246,821 results match your criteria Bird Study[Journal]


Effect of pelleting and different feeding programs on growth performance, carcass yield, and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80035-050, Brazil.

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different feeding programs and pelleting on performance, nutrient digestibility, ileal digestible energy (IDE); and carcass yield of broilers from 21 to 35 d of age. In total, 768 male broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 8 replicates of 16 birds each. The treatments were mash and pelleted diets provided ad libitum, or pelleted and supplied at the same rate (100%) or restricted at 95, 90, and 85% (P100, P95, P90, and P85) of the amount consumed by the birds fed mash diet ad libitum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez176DOI Listing

The influence of indigestible protein on the performance and meat quality of broilers vaccinated for coccidiosis.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5A8, Canada.

High dietary protein and the use of poorly digested protein sources have been suggested to negatively impact broiler health, possibly because of protein fermentation in the distal intestinal tract. The effect of dietary protein levels with low or high indigestible protein fractions (LIP or HIP) on male and female broiler performance were evaluated. The trial was completely randomized with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, where gender, dietary protein levels (24, 26, and 28%), and dietary protein digestible fractions were the main factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez216DOI Listing

Effect of low protein diets supplemented with free amino acids on growth performance, slaughter yield, litter quality, and footpad lesions of male broilers.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Wageningen Livestock Research, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.

A study with 884 Ross 308 male broilers, housed in 68 floor pens (0.75 m2) from 0 to 35 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effects of low crude protein (CP) diets, with partial replacement of soybean meal by free amino acids (AA), on performance, slaughter yields, litter quality and footpad lesions. During the first 11 d, all broilers received the same control starter diet (216 g/kg CP, 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez229DOI Listing

Effects of water supplementation of an organic acid-trace mineral complex on production and slaughter parameters, intestinal histomorphology, and macronutrient digestibility in growing ostriches.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Company, Tehran 14159-4-4341, Iran.

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of water supplementation of organic acid-chelated trace minerals (OTM) on production traits, carcass characteristics, intestinal histomorphology, and nutrient digestibility in African ostrich chicks from 8 to 12 mo of age. A total of 20 growing ostriches, with almost similar body weight (73.4 to 75. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez221DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of dietary energy and protein content and lipid source on growth performance and carcass traits in Pekin ducks.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, PR China.

The present study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary energy and protein concentrations and lipid sources on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks. In Exp. 1, 15-day-old ducks (6 replicate pens, 60 ducks/pen) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with different metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) concentrations (2,850 kcal/kg and 16%, 2,950 kcal/kg and 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez217DOI Listing

An assessment of climate change vulnerability for Important Bird Areas in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Arc.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214573. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America.

Recently available downscaled ocean climate models for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Arc offer the opportunity to assess climate vulnerability for upper trophic level consumers such as marine birds. We analyzed seasonal and annual spatial projections from three climate models for two physical climate variables (seawater temperature and sea ice) and three forage variables (large copepods, euphausiids, and benthic infauna), comparing projected conditions from a recent time period (2003-2012) to a future time period (2030-2039). We focused the analyses on core areas within globally significant Important Bird Areas, and developed indices of the magnitude of projected change and vulnerability agreement among models. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214573PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Neotropical cloud forests and páramo to contract and dry from declines in cloud immersion and frost.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213155. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Clouds persistently engulf many tropical mountains at elevations cool enough for clouds to form, creating isolated areas with frequent fog and mist. Under these isolated conditions, thousands of unique species have evolved in what are known as tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) and páramo. Páramo comprises a set of alpine ecosystems that occur above TMCF from about 11° N to 9° S along the Americas continental divide. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213155PLOS

On-farm broiler chicken welfare assessment using transect sampling reflects environmental inputs and production outcomes.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214070. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.

To evaluate the utility of transect sampling for assessing animal welfare in large chicken flocks, we quantified relationships between environmental inputs, welfare problems detected using transect sampling, and production outcomes. We hypothesised that environmental inputs including environmental complexity (i.e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214070PLOS

Rapid morphological change of non-native frugivores on the Hawaiian island of O'ahu.

