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    1619 results match your criteria Biotechnology Advances [Journal]

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    Diversity and assembly patterns of activated sludge microbial communities: A review.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, PR China.
    Understanding diversity and assembly patterns of microbial communities in activated sludge (AS) is pivotal for addressing fundamental ecological questions and wastewater treatment engineering. Recent applications of molecular methods especially next generation sequencing (NGS) have led to the explosion of information about AS community diversity, including the identification of uncultured taxa, and characterization of low-abundance but environmentally important populations such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens. Those progresses have facilitated the leverage of ecological theories in describing AS community assembly. Read More

    Natural products as modulators of the nuclear receptors and metabolic sensors LXR, FXR and RXR.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    University of Vienna, Department of Pharmacognosy, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
    Nuclear receptors (NRs) represent attractive targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In addition, natural products are an interesting pool of potential ligands since they have been refined under evolutionary pressure to interact with proteins or other biological targets. This review aims to briefly summarize current basic knowledge regarding the liver X (LXR) and farnesoid X receptors (FXR) that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXR). Read More

    Microfluidic devices for sample preparation and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of foodborne diseases, known as serious threats to human health. Conventional bacterial culturing methods for foodborne pathogen detection are time consuming, laborious, and with poor pathogen diagnosis competences. This has prompted researchers to call the current status of detection approaches into question and leverage new technologies for superior pathogen sensing outcomes. Read More

    Effects of shear stress on microalgae - A review.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur Private, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address:
    Cultivation of microalgae requires consideration of shear stress, which is generated by operations such as mixing, circulation, aeration and pumping that are designed to facilitate mass and heat transfer as well as light distribution in cultures. Excessive shear stress can cause increased cell mortality, decreased growth rate and cell viability, or even cell lysis. This review examines the sources of shear stress in different cultivation systems, shear stress tolerance of different microalgal species and the physiological factors and environmental conditions that may affect shear sensitivity, and potential approaches to mitigate the detrimental effects of shear stress. Read More

    Molecular aspects of sucrose transport and its metabolism to starch during seed development in wheat: A comprehensive review.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, 222 Agriculture Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Electronic address:
    Wheat is one of the most important crops globally, and its grain is mainly used for human food, accounting for 20% of the total dietary calories. It is also used as animal feed and as a raw material for a variety of non-food and non-feed industrial products such as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Starch is the major constituent of a wheat grain, as a result, it is considered as a critical determinant of wheat yield and quality. Read More

    Bacterial components as naturally inspired nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery and immunization: Set the bugs to work?
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:
    Drug delivery is a rapidly growing area of research motivated by the nanotechnology revolution, the ideal of personalized medicine, and the desire to reduce the side effects of toxic anti-cancer drugs. Amongst a bewildering array of different nanostructures and nanocarriers, those examples that are fundamentally bio-inspired and derived from natural sources are particularly preferred. Delivery of vaccines is also an active area of research in this field. Read More

    Paradigm shift - Metabolic transformation of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids to bioactives exemplify the promise of fatty acid drug discovery.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Fatty acid drug discovery (FADD) is defined as the identification of novel, specialized bioactive mediators that are derived from fatty acids and have precise pharmacological/therapeutic potential. A number of reports indicate that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and limited intake of omega-6 promotes overall health benefits. In 1929, Burr and Burr indicated the significant role of essential fatty acids for survival and functional health of many organs. Read More

    Metabolic regulation in solventogenic clostridia: regulators, mechanisms and engineering.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China; Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, SICAM, 200 North Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:
    Solventogenic clostridia, a group of important industrial microorganisms, have exceptional substrate and product diversity, capable of producing a series of two-carbon and even long-chain chemicals and fuels by using various substrates, including sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose, and C1 gases. For the sake of in-depth understanding and engineering these anaerobic microorganisms for broader applications, studies on metabolic regulation of solventogenic clostridia had been extensively carried out during the past ten years, based on the rapid development of various genetic tools. To date, a number of regulators that are essential for cell physiological and metabolic processes have been identified in clostridia, and the relevant mechanisms have also been dissected, providing a wealth of valuable information for metabolic engineering. Read More

