7,391 results match your criteria Biosecurity and bioterrorism : biodefense strategy practice and science[Journal]


First expert elicitation of knowledge on drivers of emergence of the COVID-19 in pets.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department for Occupational Protection and Hygiene, Unit Biosafety, Biosecurity and Environmental Licences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

Infection with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces the coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19). Its pandemic form in human population and its probable animal origin, along with recent case reports in pets, make drivers of emergence crucial in domestic carnivore pets, especially cats, dogs and ferrets. Few data are available in these species; we first listed forty-six possible drivers of emergence of COVID-19 in pets, regrouped in eight domains (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13724DOI Listing

Housing and Management of Turkey Flocks in Canada.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Animal Biosciences, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

An increased understanding of the turkey sector and how farmers manage flocks can help maintain and improve the health and welfare of turkeys. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among turkey farmers in Canada to gain information regarding general farm characteristics, housing aspects (incl. lighting, ventilation), litter management, feed and water management, flock characteristics, and flock health management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071159DOI Listing

(Re-)Designing Nature? An Overview and Outlook on the Ethical and Societal Challenges in Synthetic Biology.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Jun 7;3(6):e1800326. Epub 2019 May 7.

Chair of Systematic Theology II (Ethics), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Kochstraße 6, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

This structured literature analysis aims to map the current, emerging, and predicted future of synthetic biology (SB) by putting the focus on the implied conceptual, societal, and ethical challenges. The central objective of the analysis is to provide an initial systematization of the ethical and socio-scientific debate on SB by structuring and categorizing widely discussed issues within the debate in recent years. Starting with the quest for possible definitions, issues of biosafety and biosecurity are emphasized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800326DOI Listing

Reallocating budgets among ongoing and emerging conservation projects.

Conserv Biol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Conserving biodiversity and combating ecological hazards require cost-effective allocation of limited resources among potential management projects. Project priorities, however, can be both stochastic and dynamic over time as underlying social-ecological systems progress, novel priorities emerge, and management capabilities evolve. Thus, reallocation of ongoing investments in response to shifting priorities could improve management outcomes and address urgent demands, especially where additional funding is not available immediately. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13585DOI Listing

Revealing COVID-19 transmission in Australia by SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing and agent-based modeling.

Nat Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

In January 2020, a novel betacoronavirus (family Coronaviridae), named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the etiological agent of a cluster of pneumonia cases occurring in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The disease arising from SARS-CoV-2 infection, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), subsequently spread rapidly causing a worldwide pandemic. Here we examine the added value of near real-time genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in a subpopulation of infected patients during the first 10 weeks of COVID-19 containment in Australia and compare findings from genomic surveillance with predictions of a computational agent-based model (ABM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1000-7DOI Listing

Acute fibrinous pleuropneumonia and septicaemia caused by in neonatal calves in New Zealand.

N Z Vet J 2020 Jul 9:1-20. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

In July and August 2019, 15 of 40, ≤48-hour-old calves became acutely ill. The calves were all born on-farm, transferred to pens soon after birth, and fed with "gold' colostrum. The hygiene, biosecurity and ventilation in the pens were poor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2020.1792372DOI Listing

Cloning and characterization of Litopenaeus vannamei cystainB-like in WSSV infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Maricultural Organism Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao Key Laboratory of Mariculture Epidemiology and Biosecurity, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, China. Electronic address:

Cystatins B is an endogenous cysteine cathepsin inhibitor. In shrimp, cystatins B-like (CSTB-L) has not been characterized and its role in WSSV infection is largely unknown. In this study, a full-length 699 bp CSTB-L sequence with 291 bp open reading frame encoding a 96 amino acid from L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.07.008DOI Listing

Optimal surveillance against foot-and-mouth disease: A sample average approximation approach.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235969. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Agriculture, Animal Health Epidemiology, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Decisions surrounding the presence of infectious diseases are typically made in the face of considerable uncertainty. However, the development of models to guide these decisions has been substantially constrained by computational difficulty. This paper focuses on the case of finding the optimal level of surveillance against a highly infectious animal disease where time, space and randomness are fully considered. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235969PLOS

Knowledge, attitudes and management of bovine viral diarrhoea virus among eastern Australian cattle producers: results from a 2013 cross-sectional study.

