166 results match your criteria Bioscience[Journal]


Progress toward Equitably Managed Protected Areas in Aichi Target 11: A Global Survey.

Bioscience 2019 Mar 2;69(3):191-197. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Center for Macroecology, Evolution, and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

The Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi Target 11 requires its 193 signatory parties to incorporate social equity into protected area (PA) management by 2020. However, there is limited evidence of progress toward this commitment. We surveyed PA managers, staff, and community representatives involved in the management of 225 PAs worldwide to gather information against 10 equity criteria, including the distribution of benefits and burdens, recognition of rights, diversity of cultural and knowledge systems, and processes of participation in decision-making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429033PMC

Using Semistructured Surveys to Improve Citizen Science Data for Monitoring Biodiversity.

Bioscience 2019 Mar 18;69(3):170-179. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Natural History at the Florida Museum of Natural History and with the University of Florida's Biodiversity and Genetic Institutes, at the University of Florida, in Gainsville.

Biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate, and monitoring is crucial for understanding the causal drivers and assessing solutions. Most biodiversity monitoring data are collected by volunteers through citizen science projects, and often crucial information is lacking to account for the inevitable biases that observers introduce during data collection. We contend that citizen science projects intended to support biodiversity monitoring must gather information about the observation process as well as species occurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422830PMC

Independent Scientific Review under the Endangered Species Act.

Bioscience 2019 Mar 13;69(3):198-208. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Nossaman LLP, Irvine, California.

The directive from Congress in the Endangered Species Act obliging the US Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service along with other federal agencies to use the best available scientific information in their determinations-and calls from stakeholder communities to show that they have done so-have led the federal wildlife agencies to seek external, expert review of their determinations with increasing frequency over time. In the present article, we survey the agency determinations that may be subject to independent science review and the technical tasks embedded in those determinations that can benefit from such review. We go on to identify common failures in scientific review that compromise the quality and reliability of agency determinations and then describe the attributes of independent scientific reviews that enable the agencies to discharge their statutory duties while seeking to conserve threatened and endangered species and the ecosystems on which they depend. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/69/3/198/5308141
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422828PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Food Inequality, Injustice, and Rights.

Bioscience 2019 Mar 27;69(3):180-190. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

As humanity continues to grow in size, questions related to human rights and the existing unequal distribution of food resources have taken on greater urgency. Is inequality in food access unjust or a regrettable consequence of the geographic distribution of biophysical resources? To what extent are there obligations to redress inequalities in access to food? We draw from a human rights perspective to identify obligations associated with access to food and develop a quantitative framework to evaluate the fulfillment of the human right to food. We discuss the capacity of socioeconomic development to reduce inequalities in per capita food availability with respect to the distribution of biophysical resources among countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422829PMC
March 2019
1 Read

The Ethics of Eliminating Harmful Species: The Case of the Tsetse Fly.

Bioscience 2019 Feb 19;69(2):125-135. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State University, in Corvallis.

Wildlife species harmful to humans are often targets of control and elimination programs. A contemporary example is the tsetse fly, a vector of sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis. Tsetse flies have recently been targeted by a pan-African eradication campaign. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377282PMC
February 2019

From CREATE Workshop to Course Implementation: Examining Downstream Impacts on Teaching Practices and Student Learning at 4-Year Institutions.

Bioscience 2019 Jan 10;69(1):47-58. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Professor of biology at City College of the City University of New York.

The faculty workshop model has long been used for disseminating innovative methods in STEM education. Despite significant investments by researchers and funding agencies, there is a dearth of evidence regarding downstream impacts of faculty development. CREATE is an evidence-based strategy for teaching science using primary literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327835PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Conceptualizing Ecological Responses to Dam Removal: If You Remove It, What's to Come?

Bioscience 2019 Jan 10;69(1):26-39. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

American Rivers, in Washington DC.

One of the desired outcomes of dam decommissioning and removal is the recovery of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. To investigate this common objective, we synthesized information from empirical studies and ecological theory into conceptual models that depict key physical and biological links driving ecological responses to removing dams. We define models for three distinct spatial domains: upstream of the former reservoir, within the reservoir, and downstream of the removed dam. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327834PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Collaboration Matters: Honey Bee Health as a Transdisciplinary Model for Understanding Real-World Complexity.

