256,870 results match your criteria Bird Study[Journal]


Rapid degradation of dimethomorph in polluted water and soil by Bacillus cereus WL08 immobilized on bamboo charcoal-sodium alginate.

J Hazard Mater 2020 May 16;398:122806. Epub 2020 May 16.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

The presence of hazardous dimethomorph residues in the environment poses a threat to birds, aquatic organisms and mammals. The novel pure strain Bacillus cereus WL08 responsible for detoxifying dimethomorph was isolated from dimethomorph-polluted soils. The immobilized system of WL08 was developed using bamboo charcoal (BC) and sodium alginate (SA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122806DOI Listing

Egg rejection and egg recognition mechanism of chestnut thrushes (Turdus rubrocanus).

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 1:104158. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China. Electronic address:

Recognizing and rejecting foreign eggs is one of the most effective anti-parasite strategies for hosts in avian brood parasitism. Studies have shown that most cuckoo (Cuculus spp.) hosts have evolved egg recognition abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104158DOI Listing

Low rate of azole resistance in cases of avian aspergillosis in Germany.

Med Mycol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.

Aspergillosis is the most common fungal disease of the avian respiratory tract. Due to delayed diagnosis and treatment failure, the outcome of these infections is often poor. We investigate 159 cases of avian aspergillosis among captive birds in Germany to define clinical features as well as the frequency of in vitro triazole resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa045DOI Listing

Bisonic mechanical wing songs and complex kinematics in aerial displays of the Subtropical Doradito (Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis).

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Instituto de Bio y Geociencias del Noroeste Argentino (IBIGEO-CONICET), Laboratorio de Ecología, Comportamiento y Sonidos Naturales (ECOSON), Rosario de Lerma (4405), Salta, Argentina.

Loud mechanical sounds with a communication role are called sonations. Male Subtropical Doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis) exhibit five conspicuously modified primaries suspected of sonating. Here we 1) describe feather modifications, 2) describe three different territorial/aggressive contexts for these sounds: One-perch aerial displays, Two-perch aerial displays and Chukrut pursuits, 3) investigate the kinematics of the most common display (One-perch aerial display) and the physical mechanisms of sonation using synchronized high-speed video and audio, and 4) assess the roles of modified wing feathers in all contexts by experimental manipulation in four individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa062DOI Listing

Epigenetic Potential in Native and Introduced Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus).

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

University of South Florida, Global and Planetary Health, 3720 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 304, Tampa, FL.

Epigenetic potential, defined as the capacity for epigenetically-mediated phenotypic plasticity, may play an important role during range expansions. During range expansions, populations may encounter relatively novel challenges while experiencing lower genetic diversity. Phenotypic plasticity via epigenetic potential might be selectively advantageous at the time of initial introduction or during spread into new areas, enabling introduced organisms to cope rapidly with novel challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa060DOI Listing

Organic acid blend supplementation increases butyrate and acetate production in  Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenged broilers.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0232831. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Institute for Future Farming Systems, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

The burden of enteric pathogens in poultry is growing after the ban of antibiotic use in animal production. Organic acids gained attention as a possible alternative to antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities, improved nutrient metabolism and performance. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acid blend on broilers cecal microbiota, histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232831PLOS

Strength of niche processes for species interactions is lower for generalists and exotic species.

J Anim Ecol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Niche and neutral processes jointly influence species interactions. Predictions of interactions based on these processes assume that they operate similarly across all species. However, species characteristics could systematically create differences in the strength of niche or neutral processes for each interspecific interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13274DOI Listing

Legacy and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in tree swallows along an agricultural to industrial gradient: Maumee River, Ohio.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Environmental Science, and Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR), Baylor University Waco, TX, 76798, USA.

Exposure to multiple classes of contaminants, both legacy and those of emerging concern (CECs), were assessed in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) tissue and diet samples from six sites along the Maumee River, Ohio to understand both exposure and possible effects of exposure to those CECs for which there are little avian data. The six sites represented a gradient from intensive agriculture upstream to highly urbanized and industrial landscapes downstream; 1 - 2 remote Wisconsin lakes were assessed for comparative purposes. Cytochrome P450 induction, DNA damage, and thyroid function were also assessed relative to contaminant exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4792DOI Listing

Isospora oliveirai n. sp. (Chromista: Miozoa: Eimeriidae) from the Greenish Schiffornis Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838) (Passeriformes: Tyranni: Tityridae) in South America.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 23890-000, Brazil.