Evolution 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Novel ecosystems have become widespread created, in part, by the global spread of species. The non-native species in these environments can be under intense evolutionary pressures that cause rapid morphological change, which can then influence species interactions. In Hawai'i, much of the native frugivore community is extinct, replaced by non-native bird species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13744DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit by wildlife: implications for conservation and management of the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180537. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Rodovia Admar Gonzaga, 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

This study aimed to measure the wildlife consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit and use this data to discuss management possibilities. To estimate infructescence fruit volume consumed, collectors were installed in fruit-bearing palms. To characterize consumption from the ground, samples were placed next to fruiting palms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180537DOI Listing

Influences of dietary crude protein and stocking density on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180479. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Thirty-six African Black ostrich chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (180, 210 and 240 g/kg), stocking density (4.5 and 3 m2/bird) and their interactions. A factorial arrangement was used to examine the impact of treatments on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks during 2 to 10 weeks of the age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180479DOI Listing

The sandwich structure of keratinous layers controls the form and growth orientation of chicken rhinotheca.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nagoya University Museum, Nagoya, Japan.

The upper beak bone of birds is known to be overlain by the rhinotheca, which is composed of the horny sheath of keratinous layers. However, the details of the structure and growth pattern of the rhinotheca are yet to be understood. In this study, the microstructure of the rhinotheca from chicken specimens of different growth stages (ranging from 1 to ~ 80 days old) was analyzed using a combination of thin section and scanning electron microscopy observations, and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/joa.12998
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12998DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Comparing erosion and organ accumulation rates of lead and alternative lead-free ammunition fed to captive domestic ducks.

Ambio 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Animal Nutrition (ITE), Bundesallee 37, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany.

Lead poisoning of birds of prey from ingestion of ammunition lead has been well documented. Alternative, lead-free ammunition is widely available, but the toxicokinetics of other metals in birds are poorly understood. We tested the erosion of lead, copper, zinc, iron and brass by feeding domestic Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica) defined numbers of small metal pellets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01183-0DOI Listing

Callous-Unemotional Traits and Academic Performance in Secondary School Students: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, UCL Institute of Education, University College London, 20 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AL, UK.

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and male gender are both known risk factors for poor academic outcomes in children and adolescents. However, despite gender differences in CU trait severity, comorbid difficulties and correlates of CU traits, research has yet to examine whether the CU traits and male gender may work together to increase risk for poor academic performance. That is, whether boys high in CU traits perform more poorly across academic disciplines than girls high in these traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00545-2DOI Listing

Immunosuppressive potential of fowl adenovirus serotype 4.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong Province 271018, China.

Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome. To clarify the effects of FAdV-4 on immune organs in birds, we conducted a detailed examination of dynamic morphology and damage mechanisms in chickens randomly divided into 4 groups (FAdV-4, vaccination, FAdV-4 plus vaccination, and control). FAdV-4 caused the depletion of lymphocytes and subsequent growth impairment in the thymus and bursa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez179DOI Listing

Different dietary trace mineral sources for broiler breeders and their progenies.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Animal Science, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different trace mineral supplementation sources in the diet of broiler breeders on their performance and on their progenies. In total, 128 Cobb 500 broiler breeders were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in 2 experimental treatments. The control group was fed a diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (ITM), while the other group was fed a diet supplemented with reduced levels of trace minerals in the organic form. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez182DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Age-related arabinoxylan hydrolysis and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed wheat-based diets.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M²S), KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Endoxylanases are frequently used in cereal-based broiler feeds to improve the nutritional quality of the feed. It is hypothesized that the age of broilers and the age-related development of their intestinal microbiota influence the efficacy of these enzymes. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify possible age-related changes in arabinoxylan (AX) digestion in the different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of broilers. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez159DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Fracture of the Bare Spring of a Thoracic Endograft for Type A Aortic Dissection: A Case Report.

