246,911 results match your criteria Bird Conservation International[Journal]


Wax esters of uropygial gland secretion as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in birds exposed to treated sewage water.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 10;250:323-330. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo 12, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain. Electronic address:

The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of birds shows seasonal, sex and age-related variations following sex hormones fluctuations. We explore the use of the composition of the uropygial gland secretion as a non-invasive biomarker of endocrine disruption in 137 common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) from Navaseca Pond, which receives the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, and from the more pristine Tablas de Daimiel National Park in Spain. Wax ester and fatty acid compositions were measured by means gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the uropygial gland secretion of moorhens from both wetlands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.039DOI Listing

Guppies show rapid and lasting inhibition of foraging behaviour.

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

To cope with the variable environment, animals are continuously required to learn novel behaviours or, in certain cases, to inhibit automatic and previously learned behaviours. Traditionally, inhibition has been regarded as cognitively demanding and studied mostly in primates, other mammals and birds, using laboratory tasks, such as the cylinder task. Recent studies have also revealed that fish show high levels of inhibition in the cylinder task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Heterogeneous Matrix Habitat Drives Species Occurrences in Complex, Fragmented Landscapes.

Am Nat 2019 May 12;193(5):748-754. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

A fundamental tenet of modern ecology and conservation science is the fact that species occurrence in habitat patches can be determined by patch area and isolation. But such island biogeographic models often poorly predict actual species occurrences in structurally complex landscapes that typify most ecosystems. Recent advances in circuit theory have enhanced estimates of species dispersal and can provide powerful ways to predict landscape-scale distribution of species assemblages through integration with island biogeography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702589DOI Listing

Higher Nest Predation Favors Rapid Fledging at the Cost of Plumage Quality in Nestling Birds.

Am Nat 2019 May 27;193(5):717-724. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

High predation risk can favor rapid offspring development at the expense of offspring quality. Impacts of rapid development on phenotypic quality should be most readily expressed in traits that minimize fitness costs. We hypothesize that ephemeral traits that are replaced or repaired after a short period of life might express trade-offs in quality as a result of rapid development more strongly than traits used throughout life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702856DOI Listing

Condition-Dependent Begging Elicits Increased Parental Investment in a Wild Bird Population.

Am Nat 2019 May 14;193(5):725-737. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

The coevolution of parental supply and offspring demand has long been thought to involve offspring need driving begging and parental care, leaving other hypotheses underexplored. In a population of wild birds, we experimentally tested whether begging serves as a negatively condition-dependent signal of need or a positively condition-dependent signal of quality. Across multiple years, we supplemented nestling house wrens with food shortly after hatching and simultaneously manipulated corticosterone levels to simulate the hunger-induced increase in glucocorticoids thought to mediate begging. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/702848
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702848DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Contrasting effects of host species and phylogenetic diversity on the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in European wild birds.

J Anim Ecol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, 6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Studies on the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 suggest that wild bird migration may facilitate its long-distance spread, yet the role of wild bird community composition in its transmission risk remains poorly understood. Furthermore, most studies on the diversity-disease relationship focused on host species diversity without considering hosts' phylogenetic relationships, which may lead to rejecting a species diversity effect when the community has host species that are only distantly related. Here, we explored the influence of waterbird community composition for determining HPAI H5N1 occurrence in wild birds in a continental-scale study across Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12997DOI Listing

Micro- and macroparasite species richness in birds: the role of host life history and ecology.

J Anim Ecol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Coastal Systems, and Utrecht University, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands.

1.Identifying the factors shaping variation in parasite diversity among host species is crucial to understand wildlife diseases. Although micro- and macroparasites may exert different selective pressures on their hosts, studies investigating the determinants of parasite species richness in animals have rarely considered this divide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12998DOI Listing

Extending daily feed access intervals does not influence lysine HCl utilization but enhances amino acid digestibilities in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Poultry Research Foundation, The University of Sydney, Camden, 2570 NSW, Australia.

Off-sex, male Ross 308 chickens were offered maize-soy diets without and with 3.5 g/kg lysine monohydrochloride (HCl), which contained 10.0 or 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez200DOI Listing

A model of pre-pubertal broiler breeder estradiol-17β levels predicts advanced sexual maturation for birds with high body weight or short juvenile day-length exposure.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada.

