137,900 results match your criteria Biostatistics Oxford England[Journal]


The safety and efficacy of Guluronic acid (G2013) in ankylosing spondylitis: A randomized controlled parallel clinical trial.

Pharmacol Rep 2019 Feb 10;71(3):393-398. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: To assess the therapeutic efficacy, safety and tolerability of Guluronic acid (G2013) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients.

Methods: This investigation was a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, phase I/II clinical trial involving 75 AS patients that were randomly divided into 3 groups: 25 as placebo, 25 Guluronic acid and 25 naproxen groups. Patients who had AS with active disease at baseline according to the modified New York criteria were considered for this trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

A machine learning approach to knee osteoarthritis phenotyping: Data from the FNIH Biomarkers Consortium.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Thurston Arthritis Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a heterogeneous condition representing a variety of potentially distinct phenotypes. The purpose of this study was to apply innovative machine learning approaches to KOA phenotyping in order to define progression phenotypes that are potentially more responsive to interventions.

Design: We used publicly available data from the FNIH OA Biomarkers Consortium, where radiographic (medial joint space narrowing of ≥0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2018.12.027DOI Listing

A Graph-based Approach for Characterizing Resident and Nurse Handoff Conversations.

J Biomed Inform 2019 Apr 16:103178. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anesthesiology & Institute for Informatics, School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Prior research has used a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches for studying handoff communication. Due to the dynamic and interactive nature of handoffs, characterizing the structure and content of these conversations is challenging. In this paper, we use a graph-based approach to characterize handoff communication as a conversation network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103178DOI Listing

New folate receptor targeted nano liposomes for delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cancer cells: Strong implication for enhanced potency and safety.

Life Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

We previously showed that folate liposomes of 5FU made from Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) induced cell death in HT-29 and HeLa cells more potently than bulk 5FU. Also, a primary 5FU liposomal formulation with phosphatidyl choline (PC) exhibited higher cytotoxicity in murine colon cancer cells. In the present study, optimization of 5FU PC liposome, mechanism of cell death induction in human cancer cell lines and its safety along with other assays have been employed for targeted PC liposomes of 5FU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.04.030DOI Listing

Maternal hyperuricemia superimposed on maternal hypertension aggravates the risk of small-for-gestational-age fetus.

Life Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, Shandong Clinical Medical Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetus is an important public health issue because of its high mortality and long-term effects on health. Maternal hyperuricemia is associated with diverse adverse pregnant outcomes and neonatal disturbance. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal hyper-uric acid (HUA) is associated with the risk of SGA fetus and to explore whether it can modify the association between maternal hyper-blood pressure (HBP) and SGA fetus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.04.033DOI Listing

Cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacteria infections: A retrospective case series of 78 patients from the Texas Gulf Coast region.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX.

Background: The incidence of cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing. These infections are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

Objective: We aimed to investigate clinical features, diagnosis and management of cutaneous NTM infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.04.022DOI Listing

Abortion Providers' experiences and views on self-managed medication abortion, an exploratory study.

Contraception 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA, 52242.

Objective: Data on the practice of self-managed medication abortion are limited, in part because this practice takes place purposefully outside of established healthcare systems. Given this, we aimed to ascertain abortion providers' familiarity with self-managed medication abortion and associated complications, compare regional differences, and evaluate provider attitudes.

Study Design: We distributed an online survey to members of Society for Family Planning, Association of Reproductive Health Providers, and the Abortion Care Network between July and September 2017 querying experiences with and opinions about self-managed abortion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Evaluating DNA methylation age on the Illumina MethylationEPIC Bead Chip.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0207834. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, United States of America.

DNA methylation age (DNAm age) has become a widely utilized epigenetic biomarker for the aging process. The Horvath method for determining DNAm age is perhaps the most widely utilized and validated DNA methylation age assessment measure. Horvath DNAm age is calculated based on methylation measurements at 353 loci, present on Illumina's 450k and 27k DNA methylation microarrays. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207834PLOS

Risk factors for gestational diabetes: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215372. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Cyprus International Institute for Environmental & Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.

