169,113 results match your criteria Biostatistics Oxford England[Journal]


Effect of photobiomodulation on serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) among patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy - A pilot study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Jun 30;14(5):1061-1063. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biostatistics, Dr. M.V. Govindaswamy Centre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bengaluru, India.

Background And Aim: Photobiomodulation is an emerging therapy for Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) of which the management is still a dilemma for clinicians. Elevated Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) is associated with neuropathy. We aimed this study to assess the effect of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on Serum Neuron Specific Enolase in Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients with DPN. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06.065DOI Listing

The Interaction of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Resiliency on the Outcome of Depression Among Children and Youth, 8-17 year olds.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jul 6;107:104616. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 915 Greene Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among children. Little is known on how resilience factors and positive childhood experiences (PCEs) may moderate the relationship between ACEs and childhood depression.

Objective: Our study fills this gap by providing recent, nationally representative estimates of ACE and PCE exposure for ages 8-17 and examines the associations between ACE exposure and PCEs on the outcome of depression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104616DOI Listing

Healthcare Provider Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceived Confidence in Managing Patients with Cancer Pain and Nonmedical Opioid Use.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Dept of Palliative, Rehabilitation and Integrative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas.

Context: Healthcare provider education is an effective strategy to improve knowledge and competencies in opioid prescribing practices. However, there are very few studies regarding this among providers of patients with cancer pain and nonmedical opioid use (NMOU). The aim of our study was to assess participants' attitudes, beliefs, and self-perceived confidence in caring for patients with cancer pain and NMOU before and after attending an opioid educational seminar on the use and nonmedical use of opioids in cancer patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.040DOI Listing

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation is Safe and Effective in Patients with Clostridioides difficile Infection and Cirrhosis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Gastroenterology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) harms a large proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recommended for recurrent CDI, but its effects in patients with cirrhosis have not been established. We performed a multicenter, observational study to evaluate efficacy and safety of FMT for CDI in patients with cirrhosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.06.051DOI Listing

Machine learning and AI-based approaches for bioactive ligand discovery and GPCR-ligand recognition.

Methods 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics.

In the last decade, machine learning and artificial intelligence applications have received a significant boost in performance and attention in both academic research and industry. The success behind most of the recent state-of-the-art methods can be attributed to the latest developments in deep learning. When applied to various scientific domains that are concerned with the processing of non-tabular data, for example, image or text, deep learning has been shown to outperform not only conventional machine learning but also highly specialized tools developed by domain experts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2020.06.016DOI Listing

Analysis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis on fine needle aspiration samples by MALDI-Imaging.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2020 Jul 6:140481. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Pathology, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, ASST, Monza, Italy. Electronic address:

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)- Mass Spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been applied in various diseases aimed to biomarkers discovery. In this study diagnosis and prognosis of Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) in cytopathology by MALDI-MSI has been investigated. Specimens from a routine series of subjects who underwent UltraSound-guided thyroid Fine Needle Aspirations (FNAs) were used. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2020.140481DOI Listing

Use compatibility intervals in regulatory toxicology.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Jul 6:104720. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemicals and Product Safety, Max-Dohrn-Straße 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany.

Recently it was recommended to avoid significance tests, in particular dichotomization into significant/non-significant on the basis of a p-value and a fixed 5% significance level (i.e. false positive rate). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104720DOI Listing

Increased Odds of Ventricular Arrhythmias Associated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use among the Pediatric & Young Adult Population: A Case-Control Study.

J Pediatr 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Dept. of Clinical Pharmacy, Center for Pharmaceutical Outcomes (CePOR), Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado.

Objective: To Measure the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) use and out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmia among pediatric and young adult population.

Study Design: Case-control study using U.S. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.07.007DOI Listing

Natural products action on pathogenic cues in autoimmunity: Efficacy in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis as compared to classical treatments.

