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    Are patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder more neurocognitively impaired?
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    ADHD Program, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Objective: Research on neurocognitive impairment in adult patients with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very scarce. This study assessed the neurocognitive profile of a comorbid group (BD+ADHD) compared with that of pure BD (pBD) group, pure ADHD (pADHD) group and healthy controls (HCs).

    Methods: This was a three-site study comprising 229 subjects: 70 patients with pBD, 23 with BD+ADHD, 50 with pADHD, and 86 HCs. Read More

    Equivalent linear change in cognition between individuals with bipolar disorder and healthy controls over 5 years.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD). However, not much is known about its temporal stability, as some studies have demonstrated a neurodegenerative model in BD while others have shown no change in cognitive functioning over time. Building upon our prior work, which examined the natural course of executive functioning, the current study aimed to investigate the natural course of memory, emotion processing, and fine motor dexterity over a 5-year period in BD and healthy control (HC) samples. Read More

    Systemic challenges in bipolar disorder management: A patient-centered approach.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Center for Global Health, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
    Objectives: As part of a series of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded large-scale retrospective observational studies on bipolar disorder (BD) treatments and outcomes, we sought the input of patients with BD and their family members to develop research questions. We aimed to identify systemic root causes of patient-reported challenges with BD management in order to guide subsequent studies and initiatives.

    Methods: Three focus groups were conducted where patients and their family members (total n = 34) formulated questions around the central theme, "What do you wish you had known in advance or over the course of treatment for BD?" In an affinity mapping exercise, participants clustered their questions and ranked the resulting categories by importance. Read More

    Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Objectives: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder.

    Methods: The task force was launched in September 2016, consisting of 18 international experts from nine countries. A series of methodological issues were identified based on literature review and expert opinion. Read More

    Lithium reduces the span of G protein-activated K(+) (GIRK) channel inhibition in hippocampal neurons.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Objectives: Lithium (Li(+) ) is one of the most widely used treatments for bipolar disorder (BD). However, the molecular and neuronal basis of BD, as well as the mechanisms of Li(+) actions are poorly understood. Cellular and biochemical studies identified G proteins as being among the cellular targets for Li(+) action, while genetic studies indicated an association with the KCNJ3 gene, which encodes the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels. Read More

    Relationships between corpus callosum and language lateralization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Service de Psychiatrie, CHU de Caen, Caen, France.
    Objectives: The question of whether there is a continuum or a dichotomy among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorders (BD) has not been clearly resolved and remains a challenge. Thus, the identification of specific biomarkers of these disorders might be helpful. The present study investigated the volume of the corpus callosum (CC) and functional lateralization for language as potential biomarkers and their relationships in SZ and BD. Read More

    Psychosis in bipolar disorder: Does it represent a more "severe" illness?
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Objectives: Although there is a common clinical assumption that bipolar disorder with psychotic features reflects greater severity than bipolar disorder without psychosis, the existing empirical literature is mixed. This study investigated the phenomenology of psychosis as well as demographic, clinical, functional, and neuropsychological features in a large, cross-sectional sample of participants with bipolar disorder divided by history of psychosis.

    Methods: In a large single study, 168 affective-only bipolar disorder (BP-A) participants and 213 bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (BP-P) participants completed a comprehensive clinical diagnostic interview and neuropsychological testing. Read More

    Biochemical and genetic predictors and correlates of response to lamotrigine and folic acid in bipolar depression: Analysis of the CEQUEL clinical trial.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 20. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Objectives: CEQUEL (Comparative Evaluation of QUEtiapine plus Lamotrigine combination versus quetiapine monotherapy [and folic acid versus placebo] in bipolar depression) was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 2×2 factorial trial that examined the effect of adding lamotrigine and/or folic acid (FA) to quetiapine in bipolar depression. Lamotrigine improved depression, but its effectiveness was reduced by FA. We investigated the baseline predictors and correlates of clinical response, and the possible basis of the interaction. Read More