Background/objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication, with complex disease mechanisms, and several risk factors may contribute to its onset. We performed an umbrella review to summarize the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies on risk factors associated with GDM, evaluate whether there are indications of biases in this literature and identify which of the previously reported associations are supported by convincing evidence.

Methods: We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to December 2018 to identify meta-analyses examining associations between putative risk factors for GDM. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215372PLOS

The epidemic potential of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in humans in mainland China: A two-stage risk analysis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215857. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: From 2013 to 2017, more than one thousand avian influenza A (H7N9) confirmed cases with hundreds of deaths were reported in mainland China. To identify priorities for epidemic prevention and control, a risk assessing framework for subnational variations is needed to define the epidemic potential of A (H7N9).

Methods: We established a consolidated two-stage framework that outlined the potential epidemic of H7N9 in humans: The Stage 1, index-case potential, used a Boosted Regression Trees model to assess population at risk due to spillover from poultry; the Stage 2, epidemic potential, synthesized the variables upon a framework of the Index for Risk Management to measure epidemic potential based on the probability of hazards and exposure, the vulnerability and coping capacity. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215857PLOS

FDG PET based prediction of response in head and neck cancer treatment: Assessment of new quantitative imaging features.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215465. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States of America.

Introduction: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is now a standard diagnostic imaging test performed in patients with head and neck cancer for staging, re-staging, radiotherapy planning, and outcome assessment. Currently, quantitative analysis of FDG PET scans is limited to simple metrics like maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, or total lesion glycolysis, which have limited predictive value. The goal of this work was to assess the predictive potential of new (i. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215465PLOS

CancerInSilico: An R/Bioconductor package for combining mathematical and statistical modeling to simulate time course bulk and single cell gene expression data in cancer.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Apr 19;14(4):e1006935. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD United States of America.

Bioinformatics techniques to analyze time course bulk and single cell omics data are advancing. The absence of a known ground truth of the dynamics of molecular changes challenges benchmarking their performance on real data. Realistic simulated time-course datasets are essential to assess the performance of time course bioinformatics algorithms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006935DOI Listing

Association Between Changes in Postpartum Weight and Waist Circumference and Changes in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes.

Prev Chronic Dis 2019 Apr 18;16:E47. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a 30% to 70% risk for developing type 2 diabetes and are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about how anthropometric changes in the first postpartum year modify cardiometabolic risk factors.

Methods: We randomly assigned women in the Balance After Baby study to an intervention group consisting of participation in a web-based lifestyle program or to a control group in which no program was offered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180308DOI Listing

Enhancing Understanding of Moral Distress: The Measure of Moral Distress for Health Care Professionals.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr 19:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

e School of Nursing , Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond , Virginia , USA.

Background: As ongoing research explores the impact of moral distress on health care professionals (HCPs) and organizations and seeks to develop effective interventions, valid and reliable instruments to measure moral distress are needed. This article describes the development and testing of a revision of the widely used Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R) to measure moral distress.

Methods: We revised the MDS-R by evaluating the combined data from 22 previous studies, assessing 301 write-in items and 209 root causes identified through moral distress consultation, and reviewing 14 recent publications from various professions in which root causes were described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1586008DOI Listing

Preventive Misconception and Risk Behaviors in a Multinational HIV Prevention Trial.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Department of Population Health Sciences , Duke University School of Medicine , Durham , North Carolina , USA.

Background: Some HIV prevention research participants may hold a "preventive misconception" (PM), an overestimate of the probability or level of personal protection afforded by trial participation. However, these reports typically rely upon small, retrospective qualitative assessments that did not use a standardized approach.

Methods: We administered a measure of PM called PREMIS, during Microbicide Trials Network 020-A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use, a large, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a dapivirine vaginal ring among women at risk for HIV infection in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1593257DOI Listing

Epithelial Cell Death Markers in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Correlate with Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction Subtypes and Survival in Lung Transplant Recipients - a single-center retrospective cohort study.

Transpl Int 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Toronto Lung Transplant Program, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the leading cause of late death after lung transplantation. Epithelial injury is thought to be a key event in the pathogenesis of CLAD. M30 and M65 are fragments of cytokeratin-18 released specifically during epithelial cell apoptosis and total cell death, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13444DOI Listing

Association of Accelerometer-Measured Light-Intensity Physical Activity With Brain Volume: The Framingham Heart Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192745. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts.