Pharmacol Res 2020 Jul 6:105054. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

The Second Affiliated Hospital and School of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which are characterized by self-perpetuating inflammation and tissue/organ damage, resulting from the failure of lymphocyte auto-tolerance, cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The current drugs or therapies including conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as several biologic therapies such as B cell-targeted, T cell-targeted, cytokines-targeted and cytokines receptors-targeted therapy, cannot completely cure SLE and RA, and are always accompanied by unexpected side effects. Therefore, more studies have explored new methods for therapy and found that the herbal medicine as well as its natural products (NPs) exhibited promising therapeutic value through exerting effects of immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptosis, etc. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105054DOI Listing

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study.

Lancet 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Directorate, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31483-5DOI Listing

Physical activity during and after breast cancer therapy and associations of baseline physical activity with changes in cardiac function by echocardiogram.

Cancer Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology & Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Observational studies suggest that regular physical activity may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and cancer recurrence in survivors of breast cancer. The association between physical activity and cardiac function with breast cancer therapy is unknown.

Methods: Self-reported physical activity was assessed using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire at repeated intervals in a longitudinal cohort study of 603 breast cancer participants treated with doxorubicin and/or trastuzumab. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3277DOI Listing

The relationship between gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids in the renal calcium oxalate stones disease.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Urology, Laboratory of Reconstructive Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The relationship of gut microbiota and calcium oxalate stone has been limited investigated, especially with no study of gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in nephrolithiasis. We provided Sprague Dawley rats of renal calcium oxalate stones with antibiotics and examined the renal crystals deposition. We also performed a case-control study by analyzing 16S rRNA microbial profiling, shotgun metagenomics and SCFAs in 153 fecal samples from non-kidney stone (NS) controls, patients with occasional renal calcium oxalate stones (OS) and patients with recurrent stones (RS). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000786RDOI Listing

Circulating and tissue biomarkers as predictors of bromine gas inhalation.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

The threat from deliberate or accidental exposure to halogen gases is increasing, as is their industrial applications and use as chemical warfare agents. Biomarkers that can identify halogen exposure, diagnose victims of exposure or predict injury severity, and enable appropriate treatment are lacking. We conducted these studies to determine and validate biomarkers of bromine (Br ) toxicity and correlate the symptoms and the extent of cardiopulmonary injuries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14422DOI Listing

An Evaluation of Baseline Kidney Function in the REPRIEVE Trial of Pitavastatin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S41-S51

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a common comorbid condition among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). We characterized baseline kidney function in the REPRIEVE (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) trial cohort.

Methods: REPRIEVE enrolled PWH with low to moderate cardiovascular risk based on traditional risk factors to evaluate the effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular events. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa222DOI Listing

Physical Function Impairment and Frailty in Middle-Aged People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the REPRIEVE Trial Ancillary Study PREPARE.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S52-S62

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) are at risk for accelerated development of physical function impairment and frailty; both associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, and death. Identifying factors associated with physical function impairment and frailty can help target interventions.

Methods: The REPRIEVE trial enrolled participants 40-75 years of age, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/mm3, and with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa249DOI Listing

Patterns of Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Immunologic Profiles at Enrollment in the REPRIEVE Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S8-S19

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Patterns of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and immunologic correlates vary globally, and contemporary trends are not well described.

Methods: The REPRIEVE trial (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) enrolled persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were aged 40-75 years, receiving ART, and had low-to-moderate cardiovascular disease risk. ART use was summarized within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-regions, with adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses examining associations with immune parameters and key demographics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa259DOI Listing

Leveraging a Landmark Trial of Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Introduction From the REPRIEVE Coprincipal Investigators.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S1-S7

Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) is the largest study of cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus. Enrolling 7770 participants from 2015 to 2019 with sites across 5 continents, REPRIEVE will assess the effects of a statin as a cardiovascular disease prevention strategy in people with HIV (PWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although the primary purpose of REPRIEVE, and its substudy assessing coronary plaque, is to assess cardiovascular outcomes, the trial is a rich source of data on population characteristics and critical comorbidities in PWH, particularly across Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions, reflective of the ethnic, racial, and gender diversity in this global epidemic. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa098DOI Listing