Background: Coccidia are obligatory intracellular parasites with at least one intestinal phase in their life cycles, being Isospora Schneider, 1881 the main coccidian genus related to the order Passeriformes. However, there is no record of isosporans from the passerine family Tityridae, which is the family of the greenish schiffornis Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838).

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the faeces from a greenish schiffornis S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00237-8DOI Listing

Comparison of some meat quality and liver characteristics in Muscovy and mule ducks.

Arch Anim Breed 2020 5;63(1):137-144. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Small Animal Science, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, 94976, Slovakia.

The aim of the study was to compare Muscovy ducks and mule ducks for proximate analysis, colour attributes, sensory properties of the meat, and concentration of some minerals in the meat and liver, with consideration of the effect of sex on the analysed traits. The study used 46 Muscovy and 44 mule ducks. At the end of the rearing period, 40 birds (10 males and 10 females of each genotype) were selected for slaughter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-63-137-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254918PMC

Infection by cyst nematodes induces rapid remodelling of developing xylem vessels in wheat roots.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 3;10(1):9025. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, 5064, South Australia, Australia.

Cyst nematodes induce host-plant root cells to form syncytia from which the nematodes feed. Comprehensive histological investigation of these feeding sites is complicated by their variable shape and their positions deep within root tissue. Using tissue clearing and confocal microscopy, we examined thick (up to 150 μm) sections of wheat roots infected by cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera avenae). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66080-zDOI Listing

Preparation of ELISA and Lateral Flow Kits for rapid Diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Poultry.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 3;10(1):9056. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Avian mycoplasmas were mainly the cause of poultry industry economic losses; reduced meat and egg production and increases the antibiotic treatment cost. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is designated as infectious sinusitis of turkeys and chronic respiratory disease of chickens (gasping, depression, semi closed eyes, infraorbital sinuses edema and decrease in egg production). This study aimed to prepare, evaluate and Compare in-house ELISA kits and lateral flow assay (LFA) from a local strain of MG with commercial ELISA kits and PCR consequently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65848-7DOI Listing

RNA-seq reveals downregulated osteochondral genes potentially related to tibia bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers.

BMC Genet 2020 Jun 3;21(1):58. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Embrapa Suínos e Aves, Rodovia BR-153, Km 110, Distrito de Tamanduá, Caixa Postal: 321, Concórdia, Santa Catarina, 89715-899, Brazil.

Background: Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) develops in the growth plate (GP) of the proximal femur and tibia and is initiated by damage to the less mineralized chondrocytes followed by colonization of opportunistic bacteria. This condition affects approximately 1% of all birds housed, being considered one of the major causes of lameness in fast growing broilers. Although several studies have been previously performed aiming to understand its pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms involved with BCO remains to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00862-2DOI Listing

Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Sero-Subtypes in Poultry and Wild Birds in Bangladesh.

Vet Sci 2020 Jun 1;7(2). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chattogram 4225, Bangladesh.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses have pandemic potential, cause significant economic losses and are of veterinary and public health concerns. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and diversity of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry and wild birds in Bangladesh. We conducted an avian influenza sero-surveillance in wild and domestic birds in wetlands of Chattogram and Sylhet in the winter seasons 2012-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020073DOI Listing

Regional Transmission and Reassortment of 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Viruses in Bulgarian Poultry 2017/18.

Viruses 2020 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK.

Between 2017 and 2018, several farms across Bulgaria reported outbreaks of H5 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In this study we used genomic and traditional epidemiological analyses to trace the origin and subsequent spread of these outbreaks within Bulgaria. Both methods indicate two separate incursions, one restricted to the northeastern region of Dobrich, and another largely restricted to Central and Eastern Bulgaria including places such as Plovdiv, Sliven and Stara Zagora, as well as one virus from the Western region of Vidin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060605DOI Listing

Factors responsible for forest and water bird distributions in rivers and lakes along an urban gradient in Beijing.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 12;735:139308. Epub 2020 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049,China. Electronic address:

Urban rivers and lakes, in combination with nearby green spaces, provide important habitat for urban birds, but few urban studies have focused on forest and water birds simultaneously along an urban intensity gradient. In this study, we randomly chose 39 rivers and lakes along an urban gradient of Beijing to examine bird community parameters in relation to aquatic and terrestrial habitat conditions, aquatic life data, and water quality data. We selected models with the AICc (corrected Akaike information criterion) method, bivariate linear or generalized linear regressions, and structural equation modeling to determine distribution patterns of avian communities along an urban gradient and bird-environment relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139308DOI Listing

Brasilia tapaculo (Scytalopus novacapitalis) seasonality and site occupancy in altitudinal riparian environments after non-natural burnings and feral pig invasion in Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil.