    Advances in kinome research of parasitic worms - implications for fundamental research and applied biotechnological outcomes.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Melbourne Veterinary School, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:
    Protein kinases are enzymes that play essential roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. Despite expansions in the fields of genomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics, there is limited information on the kinase complements (kinomes) of most eukaryotic organisms, including parasitic worms that cause serious diseases of humans and animals. The biological uniqueness of these worms and the draft status of their genomes pose challenges for the identification and classification of protein kinases using established tools. Read More

    The functional genomic studies of resveratrol in respect to its anti-cancer effects.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    The Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Postępu 36A, Jastrzębiec, 05-552 Magdalenka, Poland.
    Resveratrol has anti-cancer effects in vitro, and hypothetical chemopreventive effects in vivo. Effects are pleiotropic, mediated by changes in expression of many genes and epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, they are well suited for functional genomic studies. Read More

    Old and new glycopeptide antibiotics: From product to gene and back in the post-genomic era.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):534-554. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, via J.H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy; The Protein Factory Research Center, Politecnico di Milano and University of Insubria, via J.H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy. Electronic address:
    Glycopeptide antibiotics are drugs of last resort for treating severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. First-generation glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are produced by soil-dwelling actinomycetes. Second-generation glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin) are semi-synthetic derivatives of the progenitor natural products. Read More

    Improved genomic resources and new bioinformatic workflow for the carcinogenic parasite Clonorchis sinensis: Biotechnological implications.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Melbourne Veterinary School, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:
    Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Read More

    Natural products as inhibitors of prostaglandin Eand pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediator biosynthesis.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Chair of Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Philosophenweg 14, Jena 07743, Germany. Electronic address:
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit prostanoid formation and represent prevalent therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, NSAIDs are afflicted with severe side effects, which might be circumvented by more selective suppression of pro-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis. This concept led to dual inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin Esynthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase that are crucial enzymes in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin Eand leukotrienes. Read More

    Chemical genetics in tumor lipogenesis.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Butenandtstr. 5-13, Munich 81377, Germany. Electronic address:
    Since cancer cells depend on de novo lipogenesis for energy supply, highly active membrane biosynthesis and signaling, enhanced fatty acid synthesis is a crucial characteristic of cancer cells. Hence, targeting lipogenic enzymes and signaling cascades is a very promising approach in developing innovative therapeutic agents for the fight against cancer. This review summarizes main aspects of altered fatty acid synthesis in cancer cells and emphasizes the power of chemical genetic approaches in identifying and analyzing novel anti-cancer drug candidates interfering with lipid metabolism. Read More

    Intracellular drug delivery: Potential usefulness of engineered Shiga toxin subunit B for targeted cancer therapy.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Grueental, P.O.X. 335, CH-8820 Waedenswil, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    A treasure trove of intracellular cancer drug targets remains hidden behind cell membranes. However, engineered pathogen-derived toxins such as Shiga toxins can deliver small or macromolecular drugs to specific intracellular organelles. After binding to ganglioglobotriaosylceramide (Gb3, CD77), the non-toxic subunit B (StxB) of the Shiga-holotoxin is endocytosed and delivers its payload by a unique retrograde trafficking pathway via the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Read More

    Marine algal carbohydrates as carbon sources for the production of biochemicals and biomaterials.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences (iBB), Bioengineering Department, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz, Quinta da Granja, 2829 - 511 Monte de Caparica, Portugal. Electronic address:
    The high content of lipids in microalgae (>60% w/w in some species) and of carbohydrates in seaweed (up to 75%) have promoted intensive research towards valorisation of algal components for the production of biofuels. However, the exploitation of the carbohydrate fraction to produce a range of chemicals and chemical intermediates with established markets is still limited. These include organic acids (e. Read More