    Total sleep time and kynurenine metabolism associated with mood symptom severity in bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Psychiatry, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.
    Objective: Chronic, low-level inflammation is associated with symptomatic bipolar disorder (BD) and with chronic insomnia. Disrupted sleep is a feature of episodes of both mania and depression. We examined the effect of neopterin, a marker of cellular immune activation, and kynurenine (KYN), an inflammatory byproduct of the serotonin pathway, on the association between total sleep time and depression severity in BD. Read More

    Cortical inhibition in symptomatic and remitted mania compared to healthy subjects: A cross-sectional study.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-derived cortical reactivity studies provide a unique opportunity to non-invasively study gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission in bipolar disorder (BD). Earlier studies were conducted in smaller samples and on patients who were on medications that can potentially confound the results. We aimed to study short-interval (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) in medication-naïve/free symptomatic (manic) BD patients (n=39), first episode mania (FEM) patients who had recently (≤6 months) remitted with treatment (remitted FEM; n = 28) and healthy subjects (HSs; n = 45). Read More

    Characterizing the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations and accompanying delusions in individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder: A systematic review.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to inform ongoing attempts to identify clinically meaningful subcategories of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), and to evaluate evidence that might pertain to the suitability of current psychological interventions for people with bipolar disorder (BD) who experience psychotic symptoms.

    Methods: A comprehensive synthesis of findings on the phenomenology of AVH and delusions in BD is included, alongside a critical review of clinical and cognitive correlates. Studies published in the previous 20 years, until December 2016, were retrieved from the following databases: Embase, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Read More

    White matter tract integrity is associated with antidepressant response to lurasidone in bipolar depression.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.
    Objectives: Patients with bipolar disorder spend the most time in the depressed phase, and that phase is associated with the most morbidity and mortality. Treatment of bipolar depression lacks a test to determine who will respond to treatment. White matter disruptions have been found in bipolar disorder. Read More

    Menopause and illness course in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Clinical and Health Psychology Research Initiative (CaHPRI), School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: Menopause may be a time of increased mood symptoms for some women. This systematic review aimed to examine the severity of symptoms and prevalence of mood changes in women with bipolar disorder during peri-menopause and post-menopause.

    Methods: A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

    Differential failure to deactivate the default mode network in unipolar and bipolar depression.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 17;19(5):386-395. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.
    Objectives: Neuroimaging studies have revealed evidence of brain functional abnormalities in bipolar depressive disorder (BDD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies to date have compared these two mood disorders directly.

    Methods: Matched groups of 26 BDD type I patients, 26 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the n-back working memory task. Read More

    Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 17;19(5):324-335. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Department O and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectives: For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder.

    Methods: A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. Read More

    Evidence that eye-movement profiles do not explain slow binocular rivalry rate in bipolar disorder: support for a perceptual endophenotype.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Monash University Central Clinical School and The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    Objectives: Presenting conflicting images simultaneously, one to each eye, produces perceptual alternations known as binocular rivalry (BR). Slow BR rate has been proposed as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder (BD) for use in large-scale genome-wide association studies. However, the trait could conceivably reflect eye movement (EM) dysfunction in BD rather than anomalous perceptual processing per se. Read More

    Phenotypical characteristics of postpartum psychosis: A clinical cohort study.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: Postpartum psychosis (PP) is known for its clear onset but its phenotype has never been clearly described in a cohort. The aim of this study was to describe PP symptomatology, and to identify subgroups of patients based on symptom profiles.

    Methods: We prospectively assessed a wide range of symptoms in cases of PP in a cohort of women (N=130) admitted to the Mother-Baby inpatient unit. Read More

    Amygdala and hippocampus volumes are differently affected by childhood trauma in patients with bipolar disorders and healthy controls.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 12;19(5):353-362. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, Rome, Italy.
    Objectives: Volumetric studies on deep gray matter structures in bipolar disorder (BP) have reported contrasting results. Childhood trauma, a relevant environmental stressor for BP, could account for the variability of the results, modulating differences in the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with BP compared with healthy controls (HC). Our study aimed to test this hypothesis. Read More