As broiler breeders face increased reproductive challenges specifically related to overfeeding, a clear understanding of the physiological effects of BW and rearing photoperiod on reproductive development is needed. The objective was to use mathematical models to compare plasma estradiol-17β (E2) concentration to characterize the effect of BW and rearing photoperiod on E2 levels. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez224DOI Listing

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 alone or in combination with antibiotic growth promoters improves performance in broilers under enteric pathogen challenge.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Animal Science, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita, Filho", FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo 14884-900, Brazil.

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 as a direct-fed microbial (DFM) alone or in association with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in broilers under enteric pathogen challenge. A total of 1,530-day-old male Cobb500 chicks were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 9 replicate pens with 34 birds each. Treatments included positive control (PC, basal diet without additives or challenge); negative control (NC, basal diet without additive and challenged birds); NC + 0. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez223DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Ongoing Outbreak of Newcastle Disease in Southern California, United States.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Preparedness and Incident Coordination, 4700 River Road, Riverdale, Maryland, 20737.

In May of 2018, a backyard bird owner presented four sick chickens to a private veterinary clinic in Los Angeles County, California. By the following day, all chickens had died. The treating veterinarian sent specimens to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory at U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13208DOI Listing

Increased phagocytosis and growth inhibition of Encephalitozoon cuniculi by LPS-activated J774A.1 murine macrophages.

Parasitol Res 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Inmunología Veterinaria, Campus de Agricultura y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Francisco Villa S/N, Colonia Ex-Hacienda el Canadá, CP 66050, Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico.

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate macrophage parasite of vertebrates that commonly infects rodents, monkeys, dogs, birds, and humans. In the present study, we aimed to assess the phagocytosis and intracellular survival of E. cuniculi spores using untreated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06310-0DOI Listing

Beyond Critical Period Learning: Striatal FoxP2 Affects the Active Maintenance of Learned Vocalizations in Adulthood.

eNeuro 2019 Mar-Apr;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095.

In humans, mutations in the transcription factor forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) result in language disorders associated with altered striatal structure. Like speech, birdsong is learned through social interactions during maturational critical periods, and it relies on auditory feedback during initial learning and on-going maintenance. Hearing loss causes learned vocalizations to deteriorate in adult humans and songbirds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0071-19.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469881PMC

Multilocus Sequence Typing and Population Genetic Analysis of : Host Specificity and Its Impacts on Public Health.

Authors:
Wei Li Lihua Xiao

Front Genet 2019 2;10:307. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Microsporidia comprise a large class of unicellular eukaryotic pathogens that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. There have been nearly 1,500 microsporidian species described thus far, which are variable in biology, genetics, genomics, and host specificity. Among those, is the well-known species responsible for the most recorded cases of human microsporidian affections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454070PMC

Genome Sequence of a Divergent Avian Metapneumovirus from a Monk Parakeet ().

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Apr 18;8(16). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus from a monk parakeet (), identified by metagenomic next-generation sequencing during an investigation into a disease outbreak in a captive parrot breeding facility. Based on divergence from known strains, this sequence represents a new subgroup of avian metapneumovirus. Read More

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http://genomea.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/MRA.00284-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00284-19DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 17;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/8/1390
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081390DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Plant breeding and diversity: A troubled relationship?

Authors:
Niels P Louwaars

Euphytica 2018 19;214(7):114. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Plantum, Netherlands Association for Plant Reproductive Materials, Gouda, The Netherlands.

Plant breeding collects, induces and rearranges genetic diversity followed by selection. Breeding may contribute to diversity in farmers' fields or significantly reduce it. History has numerous examples of both. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10681-018-2192-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434984PMC

Trophic transfer of cyclic methyl siloxanes in the marine food web in the Bohai Sea, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 15;178:86-93. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

International Joint Research Centre for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, 116026, China. Electronic address:

Trophic transfer of cyclic methyl siloxanes (CMS) in aquatic ecosystems is an important criterion for assessing its environmental risks. This study researched the trophic transfer of four CMS (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D), and tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D)) in marine food web from zooplankton up to seabirds in the Chinese Bohai Sea. In the zooplankton-invertebrate-fish-seabird based food web, the significant trophic magnifications were found for D to D (D: R = 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.034DOI Listing

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of IFIT5 in tissues of ducklings infected with virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 3.

