Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1-5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:
Quantitative analysis of metabolism has been used to identify driver reactions occurring during cancer development and bottleneck reactions in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms. In this review, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of various metabolic analysis methods. We emphasize that metabolic flux analysis based on material balance is a critical method for quantitative investigations into cell metabolism. Read More
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia; The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 220, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:
Kinetic models are critical to predict the dynamic behaviour of metabolic networks. Mechanistic kinetic models for large networks remain uncommon due to the difficulty of fitting their parameters. Recent modelling frameworks promise new ways to overcome this obstacle while retaining predictive capabilities. Read More
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Read More
Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. Read More
Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering (Ministry of Education), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China; SynBio Research Platform, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:
Microbial production of monoterpenes is often limited by their cytotoxicity and in vivo conversion. Therefore, alleviating cytotoxicity and reducing conversion by chassis engineering are highly desirable. On the other hand, engineering key enzymes is also critical for improving monoterpenes production through facilitating the biosynthesis process. Read More
Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Read More
Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Read More
One of the unmet challenges in nanotechnology is to understand and establish the relationship between physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and its biological interactions (bio-nano interactions). However, we are still far from assessing the biofate of NPs in a clear and unquestionable manner. Recent developments in the area of bio-nano interface and the understanding of protein corona (PC) has brought new insight in predicting biological interactions of NPs. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 19;35(7):867-888. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar, Sweden. Electronic address:
The cytoskeletal filaments are self-assembled protein polymers with 8-25nm diameters and up to several tens of micrometres length. They have a range of pivotal roles in eukaryotic cells, including transportation of intracellular cargoes (primarily microtubules with dynein and kinesin motors) and cell motility (primarily actin and myosin) where muscle contraction is one example. For two decades, the cytoskeletal filaments and their associated motor systems have been explored for nanotechnological applications including miniaturized sensor systems and lab-on-a-chip devices. Read More
Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 3;35(6):657-668. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università degli Studi deII'Insubria, via J. H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy; The Protein Factory, Centro Interuniversitario di Biotecnologie Proteiche, Politecnico di Milano and Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Varese, Italy. Electronic address:
Enantiomerically pure amino acids are of increasing interest for the fine chemical, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical industries. During past years l-amino acids have been produced from deracemization of dl-solution employing the stereoselective flavoenzyme d-amino acid oxidase. On the other hand, the isolation of corresponding d-isomer was hampered by the scarce availability of a suitable l-amino acid oxidase activity. Read More
Weaving is a resourceful technology which offers a large selection of solutions that are readily adaptable for tissue engineering (TE) of artificial heart valves (HV). The different ways that the yarns are interlaced in this technique could be used to produce complex architectures, such as the three-layer architecture of the leaflets. Once the assembly is complete, growth of cells in the scaffold would occur in the orientation of the yarn, enabling the deposition of extra cellular matrixes proteins in an oriented manner. Read More
The discovery of direct extracellular electron transfer offers an alternative to the traditional understanding of diffusional electron exchange via small molecules. The establishment of electronic connections between electron donors and acceptors in microbial communities is critical to electron transfer via electrical currents. These connections are facilitated through conductivity associated with various microbial aggregates. Read More
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is firmly established as a host for the production of recombinant proteins, frequently outperforming other heterologous hosts. Already, a sizeable amount of systems biology knowledge has been acquired for this non-conventional yeast. By applying various omics-technologies, productivity features have been thoroughly analyzed and optimized via genetic engineering. Read More
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in marine animals are different to those of terrestrial organisms, mainly in terms of molecular weight and sulfation. The therapeutic properties of GAGs are related to their ability to interact with proteins, which is very much influenced by sulfation position and patterns. Since currently GAGs cannot be chemically synthesized, they are sourced from natural products, with high intra- but also inter-species variability, in terms of chain length, disaccharide composition and sulfation pattern. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 21;35(6):726-750. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
Institute of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, Department of Wood, Pulp and Paper, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, Bratislava SK-812 37, Slovakia.
Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Read More
Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) which is one of the most common photodermatoses has been demonstrated to be immune-mediated disorder. Resistance to UV-induced immunosuppression resulting from differential immune cells infiltration and cytokines secretion has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of PLE. In this study, we reviewed differential patterns of immune cells infiltrations and cytokines secretion that may contribute to PLE occurrence and development. Read More
McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 200 E Dean Keeton St. Stop C0400, Austin, TX 78712, United States; Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 2500 Speedway Avenue, Austin, TX 78712, United States. Electronic address:
Within the Design-Build-Test Cycle for strain engineering, rapid product detection and selection strategies remain challenging and limit overall throughput. Here we summarize a wide variety of modalities that transduce chemical concentrations into easily measured absorbance, luminescence, and fluorescence signals. Specifically, we cover protein-based biosensors (including transcription factors), nucleic acid-based biosensors, coupled enzyme reactions, bioorthogonal chemistry, and fluorescent and chromogenic dyes and substrates as modalities for detection. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 12;35(6):758-771. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
Department of Biology and Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. P.R. China. Electronic address:
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are a promising technology for biological hydrogen production. Compared to abiotic water electrolysis, a much lower electrical voltage (~0.2V) is required for hydrogen production in MECs. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 8;35(6):772-781. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Instituto de Ingeniería, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230, Mexico. Electronic address:
Research on wastewater treatment by means of microalgal-bacterial processes has become a hot topic worldwide during the last two decades. Owing to the lower energy demand for oxygenation, the enhanced nutrient removal and the potential for resource recovery, microalgal-based technologies are nowadays considered as a good alternative to conventional activated sludge treatments in many instances. Nevertheless, biomass harvesting still constitutes one of the major challenges of microalgal-bacterial systems for wastewater treatment, which is hindered by the poor settleability of microalgal biomass. Read More
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization, with approximately one third of the world's population being latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis treatment consists in an intensive phase and a continuation phase. Unfortunately, the appearance of multi drug-resistant tuberculosis, mainly due to low adherence to prescribed therapies or inefficient healthcare structures, requires at least 20months of treatment with second-line, more toxic and less efficient drugs, i. Read More
Multi-cellular spheroids mimic the complex three-dimensional environment of natural tissues. Accordingly, they are also used as vascularization units in angiogenesis research and regenerative medicine. Spheroid sprouting assays are versatile in vitro models for the analysis of molecular and cellular determinants of blood vessel development, including different endothelial cell phenotypes, pro- and anti-angiogenic factors as well as cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Read More
Motivated by industrial demands and ongoing scientific discoveries continuous efforts are made to identify and create improved biocatalysts dedicated to plant biomass conversion. α-1,2 and α-1,3 arabinofuranosyl specific α-l-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2. Read More
Intracellular enzymes can be organized into a variety of assemblies, shuttling intermediates from one active site to the next. Eukaryotic compartmentalization within mitochondria and peroxisomes and substrate tunneling within multi-enzyme complexes have been well recognized. Intriguingly, the central pathways in prokaryotes may also form extensive channels, including the heavily branched glycolysis pathway. Read More
Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases and the new dye-decolorizing peroxidases, while heme peroxygenases belong to a still largely unexplored superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins. Nevertheless, basidiomycete unspecific peroxygenases have the highest biotechnological interest due to their ability to catalyze a variety of regio- and stereo-selective monooxygenation reactions with H2O2 as the source of oxygen and final electron acceptor. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 8;35(6):832-844. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
Laboratório de Sinalização Celular e Nanobiotecnologia, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Instituto Nanocell, Divinópolis, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). Read More
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China; Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Biobutanol is gaining more attention as a potential alternative to ethanol, and the demand for fermentative biobutanol production has renewed interest. The main challenge faced in biobutanol production is the availability of feedstock. Using conventional agricultural biomass as feedstock is controversial and less efficient, while microalgae, the third generation feedstock, are considered promising feedstock for biobutanol production due to their high growth rate and high carbohydrates content. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Sep 27;35(5):530-544. Epub 2017 May 27.
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada; Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Read More
Three-dimensional (3D) printers are a developing technology penetrating a variety of markets, including the medical sector. Since its introduction to the medical field in the late 1980s, 3D printers have constructed a range of devices, such as dentures, hearing aids, and prosthetics. With the ultimate goals of decreasing healthcare costs and improving patient care and outcomes, neurosurgeons are utilizing this dynamic technology, as well. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Sep 20;35(5):545-556. Epub 2017 May 20.
Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, University of Adelaide-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Centre for Agriculture and Health, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, South Australia 5064, Australia; School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. Electronic address:
Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Sep 17;35(5):557-564. Epub 2017 May 17.
Gene Expression and Therapy Group, King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Department of Molecular Genetics, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs) are defined by their ability to consistently confer stable, site of integration-independent transgene expression that is proportional to copy number, including from within regions of heterochromatin such as centromeres. UCOEs structurally consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing single or dual divergently-transcribed housekeeping gene promoters. Since their discovery in 1999, UCOEs and their sub-fragments have found applications in areas of biotechnology requiring stable, reproducible, and high levels of gene expression. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Sep 15;35(5):575-596. Epub 2017 May 15.