Aust Vet J 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, 2678, Australia.

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically significant disease affecting the Australian cattle industry, with losses stemming from decreased production and reproductive performance and control costs. However, these losses can be difficult to appreciate, particularly in endemic regions. Overall, there is a variable but high herd-level seroprevalence in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avj.12988DOI Listing

Social distancing, social justice, and risk during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Can J Public Health 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Health Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, Room 222, Labatt Health Sciences Building, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9, Canada.

Social distancing is an important and necessary measure to help arrest the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it does place persons who are socially or politically marginalized, including those who are of lower socio-economic status, at risk of further harms. In other words, marginalized or disadvantaged persons are at risk of both contracting SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of harms that may come about because of the social distancing measures themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00354-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342548PMC

Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus by Jiegao and Mengding (Diptera: Culicidae) Strains in Yunnan Province in China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Vector Biology and Control, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Key Laboratory of Vector Borne and Natural Focus Infectious Diseases, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen classified in the genus of the family Flaviviridae. Vertical transmission is considered to be the primary way to maintain some arboviruses under adverse natural conditions, which play a critical epidemiological role in arbovirus spread and maintenance. is the primary vector for ZIKV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2581DOI Listing

Doping Control Analysis of Total Arsenic in Equine Plasma.

Drug Test Anal 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong, China.

Arsenic can be easily found in our surrounding environment. Due to its ubiquitous nature, horse urine and blood invariably contain low levels of arsenic. Nevertheless, inorganic arsenic, despite its general use as a tonic for horses, is an effective doping agent having a deleterious effect due to its ability to induce gastroenteritis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2896DOI Listing
July 2020
2.816 Impact Factor

Paratuberculosis: A Potential Zoonosis and a Neglected Disease in Africa.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 5;8(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda.

The subspecies (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, which is an economically important disease of ruminants. The zoonotic role of MAP in Crohn's disease and, to a lesser extent, in ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IIBD), has been debated for decades and evidence continues to mount in support of that hypothesis. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the current information on paratuberculosis in animals and the two major forms of IIBD in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071007DOI Listing

Biofilms-Impacts on Human Health and Its Relevance to Space Travel.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 3;8(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

As the world looks towards the stars, the impacts of endogenous and exogenous microorganisms on human health during long-duration space flight are subjects of increased interest within the space community. The presence and continued growth of bacterial biofilms about spacecraft has been documented for decades; however, the impact on crew health is in its infancy. The impacts of biofilms are well known in the medical, agricultural, commercial, and industrial spaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8070998DOI Listing

The antiproliferative profile of a linear octopus-derived peptide in melanoma of BRAF-mutation.

Toxicon 2020 Apr;177 Suppl 1:S2

Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Food, Madrid, E28049, Spain; QIMR Berghofer MRI, Queensland, 4006, Australia; Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Queensland, 4072, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Queensland, 4072, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Queensland, 4072, Australia; James Cook University, Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics and Centre for Biosecurity in Tropical Infectious Diseases, Cairns, 4811, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.10.014DOI Listing
April 2020
2.492 Impact Factor

Shifting to foot-and-mouth disease-free status without vaccination: Application of the PROMETHEE method to assist in the development of a foot-and-mouth national program in Uruguay.