Braz J Biol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

The Brasilia Tapaculo, Scytalopus novacapitalis Sick, 1958, is a rare, geographically restricted, and endangered bird species that inhabits riparian vegetation of Cerrado, mainly Gallery Forests. In Serra da Canastra National Park, southeastern Brazil, wetlands are under threat due to frequent non-natural burnings and invasion by feral pigs, Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of seasonal variations on S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.223953DOI Listing

Biome stability predicts population structure of a southern African aridland bird species.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 27;10(9):4066-4081. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Integrative Biology Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California Berkeley CA USA.

Environments are heterogeneous in space and time, and the permeability of landscape and climatic barriers to gene flow may change over time. When barriers are present, they may start populations down the path toward speciation, but if they become permeable before the process of speciation is complete, populations may once more merge. In Southern Africa, aridland biomes play a central role in structuring the organization of biodiversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244808PMC

Lasting the distance: The survival of alien birds shipped to New Zealand in the 19th century.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 7;10(9):3944-3953. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Invasion Ecology Czech Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany Průhonice Czech Republic.

Invasive alien species are a major threat to biodiversity and human activities, providing a strong incentive to understand the processes by which alien invasion occurs. While it is important to understand the determinants of success at each of several invasion stages-transport, introduction, establishment, and spread-few studies have explored the first of these stages. Here, we quantify and analyze variation in the success of individual animals in surviving the transport stage, based on shipping records of European passerines destined for New Zealand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244811PMC

Competition with insectivorous ants as a contributor to low songbird diversity at low elevations in the eastern Himalaya.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 30;10(10):4280-4290. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Committee on Evolutionary Biology University of Chicago Chicago IL USA.

Competitive interactions between distantly related clades could cause complementary diversity patterns of these clades over large spatial scales. One such example might be ants and birds in the eastern Himalaya; ants are very common at low elevations but almost absent at mid-elevations where the abundance of other arthropods and insectivorous bird diversity peaks. Here, we ask if ants at low elevations could compete with birds for arthropod prey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246197PMC

Footedness predicts escape performance in a passerine bird.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 16;10(10):4251-4260. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation Beijing Forestry University Beijing China.

Behavioral lateralization, which is associated with the functional lateralization of the two brain hemispheres, commonly exists in animals and can provide an individual with benefits such as enhanced cognition and dual tasking. Lateral bias in limb use, as a type of behavioral lateralization, occur in many species, but the reasons for the coexistence of left- and right-biased individuals in a population remain poorly understood. We examined the footedness of male yellow-bellied tits () when they used feet to clamp mealworms against a perch, and tested its association with other fitness-related behavioral traits (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246196PMC

Effects of graded dose dietary supplementation of leaf meal and leaf meal on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and gut morphology in broilers.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 18;27(6):1503-1513. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Due to antimicrobial resistance and the public health hazard of antibiotic growth promoters, there is a grave need to find potential alternatives for sustainable poultry production. (PB) and (PO) are herbs, which have been reported for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of different dose supplementation of leaf meal (PBLM) and leaf meal (POLM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and gut morphology of broilers chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254159PMC

Foraging behaviour and diet in two sympatric shrike species during autumn migration across the Arabian Peninsula.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 19;27(6):1462-1466. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs of Oman, PO. Box 323, Muscat, Oman.

In situations of restricted food supply, the trophic niches of closely-related species of animals should be separate. For sit-and-wait hunters, such as shrikes, this is associated with competition for food and hunting sites. In the present study, the foraging behaviour of two shrike species - Red-tailed Shrike and Red-backed Shrike was studied in a desert habitat in Oman. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254029PMC

COVID-19 and sex workers: human rights, the struggle for safety and minimum income.