Importance: Dementia risk may be attenuated by physical activity (PA); however, the specific activity levels optimal for dementia prevention are unclear. Moreover, most older adults are unable to meet the nationally recommended PA guidelines, set at 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA per week.

Objective: To assess the association of total steps walked per day and total dose (intensity × duration) of PA with brain volumes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among Framingham Heart Study participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2745DOI Listing

Association Between Opioid Dose Variability and Opioid Overdose Among Adults Prescribed Long-term Opioid Therapy.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192613. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Aurora.

Importance: Attempts to discontinue opioid therapy to reduce the risk of overdose and adhere to prescribing guidelines may lead patients to be exposed to variability in opioid dosing. Such dose variability may increase the risk of opioid overdose even if therapy discontinuation is associated with a reduction in risk.

Objective: To examine the association between opioid dose variability and opioid overdose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2613DOI Listing

Association Between Pharmacy Closures and Adherence to Cardiovascular Medications Among Older US Adults.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192606. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: It is unknown whether and how pharmacy closures alter medication adherence.

Objective: To examine the association between pharmacy closures and adherence to statins, β-blockers, and oral anticoagulants among adults 50 years or older in the United States.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, comparative interrupted time series analyses were performed using a nationally representative 5% random sample of anonymized, longitudinal, individual-level pharmacy claims from IQVIA LRx LifeLink. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2606DOI Listing

Factors Associated With Use of Sipuleucel-T to Treat Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192589. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Importance: Sipuleucel-T is an immunotherapy that has been approved for use in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, sipuleucel-T may not be available to some patients because of logistics, cost, and practice structure.

Objective: To identify factors associated with the adoption of sipuleucel-T across the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2589DOI Listing

Association of Occupational Pesticide Exposure With Immunochemotherapy Response and Survival Among Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192093. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Biostatistics, Clinical Epidemiology, Public Health, and Innovation in Methodology, Nîmes University Hospital, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Importance: Professional use of pesticides is a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The main biological mechanisms of pesticides and chemotherapy are genotoxicity and reactive oxygen species generation. Cellular adaptation among patients exposed to low doses of genotoxic and oxidative compounds might hinder chemotherapy efficiency in patients with lymphoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2093DOI Listing

Safety and Efficacy of Minimally Interrupted Dabigatran vs Uninterrupted Warfarin Therapy in Adults Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e191994. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Importance: Uninterrupted dabigatran therapy reduces stroke risk in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) undergoing ablation and is associated with a lower bleeding risk than uninterrupted warfarin therapy. Minimally interrupted direct oral anticoagulant therapy is widely used, but data from controlled studies are insufficient.

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of minimally interrupted dabigatran vs uninterrupted warfarin therapy in patients undergoing catheter ablation for NVAF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1994DOI Listing

Older Teens' Understanding and Perceptions of Risks in Studies With Genetic Testing: A Pilot Study.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

d Academic and Regulatory Monitoring Services, LLC , Cincinnati , Ohio , USA.

Background: The consent process used in clinical research today falls markedly short of the ideal process envisioned nearly 30 years ago. Critics have suggested that the informed consent process has become challenging, formalistic, and incompletely understood by researchers and participants alike. Hence, the purpose of this pilot study was to identify and characterize important aspects of the informed consent process that teens believe impact their understanding of risks of participation in studies with genetic testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1577313DOI Listing

Bedside Rationing Under Resource Constraints-A National Survey of Ethiopian Physicians' Use of Criteria for Priority Setting.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr 19:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Research Group in Global Health Priorities, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care , University of Bergen , Norway.

In low-income settings resource constraints force clinicians to make harsh choices. We examine the criteria Ethiopian physicians use in their bedside rationing decisions through a national survey at 49 public hospitals in Ethiopia. Substantial variation in weight given to different criteria were reported by the 587 participating physicians (response rate 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1583691DOI Listing

Evaluation of vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway target genes reveals UGT2A1/2 and EGFR polymorphisms associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in African American Women.