Vasc Specialist Int 2019 Mar;35(1):39-43

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Retrograde type A aortic dissection (RTAD) following thoracic endovascular aortic repair is a devastating complication associated with high mortality rates. In particular, a deployed endograft in a bird-beak formation in an acute curve of the aortic arch can induce injury to the fragile aortic wall, with the subsequent development of RTAD. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of RTAD caused by fracture of the bare spring of the thoracic endograft for type A aortic dissection. Read More

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http://www.vsijournal.org/journal/DOIx.php?id=10.5758/vsi.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5758/vsi.2019.35.1.39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453602PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Extending r/K selection with a maternal risk-management model that classifies animal species into divergent natural selection categories.

Authors:
Deby L Cassill

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, USF St. Petersburg, St, Petersburg, Florida, 33701, USA.

Reproduction is a defining process of biological systems. Every generation, across all species, breeding females repopulate ecosystems with offspring. r/K selection was the first theory to classify animal species by linking the rates with which breeding females repopulated ecosystems, to the stability of ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42562-7DOI Listing

Duck production systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 in France, 2016-2017.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6177. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, Toulouse, France.

In winter 2016-2017, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus spread across Europe, causing unprecedented epizootics. France was massively affected, resulting in the culling of over 6 million poultry. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were used to quantify the association between spatial risk factors and HPAI H5N8 infection in poultry holdings and to generate predictive maps for HPAI infection. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42607-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42607-xDOI Listing
April 2019
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Sexual selection predicts the rate and direction of colour divergence in a large avian radiation.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 16;10(1):1773. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.

Sexual selection is proposed to be a powerful driver of phenotypic evolution in animal systems. At macroevolutionary scales, sexual selection can theoretically drive both the rate and direction of phenotypic evolution, but this hypothesis remains contentious. Here, we find that differences in the rate and direction of plumage colour evolution are predicted by a proxy for sexual selection intensity (plumage dichromatism) in a large radiation of suboscine passerine birds (Tyrannida). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09859-7DOI Listing

Uncultured Microbial Phyla Suggest Mechanisms for Multi-Thousand-Year Subsistence in Baltic Sea Sediments.

MBio 2019 Apr 16;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

Energy-starved microbes in deep marine sediments subsist at near-zero growth for thousands of years, yet the mechanisms for their subsistence are unknown because no model strains have been cultivated from most of these groups. We investigated Baltic Sea sediments with single-cell genomics, metabolomics, metatranscriptomics, and enzyme assays to identify possible subsistence mechanisms employed by uncultured , , group OPB41, , , , , , and marine group II lineages. Some functions appeared to be shared by multiple lineages, such as trehalose production and NAD-consuming deacetylation, both of which have been shown to increase cellular life spans in other organisms by stabilizing proteins and nucleic acids, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02376-18DOI Listing

Avian functional responses to landscape recovery.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Apr;286(1901):20190114

1 Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University , Frank Fenner Building 141, Linnaeus Way, Acton ACT 2601 , Australia.

Restoring native vegetation in agricultural landscapes can reverse biodiversity declines via species gains. Depending on whether the traits of colonizers are complementary or redundant to the assemblage, species gains can increase the efficiency or stability of ecological functions, yet detecting these processes is not straightforward. We propose a new conceptual model to identify potential changes to complementarity and redundancy in response to landscape change via relative changes in taxonomic and functional richness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0114DOI Listing

Signal complexity communicates aggressive intent during contests, but the process is disrupted by noise.

Biol Lett 2019 Apr;15(4):20180841

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast , 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL , UK.

Contestants use displays to signal their aggressive intent and settle disputes before they escalate. For birds, this is often in the form of song, which can vary in structural complexity. The role of song complexity in signalling aggressive intent has not been fully established, and its efficacy could be influenced by background noise levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0841DOI Listing

A real-time road detection method based on reorganized lidar data.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(4):e0215159. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Road Detection is a basic task in automated driving field, in which 3D lidar data is commonly used recently. In this paper, we propose to rearrange 3D lidar data into a new organized form to construct direct spatial relationship among point cloud, and put forward new features for real-time road detection tasks. Our model works based on two prerequisites: (1) Road regions are always flatter than non-road regions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215159PLOS
April 2019
2 Reads

A chimeric IDD4 repressor constitutively induces immunity in Arabidopsis via the modulation of salicylic- and jasmonic acid homeostasis.