Can J Public Health 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Sex Workers United Against Violence Society, 334 Alexander St, Vancouver, BC, V6A 1C3, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00350-1DOI Listing

Mycobacterium marinum Infection Spreading in a "Birds in Flocks" Pattern: All Caseating Granuloma is Not Tuberculosis.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Dermatology, Kosin University College of Medicine, 262 Gamcheon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan, 602-702, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3538DOI Listing

COVID-19 Emergency Reforms in Massachusetts to Support Behavioral Health Care and Reduce Mortality of People With Serious Mental Illness.

Psychiatr Serv 2020 Jun 3:appips202000244. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Medicine (Bartels) and Department of Psychiatry (Freudenreich), Harvard Medical School, Boston; Mongan Institute (Bartels), Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program, Institute for Research, Quality, and Policy in Homeless Health Care (Baggett), and Department of Medicine (Bartels) and Department of Psychiatry (Freudenreich), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Vinfen, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Bird). Marvin S. Swartz, M.D., is editor of this column.

People with serious mental illness are at disproportionate risk of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality because of high rates of risk factors that directly parallel those related to poor coronavirus outcomes, including smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, along with housing instability, homelessness, food insecurity, and poverty. Community-based behavioral health organizations are also at risk of adverse outcomes because of dramatic declines in revenues and a diminished workforce. The State of Massachusetts has responded to this crisis by rapidly implementing a variety of policy, regulatory, and payment reforms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.202000244DOI Listing

Upper tidal flats are disproportionately important for the conservation of migratory shorebirds.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 3;287(1928):20200278. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

Migratory animals play vital ecological roles in ecosystems worldwide, yet many species are threatened by human activities. Understanding the detailed patterns of habitat use throughout the migration cycle is critical to developing effective conservation strategies for these species. Migratory shorebirds undertake some of the longest known migrations, but they are also declining precipitously worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0278DOI Listing

Predictability of food supply modulates nocturnal hypothermia in a small passerine.

Biol Lett 2020 Jun 3;16(6):20200133. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Evolutionary Ecology, Lund University, SE-223 62, Sweden.

The combination of short days and long cold winter nights, in temperate regions, presents a major challenge for small diurnal birds. Small birds regularly employ heterothermy and enter rest-phase hypothermia during winter nights to conserve energy. However, we know little about how environmental conditions, such as food availability, shape these strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0133DOI Listing

Current Approaches and Applications in Avian Genome Editing.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 30;21(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Advances in genome-editing technologies and sequencing of animal genomes enable researchers to generate genome-edited (GE) livestock as valuable animal models that benefit biological researches and biomedical and agricultural industries. As birds are an important species in biology and agriculture, their genome editing has gained significant interest and is mainly performed by using a primordial germ cell (PGC)-mediated method because pronuclear injection is not practical in the avian species. In this method, PGCs can be isolated, cultured, genetically edited in vitro, and injected into a recipient embryo to produce GE offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113937DOI Listing

Statistical Explorations and Univariate Timeseries Analysis on COVID-19 Datasets to Understand the Trend of Disease Spreading and Death.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 29;20(11). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Health and Nursing Science, Centre for e-Health, University of Agder, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway.

"Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)", the novel coronavirus, is responsible for the ongoing worldwide pandemic. "World Health Organization (WHO)" assigned an "International Classification of Diseases (ICD)" code-"COVID-19"-as the name of the new disease. Coronaviruses are generally transferred by people and many diverse species of animals, including birds and mammals such as cattle, camels, cats, and bats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20113089DOI Listing

West Nile Virus Restriction in Mosquito and Human Cells: A Virus under Confinement.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 29;8(2). Epub 2020 May 29.

Viral Trafficking, Restriction and Innate Signaling Team, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier (IRIM), CNRS, 34090 Montpellier, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitoes and birds. However, WNV has a broad host range and can be transmitted from mosquitoes to several mammalian species, including humans, through infected saliva during a blood meal. Although WNV infections are mostly asymptomatic, 20% to 30% of cases are symptomatic and can occasionally lead to severe symptoms, including fatal meningitis or encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020256DOI Listing

Effect of Solid-State Fermented Wheat Bran Supplemented with Agrimony Extract on Growth Performance, Fatty Acid Profile, and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia.

The impact of the broiler diet modification on the following parameters was evaluated: meat quality, carcass traits, and bone and blood parameters. One hundred twenty one-day-old COBB 500 broiler chickens were assigned to three experimental groups (40 birds per group) with four replications (10 per pen) for 35 days of fattening. The control (C) was fed a basic feed mixture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10060942DOI Listing

Foliar trait contrasts between African forest and savanna trees: genetic versus environmental effects.