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:
Vaccination has been one of the most successful breakthroughs in medical history. In recent years, epitope-based subunit vaccines have been introduced as a safer alternative to traditional vaccines. However, they suffer from limited immunogenicity. Read More
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally non-replicating, highly immunogenic spherical nanoparticles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs from pathogenic bacteria have been successfully used as vaccines against bacterial meningitis and sepsis among others and the composition of the vesicles can easily be engineered. OMVs can be used as a vaccine platform by engineering heterologous antigens to the vesicles. Read More
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition. Read More
School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, People's Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, People's Republic of China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Safety and Quality Control, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
As member of glycosyl hydrolase family 13, maltooligosaccharide-forming amylases (MFAses) are specific and interesting because of their capacity to hydrolyze starch into functional maltooligosaccharides, which are usually composed of 2-10 α-d-glucopyranosyl units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic linkages. MFAses have been extensively studied during recent decades, and have shown promise in various industrial applications. This review begins by introducing the potential uses of maltooligosaccharides. Read More
The plastic-adherent, fibroblast-like, clonogenic cells found in the human body now defined as multipotent "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" (MSCs) hold immense potential for cell-based therapies. Recently, research and basic knowledge of these cells has fast-tracked, both from fundamental and translational perspectives. There have been important discoveries with respect to the available variety of tissue sources, the development of protocols for their easy isolation and in vitro expansion and for directed differentiation into various cell types. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 Nov 19;35(7):905-932. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
University of California San Francisco, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; NASA Ames Research Center, Exobiology Branch, MS239-4, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. Electronic address:
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. Read More
This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery, the choice of product, substrate and production organism is important. Currently, the most frequently used production hosts include Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but promising examples are available of alternative hosts such as LAB. Read More
In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. Read More
Increased health risk associated with the sedentary life style is forcing the food manufacturers to look for food products with specific or general health benefits e.g. beverages enriched with nutraceuticals like catechin, curcumin rutin. Read More
The adverse environmental impacts of the fossil fuel and the concerns of energy security necessitate the development of alternative clean energy sources from renewable feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass is a 2nd generation feedstock used in the production of biofuels and bio-based products that are conventionally derived from fossil resources. The biochemical conversion, which entails biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, is one major platform used to transform lignocelluloses into biofuels. Read More
The success of bioaugmentation processes for groundwater bioremediation requires efficient transport of bacteria in the subsurface environment. In this paper, the factors that influence transport of bacterial cells in porous media are reviewed and the effects of surfactants on the transport are discussed. Movement of bacterial cells in porous media is a process driven by advection and hydrodynamic dispersion forces of fluids. Read More
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil-born phytopathogenic bacterium, is well known as a nature's engineer due to its ability to genetically transform the host by transferring a DNA fragment (called T-DNA) from its Ti plasmid to host-cell genome. To combat the harsh soil environment and seek the appropriate host, A. tumefaciens can sense and be attracted by a large number of chemical compounds released by wounded host. Read More
Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China; Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomanufacturing Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:
With the rapidly growing number of sequenced microbial (meta)genomes, enormous cryptic natural product (NP) biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been identified, which are regarded as a rich reservoir for novel drug discovery. A series of powerful tools for engineering BGCs has accelerated the discovery and development of pharmaceutically active NPs. Here, we describe recent advances in the strategies for BGCs manipulation, which are driven by emerging technologies, including efficient DNA recombination systems, versatile CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tools and diverse DNA assembly methods. Read More
Biotechnol Adv 2017 May - Jun;35(3):350-360. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Campus Vida, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Genetics and Biology of the Development of Kidney Diseases Unit, Sanitary Research Institute (IDIS) of the University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Travesía da Choupana, s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address:
The number of deaths caused by cancer is expected to increase partly due to the lack of selectivity and undesirable systemic effects of current treatments. Advances in the understanding of microRNA (miRNA) functions and the ideal properties of nanosystems have brought increasing attention to the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy. This review covers the different miRNA therapeutic strategies and delivery challenges for its application in cancer medicine. Read More
Yeasts used in the production of lager beers belong to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. The hybridisation event happened approximately 500-600years ago and therefore S. pastorianus may be considered as a newly evolving species. Read More
Probiotics have gained increasing attention due to several health benefits related to the human digestive and immune systems. Pediococcus spp. are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are widely described as probiotics and characterized as coccus-shaped bacteria (arranged in tetrads), Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobes. Read More