Res Vet Sci 2019 Apr 8;124:256-262. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang Province, PR China; Northeastern Science Inspection Station, China Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Pathogen Biology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are a family of proteins strongly induced downstream of type I interferon signaling. The function of IFITs has been investigated extensively in mammals. IFIT5 is the sole protein in this family found in birds and little information is available about the function of avian IFIT5. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00345288183132
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Managing small, highly prolific invasive aquatic species: Exploring an ecosystem approach for the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 6;673:594-604. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Research in Biodiversity (IRBio-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Integrative Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Sevilla, Spain.

Invasive exotic species threaten native biodiversity worldwide and their management is on the agenda of an increasing number of countries. We explored the potential of an ecosystem approach for the natural control of Gambusia holbrooki, which is among the most pernicious and widely distributed fish invaders. Individual-based linear mixed models were used to identify the ecosystem factors (conspecific density, environment and piscivorous birds) that most influenced life-history variation in male and female G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.460DOI Listing

Parallel sequencing of porA reveals a complex pattern of Campylobacter genotypes that differs between broiler and broiler breeder chickens.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6204. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK.

Chicken meat represents an important source of Campylobacter infections of humans world-wide. A better understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in commercial chicken flocks will facilitate the development of more effective intervention strategies. We developed a gene-specific parallel sequencing approach that efficiently indicated genetic diversity in farm-derived samples and revealed Campylobacter genotypes that would not be detected using microbiological culture. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42207-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42207-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Aerosol Transmission of Gull-Origin Iceland Subtype H10N7 Influenza A Virus in Ferrets.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Basic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi, United States

Subtype H10 influenza A viruses (IAVs) have been recovered from domestic poultry and various aquatic bird species, and sporadic transmission of these IAVs from avian species to mammals (i.e., human, seal, and mink) are well documented. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00282-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00282-19DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Nutritional evaluation of two barley cultivars, without and with carbohydrase supplementation, for broilers: Metabolisable energy and standardised amino acid digestibility.

Br Poult Sci 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

b Institute of Food Science and Technology, Massey University , Palmerston North 4442 , New Zealand.

Two experiments were conducted to assess the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn; Exp. 1; 288 Ross 308 male broilers at d 14; 36 cages with eight birds each) and coefficient of standardised ileal digestibility (CSID) of amino acids (AA; Exp. 2; 336 Ross 308 male broilers at d 21; 42 cages with eight birds each) of two barley cultivars for broilers in comparison to wheat, without or with a multi-component non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzyme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2019.1605151DOI Listing

Incidence and Recovery of Salmonellae and Other Bacteria from Commercially Processed Poultry Carcasses at Selected Pre- and Post-Evisceration Steps.

Authors:
H S Lillard

J Food Prot 1989 Feb;52(2):88-91

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, P. O. BOX 5677, Athens, GA 30613.

This study was undertaken to determine whether bacteria are already attached to poultry skin when birds arrive at the processing plant. Multiple rinses were performed on breast skin and whole carcasses taken from five processing points in a commercial plant: Before scalding, after scalding, after picking, after the final washer, and from the exit end of the chiller. Aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from carcasses in up to 40 consecutive whole carcass rinses with a difference of only about one log for Enterobacteriaceae , and 1 to 2 logs for aerobes from the first to the last rinse of carcasses taken from the beginning and the end of the processing line. Read More

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http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/abs/10.4315/0362-028X-52.2.88
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.2.88DOI Listing
February 1989
1 Read

Effect of pelleting and different feeding programs on growth performance, carcass yield, and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80035-050, Brazil.

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different feeding programs and pelleting on performance, nutrient digestibility, ileal digestible energy (IDE); and carcass yield of broilers from 21 to 35 d of age. In total, 768 male broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 8 replicates of 16 birds each. The treatments were mash and pelleted diets provided ad libitum, or pelleted and supplied at the same rate (100%) or restricted at 95, 90, and 85% (P100, P95, P90, and P85) of the amount consumed by the birds fed mash diet ad libitum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez176DOI Listing

The influence of indigestible protein on the performance and meat quality of broilers vaccinated for coccidiosis.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5A8, Canada.