Characteristics of REPRIEVE Trial Participants Identifying Across the Transgender Spectrum.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S31-S40

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Because persons who identify across the transgender spectrum (PATS) are a key population in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) yet are underreported in HIV and cardiovascular research, we aimed to characterize this population within the REPRIEVE global clinical trial (n = 7770). Acceptance of gathering gender identity was high (96%). Participation by PATS was 1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa213DOI Listing

Correlates and Timing of Reproductive Aging Transitions in a Global Cohort of Midlife Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Insights From the REPRIEVE Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S20-S30

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Reproductive aging may contribute to cardiometabolic comorbid conditions. We integrated data on gynecologic history with levels of an ovarian reserve marker (anti-müllerian hormone [AMH)] to interrogate reproductive aging patterns and associated factors among a subset of cisgender women with human immunodeficiency virus (WWH) enrolled in the REPRIEVE trial.

Methods: A total of 1449 WWH were classified as premenopausal (n = 482) (menses within 12 months; AMH level ≥20 pg/mL; group 1), premenopausal with reduced ovarian reserve (n = 224) (menses within 12 months; AMH <20 pg/mL; group 2), or postmenopausal (n = 743) (no menses within12 months; AMH <20 pg/mL; group 3). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa214DOI Listing

Myocardial Steatosis Among Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Participating in the REPRIEVE Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S63-S69

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) face increased risks for heart failure and adverse heart failure outcomes. Myocardial steatosis predisposes to diastolic dysfunction, a heart failure precursor. We aimed to characterize myocardial steatosis and associated potential risk factors among a subset of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) participants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa245DOI Listing

Hepatitis B screening and vaccination status of healthcare providers in Wakiso district, Uganda.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235470. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Screening and vaccination against Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains the most effective intervention in curbing the disease. However, there is limited evidence on the factors associated with the uptake of these services in Uganda. This study determined the uptake of HBV screening and vaccination status, and associated factors among Healthcare Providers (HCPs) in Wakiso district, Uganda. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235470PLOS

Evidence-based beta blocker use associated with lower heart failure readmission and mortality, but not all-cause readmission, among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0233161. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America.

The beta blockers carvedilol, bisoprolol, and sustained-release metoprolol succinate reduce readmissions and mortality among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), based upon clinical trial and registry studies. Results from these studies may not generalize to the typical patient with HFrEF. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of beneficiaries in the Medicare 5% sample hospitalized for HFrEF between 2007 and 2013 and were discharged alive. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233161PLOS

Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of accelerometer measured physical activity levels of school-going children in Kampala city, Uganda.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235211. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Physical Education, Exercise and Sports Science, School of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: The current international physical activity guidelines for health recommend children to engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. Yet, accurate prevalence estimates of physical activity levels of children are unavailable in many African countries due to the dearth of accelerometer-measured physical activity data. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of accelerometer-measured physical activity among school-going children in Kampala city, Uganda. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235211PLOS

Exploring midwives' understanding of respectful maternal care in Kumasi, Ghana: Qualitative inquiry.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0220538. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Various aspects of disrespect and abusive maternity care have received scholarly attention because of frequent reports of the phenomenon in most healthcare facilities globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Experiences of disrespect and abuse during childbirth may dissuade women from returning for facility-based postpartum services, for antenatal care, and delivery for future pregnancies and births. Midwives' knowledge of respectful maternity care is critical in designing any interventive measures to address the menace of disrespect and abuse in maternity care. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220538PLOS

A spatio-temporal approach to short-term prediction of visceral leishmaniasis diagnoses in India.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jul 9;14(7):e0008422. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Disease and Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The elimination programme for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India has seen great progress, with total cases decreasing by over 80% since 2010 and many blocks now reporting zero cases from year to year. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is critical to continue progress and avoid epidemics in the increasingly susceptible population. Short-term forecasts could be used to highlight anomalies in incidence and support health service logistics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008422DOI Listing

Genetic and metabolomic architecture of variation in diet restriction-mediated lifespan extension in Drosophila.