    Enabling personalized implant and controllable biosystem development through 3D printing.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):521-533. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM Unité 1121, 11 Rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg, France; Protip Medical, 8 Place de l'Hopital, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Fédération de Recherche Matériaux et Nanosciences Grand Est (FRMNGE), P. le A. Moro 5, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:
    The impact of additive manufacturing in our lives has been increasing constantly. One of the frontiers in this change is the medical devices. 3D printing technologies not only enable the personalization of implantable devices with respect to patient-specific anatomy, pathology and biomechanical properties but they also provide new opportunities in related areas such as surgical education, minimally invasive diagnosis, medical research and disease models. Read More

    Recent advances in reconstructing microbial secondary metabolites biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070, PR China. Electronic address:
    High throughput genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways that remain cryptic. Pathway reconstruction coupled with genetic engineering via heterologous expression enables discovery of novel compounds, elucidation of biosynthetic pathways, and optimization of product yields. Apart from Escherichia coli and yeast, fungi, especially Aspergillus spp. Read More

    High hydrostatic pressure in cancer immunotherapy and biomedicine.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Sotio a.s, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Immunology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been known to affect biological systems for >100 years. In this review, we describe the technology of HHP and its effect macromolecules and physiology of eukaryotic cells. We discuss the use of HHP in cancer immunotherapy to kill tumor cells for generation of whole cell and dendritic cell-based vaccines. Read More

    Bacterial type III secretion system as a protein delivery tool for a broad range of biomedical applications.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):482-493. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States. Electronic address:
    A protein delivery tool based on bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) has been broadly applied in biomedical researches. In this review, we summarize various applications of the T3SS-mediate protein delivery which enables translocation of proteins directly into mammalian cells without protein purification. Some of the remarkable advancements include delivery of antigens for therapeutic vaccines, nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for cellular reprogramming and stem cells differentiation, and signaling molecules for post-translational proteomics studies. Read More

    Plants as sources of natural and recombinant anti-cancer agents.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):506-520. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Forckenbeckstraße 6, 52074 Aachen, Germany; Institute for Molecular Biotechnology, Worringerweg 1, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Herbal remedies were the first medicines used by humans due to the many pharmacologically active secondary metabolites produced by plants. Some of these metabolites inhibit cell division and can therefore be used for the treatment of cancer, e.g. Read More

    In vivo therapeutic applications of cell spheroids.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):494-505. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Spheroids are increasingly being employed to answer a wide range of clinical and biomedical inquiries ranging from pharmacology to disease pathophysiology, with the ultimate goal of using spheroids for tissue engineering and regeneration. When compared to traditional two-dimensional cell culture, spheroids have the advantage of better replicating the 3D extracellular microenvironment and its associated growth factors and signaling cascades. As knowledge about the preparation and maintenance of spheroids has improved, there has been a plethora of translational experiments investigating in vivo implantation of spheroids into various animal models studying tissue regeneration. Read More

    RNA interference technology to improve the baculovirus-insect cell expression system.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):443-451. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Viral Vectors and Vaccines Bioprocessing Group, Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Room 387, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C3, Canada. Electronic address:
    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a popular manufacturing platform for the production of recombinant proteins, antiviral vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and biopesticides. Besides its successful applications in the industrial sector, the system has also played a significant role within the academic community given its extensive use in the production of hard-to-express eukaryotic multiprotein complexes for structural characterization for example. However, as other expression platforms, BEVS has to be continually improved to overcome its limitation and adapt to the constant demand for manufacturing processes that provide recombinant products with improved quality at higher yields and lower production cost. Read More