Prev Vet Med 2020 Jun 29;181:105082. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental La Estanzuela, Colonia, Uruguay.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious, and the introduction of FMD virus in countries free of the disease can result in large epidemics, similar to those observed in the United Kingdom, Japan, and Uruguay. Many countries or regions of South America are recognized as "FMD-free with vaccination" or "FMD-free without vaccination." Uruguay has been certified as FMD-free with vaccination, and the transition to the status of FMD-free without vaccination has been discussed among the stakeholders of the Ministry of Livestock Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP in Spanish). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105082DOI Listing

Distribution and characteristics of Beilong virus among wild rodents and shrews in China.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 Jul 4:104454. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Vector Borne and Natural Focus Infectious Diseases, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Beilong virus (BeiV), a member of the newly recognized genus Jeilongvirus of family Paramyxoviridae, has been reported with limited geographic and host scopes, only in Hongkong, China and from two rat species. Here, by next-generation sequencing (NGS) on dominant wild small animal species in 4 provinces in China, we obtained a complete sequence of BeiV strain from Rattus norvegicus in Guangdong, neighboring HongKong, China. We then made an expanded epidemiological investigation in 11 provinces to obtain the geographic distribution and genetic features of this virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335238PMC

Bovine viral diarrhea virus: An updated American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement with focus on virus biology, hosts, immunosuppression, and vaccination.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, USA.

Control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle populations across most of the world has remained elusive in spite of advances in knowledge about this viral pathogen. A central feature of virus perseverance in cattle herds is the unique mechanism of persistent infection. Managing BVDV infection in herds involves controlling persistently infected carrier animals using a multidimensional approach of vaccination, biosecurity, and identification of BVDV reservoirs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15816DOI Listing

Inactivation of Piscine orthoreovirus.

J Fish Dis 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Piscine orthoreovirus infects various salmonid fish species, and the infection is associated with diseases such as heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). There are no vaccines available or genetically selected resistant hosts that can efficiently control piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection. Currently, the only prophylactic measure against PRV is general biosecurity measures aiming to break the transmission cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13214DOI Listing

Recovery and Genetic Characterization of a West Nile Virus Isolate from China.

Virol Sin 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Virology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS), Beijing, 100071, China.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important neurotropic flavivirus that is widely distributed globally. WNV strain XJ11129 was first isolated in Xinjiang, China, and its genetic and biological characteristics remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that XJ11129 belongs to lineage 1a and shares high genetic identity with the highly pathogenic strain NY99. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00246-xDOI Listing

Susceptibility of Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) to Zika virus through oral and urine infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jul 6;14(7):e0008450. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Vector Biology and Control, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) disease outbreaks have been occurring in South America since 2015, and has spread to North America. Because birth defects and cases of Guillain Barré have been associated with infection with ZIKV, this has drawn global attention. ZIKV is generally considered an Aedes-transmitted pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008450DOI Listing

Steam and Flame Applications as Novel Methods of Population Control for Invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

Environ Manage 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast, BT9 5DL, Northern Ireland, UK.

Control strategies for established populations of invasive alien species can be costly and complex endeavours, which are frequently unsuccessful. Therefore, rapid-reaction techniques that are capable of maximising efficacy whilst minimising environmental damage are urgently required. The Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774), and the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771), are invaders capable of adversely affecting the functioning and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01325-1DOI Listing

Research gap analysis on African swine fever.

EFSA J 2019 Aug 27;17(8):e05811. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

The most significant knowledge gaps in the prevention and control of African swine fever (ASF) were identified by the EU Veterinary services and other stakeholders involved in pig production and wild boar management through an online survey. The respondents were asked to identify the major research needs in order to improve short-term ASF risk management. Four major gaps were identified: 'wild boar', 'African swine fever virus (ASFV) survival and transmission', 'biosecurity' and 'surveillance'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009270PMC

Avian influenza overview August - November2019.

EFSA J 2019 Dec 20;17(12):e05988. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Between 16 August and 15 November 2019, one low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H5) outbreak in poultry in France was reported in Europe. Genetic characterisation reveals that the virusclusterswith Eurasian LPAI viruses. No highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in birds were notified in Europe in the relevant period for this report. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008850PMC
December 2019

New data on the aphid (Hemiptera, Aphididae) fauna of New Caledonia: some new biosecurity threats in a biodiversity hotspot.

Zookeys 2020 22;943:53-89. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Ottawa Research and Development Centre, K. W. Neatby Building 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1a 0c6, Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Ottawa Research and Development Centre Ottawa Canada.