PLoS Genet 2020 Jul 9;16(7):e1008835. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

In most organisms, dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan. However, several studies have found that genotypes within the same species vary widely in how they respond to DR. To explore the mechanisms underlying this variation, we exposed 178 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines to a DR or ad libitum (AL) diet, and measured a panel of 105 metabolites under both diets. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008835DOI Listing

Comparison of clinical features in FMF patients according to severity scores: An analysis with the ISSF scoring system.

Eur J Rheumatol 2020 Apr 1;7(2):68-70. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey.

Objective: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), is an auto-inflammatory disease characterized by attacks of fever and serositis. Some scoring systems have been developed to evaluate the severity of the disease, however, predicting the severity of FMF is not possible with current knowledge. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the factors affecting disease severity in FMF. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/eurjrheum.2020.19136DOI Listing

An unusual diagnosis of paravertebral lesions: mediastinal myelolipoma.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jul;48(7):300060520936972

Department of Pathology, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Background: Mediastinal myelolipoma is extremely rare. It is a benign nonfunctioning tumor composed of hematopoietic tissue and mature fatty tissue. Although computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are effective in diagnosing mediastinal myelolipoma, a definitive diagnosis is difficult to establish for rare extra-adrenal myelolipomas by imaging alone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520936972DOI Listing

Disease assimilation: The mortality impacts of fine particulate matter on immigrants to Canada.

Health Rep 2020 Jun;31(3):14-26

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Background: Immigrants make up 20% of the Canadian population; however, little is known about the mortality impacts of fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution on immigrants compared with non-immigrants, or about how impacts may change with duration in Canada.

Data And Methods: This study used the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort, a longitudinal cohort of 3.5 million individuals, of which 764,000 were classified as immigrants (foreign-born). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25318/82-003-x202000300002-engDOI Listing

A Neuromuscular-Based Analysis of the Open Payments Program.

Muscle Nerve 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Introduction: In August 2013, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Open Payments Program (OPP) made eligible payment information publicly available. Data about industry payments to neuromuscular neurologists is lacking.

Method: Financial relationships were investigated between industry and US neuromuscular neurologists from January 2014 through December 2018 using the CMS OPP database. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.27016DOI Listing

US Food and Drug Administration approvals for Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Potential inefficiencies in trial design and evidence generation.

Cancer 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The US Food and Drug Administration granted acalabrutinib approval as the second Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor to treat patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma as monotherapy or in combination with obinutuzumab. This approval was based on 2 phase 3 trials: ELEVATE-TN and ASCEND. There are several concerns with the design of these trials, including suboptimal treatment of patients in the control arm, expansion of the trial population, and lack of data regarding efficacy or tolerability compared with ibrutinib, a first-in-class drug. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33058DOI Listing

Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: sample size and power calculation for a dietary intervention trial with episodically consumed foods.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Dietary interventions often target foods that are underconsumed relative to dietary guidelines, such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Because these foods are only consumed episodically for some participants, data from such a study often contains a disproportionally large number of zeros due to study participants who do not consume any of the target foods on the days that dietary intake is assessed, thus generating semicontinuous data. These zeros need to be properly accounted for when calculating sample sizes to ensure that the study is adequately powered to detect a meaningful intervention effect size. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa176DOI Listing

Brain entropy and neurotrophic molecular markers accompanying clinical improvement after ketamine: Preliminary evidence in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression.

J Psychopharmacol 2020 Jul 9:269881120928203. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Background: Current theory suggests that treatment-resistant depression (TRD) involves impaired neuroplasticity resulting in cognitive and neural rigidity, and that clinical improvement may require increasing brain flexibility and adaptability.

