Socio-Economic Factors.

Front Public Health 2019 2;7:72. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Clinical Services, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

To identify predictors of childhood and adolescent obesity in Kuwaitis with Arab ethnicity. A cross-sectional sample of 6-18 year-old schoolchildren was randomly selected from 244 public schools across all six governorates in the State of Kuwait. Anthropometric data were measured from 6,574 Arab Kuwaiti schoolchildren, and a structured questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors associated with obesity. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00072
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455072PMC
April 2019
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The Preterm Gut Microbiota: An Inconspicuous Challenge in Nutritional Neonatal Care.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 2;9:85. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The nutritional requirements of preterm infants are unique and challenging to meet in neonatal care, yet crucial for their growth, development and health. Normally, the gut microbiota has distinct metabolic capacities, making their role in metabolism of dietary components indispensable. In preterm infants, variation in microbiota composition is introduced while facing a unique set of environmental conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454191PMC

Perinatal Exposure Is Associated With Increased Risk of Late Onset Sepsis and Imbalanced Inflammation in Preterm Infants and May Add to Lung Injury.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 2;9:68. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

University Children's Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Controversy remains concerning the impact of on preterm neonatal morbidity. Prospective single-center study in very low birth weight infants <30 weeks' gestation. Cord blood and initial nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for and using culture technique and polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00068
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454044PMC
April 2019
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Orthopedic Manifestations of Bruck Syndrome: A Case Series with Intermediate to Long-term Follow-Up.

Case Rep Orthop 2019 13;2019:8014038. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contractures, fractures, and deformities in four patients with Bruck syndrome treated in our facility. Data were collected from medical records, radiographs, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, genetic tests, and gait analysis. All had contractures at birth and genotypic findings including mutations in PLOD2 or FPKB10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8014038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436336PMC

Fulminant early-onset neonatal sepsis due to : Case report and review of the literature.

Pediatr Rep 2019 Feb 27;11(1):7953. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neonatology.

is a rare cause of neonatal sepsis, and it is associated with significant morbidity and a very high fatality rate. The infection is usually acquired intrapartum, from the colonization of the maternal genital tract. Most affected neonates have an early-onset presentation of symptoms, usually within the first 48 hours after birth, which is similar to other causes of neonatal sepsis such as or . Read More

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https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/pr/article/view
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/pr.2019.7953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452222PMC
February 2019
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Memory T Cells in Pregnancy.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:625. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Adaptations of the maternal immune response are necessary for pregnancy success. Insufficient immune adaption is associated with pregnancy pathologies such as infertility, recurrent miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, spontaneous preterm birth, and preeclampsia. The maternal immune system is continuously exposed to paternal-fetal antigens; through semen exposure from before pregnancy, through fetal cell exposure in pregnancy, and through microchimerism after pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455355PMC

CXCR2 Blockade Mitigates Neural Cell Injury Following Preclinical Chorioamnionitis.

Front Physiol 2019 2;10:324. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States.

Minimizing central nervous system (CNS) injury from preterm birth depends upon identification of the critical pathways that underlie essential neurodevelopmental and CNS pathophysiology. While chorioamnionitis (CHORIO), is a leading cause of preterm birth, the precise mechanism linking prenatal brain injury and long-term CNS injury is unknown. The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and its cognate receptor, CXCR2, are implicated in a variety of uterine and neuropathologies, however, their role in CNS injury associated with preterm birth is poorly defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454349PMC

Cognitive Development Trajectories in Preterm Children With Very Low Birth Weight Longitudinally Followed Until 11 Years of Age.

Front Physiol 2019 2;10:307. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

There is a high prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in very low birthweight (500-1250 g) infants (VLBW). Understanding long-term risk factors associated with cognitive development in preterm children requires longitudinal characterization. Thus, follow-up evaluations, including identification of risks and resilience influences-are important to promote health and cognitive abilities of children born preterm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454032PMC

Variation in skin hydration on the basis of (body constitution): A cross-sectional observational study.

Ayu 2018 Jul-Sep;39(3):127-131

Department of Kriya Sharir, MAM's Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: (body constitution) is an important concept of Ayurveda which is decided at the time of birth. It shows differences in physical, physiological and psychological characteristics of an individual. Variation in skin characteristics is found as per . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ayu.AYU_171_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454913PMC

Postpartum Depressive Disorder - Psychosomatic Aspects.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2019 Apr 12;79(4):375-381. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Clinical Institute for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common mental illness in mothers following the birth of a child. Since the symptoms of PPD are similar to the normal stress of healthy women following childbirth, it is often difficult for the attending gynaecologist or midwife to diagnose this illness in a timely manner and thus initiate adequate treatment and comprehensive support for the patient. Even if there are options for a screening using evaluated questionnaires and subsequent psychotherapy and/or drug therapy in the treatment of PPD which has proven effective, it is seen that, in most treatment approaches, little consideration is given to the affect-controlled interaction and the bonding behaviour between mother and child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0759-1981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461464PMC
April 2019
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Women's preferences and factors influencing their obstetric care service utilization in rural Sindh: A Cross sectional Study.