High dietary protein and the use of poorly digested protein sources have been suggested to negatively impact broiler health, possibly because of protein fermentation in the distal intestinal tract. The effect of dietary protein levels with low or high indigestible protein fractions (LIP or HIP) on male and female broiler performance were evaluated. The trial was completely randomized with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, where gender, dietary protein levels (24, 26, and 28%), and dietary protein digestible fractions were the main factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez216DOI Listing

Effect of low protein diets supplemented with free amino acids on growth performance, slaughter yield, litter quality, and footpad lesions of male broilers.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Wageningen Livestock Research, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.

A study with 884 Ross 308 male broilers, housed in 68 floor pens (0.75 m2) from 0 to 35 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effects of low crude protein (CP) diets, with partial replacement of soybean meal by free amino acids (AA), on performance, slaughter yields, litter quality and footpad lesions. During the first 11 d, all broilers received the same control starter diet (216 g/kg CP, 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez229DOI Listing

Effects of water supplementation of an organic acid-trace mineral complex on production and slaughter parameters, intestinal histomorphology, and macronutrient digestibility in growing ostriches.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Company, Tehran 14159-4-4341, Iran.

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of water supplementation of organic acid-chelated trace minerals (OTM) on production traits, carcass characteristics, intestinal histomorphology, and nutrient digestibility in African ostrich chicks from 8 to 12 mo of age. A total of 20 growing ostriches, with almost similar body weight (73.4 to 75. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez221DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of dietary energy and protein content and lipid source on growth performance and carcass traits in Pekin ducks.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, PR China.

The present study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary energy and protein concentrations and lipid sources on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks. In Exp. 1, 15-day-old ducks (6 replicate pens, 60 ducks/pen) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with different metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) concentrations (2,850 kcal/kg and 16%, 2,950 kcal/kg and 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez217DOI Listing

An assessment of climate change vulnerability for Important Bird Areas in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Arc.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214573. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America.

Recently available downscaled ocean climate models for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Arc offer the opportunity to assess climate vulnerability for upper trophic level consumers such as marine birds. We analyzed seasonal and annual spatial projections from three climate models for two physical climate variables (seawater temperature and sea ice) and three forage variables (large copepods, euphausiids, and benthic infauna), comparing projected conditions from a recent time period (2003-2012) to a future time period (2030-2039). We focused the analyses on core areas within globally significant Important Bird Areas, and developed indices of the magnitude of projected change and vulnerability agreement among models. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214573PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Neotropical cloud forests and páramo to contract and dry from declines in cloud immersion and frost.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213155. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Clouds persistently engulf many tropical mountains at elevations cool enough for clouds to form, creating isolated areas with frequent fog and mist. Under these isolated conditions, thousands of unique species have evolved in what are known as tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) and páramo. Páramo comprises a set of alpine ecosystems that occur above TMCF from about 11° N to 9° S along the Americas continental divide. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213155PLOS

On-farm broiler chicken welfare assessment using transect sampling reflects environmental inputs and production outcomes.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214070. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.

To evaluate the utility of transect sampling for assessing animal welfare in large chicken flocks, we quantified relationships between environmental inputs, welfare problems detected using transect sampling, and production outcomes. We hypothesised that environmental inputs including environmental complexity (i.e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214070PLOS

Rapid morphological change of non-native frugivores on the Hawaiian island of O'ahu.