Aims: In this hypothesis-generating study, we sought to identify preliminary evidence of brain flexibility correlates of clinical change within the context of an open-label ketamine trial in adolescents with TRD, focusing on two promising candidate markers of neural flexibility: (a) entropy of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals; and (b) insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and glycogen synthase-3-beta (GSK3β) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Methods: We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and blood samples from 13 adolescents with TRD before and after a series of six ketamine infusions over 2 weeks. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881120928203DOI Listing

Human genes differ by their UV sensitivity estimated through analysis of UV-induced silent mutations in melanoma.

Hum Mutat 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

We hypothesized that human genes differ by their sensitivity to UV exposure. We used somatic mutations detected by genome-wide screens in melanoma and reported in the Catalog Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer (COSMIC). As a measure of UV sensitivity, we used the number of silent mutations generated by C>T transitions in pyrimidine dimers of a given transcript divided by the number of potential sites for this type of mutations in the transcript. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24078DOI Listing

Therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions for nonmalignant central airway obstruction provide rapid and sustained improvement in symptoms and functional status.

Lung India 2020 Jul-Aug;37(4):295-299

Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Central airway obstruction (CAO) is a potentially lethal condition that requires urgent endobronchial intervention and may occur due to several nonmalignant causes. The effect of these interventions on clinically relevant outcomes such as symptomatic and functional status over a period of time is, however, sparsely studied.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive patients with CAO due to nonmalignant causes and undergoing various therapeutic bronchoscopy procedures were evaluated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_476_19DOI Listing

Semiparametric regression of the illness-death model with interval censored disease incidence time: An application to the ACLS data.

Stat Methods Med Res 2020 Jul 8:962280220939123. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

To investigate the effect of fitness on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality using the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, we develop a semiparametric illness-death model account for intermittent observations of the cardiovascular disease incidence time and the right censored data of all-cause mortality. The main challenge in estimation is to handle the intermittent observations (interval censoring) of cardiovascular disease incidence time and we develop a semiparametric estimation method based on the expectation-maximization algorithm for a Markov illness-death regression model. The variance of the parameters is estimated using profile likelihood methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0962280220939123DOI Listing

Delayed Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Administration after Chemotherapy Reduces Total G-CSF Doses without Affecting Neutrophil Recovery in a Randomized Clinical Study in Children with Solid Tumors.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 Jul 9:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

The use of G-CSF after myelotoxic chemotherapy accelerates neutrophil recovery reducing the risk of febrile neutropenia. Current guidelines recommend initiating G-CSF 24 hours after myelotoxic chemotherapy. However, the optimal timing of post-chemotherapy G-CSF administration has not been elucidated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2020.1779885DOI Listing

Progression and survival of patients with motor neuron disease relative to their fecal microbiota.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2020 Jul 9:1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Wesley Medical Research, The Wesley Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Gut microbiota studies have been well-investigated for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, however, fewer studies have comprehensively examined the gut microbiome in Motor Neuron Disease (MND), with none examining its impact on disease prognosis. Here, we investigate MND prognosis and the fecal microbiota, using 16S rRNA case-control data from 100 individuals with extensive medical histories and metabolic measurements. We contrast the composition and diversity of fecal microbiome signatures from 49 MND and 51 healthy controls by combining current gold-standard 16S microbiome pipelines. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2020.1772825DOI Listing

TRICALS: creating a highway toward a cure.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2020 Jul 9:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, UMC Utrecht Brain Centre, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

A change in our current approach toward drug development is required to improve the likelihood of finding effective treatment for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of the Treatment Research Initiative to Cure ALS (TRICALS) is to extend the collective effort with industry and consolidate drug development paths. TRICALS has begun a series of meetings on how to best move the field forward collaboratively, thereby addressing five major topics in ALS clinical trials: (1) preclinical research, (2) biomarker development, (3) eligibility criteria, (4) efficacy endpoints and (5) innovative trial design. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2020.1788092DOI Listing

Diagnostic value of point-of-care ultrasound in deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department.

J Clin Ultrasound 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Emergency Department, Yildirim Beyazit University Yenimahalle Training And Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been demonstrated as one of the primary diagnostic tools for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) screening in the emergency department, but there are quite different results in the literature regarding its diagnostic value. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic value of POCUS in DVT diagnosis.