    Translational models of tumor angiogenesis: A nexus of in silico and in vitro models.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    BioMEMS and Bioinspired Microfluidic Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada; Center for BioEngineering Research and Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada. Electronic address:
    Emerging evidence shows that endothelial cells are not only the building blocks of vascular networks that enable oxygen and nutrient delivery throughout a tissue but also serve as a rich resource of angiocrine factors. Endothelial cells play key roles in determining cancer progression and response to anti-cancer drugs. Furthermore, the endothelium-specific deposition of extracellular matrix is a key modulator of the availability of angiocrine factors to both stromal and cancer cells. Read More

    Biomolecule-embedded metal-organic frameworks as an innovative sensing platform.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):467-481. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Technological advancements combined with materials research have led to the generation of enormous types of novel substrates and materials for use in various biological/medical, energy, and environmental applications. Lately, the embedding of biomolecules in novel and/or advanced materials (e.g. Read More

    Multigene delivery in mammalian cells: Recent advances and applications.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Biomolecular Research, Applied Molecular Biology, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Systems for multigene delivery in mammalian cells, particularly in the context of genome engineering, have gained a lot of attention in biomolecular research and medicine. Initially these methods were based on RNA polymerase II promoters and were used for the production of protein complexes and for applications in cell biology such as reprogramming of somatic cells to stem cells. Emerging technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering, which enable any alteration at the genomic level of an organism, require additional elements including U6-driven expression cassettes for RNA expression and homology constructs for designed genome modifications. Read More

    Biogas upgrading and utilization: Current status and perspectives.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):452-466. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    DTU-Environment, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Biogas production is an established sustainable process for simultaneous generation of renewable energy and treatment of organic wastes. The increasing interest of utilizing biogas as substitute to natural gas or its exploitation as transport fuel opened new avenues in the development of biogas upgrading techniques. The present work is a critical review that summarizes state-of-the-art technologies for biogas upgrading and enhancement with particular attention to the emerging biological methanation processes. Read More

    Stable isotope compounds - production, detection, and application.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Institute of Microbiology, CAS, Centre Algatech, Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae, CZ-379 81 Třeboň, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
    Stable isotopes are used in wide fields of application from natural tracers in biology, geology and archeology through studies of metabolic fluxes to their application as tracers in quantitative proteomics and structural biology. We review the use of stable isotopes of biogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, Mg, Se) with the emphasis on hydrogen and its heavy isotope deuterium. We will discuss the limitations of enriching various compounds in stable isotopes when produced in living organisms. Read More

    Biological activities of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-containing foods: Focus on cardiovascular and neuropsychological health.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Center of Experimental Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Sienkiewiczova 1, 813 71 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Electronic address:
    Recent studies have suggested that certain (-)-epicatechin-containing foods have a blood pressure-lowering capacity. The mechanisms underlying (-)-epicatechin action may help prevent oxidative damage and endothelial dysfunction, which have both been associated with hypertension and certain brain disorders. Moreover, (-)-epicatechin has been shown to modify metabolic profile, blood's rheological properties, and to cross the blood-brain barrier. Read More

    Targeting of stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic.. Electronic address:
    The hallmarks of tumor tissue are not only genetic aberrations but also the presence of metabolic and oxidative stress as a result of hypoxia and lactic acidosis. The stress activates several prosurvival pathways including metabolic remodeling, autophagy, antioxidant response, mitohormesis, and glutaminolysis, whose upregulation in tumors is associated with a poor survival of patients, while their activation in healthy tissue with statins, metformin, physical activity, and natural compounds prevents carcinogenesis. This review emphasizes the dual role of stress response pathways in cancer and suggests the integrative understanding as a basis for the development of rational therapy targeting the stress response. Read More

    Tailoring cyanobacterial cell factory for improved industrial properties.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):430-442. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao, 266101, China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:
    Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. Read More

    Implementing CRISPR-Cas technologies in conventional and non-conventional yeasts: Current state and future prospects.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:
    Within five years, the CRISPR-Cas system has emerged as the dominating tool for genome engineering, while also changing the speed and efficiency of metabolic engineering in conventional (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and non-conventional (Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia pastoris syn. Komagataella phaffii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and C. glabrata) yeasts. Read More