Cancer Med 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1996DOI Listing

Genome-wide expression profiling-based copy number variations and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese.

Mol Carcinog 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Genetic factors play important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of gene expression-related copy number variations (CNVs) on the risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese. Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) mapping was conducted to explore the most regulatable gene expressions by CNVs among the whole genome based on publicly available data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23015DOI Listing

The role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

The symbiotic relationship between intestinal microbiota and the host is a major mechanism of prevention against the development of chronic and metabolic diseases. The intestinal microbiota provides several physiological functions of the organism from the creation of a natural functional barrier with a subsequent immunostimulatory activity up to affecting the energy metabolism of the host. Disruption of physiological intestinal microbiota is reported as one of the major etiological factors of initiation and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-019-00706-2DOI Listing

Predictive Power of PEN-3 Model Constructs in Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors among Teachers: A Cross- Sectional Study in Central Iran.

Eur J Breast Health 2019 Apr 1;15(2):105-110. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Identifying the factors influencing screening is necessary to promote early detection of breast cancer. This study aims to determine the predictive power of PEN-3 model structures in breast cancer screening behaviors among teachers of Isfahan city in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 female teachers in Isfahan selected by the multi-stage random sampling method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/ejbh.2019.4417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456271PMC

Concordance between the Different Cardiovascular Risk Scores in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriasis Arthritis.

Cardiol Res Pract 2019 14;2019:7689208. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Research Group, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), SERGAS, Universidade da Coruña, Hotel de Pacientes 7 Planta, C/As Xubias de Arriba, 84, 15006 A Coruña, Spain.

Aim: To determine the cardiovascular risk and the concordance between the different scores in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

Methods: Observational descriptive study of prevalence. Performed in the Rheumatology Service and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit of the University Hospital Complex of A Coruña (Spain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7689208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437736PMC

Interfrontal Bone Among Inbred Strains of Mice and QTL Mapping.

Front Genet 2019 2;10:291. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Dental Research, School of Dentistry, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

The interfrontal bone (IF) is a minor skeletal trait residing between the frontal bones. IF is considered a quasi-continuous trait. Genetic and environmental factors appear to play roles in its development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454051PMC

DRUM: Inference of Disease-Associated mA RNA Methylation Sites From a Multi-Layer Heterogeneous Network.

Front Genet 2019 3;10:266. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Research Center for Precision Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China.

Recent studies have revealed that the RNA -methyladenosine (mA) modification plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes and associated with multiple diseases including cancers. Till this day, transcriptome-wide mA RNA methylation sites have been identified by high-throughput sequencing technique combined with computational methods, and the information is publicly available in a few bioinformatics databases; however, the association between individual mA sites and various diseases are still largely unknown. There are yet computational approaches developed for investigating potential association between individual mA sites and diseases, which represents a major challenge in the epitranscriptome analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456716PMC

Accuracy of Gene Expression Prediction From Genotype Data With PrediXcan Varies Across and Within Continental Populations.

Front Genet 2019 3;10:261. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Using genetic data to predict gene expression has garnered significant attention in recent years. PrediXcan has become one of the most widely used gene-based methods for testing associations between predicted gene expression values and a phenotype, which has facilitated novel insights into the relationship between complex traits and the component of gene expression that can be attributed to genetic variation. The gene expression prediction models for PrediXcan were developed using supervised machine learning methods and training data from the Depression Genes and Networks (DGN) study and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, where the majority of subjects are of European descent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456650PMC

Comparison of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Different Origins for the Treatment of Graft-vs.-Host-Disease in a Humanized Mouse Model.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:619. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Hematology Research Unit, GIGA-I3, GIGA Institute, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory properties that make them an attractive tool against graft- vs.-host disease (GVHD). However, despite promising results in phase I/II studies, bone marrow (BM-) derived MSCs failed to demonstrate their superiority over placebo in the sole phase III trial reported thus far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454068PMC

Progressive Increase of Inflammatory CXCR4 and TNF-Alpha in the Dorsal Root Ganglia and Spinal Cord Maintains Peripheral and Central Sensitization to Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

Mediators Inflamm 2019 14;2019:4856156. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Anaesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China.

Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is a common and serious complication of diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of DNP is largely unclear. The proinflammation proteins, CXCR4, and TNF- play critical roles in the development of pain, while their relative roles in the development of DNP and especially its progression is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4856156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437743PMC

Attitude and perceived barriers towards the practice of evidence-based urology amongst urological trainees in India.

Indian J Urol 2019 Apr-Jun;35(2):116-119

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine requires systematic access and appraisal of contemporary research findings, followed by their application in clinical practice. It assumes an even greater significance in the current era of aggressive, industry-driven marketing.

Methods: A questionnaire was designed combining the McColl questionnaire and Barrier scale with relevant modifications and was administered to the urology trainees attending a continuing urological education program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_204_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458816PMC

Comparing the efficacy of aprepitant and ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV): A double blinded, randomised control trial in patients undergoing breast and thyroid surgeries.

Indian J Anaesth 2019 Apr;63(4):289-294

Department of Anesthesia, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background And Aims: Aprepitant, a Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, has been evaluated in abdominal and neurosurgeries, but its effect is less clear in breast and thyroid surgeries, which are also known to be high risk for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study was done to compare the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron and aprepitant in women undergoing mastectomy and thyroidectomy.

Methods: One hundred and twenty-five ASA I and II, female patients, aged between 18 and 65 years were randomly assigned into Group I (ondansetron group, = 62) or Group II (aprepitant group, = 63), by computer-generated random sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_724_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460978PMC

Bayesian nonparametric models characterize instantaneous strategies in a competitive dynamic game.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 18;10(1):1808. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, 27710, NC, USA.

Previous studies of strategic social interaction in game theory have predominantly used games with clearly-defined turns and limited choices. Yet, most real-world social behaviors involve dynamic, coevolving decisions by interacting agents, which poses challenges for creating tractable models of behavior. Here, using a game in which humans competed against both real and artificial opponents, we show that it is possible to quantify the instantaneous dynamic coupling between agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09789-4DOI Listing

Triple therapy in COPD: only for the right patient.

Eur Respir J 2019 Apr 18;53(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Lung Unit, Emek Medical Center, Clalit Healthcare Services, Afula, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00394-2019DOI Listing

GSK2801, a BAZ2/BRD9 bromodomain inhibitor, synergizes with BET inhibitors to induce apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

Mol Cancer Res 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Screening of an inhibitor library targeting kinases and epigenetic regulators identified several molecules having anti-proliferative synergy with BET bromodomain inhibitors (JQ1, OTX015) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). GSK2801, an inhibitor of BAZ2A/B bromodomains, of the imitation switch chromatin remodeling complexes, and BRD9, of the SWI/SNF complex, demonstrated synergy independent of BRD4 control of P-TEFb-mediated pause-release of RNA polymerase II. GSK2801 or RNAi knockdown of BAZ2A/B with JQ1 selectively displaced BRD2 at promoters/enhancers of ETS-regulated genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-1121DOI Listing

The TiME Trial: A Fully Embedded, Cluster-Randomized, Pragmatic Trial of Hemodialysis Session Duration.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, and.

Background: Data from clinical trials to inform practice in maintenance hemodialysis are limited. Incorporating randomized trials into dialysis clinical care delivery should help generate practice-guiding evidence, but the feasibility of this approach has not been established.

Methods: To develop approaches for embedding trials into routine delivery of maintenance hemodialysis, we performed a cluster-randomized, pragmatic trial demonstration project, the Time to Reduce Mortality in ESRD (TiME) trial, evaluating effects of session duration on mortality (primary outcome) and hospitalization rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018090945DOI Listing

Correlations Between Imaging Biomarkers and Proliferation Index Ki-67 in Lymphomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Few studies investigated relationships between positron emission tomography (PET) as well as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with proliferating index Ki-67 in lymphomas. The aim of the present analysis was to review the published results and perform a meta-analysis to provide data on the associations between standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from PET as well as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from DWI with Ki-67 index in lymphomas.

