1,412 results match your criteria Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology[Journal]
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 9;106(12):1062. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 1;106(12):1043. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 30;106(12):1059-1061. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 30;106(12):1056-1058. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):940-949
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: Previous studies noted associations between birth defects and some antibiotics (e.g., nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides) but not others (e. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):894-904
Telethon Kids Institute, Subiaco, Western Australia, Australia.
Background: The birth defects component of the Western Australian Register for Developmental Anomalies (WARDA-BD) was evaluated to assess its efficiency, effectiveness, and data quality.
Methods: WARDA-BD was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems and Data Quality Standards from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network. The evaluation included interviews with Register staff, local community organizations, parents, clinicians, and researchers; process observation; and secondary data analyses. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):983-988
Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: Obtaining accurate microcephaly prevalence is important given the recent association between microcephaly and Zika virus. Assessing the quality of data sources can guide surveillance programs as they focus their data collection efforts. The Utah Birth Defect Network (UBDN) has monitored microcephaly by data sources since 2003. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):869-874
The Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
The current surveillance systems for congenital microcephaly are necessary to monitor the impact of Zika virus (ZIKV) on the developing human brain, as well as the ZIKV prevention efforts. However, these congenital microcephaly surveillance systems are insufficient. Abnormalities of neuronal differentiation, development and migration may occur among infants with normal head circumference who have intrauterine exposure to ZIKV. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):915-926
Seattle Children's Hospital, Craniofacial Center, Seattle, Washington.
Background: Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a congenital condition with wide phenotypic variability, including hypoplasia of the mandible and external ear. We assembled a cohort of children with facial features within the CFM spectrum and children without known craniofacial anomalies. We sought to develop a standardized approach to assess and describe the facial characteristics of the study cohort, using multiple sources of information gathered over the course of this longitudinal study and to create case subgroups with shared phenotypic features. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):972-982
Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: Congenital microcephaly has been linked to maternal Zika virus infection. However, ascertaining infants diagnosed with microcephaly can be challenging.
Methods: Thirty birth defects surveillance programs provided data on infants diagnosed with microcephaly born 2009 to 2013. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):875-880
College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
Background: Once a woman has had a fetus or infant affected with a neural tube defect (NTD), the risk of recurrence is approximately 3%. This risk can be significantly reduced by folic acid supplement consumption during the periconceptional period; however, this requires women at risk to be adequately informed about the appropriate dosage and timing of supplement intake before planning another pregnancy. As birth defects surveillance programs are tasked with identifying and documenting NTD-affected pregnancies and births, they are in a unique position to support recurrence prevention activities. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):881-887
North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Background: Geographic variation in congenital heart disease is not well-described. This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) to describe the spatial epidemiology of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), in North Carolina (NC) and to compare travel time for cases to congenital heart centers in NC.
Methods: Using the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program database, live births with TOF born between 2003 and 2012 were identified. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):905-914
Division of Plastic, Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery; Duke University Hospital & Children's Health Center; Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Background: On October 1, 2015, the United States required use of the Clinical Modification of the International Classification of Diseases, 10 Revision (ICD-10-CM) for diagnostic coding. The ICD-10-CM code set is limited to gross categories for cleft lip and/or cleft palate (using only four of a possible seven characters).
Methods: Herein, a clinically useful expansion of the ICD-10-CM code set is proposed to improve the diagnostic accuracy necessary for individual clinical, research, and statistical projects that require it. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):927-934
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: Health insurance claims are a rich data source to examine medication use in pregnancy. Our objective was to identify pregnant women, their pregnancy outcomes, and date of their last menstrual period (LMP), and to estimate antidepressant dispensations in pregnancy.
Methods: From a literature search, we identified diagnosis and procedure codes indicating the end of a pregnancy. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):963-971
Departments of Epidemiology, and Preventative Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, Kentucky.