Funct Plant Biol 2014 Feb;42(1):63-83

School of Tropical and Marine Sciences and Centre for Terrestrial Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Qld 4870, Australia.

Variations in leaf mass per unit area (Ma) and foliar concentrations of N, P, C, K, Mg and Ca were determined for 365 trees growing in 23 plots along a West African precipitation gradient ranging from 0.29 to 1.62m a-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP14040DOI Listing
February 2014

Identification and characterization of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their transposable element origins in the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus.

Anal Biochem 2020 May 30:113781. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-24 nucleotide regulatory RNAs. They are involved in the regulation of genetic and biological pathways through post transcriptional gene silencing and/or translational repression. Data suggests a slow evolutionary rate for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) over the past several million years when compared to birds, the closest extant relatives of crocodilians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2020.113781DOI Listing

Pollinator shifts, contingent evolution, and evolutionary constraint drive floral disparity in Salvia (Lamiaceae): evidence from morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods.

Evolution 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Switches in pollinators have been argued to be key drivers of floral evolution in angiosperms. However, few studies have tested the relationship between floral shape evolution and switches in pollination in large clades. In concert with a dated phylogeny, we present a morphometric analysis of corolla, anther connective, and style shape across 44% of nearly 1,000 species of Salvia (Lamiaceae) and test four hypotheses of floral evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.14030DOI Listing

Specialized feathers produce sonations during flight in Columbina ground doves.

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA.

The shape of remiges (primary and secondary feathers) is constrained and stereotyped by the demands of flight, but members of the subfamily of New World ground doves (Peristerinae) possess many atypical remex shapes with which they produce sonations of alarm. Within the genus Columbina specifically, the seventh primary feathers (P7) have elongated barbs that create a protrusion on the trailing vane which varies in size and shape between species. These feathers are hypothesized have been coopted to produce communicative sounds (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa051DOI Listing

Urbanization and agricultural intensification destabilize animal communities differently than diversity loss.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 1;11(1):2686. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centre d'Ecologie et des Sciences de la Conservation, UMR 7204 MNHN-CNRS-Sorbonne Université, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle de Paris, 43 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France.

Despite growing concern over consequences of global changes, we still know little about potential interactive effects of anthropogenic perturbations and diversity loss on the stability of local communities, especially for taxa other than plants. Here we analyse the relationships among landscape composition, biodiversity and community stability looking at time series of three types of communities, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16240-6DOI Listing

Increased Mortality and Major Complications in Hip Fracture Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A New York City Perspective.

J Orthop Trauma 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

NYU Langone Health, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, Division of Orthopedic Trauma Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 301 East 17 Street, New York, NY 10003, Phone: 212-598-6000.

Objectives: To examine one health system's response to the essential care of its hip fracture population during the COVID-19 pandemic and report on its effect on patient outcomes.

Design: Prospective cohort study SETTING:: Seven musculoskeletal care centers with New York City and Long Island.

Patients/participants: 138 recent and 115 historical hip fracture patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000001845DOI Listing

Vertebrates on the brink as indicators of biological annihilation and the sixth mass extinction.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Plant Science Department, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63110.

The ongoing sixth mass species extinction is the result of the destruction of component populations leading to eventual extirpation of entire species. Populations and species extinctions have severe implications for society through the degradation of ecosystem services. Here we assess the extinction crisis from a different perspective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922686117DOI Listing

Additivity of Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Diets Containing Corn, Soybean Meal, and Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles for Male Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Animal Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea.

The aim was to test additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AAs) in mixed diets for Ross 308 broiler chickens. Two hundred and eighty-eight, 20-d-old male broiler chickens were assigned to one of six diets, with six birds per cage using a randomized complete block design. The diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet, three diets containing corn, soybean meal (SBM), and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS) as the sole source of nitrogen, respectively, and two mixed diets containing corn, SBM or CDDGS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10060933DOI Listing

Pirfenidone in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a real-life experience.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2018 28;35(2):139-142. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic drug used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Twenty-three patients with chronic HP treated with pirfenidone were enrolled in this study based on a retrospective medical record review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.36141/svdld.v35i2.6170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170081PMC

Organizing pneumonia revisited: insights and uncertainties from a series of 67 patients.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2018 28;35(2):129-138. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Pulmonology Department and Diffuse Lung Diseases Study Group, Centro Hospitalar de São João, Porto, Portugal.