Plant Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Desert Agriculture, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD)/BIRD proteins belong to a highly-conserved plant-specific group of transcription factors with dedicated functions in plant physiology and development. Here, we took advantage of the chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T, SRDX) to widen our view on the role of IDD4/IMPERIAL EAGLE and IDD family members in plant immunity. The hypomorphic idd4SRDX lines are compromised in growth and show a robust auto-immune phenotype. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pcp/advance-article/doi/10.1093/pcp
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcz057DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Long-term clinical effectiveness of ustekinumab in patients with Crohn's disease who failed biological therapies: a national cohort study.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Ustekinumab (UST) was recently approved in Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). Long-term real-world data are currently scarce in CD patients previously exposed to several biologics.

Methods: This is an observational, national, retrospective multicenter study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz080DOI Listing

Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Comorbidity of Mental Health Problems and Alcohol Use Disorders: Experiences of Clinicians and Patients in the UK and Poland.

Alcohol Alcohol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Studies on Alcohol and Drug Dependence, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland.

Aims: Treatment of patients with comorbidity of mental health problems and alcohol use disorder (AUD) constitutes a challenge in many countries. The article aimed at exploration of personal experiences of clinicians and patients with the comorbidity regarding its assessment, treatment and organization of care in Poland and the UK.

Methods: Data were collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with clinicians (N = 28) and patients (N = 81) in both countries, according to a unified study protocol. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/alcalc/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agz023DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Epidemiology and Antibiogram of Isolated from Waterfowl Slaughterhouses in Taiwan.

J Vet Res 2019 Mar 22;63(1):79-86. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, 60054 Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Introduction: Laryngeal swab samples collected from three waterfowl slaughterhouses in central Taiwan were cultured and suspected isolates of were identified by API 20NE and 16S rDNA PCR.

Material And Methods: Serum agglutination was used for serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested.

Results: Seventy-six isolates were detected, and the prevalences in the ducks and geese were 12. Read More

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https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/jvetres/63/1/artic
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458550PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Prepatterning of caterpillar camouflage is controlled by three homeobox genes: , , and .

Sci Adv 2019 Apr 10;5(4):eaav7569. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Integrated Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan.

Color patterns often function as camouflage to protect insects from predators. In most swallowtail butterflies, younger larvae mimic bird droppings but change their pattern to mimic their host plants during their final molt. This pattern change is determined during the early fourth instar by juvenile hormone (JH-sensitive period), but it remains unclear how the prepatterning process is controlled. Read More

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http://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aav
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav7569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457947PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Influence of starch sources and dietary protein levels on intestinal functionality and intestinal mucosal amino acids catabolism in broiler chickens.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2019 5;10:26. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

1State key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193 People's Republic of China.

Background: There is growing interest in carbohydrate and protein nutrition to enhance the efficiency of animal production. Reduced-crude protein diets depress environmental pollution and feeding cost, but the challenge to their adoption is maintaining digestive function and growth performance of birds. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of different dietary starch sources and protein levels on intestinal functionality and mucosal amino acid catabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-019-0334-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449925PMC

Transcriptome Analyses of Heart and Liver Reveal Novel Pathways for Regulating Songbird Migration.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6058. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Animal Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Many birds undertake long biannual voyages during the night. During these times of the year birds drastically reduce their amount of sleep, yet curiously perform as well on tests of physical and cognitive performance than during non-migrating times of the year. This inherent physiological protection disappears when birds are forced to stay awake at other times of the year; thus these protective changes are only associated with the nocturnal migratory state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41252-8DOI Listing

Optimizing the conservation of migratory species over their full annual cycle.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 15;10(1):1754. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

Limited knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and habitat associations of migratory species hinders effective conservation actions. We use Neotropical migratory birds as a model group to compare approaches to prioritize land conservation needed to support ≥30% of the global abundances of 117 species. Specifically, we compare scenarios from spatial optimization models to achieve conservation targets by: 1) area requirements for conserving >30% abundance of each species for each week of the year independently vs. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09723-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09723-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Characterizing the cultural niches of North American birds.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850;

Efforts to mitigate the current biodiversity crisis require a better understanding of how and why humans value other species. We use Internet query data and citizen science data to characterize public interest in 621 bird species across the United States. We estimate the relative popularity of different birds by quantifying how frequently people use Google to search for species, relative to the rates at which they are encountered in the environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820670116DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A Novel Modified Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) Adsorbent Can Effectively Reduce T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Biochemistry, and Small Intestinal Morphology in Chicks.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a modified hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce the toxicity of T-2 toxin in broilers. Ninety-six one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated into four experimental groups with four replicates of six birds each. The four groups, 1-4, received a basal diet (BD), a BD plus 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040199DOI Listing

Subclade 2.2.1-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize an Epitope in Antigenic Site A of Influenza A(H5) Virus HA Detected between 2015 and 2018.