Bioscience 2018 Dec 10;68(12):990-995. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Beekeepers.

We develop a transdisciplinary deliberative model that moves beyond traditional scientific collaborations to include nonscientists in designing complexity-oriented research. We use the case of declining honey bee health as an exemplar of complex real-world problems requiring cross-disciplinary intervention. Honey bees are important pollinators of the fruits and vegetables we eat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278639PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Corrigendum: Rethinking Living Fossils.

Bioscience 2018 Nov 29;68(11):926. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Philosophy and the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biy084.]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238963PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Poetry as a Creative Practice to Enhance Engagement and Learning in Conservation Science.

Bioscience 2018 Nov 4;68(11):905-911. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Environmental Science and Policy Department at George Mason University, in Fairfax, Virginia.

Creativity is crucial to the capacity to do science well, to communicate it in compelling ways, and to enhance learning. Creativity can be both practiced and enhanced to strengthen conservation science professionals' efforts to address global environmental challenges. We explore how poetry is one creative approach that can further conservation scientists' engagement and learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238961PMC
November 2018
14 Reads

Temperature-Driven Biodiversity Change: Disentangling Space and Time.

Bioscience 2018 Nov 19;68(11):873-884. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Associate professor and Canada research chair in marine physiological ecology at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Temperature regimes have multiple spatial and temporal dimensions that have different impacts on biodiversity. Signatures of warming across these dimensions may contribute uniquely to the large-scale species redistributions and abundance changes that underpin community dynamics. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals that 86% of studies were focused on community responses to temperature aggregated over spatial or temporal dimensions (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238962PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Recent History of : Vector Genomics and Epidemiology Records.

Bioscience 2018 Nov 31;68(11):854-860. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut.

Aedes aegypti bears the common name "the yellow fever mosquito," although, today, it is of more concern as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya, and, most recently, Zika viruses. In the present article, we review recent work on the population genetics of this mosquito in efforts to reconstruct its recent (approximately 600 years) history and relate these findings to epidemiological records of occurrences of diseases transmitted by this species. The two sources of information are remarkably congruent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238964PMC
November 2018
27 Reads

Rethinking Living Fossils.

Bioscience 2018 Oct 15;68(10):760-770. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Philosophy and the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Biologists would be mistaken if they relegated living fossils to paleontological inquiry or assumed that the concept is dead. It is now used to describe entities ranging from viruses to higher taxa, despite recent warnings of misleading inferences. Current work on character evolution illustrates how analyzing living fossils and stasis in terms of parts (characters) and wholes (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6203082PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Theory Meets Empiry: A Citation Network Analysis.

Bioscience 2018 Oct 22;68(10):805-812. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Institut de Mathématiques de Marseille, France, which is a mixed research unit of Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, and Centrale Marseille.

According to a recent survey, ecologists and evolutionary biologists feel that theoretical and empirical research should coexist in a tight feedback loop but believe that the two domains actually interact very little. We evaluate this perception using a citation network analysis for two data sets, representing the literature on sexual selection and speciation. Overall, 54%-60% of citations come from a paper's own category, whereas 17%-23% are citations across categories. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/68/10/805/507565
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195343PMC
October 2018
15 Reads

Making Stream Restoration More Sustainable: A Geomorphically, Ecologically, and Socioeconomically Principled Approach to Bridge the Practice with the Science.

Authors:
Robert J Hawley

Bioscience 2018 Jul 13;68(7):517-528. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

The principal at Sustainable Streams, LLC, in Louisville, Kentucky. He is an experienced stream restoration designer and licensed professional engineer in several states, including active projects funded through the Fee-In-Lieu-Of (FILO) Stream Mitigation Program in Kentucky, as well as 303(d) grant-funded projects and projects with Municipal and private clients.

Despite large advances in the state of the science of stream ecology and river mechanics, the practitioner-driven field of stream restoration remains plagued by narrowly focused projects that sometimes even fail to improve aquatic habitat or geomorphic stability-two nearly universal project goals. The intent of this article is to provide an accessible framework that bridges that gap between the current state of practice and a more geomorphically robust and ecologically holistic foundation that also provides better accounting of socioeconomic factors in support of more sustainable stream restoration outcomes. It points to several more comprehensive design references and presents some simple strategies that could be used to protect against common failure mechanisms of ubiquitous design approaches (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037085PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Evidence-Based Causal Chains for Linking Health, Development, and Conservation Actions.