: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is classified as an acute/subacute pneumonia according to the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement (2013 update). Although its clinical presentation, radiologic and histologic features are well established, data on the relevance of potential causes, corticosteroid doses and length, or management of relapses are based on heterogeneous series of patients. : The aims of this study were to describe clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of OP, explore potential causes, discuss strategies for managing relapses, and analyze prognostic factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.36141/svdld.v35i2.6860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170093PMC

Network dynamics underlie learning and performance of birdsong.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2020 May 28;64:119-126. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychology, Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4301, United States. Electronic address:

Understanding the sensorimotor control of the endless variety of human speech patterns stands as one of the apex problems in neuroscience. The capacity to learn - through imitation - to rapidly sequence vocal sounds in meaningful patterns is clearly one of the most derived of human behavioral traits. Selection pressure produced an analogous capacity in numerous species of vocal-learning birds, and due to an increasing appreciation for the cognitive and computational flexibility of avian cortex and basal ganglia, a general understanding of the forebrain network that supports the learning and production of birdsong is beginning to emerge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2020.04.004DOI Listing

Compensation for wind drift in the nocturnally migrating Song Thrushes in relation to altitude and wind.

Behav Processes 2020 May 29:104154. Epub 2020 May 29.

Biological Station "Rybachy", Zoological Institute of the RAS, Rybachy, 238535, Kaliningrad reg., Russia.

Compensation for wind drift in relation to the side-wind velocity and altitude was investigated in Song Thrushes during autumn migration. The birds were recorded at night flying above the prominent leading line of a marine spit which coincided with the general direction of their migration. Among the large size passerine species, Song Thrushes were identified by a combination of five flight characteristics typical only of this species during particular periods of autumn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104154DOI Listing

Pigeons in the sun: Thermal constraints of eumelanic plumage in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

J Therm Biol 2020 May 20;90:102601. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, CNRS, La Rochelle Université, UMR, 7372, Villiers en Bois, France. Electronic address:

In wild vertebrates, several species exhibit eumelanic color polymorphism with the coexistence of dark and light morphs. The maintenance of such polymorphism suggests the existence of a selective balance between the morphs and a large body of literature has reported the costs and benefits of darker plumage coloration in birds. Among them, it has been suggested that melanin and dark plumage could entail high energetic costs especially under hot and sunny climates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102601DOI Listing

Landscape scale thermoregulatory costs from sublethal exposure to Deep Water Horizon oil in the double-crested cormorant.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 21;152:110915. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 250 North Mills Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Toxic effects of heavy oiling to wildlife are well known from oil spills, although sublethal oil exposure effects are poorly understood. We used Niche Mapper™, to compute spatially and temporally specific energetic and behavioral impacts of repeated sublethal oil exposure to double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). During winter (October-March) cormorants exposed to 13 g, 39 g, and 65-78 g of oil, had on average a 31%, 59%, and 76% predicted increase in total resting energetic requirements (RMR) compared to unoiled birds, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.110915DOI Listing

Red flowers differ in shades between pollination systems and across continents.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Background And Aims: Floral colour is a primary signal in plant-pollinator interactions. The association between red flowers and bird pollination is well known, explained by the "bee avoidance" and "bird attraction" hypotheses. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these two hypotheses has rarely been investigated on a large scale, even in terms of colour perception per se. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa103DOI Listing

Detection of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H10N7 in Poultry and Environmental Water Samples During a Clinical Outbreak in Commercial Free-Range Layers, Netherlands 2017.

Front Vet Sci 2020 5;7:237. Epub 2020 May 5.

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Department of Virology, Lelystad, Netherlands.

Wild birds are the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus (AIV) and may transmit AIV to poultry via direct contact or indirectly through the environment. In the Netherlands, a clinically suspected free-range layer flock was reported to the veterinary authorities by the farmer. Increased mortality, a decreased feed intake, and a drop in egg production were observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232570PMC

Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling and Innate Responses to Influenza A Viruses in the Mallard Duck, Compared to Humans and Chickens.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 12;10:209. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Mallard ducks are a natural host and reservoir of avian Influenza A viruses. While most influenza strains can replicate in mallards, the virus typically does not cause substantial disease in this host. Mallards are often resistant to disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, while the same strains can cause severe infection in humans, chickens, and even other species of ducks, resulting in systemic spread of the virus and even death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236763PMC