Thirty-three species of aphids are now established in New Caledonia. All species appear to have been introduced accidentally by human activity in the last century. Here, 17 aphid species are recorded for the first time: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.943.47785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324436PMC

Reusing N95 (or P2) masks: current evidence and urgent research questions.

Med J Aust 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50694DOI Listing

Effect of Iodine and Selenium on Proliferation, Viability, and Oxidative Stress in HTR-8/SVneo Placental Cells.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia.

Adequate maternal micronutrition is vital for placental formation, fetal growth, and development. Oxidative stress adversely affects placental development and function and an association between deficient placental development, oxidative stress, and micronutrient deficiency has been observed. Selenium and iodine are two essential micronutrients with antioxidant properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02277-7DOI Listing

Emergency Surgery in Urology during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 Jul;46(suppl.1):201-206

"Los Olivos" Clinic Urology Service, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Proposal: To highlight the indications for emergency surgery during the 2019 Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) that support recommendations published in mid-March 2020 by the American Confederation of Urology on its website.

Materials And Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Library to perform a non-systematic review, using key words: Urology, Emergency and COVID-19, to determine recommendations for patients that should receive emergency care due to urological pathology.

Results: The main recommendations and protocols in the management of different urological emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic are reviewed and discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2020.S125DOI Listing

England's new covid-19 monitoring outfit: the Joint Biosecurity Centre.

Authors:
Richard Vize

BMJ 2020 07 2;370:m2604. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2604DOI Listing

Axl deficiency promotes the neuroinvasion of Japanese encephalitis virus by enhancing IL-1α production from pyroptotic macrophages.

J Virol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Microbiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE), which has an unclear pathogenesis. Despite vaccination, thousands of deaths attributed to JE are reported annually. In this study, we report that mice deficient for Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays multiple roles in flaviviral infection, displayed greater mortality upon JEV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00602-20DOI Listing

A retrospective cohort investigation of seroprevalence of Marburg virus and ebolaviruses in two different ecological zones in Uganda.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 1;20(1):461. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Background: Uganda has experienced seven Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks and four Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) outbreaks between 2000 and 2019. We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Marburg virus and ebolaviruses in gold mining communities around Kitaka gold mine in Western Uganda and compared them to non-mining communities in Central Uganda.

Methods: A questionnaire was administered and human blood samples were collected from three exposure groups in Western Uganda (gold miners, household members of miners, non-miners living within 50 km of Kitaka mine). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05187-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329513PMC

Blurred lines: integrating emerging technologies to advance plant biosecurity.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2020 Jun 28;56:127-134. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Electronic address:

Plant diseases threaten global food security and biodiversity. Rapid dispersal of pathogens particularly via human means has accelerated in recent years. Timely detection of plant pathogens is essential to limit their spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2020.04.011DOI Listing

In-transit fumigation of shipping containers with ethyl formate + nitrogen on road and continued journey on sea.

J Environ Sci Health B 2020 Jul 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

Fumigation is required as an appropriate biosecurity measure to exterminate insect pests in shipping containers. The aim of this study was to determine if ethyl formate (EF) + nitrogen could be safely applied as an in-transit fumigant for containers transported on land and then by sea. In-transit fumigation trials were conducted in four 20 ft shipping containers during a four-day journey in December 2019 in Western Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2020.1786328DOI Listing

Structural Genomics of -Carrying IncFIB Family pA1705-, P911021-, and P1642-, Multidrug-Resistant Plasmids from .

Infect Drug Resist 2020 22;13:1889-1903. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, People's Republic of China.

Background: Multidrug-resistant plasmids carrying replication genes have been widely present in various strains of and were found in plasmids belong to the IncFIB, but their detailed structural and genomic characterization was not reported yet. This is the first study that delivers structural and functional insights of and -carrying IncFIB plasmids.

Methods: strains A1705, 911021, and 1642 were isolated from the human urine samples and bronchoalveolar fluids collected from different hospitals of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S228704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319535PMC

Medically actionable pathogenic variants in a population of 13,131 healthy elderly individuals.