    Impact of childhood trauma on cognitive profile in bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 10;19(5):363-374. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Bipolar Disorder Unit, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Objectives: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive impairment even during remission periods. Nonetheless, this impairment seems to adjust to different profiles of severity. Our aim was to examine the potential impact of childhood trauma (CT) on cognitive performance and, more specifically, on neurocognitive profile membership. Read More

    Cognitive function, treatment response to lithium, and social functioning in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Biological Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.
    Objectives: Patients with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairment that significantly influences their functional outcome. However, it remains unknown whether lithium has a central role in cognition and functional outcome. We examined whether cognition and functional outcome were predicted by demographic and clinical variables, including the response to lithium, in lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder. Read More

    Obesity in patients with major depression is related to bipolarity and mixed features: evidence from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Objectives: The Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE)-II-Mix study aimed to estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to different definitions. The present post-hoc analysis evaluated the association between obesity and the presence of mixed features and bipolarity.

    Methods: A total of 2811 MDE subjects were enrolled in a multicenter cross-sectional study. Read More

    An epidemiological profile of bipolar disorder among older adults with complex needs: A national cross-sectional study.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 5;19(5):375-385. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Objectives: Research on bipolar disorder (BD) among community-living older adults is scant and often suffers from important methodological limitations. Using a national database, this study presents an epidemiological profile of BD in older community residents within New Zealand.

    Methods: Since 2012, all New Zealand community care recipients have undergone a standardized needs assessment using the Home Care International Residential Assessment Instrument (interRAI-HC). Read More

    Mood symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women with bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 30;19(4):295-304. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Objective: We conducted a prospective naturalistic study of pregnant women with bipolar disorder (BD) to evaluate symptoms of BD across childbearing and assess whether pharmacotherapy reduced their severity.

    Methods: Assessments were scheduled at 20, 30, and 36 weeks' gestation and 2, 12, 26, and 52 weeks postpartum. Symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Atypical Depression Supplement (SIGH-ADS) and Mania Rating Scale (MRS). Read More

    Longitudinal cognitive trajectories and associated clinical variables in youth with bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 27;19(4):273-284. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Objective: There is substantial interest in delineating the course of cognitive functioning in bipolar (BP) youth. However, there are no longitudinal studies aimed at defining subgroups of BP youth based on their distinctive cognitive trajectories and their associated clinical variables.

    Method: Cognitive functioning was measured in 135 participants from the Course and Outcome of BP Youth (COBY) study using several subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Read More

    Characteristics of depression among offspring at high and low familial risk of bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 14;19(5):344-352. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Objectives: Having a parent with bipolar disorder (BP) is a very strong risk factor for developing BP. Similarly, depression among youth is a clinical risk factor for subsequent BP. We evaluated whether mood symptomatology in depressed youth is different between those at high and low familial risk to develop BP. Read More

    Lithium ameliorates sleep deprivation-induced mania-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations, oxidative stress and elevations of cytokine concentrations in the brain and serum of mice.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 14;19(4):246-258. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, Brazil.
    Objectives: The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of lithium administration on behavior, oxidative stress parameters and cytokine levels in the periphery and brain of mice subjected to an animal model of mania induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD).

    Methods: Male C57 mice were treated with saline or lithium for 7 days. The sleep deprivation protocol started on the 5th day during for the last 36 hours of the treatment period. Read More

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and risperidone-controlled study on valnoctamide for acute mania.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 12;19(4):285-294. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Objectives: Mood stabilizers administered for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, such as valproic acid, can increase the risk of congenital anomalies in offspring. Valnoctamide is a valproic acid derivative associated with a decreased risk for congenital abnormalities in animals. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valnoctamide monotherapy, compared to placebo, in the treatment of patients in an acute manic episode. Read More

    A pilot, open-label, 8-week study evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of adjunctive minocycline for the treatment of bipolar I/II depression.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 May;19(3):198-213
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine if adjunctive minocycline mitigates depressive symptom severity and improves cognitive function in individuals with bipolar I/II disorder (BD). The study also aimed to determine if changes in depressive and/or cognitive symptoms over the course of treatment were associated with changes in circulating inflammatory cytokine levels.