Evolution 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Novel ecosystems have become widespread created, in part, by the global spread of species. The non-native species in these environments can be under intense evolutionary pressures that cause rapid morphological change, which can then influence species interactions. In Hawai'i, much of the native frugivore community is extinct, replaced by non-native bird species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13744DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit by wildlife: implications for conservation and management of the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180537. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Rodovia Admar Gonzaga, 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

This study aimed to measure the wildlife consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit and use this data to discuss management possibilities. To estimate infructescence fruit volume consumed, collectors were installed in fruit-bearing palms. To characterize consumption from the ground, samples were placed next to fruiting palms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180537DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Influences of dietary crude protein and stocking density on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180479. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Thirty-six African Black ostrich chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (180, 210 and 240 g/kg), stocking density (4.5 and 3 m2/bird) and their interactions. A factorial arrangement was used to examine the impact of treatments on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks during 2 to 10 weeks of the age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180479DOI Listing

The sandwich structure of keratinous layers controls the form and growth orientation of chicken rhinotheca.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nagoya University Museum, Nagoya, Japan.

The upper beak bone of birds is known to be overlain by the rhinotheca, which is composed of the horny sheath of keratinous layers. However, the details of the structure and growth pattern of the rhinotheca are yet to be understood. In this study, the microstructure of the rhinotheca from chicken specimens of different growth stages (ranging from 1 to ~ 80 days old) was analyzed using a combination of thin section and scanning electron microscopy observations, and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/joa.12998
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12998DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Comparing erosion and organ accumulation rates of lead and alternative lead-free ammunition fed to captive domestic ducks.

Ambio 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Animal Nutrition (ITE), Bundesallee 37, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany.

Lead poisoning of birds of prey from ingestion of ammunition lead has been well documented. Alternative, lead-free ammunition is widely available, but the toxicokinetics of other metals in birds are poorly understood. We tested the erosion of lead, copper, zinc, iron and brass by feeding domestic Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica) defined numbers of small metal pellets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01183-0DOI Listing

Callous-Unemotional Traits and Academic Performance in Secondary School Students: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, UCL Institute of Education, University College London, 20 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AL, UK.

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and male gender are both known risk factors for poor academic outcomes in children and adolescents. However, despite gender differences in CU trait severity, comorbid difficulties and correlates of CU traits, research has yet to examine whether the CU traits and male gender may work together to increase risk for poor academic performance. That is, whether boys high in CU traits perform more poorly across academic disciplines than girls high in these traits. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10802-019-00545-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00545-2DOI Listing
April 2019
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Immunosuppressive potential of fowl adenovirus serotype 4.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong Province 271018, China.

Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome. To clarify the effects of FAdV-4 on immune organs in birds, we conducted a detailed examination of dynamic morphology and damage mechanisms in chickens randomly divided into 4 groups (FAdV-4, vaccination, FAdV-4 plus vaccination, and control). FAdV-4 caused the depletion of lymphocytes and subsequent growth impairment in the thymus and bursa. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez179DOI Listing
April 2019
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Different dietary trace mineral sources for broiler breeders and their progenies.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Animal Science, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different trace mineral supplementation sources in the diet of broiler breeders on their performance and on their progenies. In total, 128 Cobb 500 broiler breeders were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in 2 experimental treatments. The control group was fed a diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (ITM), while the other group was fed a diet supplemented with reduced levels of trace minerals in the organic form. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez182DOI Listing
April 2019
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Age-related arabinoxylan hydrolysis and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed wheat-based diets.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M²S), KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Endoxylanases are frequently used in cereal-based broiler feeds to improve the nutritional quality of the feed. It is hypothesized that the age of broilers and the age-related development of their intestinal microbiota influence the efficacy of these enzymes. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify possible age-related changes in arabinoxylan (AX) digestion in the different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of broilers. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez159DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fracture of the Bare Spring of a Thoracic Endograft for Type A Aortic Dissection: A Case Report.

Vasc Specialist Int 2019 Mar;35(1):39-43

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Retrograde type A aortic dissection (RTAD) following thoracic endovascular aortic repair is a devastating complication associated with high mortality rates. In particular, a deployed endograft in a bird-beak formation in an acute curve of the aortic arch can induce injury to the fragile aortic wall, with the subsequent development of RTAD. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of RTAD caused by fracture of the bare spring of the thoracic endograft for type A aortic dissection. Read More

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http://www.vsijournal.org/journal/DOIx.php?id=10.5758/vsi.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5758/vsi.2019.35.1.39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453602PMC
March 2019
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Extending r/K selection with a maternal risk-management model that classifies animal species into divergent natural selection categories.