Genet Med 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn Institute for Data Science and Genomic Technology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: To measure the prevalence of medically actionable pathogenic variants (PVs) among a population of healthy elderly individuals.

Methods: We used targeted sequencing to detect pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 55 genes associated with autosomal dominant medically actionable conditions, among a population of 13,131 individuals aged 70 or older (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. Participants had no previous diagnosis or current symptoms of cardiovascular disease, physical disability or dementia, and no current diagnosis of life-threatening cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0881-7DOI Listing
July 2020
7.329 Impact Factor

Response to comment on: Parental opinions towards the "No Jab, No Pay" policy in Australia.

Vaccine 2020 Jul;38(33):5090

Biosecurity Program, Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.045DOI Listing

The Outcome of Porcine Foetal Infection with Bungowannah Virus is Dependent on the Stage of Gestation at Which Infection Occurs. Part 1: Serology and Virology.

Viruses 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Virology Laboratory, Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Menangle, NSW 2568, Australia.

Bungowannah virus is a novel porcine pestivirus identified in a disease outbreak in Australia in 2003. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of infection of the pregnant pig with this virus. Twenty-four pregnant pigs were infected at days 35, 55, 75 or 90 of gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060691DOI Listing

Using the Ultrasensitive Alere Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Ag HRP-2 Rapid Diagnostic Test in the Field and Clinic in Northeastern Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Med Biotech Laboratories, Kampala, Uganda.

The ultrasensitive Alere Malaria Ag histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test (Alere uRDT) is a new diagnostic tool which is more expensive than other malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) routinely used in Ugandan clinics. The manufacturer recommends testing samples within 2 days and scoring results after 20 minutes, which may be impractical in high-volume resource-poor clinics. We compared testing by the Alere Ag rapid diagnostic test (uRDT), CareStart RDT, microscopy, and an ultrasensitive I8S rRNA quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using survey and clinical samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0653DOI Listing

Light-Weight Portable Electroantennography Device as a Future Field-Based Tool for Applied Chemical Ecology.

J Chem Ecol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

New Zealand Forest Research (Scion), 10 Kyle Street, Riccarton, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Portable electroantennograms (pEAG) can further our understanding of odor plume dynamics and complement laboratory-based electroantennogram tools. pEAG's can help to address important questions such as the influence of plume structure on insect behavior, the active space of semiochemical-baited traps, and the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on this active space. Challenges associated with pEAGs include their miniaturization and sensitivity, confounding environmental odors, and processing of data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-020-01190-6DOI Listing

Characteristics of personal protective equipment training programs in Australia and New Zealand hospitals: A survey.

Infect Dis Health 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, 176 Hawkesbury Rd, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia; Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; The University of Sydney Westmead Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Using personal protective equipment (PPE) is one of several fundamental measures to prevent the transmission of infection and infectious diseases and is particularly pertinent in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Appropriate use of PPE by healthcare workers is, however, often suboptimal. Training and monitoring of PPE competency are essential components of an infection prevention and control program but there is a paucity of research and data on the content of such training programs across Australasia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idh.2020.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318937PMC

Host-Pathogen Responses to Pandemic Influenza H1N1pdm09 in a Human Respiratory Airway Model.

Viruses 2020 06 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Health and Biosecurity Business Unit, Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP), Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia.

The respiratory Influenza A Viruses (IAVs) and emerging zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pose a significant threat to human health. To accelerate our understanding of the host-pathogen response to respiratory viruses, the use of more complex in vitro systems such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture models has gained prominence as an alternative to animal models. NHBE cells were differentiated under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions to form an in vitro pseudostratified epithelium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060679DOI Listing

Using open-source intelligence to detect early signals of COVID-19 in China, Descriptive study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of New South Wales, Level 6 Wallace Wurth building,University of New South Wales, Sydney, Sydney, AU.