Materials And Methods: The MEDLINE library was screened for relationships between PET and DWI with Ki-67 in lymphoma up to October 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.03.005DOI Listing

The gender gap in critical care task force participation.

Lancet Respir Med 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Critical Care Research Center, Regions Hospital, Saint Paul, Minnesota, MN 55101, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30120-1DOI Listing

Mineral Metabolism Disturbances and Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Kidney Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is central to haemodialysis treatment, but up to half of surgically created AVF fail to mature. Chronic kidney disease often leads to mineral metabolism disturbances that may interfere with AVF maturation through adverse vascular effects. This study tested associations between mineral metabolism markers and vein histology at AVF creation and unassisted and overall clinical AVF maturation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.01.022DOI Listing

Gender-neutral HPV vaccination in Africa - Authors' reply.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 May;7(5):e564

Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, TX, USA; Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, TX, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30065-8DOI Listing

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Older Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 Apr;73(15):1890-1900

Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, LifeBridge Health Cardiovascular Institute, Baltimore, Maryland; University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Older adults ≥75 years of age carry an increased risk of mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in older adults with STEMI and shock and its influence on in-hospital mortality.

Methods: We used a large publicly available all-payer inpatient health care database sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality between 1999 and 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.055DOI Listing

Regular use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and breast cancer risk for women at familial or genetic risk: a cohort study.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 Apr 18;21(1):52. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W 168th St, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: The use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but it is not known if this association extends to women at familial or genetic risk. We examined the association between regular NSAID use and breast cancer risk using a large cohort of women selected for breast cancer family history, including 1054 BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Methods: We analyzed a prospective cohort (N = 5606) and a larger combined, retrospective and prospective, cohort (N = 8233) of women who were aged 18 to 79 years, enrolled before June 30, 2011, with follow-up questionnaire data on medication history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1135-yDOI Listing

Nationwide survey of neonatal transportation practices in Italy.

Ital J Pediatr 2019 Apr 18;45(1):51. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Neonatal Emergency Transport Service, Department Mother&Child, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Largo G. Gaslini, 5, 16147, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Despite regionalization of perinatal care provides for the "in utero" transfer of high-risk pregnancies, there will always be a number of neonates who undergo acute inter-facility transport. The presence of a well-organized Neonatal Emergency Transport Service (NETS) can prevent and reduce risks of transportation, especially for very preterm infants, and is therefore mandatory for any program of regionalization of perinatal care. Italian National Health System is highly decentralized and Regions are autonomous to structure, plan and delivery their regional health services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-019-0640-zDOI Listing

Estimating policy-relevant health effects of ambient heat exposures using spatially contiguous reanalysis data.

Environ Health 2019 Apr 18;18(1):35. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA.

Background: Regional National Weather Service (NWS) heat advisory criteria in New York State (NYS) were based on frequency of heat events estimated by sparse monitoring data. These may not accurately reflect temperatures at which specific health risks occur in large geographic regions. The objectives of the study were to use spatially resolved temperature data to characterize health risks related to summertime heat exposure and estimate the temperatures at which excessive risk of heat-related adverse health occurs in NYS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0467-5DOI Listing

Effect of chemotherapy on cancer stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages in a prospective study of preoperative chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcoma.

J Transl Med 2019 Apr 18;17(1):130. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Cancer stem cells (CSC) may respond to chemotherapy differently from other tumor cells.

Methods: This study examined the expression of the putative cancer stem cell markers ALDH1, CD44, and CD133; the angiogenesis marker CD31; and the macrophage marker CD68 in soft tissue sarcomas (STS) before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide in 31 patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcoma in a prospective clinical trial.

Results: None of the markers clearly identified CSCs in STS samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1883-6DOI Listing

Development of an interactive web-based tool to conduct and interrogate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies: MetaDTA.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2019 Apr 18;19(1):81. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

NIHR Complex Reviews Support Unit, University of Leicester & University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Recommended statistical methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies require relatively complex bivariate statistical models which can be a barrier for non-statisticians. A further barrier exists in the software options available for fitting such models. Software accessible to non-statisticians, such as RevMan, does not support the fitting of bivariate models thus users must seek statistical support to use R, Stata or SAS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-019-0724-xDOI Listing