Authors:
Deby L Cassill

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, USF St. Petersburg, St, Petersburg, Florida, 33701, USA.

Reproduction is a defining process of biological systems. Every generation, across all species, breeding females repopulate ecosystems with offspring. r/K selection was the first theory to classify animal species by linking the rates with which breeding females repopulated ecosystems, to the stability of ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42562-7DOI Listing

Duck production systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 in France, 2016-2017.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6177. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, Toulouse, France.

In winter 2016-2017, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus spread across Europe, causing unprecedented epizootics. France was massively affected, resulting in the culling of over 6 million poultry. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were used to quantify the association between spatial risk factors and HPAI H5N8 infection in poultry holdings and to generate predictive maps for HPAI infection. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42607-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42607-xDOI Listing
April 2019
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Sexual selection predicts the rate and direction of colour divergence in a large avian radiation.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 16;10(1):1773. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.

Sexual selection is proposed to be a powerful driver of phenotypic evolution in animal systems. At macroevolutionary scales, sexual selection can theoretically drive both the rate and direction of phenotypic evolution, but this hypothesis remains contentious. Here, we find that differences in the rate and direction of plumage colour evolution are predicted by a proxy for sexual selection intensity (plumage dichromatism) in a large radiation of suboscine passerine birds (Tyrannida). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09859-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467902PMC

Uncultured Microbial Phyla Suggest Mechanisms for Multi-Thousand-Year Subsistence in Baltic Sea Sediments.

MBio 2019 Apr 16;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

Energy-starved microbes in deep marine sediments subsist at near-zero growth for thousands of years, yet the mechanisms for their subsistence are unknown because no model strains have been cultivated from most of these groups. We investigated Baltic Sea sediments with single-cell genomics, metabolomics, metatranscriptomics, and enzyme assays to identify possible subsistence mechanisms employed by uncultured , , group OPB41, , , , , , and marine group II lineages. Some functions appeared to be shared by multiple lineages, such as trehalose production and NAD-consuming deacetylation, both of which have been shown to increase cellular life spans in other organisms by stabilizing proteins and nucleic acids, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02376-18DOI Listing

Avian functional responses to landscape recovery.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Apr;286(1901):20190114

1 Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University , Frank Fenner Building 141, Linnaeus Way, Acton ACT 2601 , Australia.

Restoring native vegetation in agricultural landscapes can reverse biodiversity declines via species gains. Depending on whether the traits of colonizers are complementary or redundant to the assemblage, species gains can increase the efficiency or stability of ecological functions, yet detecting these processes is not straightforward. We propose a new conceptual model to identify potential changes to complementarity and redundancy in response to landscape change via relative changes in taxonomic and functional richness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0114DOI Listing

Signal complexity communicates aggressive intent during contests, but the process is disrupted by noise.

Biol Lett 2019 Apr;15(4):20180841

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast , 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL , UK.

Contestants use displays to signal their aggressive intent and settle disputes before they escalate. For birds, this is often in the form of song, which can vary in structural complexity. The role of song complexity in signalling aggressive intent has not been fully established, and its efficacy could be influenced by background noise levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0841DOI Listing

A real-time road detection method based on reorganized lidar data.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(4):e0215159. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Road Detection is a basic task in automated driving field, in which 3D lidar data is commonly used recently. In this paper, we propose to rearrange 3D lidar data into a new organized form to construct direct spatial relationship among point cloud, and put forward new features for real-time road detection tasks. Our model works based on two prerequisites: (1) Road regions are always flatter than non-road regions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215159PLOS
April 2019
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A chimeric IDD4 repressor constitutively induces immunity in Arabidopsis via the modulation of salicylic- and jasmonic acid homeostasis.

Plant Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Desert Agriculture, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD)/BIRD proteins belong to a highly-conserved plant-specific group of transcription factors with dedicated functions in plant physiology and development. Here, we took advantage of the chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T, SRDX) to widen our view on the role of IDD4/IMPERIAL EAGLE and IDD family members in plant immunity. The hypomorphic idd4SRDX lines are compromised in growth and show a robust auto-immune phenotype. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pcp/advance-article/doi/10.1093/pcp
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcz057DOI Listing
April 2019
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