Bioscience 2018 Mar 21;68(3):182-193. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

The Nature Conservancy, in Arlington, Virginia.

Sustainability challenges for nature and people are complex and interconnected, such that effective solutions require approaches and a common theory of change that bridge disparate disciplines and sectors. Causal chains offer promising approaches to achieving an integrated understanding of how actions affect ecosystems, the goods and services they provide, and ultimately, human well-being. Although causal chains and their variants are common tools across disciplines, their use remains highly inconsistent, limiting their ability to support and create a shared evidence base for joint actions. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/68/3/182/4850537
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019009PMC
March 2018
20 Reads

A Science Products Inventory for Citizen-Science Planning and Evaluation.

Bioscience 2018 Jun 5;68(6):436-444. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

US Geological Survey, in Tucson, Arizona.

Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972590PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

A Science Products Inventory for Citizen-Science Planning and Evaluation.

Bioscience 2018 Jun 5;68(6):436-444. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

US Geological Survey, in Tucson, Arizona.

Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioscience/biy028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972569PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

From Bottleneck to Breakthrough: Urbanization and the Future of Biodiversity Conservation.

Bioscience 2018 Jun 22;68(6):412-426. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Living Landscapes Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, US.

For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy. Building on the scholarship of others in demography, economics, sociology, and conservation biology, here, we articulate a theory of social-environmental change that describes the simultaneous and interacting effects of urban lifestyles on fertility, poverty alleviation, and ideation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972570PMC
June 2018
6 Reads
5.380 Impact Factor

Addressing Criticisms of Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas.

Bioscience 2018 May 5;68(5):359-370. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Professor at the Environment Department at the University of York, in the United Kingdom.

Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925769PMC
May 2018
8 Reads

A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation.

Bioscience 2018 May 18;68(5):336-347. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Professor at the University of Oxford's Department of Zoology, in Oxford, United Kingdom.

Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925785PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Educating as if Survival Matters.

Bioscience 2018 May 22;68(5):324-326. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Associate professor in the School of Integrative Studies, George Mason University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925772PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Population Abundance and Ecosystem Service Provision: The Case of Birds.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 7;68(4):264-272. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Environmental and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

Although there is a diversity of concerns about recent persistent declines in the abundances of many species, the implications for the associated delivery of ecosystem services to people are surprisingly poorly understood. In principle, there are a broad range of potential functional relationships between the abundance of a species or group of species and the magnitude of ecosystem-service provision. Here, we identify the forms these relationships are most likely to take. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5905662PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

Corrigendum: Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 28;68(4):237. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/bix133.]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894075PMC
April 2018
9 Reads

Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 21;68(4):294-304. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Peoria, Illinois.

Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894082PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 29;68(4):281-287. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park.

Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/68/4/281/4644513
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894087PMC
April 2018
15 Reads

The Nitrogen Balancing Act: Tracking the Environmental Performance of Food Production.

Bioscience 2018 Mar 7;68(3):194-203. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Soil and Crop Sciences Section of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Farmers, food supply-chain entities, and policymakers need a simple but robust indicator to demonstrate progress toward reducing nitrogen pollution associated with food production. We show that nitrogen balance-the difference between nitrogen inputs and nitrogen outputs in an agricultural production system-is a robust measure of nitrogen losses that is simple to calculate, easily understood, and based on readily available farm data. Nitrogen balance provides farmers with a means of demonstrating to an increasingly concerned public that they are succeeding in reducing nitrogen losses while also improving the overall sustainability of their farming operation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894078PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Urban Mind: Using Smartphone Technologies to Investigate the Impact of Nature on Mental Well-Being in Real Time.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 10;68(2):134-145. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Reader, PhD student at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King's College London, United Kingdom.

Existing evidence on the beneficial effects of nature on mental health comes from studies using cross-sectional designs. We developed a smartphone-based tool (Urban Mind; ) to examine how exposure to natural features within the built environment affects mental well-being in real time. The tool was used to monitor 108 individuals who completed 3013 assessments over a 1-week period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862247PMC
February 2018
13 Reads

Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio): The Biocollections Community's Citizen-Science Space on the Calendar.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 17;68(2):112-124. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Department of Biological Science at Florida State University, in Tallahassee.