Background: COVID-19 in China was first reported to the World Health Organization on December 31st 2019. The first cases were officially identified around December 8th 2019. The origin of COVID-19 is not confirmed, but half the early cases were linked to a seafood market in Wuhan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18939DOI Listing

Regulations of Glycolytic Activities on Macrophages Functions in Tumor and Infectious Inflammation.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 12;10:287. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Regulation Biology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Macrophages differentiated into a classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated phenotype (M2) in infection and tumor, but the precise effects of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolic pathway remain unclear. Herein, the effects of glycolysis or OXPHOS on macrophage polarizations were investigated using a pharmacological approach in mice. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatments, which blocks the key enzyme hexokinase of glycolysis, efficiently inhibits a specific switch to M1 lineage, decreasing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expressions of co-stimulatory molecules associated with relieving infectious inflammation . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303283PMC

Saliva for Precision Dosing of Antifungal Drugs: Saliva Population PK Model for Voriconazole Based on a Systematic Review.

Front Pharmacol 2020 12;11:894. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Sydney Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Precision dosing for many antifungal drugs is now recommended. Saliva sampling is considered as a non-invasive alternative to plasma sampling for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, there are currently no clinically validated saliva models available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304296PMC

Biosafety and biosecurity approaches to restrain/contain and counter SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid-review.

Turk J Biol 2020 21;44(3):132-145. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing China.

Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases pose significant public health risks that are continuously haunting human civilization in the past several decades. Such emerging pathogens should be considered as a high threat to humans, animals, and environmental health. The year 2020 was welcomed by another significant virus from family called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/biy-2005-63DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314504PMC
June 2020
1.343 Impact Factor

Can natural gene drives be part of future fungal pathogen control strategies in plants?

New Phytol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Agriculture and Food, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Queensland, 4067, Australia.

Globally, fungal pathogens cause enormous crop losses and current control practices are not always effective, economical or environmentally sustainable. Tools enabling genetic management of wild pathogen populations could potentially solve many problems associated with plant diseases. A natural gene drive from a heterologous species can be used in the globally important cereal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, to remove pathogenic traits from contained populations of the fungus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16779DOI Listing

MRI signatures of brain age and disease over the lifespan based on a deep brain network and 14 468 individuals worldwide.

Brain 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Deep learning has emerged as a powerful approach to constructing imaging signatures of normal brain ageing as well as of various neuropathological processes associated with brain diseases. In particular, MRI-derived brain age has been used as a comprehensive biomarker of brain health that can identify both advanced and resilient ageing individuals via deviations from typical brain ageing. Imaging signatures of various brain diseases, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, have also been identified using machine learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa160DOI Listing

Index and targeted community-based testing to optimize HIV case finding and ART linkage among men in Zambia.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jun;23 Suppl 2:e25520

Maryland Global Initiatives Corporation Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.

Introduction: Current healthcare systems fail to provide adequate HIV services to men. In Zambia, 25% of adult men living with HIV were unaware of their HIV status in 2018, and 12% of those who were unaware of their HIV statu were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to pervasive barriers to HIV testing services (HTS) and linkage to ART. To identify men and key and priority populations living with HIV in Zambia, and link them to care and treatment, we implemented the Community Impact to Reach Key and Underserved Individuals for Treatment and Support (CIRKUITS) project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319128PMC

Scientists' warning on invasive alien species.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, 7602, South Africa.

Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species - the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods - are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are exacerbating current invasions and facilitating new ones, thereby escalating the extent and impacts of invaders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12627DOI Listing

Geographical variation in the risk of H7N9 human infections in China: implications for risk-based surveillance.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 25;10(1):10372. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The influenza A (H7N9) subtype remains a public health problem in China affecting individuals in contact with live poultry, particularly at live bird markets. Despite enhanced surveillance and biosecurity at LBMs H7N9 viruses are now more widespread in China. This study aims to quantify the temporal relationship between poultry surveillance results and the onset of human H7N9 infections during 2013-2017 and to estimate risk factors associated with geographical risk of H7N9 human infections in counties in Southeast China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66359-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316858PMC