    Designing improved active peptides for therapeutic approaches against infectious diseases.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):415-429. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:
    Infectious diseases are one of the main causes of human morbidity and mortality. In the last few decades, pathogenic microorganisms' resistance to conventional drugs has been increasing, and it is now pinpointed as a major worldwide health concern. The need to search for new therapeutic options, as well as improved treatment outcomes, has therefore increased significantly, with biologically active peptides representing a new alternative. Read More

    Extracellular fungal polyol lipids: A new class of potential high value lipids.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):397-414. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:
    Extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have attracted attention because productivities can be high, cheap substrates can be used, the molecules are secreted into the medium and the downstream processing is relatively simple. Three classes of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have provided most of the scientific advances in this area, namely sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobioselipids. Polyol lipids, a fourth class of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants, comprise two groups of molecules: liamocins produced by the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and polyol esters of fatty acids, produced by some Rhodotorula yeast species. Read More

    Microbial and viral chitinases: Attractive biopesticides for integrated pest management.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, via JH Dunant 3, Varese 21100, Italy; The Protein Factory Research Center, Politecnico di Milano and University of Insubria, via L Mancinelli 7, Milan 20131, Italy. Electronic address:
    The negative impact of the massive use of synthetic pesticides on the environment and on human health has stimulated the search for environment-friendly practices for controlling plant diseases and pests. Among them, biocontrol, which relies on using beneficial organisms or their products (bioactive molecules and/or hydrolytic enzymes), holds the greatest promise and is considered a pillar of integrated pest management. Chitinases are particularly attractive to this purpose since they have fungicidal, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. Read More

    In vitro methods for testing antiviral drugs.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
    Despite successful vaccination programs and effective treatments for some viral infections, humans are still losing the battle with viruses. Persisting human pandemics, emerging and re-emerging viruses, and evolution of drug-resistant strains impose continuous search for new antiviral drugs. A combination of detailed information about the molecular organization of viruses and progress in molecular biology and computer technologies has enabled rational antivirals design. Read More

    Axenic cultures for microalgal biotechnology: Establishment, assessment, maintenance, and applications.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):380-396. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Cell Factory Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea; Department of Environmental Biotechnology, KRIBB School of Biotechnology, Korea University of Science & Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea; Advanced Biomass R&D Center (ABC), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    The impact of microalgae (including blue-green algae or cyanobacteria) on human life can be both beneficiary and deleterious. While microalgae can be cultivated and used as feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and high value-added products in nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and aquaculture feeds, some microalgae cause harmful algal blooms (HABs) that cause large-scale mortality in aquatic environments around the world. Thus, with the development of microalgal biotechnology and increasing concern about HABs, research on microscopic algae has increased significantly. Read More

    Activation of Nrf2 signaling by natural products-can it alleviate diabetes?
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    University of Vienna, Department of Pharmacognosy, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached pandemic proportions and effective prevention strategies are wanted. Its onset is accompanied by cellular distress, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor boosting cytoprotective responses, and many phytochemicals activate Nrf2 signaling. Thus, Nrf2 activation by natural products could presumably alleviate DM. Read More

    The bioelectronic nose and tongue using olfactory and taste receptors: Analytical tools for food quality and safety assessment.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):371-379. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Interdisciplinary Program for Bioengineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea; School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Food intake is the primary method for obtaining energy and component materials in the human being. Humans evaluate the quality of food by combining various facets of information, such as an item of food's appearance, smell, taste, and texture in the mouth. Recently, bioelectronic noses and tongues have been reported that use human olfactory and taste receptors as primary recognition elements, and nanoelectronics as secondary signal transducers. Read More