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 Apr;69(4):576-579

Health Services Academy Islamabad.

The objective of this study was to explore women's preferences and factors influencing the obstetric services in a rural setting of Sindh Province. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 women who were interviewed by using a validated questionnaire. The women who had given birth during the year preceding the study were eligible for inclusion in the study. Read More

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Blood mercury, lead, cadmium, manganese and selenium levels in pregnant women and their determinants: the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Japan Environment and Children's Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan.

The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) is a birth-cohort study of 100,000 mother-child dyads that aims to investigate the effect of the environment on child health and development. Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) are considered to be important co-exposures when examining the effect of other chemical substances on child development. The levels of these elements in the blood of 20,000 randomly selected mid/late-term pregnant women from the whole JECS cohort were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-019-0139-0DOI Listing

The effects of childhood maltreatment on epigenetic regulation of stress-response associated genes: an intergenerational approach.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 18;9(1):983. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Clinical & Biological Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm, 89081, Germany.

While biological alterations associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) have been found in affected individuals, it remains unknown to what degree these alterations are biologically transmitted to the next generation. We investigated intergenerational effects of maternal CM on DNA methylation and gene expression in N = 113 mother-infant dyads shortly after parturition, additionally accounting for the role of the FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype. Using mass array spectrometry, we assessed the DNA methylation of selected stress-response-associated genes (FK506 binding protein 51 [FKBP5], glucocorticoid receptor [NR3C1], corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 [CRHR1]) in isolated immune cells from maternal blood and neonatal umbilical cord blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36689-2DOI Listing

Common patterns of gene regulation associated with Cesarean section and the development of islet autoimmunity - indications of immune cell activation.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 18;9(1):6250. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

Birth by Cesarean section increases the risk of developing type 1 diabetes later in life. We aimed to elucidate common regulatory processes observed after Cesarean section and the development of islet autoimmunity, which precedes type 1 diabetes, by investigating the transcriptome of blood cells in the developing immune system. To investigate Cesarean section effects, we analyzed longitudinal gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken at several time points from children with increased familial and genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42750-5DOI Listing

Oesophageal atresia.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 Apr 18;5(1):26. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Oesophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital abnormality of the oesophagus that is caused by incomplete embryonic compartmentalization of the foregut. EA commonly occurs with a tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF). Associated birth defects or anomalies, such as VACTERL association, trisomy 18 or 21 and CHARGE syndrome, occur in the majority of patients born with EA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0077-0DOI Listing

Which one? What kind? How many? Types, causes, and prevalence of disability among U.S. adults.

Disabil Health J 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Electronic address:

Background: Quantifying the number of people with and types of disabilities is helpful for medical, policy, and public health planning.

Objective/hypothesis: To update prior estimates on types, prevalence, and main causes of disability among U.S. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S19366574193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.03.001DOI Listing
March 2019
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No. 378-Placentophagy.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2019 May;41(5):679-682

Vancouver, BC.

Consumption of human placenta has recently been highlighted; however, there is no evidence of benefit from its consumption. In addition, there is potential for harm. Therefore the SOGC does not recommend the practice of placentophagy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2018.10.006DOI Listing

Prevalence, types, and malformations in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in newborns: a retrospective hospital-based study.

Ital J Pediatr 2019 Apr 18;45(1):50. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Women's Health, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No.1 Xueshi Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310006, People's Republic of China.

Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are some of the most common birth defects affecting newborns. CAKUTs often have poor birth outcomes owing to the limited experience of physicians in developing countries regarding antenatal and postnatal diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the epidemiology of CAKUTs using data from a hospital-based registry in Zhejiang Province, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-019-0635-9DOI Listing

HDAC6 dysfunction contributes to impaired maturation of adult neurogenesis in vivo: vital role on functional recovery after ischemic stroke.

J Biomed Sci 2019 Apr 18;26(1):27. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu Hsing St., Taipei, 110, Taiwan.

Background: Promoting post-stroke neurogenesis has long been proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for the enhancement of functional recovery after cerebral ischemic stroke. Despite numerous approaches have been widely reported the proliferation or differentiation of the neurogenic population therapeutic strategies by targeting adult neurogenesis not yet to be successfully clarified in clinical settings. Here, we hypothesized that alterations in microenvironment of the ischemic brain might impede the functional maturation of adult newly generated neurons that limits functional recovery after stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0521-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Do trajectories of economic, work- and health-related disadvantages explain child welfare clients' increased mortality risk? A prospective cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Apr 18;19(1):418. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6752-yDOI Listing

Pushing the limits: perinatal outcomes beyond prolonged second stage.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Apr 18:1-211. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

d Alexandria Health , Boston , USA.

Objective: To evaluate whether extremely prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous women affects mode of delivery and perinatal outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of nulliparous women with singleton gestations and cephalic presentation who reached 10 cm of cervical dilation at gestational age 36 0/7-41 6/7. Women were stratified by epidural status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1609927DOI Listing