Viruses 2019 Apr 2;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Highly pathogenic avian H5 influenza viruses persist among poultry and wild birds throughout the world. They sometimes cause interspecies transmission between avian and mammalian hosts. H5 viruses possessing the HA of subclade 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040321DOI Listing

Meat Quality and Sensory Traits of Finisher Broiler Chickens Fed with Black Soldier Fly ( L.) Larvae Fat as Alternative Fat Source.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

At present, there is limited knowledge about the possible utilization of the fat fraction derived from (HI) larvae processing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean oil with HI larvae fat in broiler finisher diet, on the quality and sensory traits of their meat. At 21 days of age, 120 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (5 replicates and 8 birds/pen): a basal control diet (C), and two groups in which either 50% or 100% of the soybean oil was replaced with HI larvae fat (the HI50 and HI100 group, respectively). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9040140DOI Listing
April 2019
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The birds and the bees: do Puerto Rican mothers and daughters talk about sex?

Arch Clin Med Case Rep 2018 9;2(6):190-205. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

UPR School of Medicine-CEMI, San Juan, PR.

Introduction: Effective communication skills that foster responsible sexual decisions are known to have the potential to reduce the risky adolescent sexual behavior. It is well understood that maternal communication is a key element in modifying the adolescent sexual behavior. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore if Puerto Rican mothers of adolescent girls have conversations about sexuality with their daughters and the content of such conversations. Read More

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http://www.fortunejournals.com/articles/pthe-birds-and-the-b
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26502/acmcr.96550043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461385PMC
November 2018
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The importance of stimulus variability when studying face processing using fast periodic visual stimulation: A novel 'mixed-emotions' paradigm.

Cortex 2019 Mar 19;117:182-195. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK. Electronic address:

Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) with oddball stimuli has been used to investigate discrimination of facial identity and emotion, with studies concluding that oddball responses indicate discrimination of faces at the conceptual level (i.e., discrimination of identity and emotion), rather than low-level perceptual (visual, image-based) discrimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.006DOI Listing
March 2019
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Recovery periods during repeated stress impact corticosterone and behavioral responses differently in house sparrows.

Horm Behav 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

A number of studies have shown that chronic stress can negatively impact both physiology and behavior in a variety of organisms. What has yet to be extensively explored is whether these changes permanently alter an animal's functioning, or if they can be reversed. In this study, we used wild-caught house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to assess how recovery periods influence the physiological and behavioral impacts of an initial four days and subsequent four days of repeated stressors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Tracking temporal shifts in area, biomes, and pollinators in the radiation of Salvia (sages) across continents: leveraging anchored hybrid enrichment and targeted sequence data.

Am J Bot 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Premise Of The Study: A key question in evolutionary biology is why some clades are more successful by being widespread geographically, biome diverse, or species-rich. To extend understanding of how shifts in area, biomes, and pollinators impact diversification in plants, we examined the relationships of these shifts to diversification across the mega-genus Salvia.

Methods: A chronogram was developed from a supermatrix of anchored hybrid enrichment genomic data and targeted sequence data for over 500 of the nearly 1000 Salvia species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1268DOI Listing

High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi in racing pigeon flocks in Germany.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(4):e0215241. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi (Coccidia: Eimeriorina: Sarcocystidae) is the causative agent of Pigeon Protozoal Encephalitis (PPE) and infects birds of the orders Columbiformes, Piciformes and Psittaciformes. Accipiter hawks (Aves: Accipitriformes) are the definitive hosts of this parasite. Infections of S. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215241PLOS
April 2019
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Divergence in floral trait preferences between nonflower-specialized birds and insects on the Galápagos.