Methods: Patients with a clinical suspicion of DVT who underwent POCUS and were monitored by the radiology department via ultrasonography (US) or venography for DVT were retrospectively examined. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.22892DOI Listing

Empirical use of causal inference methods to evaluate survival differences in a real-world registry vs those found in randomized clinical trials.

Stat Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

With heighted interest in causal inference based on real-world evidence, this empirical study sought to understand differences between the results of observational analyses and long-term randomized clinical trials. We hypothesized that patients deemed "eligible" for clinical trials would follow a different survival trajectory from those deemed "ineligible" and that this factor could partially explain results. In a large observational registry dataset, we estimated separate survival trajectories for hypothetically trial-eligible vs ineligible patients under both coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8581DOI Listing

Dissemination of Evidence-Based School Asthma Management Programs: Piloting Asthma 411 in an Urban Texas School District.

J Sch Health 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Director BECCA Lab & Research Associate Professor, University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, 418 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; Senior Fellow, SaferCare Texas, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX 76107.

Background: The dissemination and implementation (D&I) of evidence-based initiative (EBIs) is critical to improved public health. The Asthma 411 EBI was piloted in Texas from 2013 to 2015. The pilot's evaluation assessed its effectiveness and identified approaches to support D&I of school-health EBIs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josh.12909DOI Listing

The timing of adrenarche in Maya girls, Merida, Mexico.

Am J Hum Biol 2020 Jul 9:e23465. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.

Background: Adrenarche involves maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased production of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate ester, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). It occurs at ages 6 to 8 in industrialized populations, marking the transition from childhood to juvenility and cognitive development at middle childhood. Studies in subsistence level populations indicate a later age (8-9) for adrenarche, but only two such studies currently exist for comparison. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23465DOI Listing

Effects of a standardized community health worker intervention on hospitalization among disadvantaged patients with multiple chronic conditions: A pooled analysis of three clinical trials.

Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: To analyze the effects of a standardized community health worker (CHW) intervention on hospitalization.

Data Sources/study Setting: Pooled data from three randomized clinical trials (n = 1340) conducted between 2011 and 2016.

Study Design: The trials in this pooled analysis were conducted across diseases and settings, with a common study design, intervention, and outcome measures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13321DOI Listing

CT based quantitative measures of the stability of fractured metastatically involved vertebrae treated with spine stereotactic body radiotherapy.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Mechanical instability secondary to vertebral metastases can lead to pathologic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) mechanical pain, neurological compromise, and the need for surgical stabilization. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a treatment for spinal metastases is effective for pain and local tumor control, it has been associated with an increased risk of VCF. This study quantified computed tomography (CT) based stability measures in metastatic vertebrae with VCF treated with spine SBRT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-020-10049-9DOI Listing

Higher Monocyte Count is Associated with 30-Day Case Fatality in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Neurocrit Care 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 355 West 16th St, Suite 3200, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated neutrophils, monocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be associated with poor outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to determine whether white blood cell (WBC) types were independently associated with poor outcome in ICH in a large cohort.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of primary ICH at two academic centers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01040-zDOI Listing

Brief Report: Improving Employment Interview Self-efficacy Among Adults with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Using Virtual Interactive Training Agents (ViTA).

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biostatistics, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, 11200 S.W. 8th Street, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

This study evaluated the measurable impact of the use of virtual interactive training agents (ViTA) as a way to practice interviewing and gain confidence in responding to questions asked during job interviews. Of the total participants (n = 153), the majority were male (72.55%) with an average age of 21. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04571-8DOI Listing

The effects of zinc on radiation-induced dysgeusia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Support Care Cancer 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Many head and neck cancer patients who receive radiation therapy experience radiation-induced dysgeusia (RID), which has no standard treatment. The only supplement controlled clinical trials have evaluated for the treatment of RID is zinc. However, the results of these and other studies investigating the use of zinc for RID have been inconsistent. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05578-8DOI Listing