    Decentralised manufacturing of cell and gene therapy products: Learning from other healthcare sectors.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):345-357. Epub 2017 Dec 24.
    Centre for Biological Engineering, Holywell Park, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK.
    Decentralised or 'redistributed' manufacturing represents an attractive choice for production of some cell and gene therapies (CGTs), in particular personalised therapies. Decentralised manufacturing splits production into various locations or regions and in doing so, imposes organisational changes on the structure of a company. This confers a significant advantage by democratising supply, creating jobs without geographical restriction to the central hub and allowing a more flexible response to external pressures and demands. Read More

    Enhancing the performance of brewing yeasts.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 16628 Prague 6, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
    Beer production is one of the oldest known traditional biotechnological processes, but is nowadays facing increasing demands not only for enhanced product quality, but also for improved production economics. Targeted genetic modification of a yeast strain is one way to increase beer quality and to improve the economics of beer production. In this review we will present current knowledge on traditional approaches for improving brewing strains and for rational metabolic engineering. Read More

    Nrf2 as regulator of innate immunity: A molecular Swiss army knife!
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):358-370. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Organisms are constantly exposed to a broad range of pathological and stress-inducing agents, allergens and environmental chemicals that can induce infections, toxicity or other undesirable reactions. Our immune system has evolved over time in order to efficiently respond to these exogenous insults and maintain homeostasis. In particular, the innate immune system acts as primary barrier to prevent the entrance of invasive agents or allergens. Read More

    Polymer nanostructures for bioapplications induced by laser treatment.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
    Modification of polymer substrates can essentially change the properties of material and thereby it allows their usage in attractive fields of material research. Laser treatment can be successfully applied for change in physico-chemical surface properties and/or for selective change of surface morphology with pattern construction. Three major applications of laser induced structures were described, cytocompatibility control, application as anti-bacterial substrate and plasmonic-based detection system. Read More

    Comparative analysis of high butanol tolerance and production in clostridia.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 12, CZ 61600, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Physiology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

    Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines.
    Biotechnol Adv 2018 Jan - Feb;36(1):335-343. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. Electronic address:
    As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. Read More

    Bioconversion of carbon dioxide to methane using hydrogen and hydrogenotrophic methanogens.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Biogas produced from organic wastes contains energetically usable methane and unavoidable amount of carbon dioxide. The exploitation of whole biogas energy is locally limited and utilization of the natural gas transport system requires COremoval or its conversion to methane. The biological conversion of COand hydrogen to methane is well known reaction without the demand of high pressure and temperature and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Read More

    Involvement of polyhydroxyalkanoates in stress resistance of microbial cells: Biotechnological consequences and applications.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated by numerous prokaryotes as storage materials; they attract attention as "green" alternatives to petrochemical plastics. Recent research has demonstrated that their biological role goes beyong their storage function, since they presence in cytoplasm enhances stress resistance of microorganisms. To address these complex functions, this review summarizes the protective effects of PHA for microrganisms; the involvement of PHA in stress resistance is discussed also from a praxis-oriented perspective. Read More

    Importance of microbial defence systems to bile salts and mechanisms of serum cholesterol reduction.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
    An important feature of the intestinal microbiota, particularly in the case of administered probiotic microorganisms, is their resistance to conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly tolerance to and growth in the presence of bile salts. Bacteria can use several defence mechanisms against bile, including special transport mechanisms, the synthesis of various types of surface proteins and fatty acids or the production of exopolysaccharides. The ability to enzymatically hydrolyse bile salts occurs in a variety of bacteria. Read More

    Synthetic biology of modular endolysins.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Applied Biosciences, Ghent University, Valentijn Vaerwyckweg 1 - Building C, 9000 Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Endolysins and their derivatives have emerged in recent years as a novel class of antibacterials, which have now entered the clinical phases. Their rapid mode-of-action and proteinaceous nature differentiates them from any other class of antibiotics. A key feature of endolysins is their modularity and the opportunities that emerge thereof to customize properties such as specificity, activity, stability and solubility. Read More

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