Am J Bot 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (CSIC-UIB), Global Change Research Group, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain.

Premise Of The Study: The characteristic scarcity of insects on remote oceanic islands has driven nonflower-specialized vertebrates to broaden their trophic niches and explore floral resources. From our previous studies in the Galápagos, we know that native insectivorous and frugivorous birds visit a wide range of entomophilous flowers and can also act as effective pollinators. Here, we tested whether opportunistic Galápagos birds show any preference for specific floral traits, and if so, this preference differs from that of insects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1270DOI Listing

Antimicrobial activity of nest-lining feathers is enhanced by breeding activity in avian nests?

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Departamento de Ecología Funcional y Evolutiva, Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC), Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, E-04120 Almería, Spain.

The use of feathers as nest material has been proposed as a kind of self-medication strategy because antimicrobial-producing microorganisms living on feathers may defend offspring against pathogenic infections. In this case, it is expected that density of antimicrobial-producing bacteria, and their antimicrobial effects, are higher in feathers that line the nests than in eggshells. Moreover, we know that feather pigmentation and breeding activity may influence density and antimicrobial production of bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiz052DOI Listing

CANOMAD Presenting as Bilateral Sixth Nerve Palsies.

J Neuroophthalmol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Departments of Neurology (AGH, SJB) and Ophthalmology (MAT), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000780DOI Listing

Insight Into Dynamics of Gut Microbial Community of Broilers Fed With Fructooligosaccharides Supplemented Low Calcium and Phosphorus Diets.

Front Vet Sci 2019 29;6:95. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

We investigated how the microbiota in the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens fed a diet of low calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) and prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) supplements changed over a 3 weeks period. Three dietary treatments were randomly assigned to four replicate cages of five birds each, including: positive control (PC), a wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diet; negative control (NC), as PC with 0.2% reduced Ca and aP; and NC + FOS, as NC supplemented with 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449842PMC

Anatomical Pathology, Behavioral, and Physiological Responses Induced by Application of Non-penetrating Captive Bolt Devices in Layer Chickens.

Front Vet Sci 2019 28;6:89. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

We evaluated three models of non-penetrating captive bolt devices, Zephyr-E, Zephyr- EXL, and Turkey euthanasia device (TED) for time to loss of sensibility and degree of brain damage during euthanasia in four age groups of male and female layer chickens (10-11, 20-21, 30-35, 60-70 weeks respectively). Latencies to onset of insensibility and cardiac arrest were assessed to detect whether killing birds via these devices was humane and effective. Both gross and microscopic pathology evaluations were conducted to score skull and brain trauma post mortem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447681PMC
March 2019
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Evidence of West Nile virus circulation among humans in central northern Algeria.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 May 8;29:100512. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Laboratoire des Arbovirus et Virus de Fièvres Hémorragiques, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Senegal.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is the most widely distributed flavivirus worldwide. It is a mosquito-borne virus, and birds constitute its natural reservoir. Humans and equines are considered accidental hosts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20522975193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2019.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444287PMC
May 2019
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Neurophysiology of Avian Sleep: Comparing Natural Sleep and Isoflurane Anesthesia.

Front Neurosci 2019 28;13:262. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Avian Sleep Group, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany.

Propagating slow-waves in electroencephalogram (EEG) or local field potential (LFP) recordings occur during non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep in both mammals and birds. Moreover, in both, input from the thalamus is thought to contribute to the genesis of NREM sleep slow-waves. Interestingly, the general features of slow-waves are also found under isoflurane anesthesia. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnins.2019.00262
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447711PMC
March 2019
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The Metabolic Map into the Pathomechanism and Treatment of PGM1-CDG.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Metabolomics Expertise Center, Center for Cancer Biology, VIB Center for Cancer Biology, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Metabolomics Expertise Center, Department of Oncology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) encodes the metabolic enzyme that interconverts glucose-6-P and glucose-1-P. Mutations in PGM1 cause impairment in glycogen metabolism and glycosylation, the latter manifesting as a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). This unique metabolic defect leads to abnormal N-glycan synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus (GA). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00029297193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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