Background: Because of persistent concerns over the association between pesticides and spina bifida, we examined the role of paternal and combined parental occupational pesticide exposures in spina bifida in offspring using data from a large population-based study of birth defects.
Methods: Occupational information from fathers of 291 spina bifida cases and 2745 unaffected live born control infants with estimated dates of delivery from 1997 to 2002 were collected by means of maternal report. Two expert industrial hygienists estimated exposure intensity and frequency to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):950-962
Congenital Malformations Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York.
Background: Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study.
Methods: Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):867-868
Congenital Malformations Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):888-893
Pediatrics, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware and Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Background: The prevalence of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), a birth defect in which there is an opening in the wall that separates the left and right ventricles of the heart, seemed to be substantially higher in Delaware compared with the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN). The Delaware Birth Defects Registry (BDR) noted their high prevalence of VSDs in comparison with other states.
Methods: A subset of children with a VSD born in 2007 through 2010 was identified from the complete reportable statewide defect list that the BDR creates each year. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 1;106(12):1016-1031. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia.
Background: Australian Aboriginal children have increased infant and childhood mortality compared with Caucasian children, but their mortality related to congenital heart defects (CHDs) throughout life is unknown.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data on 8,110 live born, singleton infants with CHDs born January 1980 to December 2010 from the Western Australian Register of Developmental Anomalies. Vital status was determined from death and medical records. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 28;106(10):860-861. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 13;106(10):847-853. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston - McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas.
Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital birth defects, with myelomeningocele (MM) being the most severe form compatible with life. Recent studies show a link between mitochondrial folate one carbon metabolism and NTDs by means of the glycine cleavage system (GCS). We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms and novel variants in the coding regions of the GCS genes increase the risk for MM. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 7;106(10):854-859. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
Background: This study examined the prevalence of esophageal atresia (EA) and the relationship between EA and demographic factors in the Russian Federation.
Methods: Data were obtained from a population-based congenital malformations registry across 14 years (2000-2013) in 24 regions of the Russian Federation and included cases of EA among live births and stillbirths.
Results: The total number of births was 6,478,706. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 11;106(10):831-839. Epub 2016 Aug 11.
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Background: The main objective of the current study is to examine the trend of congenital abnormalities among children born by women with and without diabetes, and to explore the impact of food fortification by folic acid on the rate of birth defects among these two groups of mothers.
Methods: All children born alive in Ontario, Canada, during 1994 to 2009 and their mothers were included in study. Diagnosis of pregestational diabetes among mothers was identified using Diabetes registry, and diagnosis of birth defects among children were identified using hospital records. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 5;106(10):840-846. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Nanjing Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
Background: Esophageal atresia (EA) is a common birth defect that occurs with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), although etiological studies on EA/TEF have produced inconsistent results.
Methods: The aim of this study was to examine the association between environmental factors during pregnancy and the risk of EA/TEF in a Chinese population. Cases of isolated EA and nonisolated EA and unaffected controls were identified between July 2005 and November 2015, and face-to-face questionnaires concerning exposure to environmental factors were administered to the birth mothers of 130 cases and 400 controls. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 4;106(10):814-830. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
Programa de Anatomía y Biología del Desarrollo, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas (ICBM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Background: Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common birth defects, which include a range of disorders with a complex etiology affecting formation of craniofacial structures. Some forms of syndromic OFCs are produced by defects in the cholesterol pathway. The principal enzyme of the cholesterol pathway is the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Oct 20;106(10):803-813. Epub 2016 Jul 20.
Department of Oral Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
Background: Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures, is estimated to occur in 1:1800 to 2500 births. Genetic murine models of craniosynostosis exist, but often imperfectly model human patients. Case, cohort, and surveillance studies have identified excess thyroid hormone as an agent that can either cause or exacerbate human cases of craniosynostosis. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 12;106(12):1042. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
Birth Defects Surveillance Program, Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 5;106(12):993-1007. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC), National Center for Genetic Medicine (CNGM), National Administration of Labs and Health Institutes (ANLIS), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Background: Diprosopus is a subtype of symmetric conjoined twins with one head, facial duplication and a single trunk. Diprosopus is a very rare congenital anomaly.