    Methods: A total of 29 (intention-to-treat: n=27) adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode as part of bipolar I or II disorder (i. Read More

    Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark.
    Objectives: An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. Read More

    Twenty-year progression of body mass index in a county-wide cohort of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder identified at their first episode of psychosis.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 2;19(5):336-343. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
    Objective: There is an increased prevalence of obesity in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, leading to a disproportionate risk of adverse health conditions. Prospective, long-term weight gain data, however, are scarce.

    Methods: We analyzed data from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort of consecutive first admissions with psychosis recruited from September 1989 to December 1995 and subsequently followed for 20 years, focusing on people with schizophrenia (n=146) and bipolar disorder (n=87). Read More

    Prediction of lithium response in first-episode mania using the LITHium Intelligent Agent (LITHIA): Pilot data and proof-of-concept.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 2;19(4):259-272. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Objectives: Individualized treatment for bipolar disorder based on neuroimaging treatment targets remains elusive. To address this shortcoming, we developed a linguistic machine learning system based on a cascading genetic fuzzy tree (GFT) design called the LITHium Intelligent Agent (LITHIA). Using multiple objectively defined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) inputs, we tested whether LITHIA could accurately predict the lithium response in participants with first-episode bipolar mania. Read More

    Similar familial underpinnings for full and subsyndromal pediatric bipolar disorder: A familial risk analysis.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 May 22;19(3):168-175. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objectives: To examine the validity of subthreshold pediatric bipolar I disorder (BP-I), we compared the familial risk for BP-I in the child probands who had either full BP-I, subthreshold BP-I, ADHD, or were controls that neither had ADHD nor bipolar disorder.

    Methods: BP-I probands were youth aged 6-17 years meeting criteria for BP-I, full (N=239) or subthreshold (N=43), and also included were their first-degree relatives (N=687 and N=120, respectively). Comparators were youth with ADHD (N=162), controls without ADHD or bipolar disorder (N=136), and their first-degree relatives (N=511 and N=411, respectively). Read More

    Psychiatric and physical comorbidities and their impact on the course of bipolar disorder: A prospective, naturalistic 4-year follow-up study.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 May 22;19(3):225-234. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Bipolar Center Wiener Neustadt, Wiener Neustadt, Vienna, Austria.
    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to increase the available evidence on how physical and psychiatric comorbidities influence the long-term outcome in bipolar I and II disorder.

    Methods: We examined the prevalence of comorbid physical (metabolic, cardiovascular, thyroid, and neurological) diseases and psychiatric (neurotic, stress-related, somatoform, and personality) disorders and their impact on the risk of relapse in bipolar disorder. A total of 284 consecutively admitted patients with ICD-10 bipolar I (n=161) and II (n=123) disorder were followed up naturalistically over a period of 4 years. Read More

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 May 23;19(3):214-224. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Copenhagen Affective Disorder Research Centre, Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark.
    Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD. Read More

    Association between the zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene and the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder across diagnostic boundaries.
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Jun 22;19(4):305-313. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Psychiatry, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the role of genetic variations within the zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene, a candidate for a psychosis risk-conferring gene, in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) in the Korean population.

    Methods: A total of 921 patients with SZ, bipolar I (BP-I) and II (BP-II) disorder, and 502 control subjects participated in the study. Twenty-one tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genomic region of ZNF804A and seven reference SNPs based on previous reports were genotyped. Read More

    Is a delay in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder inevitable?
    Bipolar Disord 2017 Aug 22;19(5):396-400. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Academic Department of Psychiatry, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.
    Objective: A diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) is often preceded by an initial diagnosis of depression, creating a delay in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of BD. Although previous research has focused on predictors of a diagnosis change from depression to BD, the research on this delay in diagnosis is sparse. Therefore, the present study examined the time taken to make a BD diagnosis following an initial diagnosis of major depressive disorder in order to further understand the patient characteristics and psychological factors that may explain this delay. Read More

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