Methods: This is a systematic review of published cases and the presentation of two new cases born in Argentina. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 15;106(12):1008-1015. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Background: Acardiac monochorionic twins lack cardiac function but grow by passive perfusion of the pump twin's deoxygenated arterial blood through placental arterioarterial (AA) and venovenous (VV) anastomoses and by hypoxia-mediated neovascularization. Pump twins therefore must continuously increase their cardiac output which may cause heart failure. Our aims were: to adapt our twin-twin transfusion syndrome model for acardiac twin pregnancies, to simulate pump and acardiac twin development, and to examine the model for early prognostic markers of pump twin survival. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov 11;106(11):935-939. Epub 2016 Aug 11.
Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Background: Pharmaceutical pregnancy exposure registries seek to evaluate temporal associations between drug exposures and adverse outcomes, particularly congenital anomalies. These registries record observed associations that may or may not be causally-related to the exposure. Most major congenital malformations (i. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 11;106(9):773-88. Epub 2016 Aug 11.
Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of interferon regulatory factor 6 and 8q24 polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P).
Methods: Data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers. Genotypic effects of four polymorphisms from 31 studies were pooled separately by ethnicity using a mixed-effect logit model with accounting for heterogeneity. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jul;106(7):520-9
Center for Spina Bifida Prevention, Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: Spina bifida and anencephaly are two major neural tube defects. They contribute substantially to perinatal, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality and life-long disability. To monitor the progress toward the total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA), we examined their global status in 2015. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jul;106(7):517-9
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 7;106(9):767-72. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
Department of Genomics, Life, and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Background: Nonsyndromic cleft with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is a common birth defect. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous risk variants, a considerable fraction of the genetic heritability remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous finding that de novo deletions in a 62 kb region of chromosome 7p14 are a risk factor for nsCL/P, using an independent cohort. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Dec 7;106(12):1044-1055. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Background: Human studies are inconsistent with respect to an association between treatment with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs) and an increase in the incidence of congenital heart defects. Here we tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to venlafaxine, a highly prescribed SNRI, increases the incidence of fetal heart defects and alters placental and fetal heart serotonin signaling in the rat.
Methods: Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged daily with venlafaxine hydrochloride (0, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 8 to 20. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 27;106(9):793-7. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
Cytogénétique Médicale, Univ Clermont1, UFR Médecine, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, France.
Background: Microdeletions encompassing chromosome bands 2q14.1q14.3 are rare. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 21;106(9):761-6. Epub 2016 Jun 21.
School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Australia.
Background: The South Australian Birth Defects Register (SABDR) has collected the date of diagnosis of notified birth defects since the 2005 birth year cohort. This study aims to document the age at diagnosis for each of the main diagnostic categories of birth defects, to produce a profile of when defects are diagnosed.
Methods: Deidentified data were extracted from the SABDR for birth years 2005 to 2007. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):501-10
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):494-9
Paediatric Department, Hospital Lillebaelt, Kolding, Denmark.
Background: The aim of this study was to describe prescription patterns for azathioprine and corticosteroids for pregnant women with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) before, during, and after pregnancy and to describe pregnancy outcomes.
Methods: A cohort composed of all singleton pregnancies in Danish registries from 1996 to 2009 was divided by maternal IBD status: Crohn's disease (CD, n = 827), ulcerative colitis (UC, N = 1361), or no IBD diagnosis (background population, n = 814,231). The number of women with a prescription for azathioprine, local and systemic steroids within a 3-month period was computed for each of the pregnancy trimesters and the year before and after pregnancy. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):489-93
Department of Epidemiology of the Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisboa, Portugal.
Background: In Portugal, prenatal care guidelines advocate two prenatal ultrasound scans for all pregnant women. Not following this recommendation is considered inadequate prenatal surveillance. The National Registry of Congenital Anomalies (RENAC in Portuguese) is an active population-based registry and an important instrument for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital anomalies (CA) in Portugal. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):480-8
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom.
Background: Surveillance of congenital anomalies is important to identify potential teratogens. Despite known associations between different anomalies, current surveillance methods examine trends within each subgroup separately. We aimed to evaluate whether hierarchical statistical methods that combine information from several subgroups simultaneously would enhance current surveillance methods using data collected by EUROCAT, a European network of population-based congenital anomaly registries. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):475-9
Birth Registry Mainz Model, Children's Hospital, University Medical Center of Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
Background: The evidence concerning safety of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation on teratogenic effects mainly relies on animal models, disaster epidemiology and experience in cancer etiology. Following an explorative result on maternal exposure in medical occupations we conducted a feasibility study, addressing congenital anomalies (CA) in the offspring of health workers potentially exposed to radiation.
Methods: In a prospective follow-up study, we enrolled women, identified by mandatory registration at the office of radiation protection as wearing a dosimeter. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):468-74
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
Background: Neonates with Down syndrome have an increased risk of being admitted to a neonatal unit compared with unaffected neonates. We aimed to estimate the proportion of neonates with Down syndrome admitted to a neonatal unit and compare their management and outcomes with other neonatal admissions.
Methods: Case-control study of neonates born from 2009 to 2011 admitted to 122 NHS Neonatal Units in England using data from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register and the National Neonatal Research Database. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jun;106(6):461-7
Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
Background: Studies have reported that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD), but none of these have been performed in the United Kingdom. Currently, women in the United Kingdom are not referred for specialist fetal echocardiography based on maternal age alone. The aim of this study is to examine the association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence in the North of England. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 14;106(9):749-60. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
Department of Pediatrics, USF Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa and St. Petersburg, Florida.
Background: Embryonic acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH), lithium, and homocysteine (HCy) induces cardiac defects at the time of exposure; folic acid (FA) supplementation protects normal cardiogenesis (Han et al., , ; Serrano et al., ). Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 14;106(9):739-48. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
Background: The role of prenatal diagnosis in reducing neonatal mortality from transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is controversial. Factors affected by prenatal diagnosis such as proximity at birth to a cardiac surgical center (CSC) and CSC volume are associated with mortality in congenital heart disease. The purpose of the study was to determine the associations between prenatal diagnosis, distance from birthplace to a CSC, CSC TGA volume, and neonatal mortality in patients with TGA. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 7;106(9):733-8. Epub 2016 Jun 7.
The Fetal Center at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, UT Health, McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas.
Background: We recently published pump/acardiac umbilical venous diameter (UVD) ratios, representing the pump twin's excess cardiac output fraction, of 27 acardiac twin pregnancies. There was a clear separation between the 17 pump twins that had life-threatening complications and the 10 that did not. The hypothesis of this study is that placental chorangioma and sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), tumors whose perfusion also causes high-output complications, have the same fetal outcome as pump twins when perfusion of the tumor requires the same excess cardiac output fraction. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Sep 3;106(9):789-92. Epub 2016 Jun 3.
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Background: The birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in Brazil increased between the years from 1975 to 1994 but has not been evaluated for temporal trend since then.
Methods: We used data from the Brazilian National Health Information System for the years 2000 through 2013. We calculated the reported CL/P birth prevalence each year per 10,000 live births and estimated the average increase in reported prevalence per year (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) by fitting a negative binomial regression model. Read More
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Jul 1;106(7):515-6. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Aug 26;106(8):708-15. Epub 2016 May 26.
Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, Peking University, China.
Background: Shanxi Province is a region in China with a high incidence of orofacial clefts (OFCs). Our objective is to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from coal combustion and tobacco smoke on the risk of an infant being born with orofacial clefts.
Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing population-based case-control study of major external structural birth defects in Shanxi Province. Read More