The digitization of biocollections is a critical task with direct implications for the global community who use the data for research and education. Recent innovations to involve citizen scientists in digitization increase awareness of the value of biodiversity specimens; advance science, technology, engineering, and math literacy; and build sustainability for digitization. In support of these activities, we launched the first global citizen-science event focused on the digitization of biodiversity specimens: Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862351PMC
February 2018
32 Reads

The Future of Landscape Conservation.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 6;68(2):60-63. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

The Nature Conservancy, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862361PMC
February 2018
10 Reads

Global Biodiversity Threatened by Science Budget Cuts in Brazil.

Bioscience 2018 Jan 7;68(1):11-12. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Gerhard E. Overbeck is affiliated with the Departamento de Botânica at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Helena Godoy Bergallo is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Carlos E. V. Grelle is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. William E. Magnusson is affiliated with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Alberto Akama is affiliated with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Guarino R. Colli is affiliated with the Departamento de Zoologia at the Universidade de Brasília, in Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Walfrido Moraes Tomas is affiliated with the Laboratório de Vida Selvagem of the Embrapa Pantanal, in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Freddy Bravo is affiliated with the Departamento de Ciências Biológicas at the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. G. Wilson Fernandes is affiliated with the Laboratório de Ecologia Evolutiva e Biodiversidade at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The authors are coordinators of the regional networks of Brazil's PPBio program.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862352PMC
January 2018
9 Reads

Shipbuilding Docks as Experimental Systems for Realistic Assessments of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Organisms.

Bioscience 2017 Sep 6;67(9):853-859. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Rick Bruintjes Fiona Birch, Jessica Lister, Charles R. Tyler, and Stephen D. Simpson are affiliated with the Department of Biosciences in the College of Life and Environmental Sciences at the University of Exeter, in the United Kingdom. RB, Tom Benson, Kate Rossington, and Diane Jones are affiliated with HR Wallingford, in Wallingford, United Kingdom. Harry R. Harding, Tom Bunce, and Andrew N. Radford are with the School of Biological Science at the University of Bristol, in the United Kingdom; HRH is also affiliated with Marine Scotland, in Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Ilaria Spiga is with the School of Marine Science and Technology at the University of Newcastle, in the United Kingdom.

Empirical investigations of the impacts of anthropogenic stressors on marine organisms are typically performed under controlled laboratory conditions, onshore mesocosms, or via offshore experiments with realistic (but uncontrolled) environmental variation. These approaches have merits, but onshore setups are generally small sized and fail to recreate natural stressor fields, whereas offshore studies are often compromised by confounding factors. We suggest the use of flooded shipbuilding docks to allow studying realistic exposure to stressors and their impacts on the intra- and interspecific responses of animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862249PMC
September 2017
8 Reads

International Wildlife Law: Understanding and Enhancing Its Role in Conservation.

Bioscience 2017 Sep 8;67(9):784-790. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Arie Trouwborst is affiliated with the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University, in The Netherlands. Andrew Blackmore is affiliated with Scientific Services, Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, in Cascades, South Africa. Luigi Boitani is affiliated with the Department of Biology and Biotechnology at the Sapienza University of Rome, in Italy. Michael Bowman is affiliated with the Treaty Center in the School of Law at the University of Nottingham, in the United Kingdom. Richard Caddell is affiliated with the Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea at Utrecht University, in The Netherlands. Guillaume Chapron is affiliated with the Grimsö Wildlife Research Station at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Riddarhyttan. An Cliquet is affiliated with the Department of European, Public, and International Law at Ghent University, in Belgium. Ed Couzens is affiliated with the Australian Centre for Climate and Environmental Law, Sydney Law School, at the University of Sydney, in Australia. Yaffa Epstein is affiliated with the Department of Law at Uppsala University, in Sweden. Eladio Fernández-Galiano is affiliated with the Council of Europe, in Strasbourg, France. Floor M. Fleurke is affiliated with the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University, in The Netherlands. Royal Gardner is affiliated with the Institute for Biodiversity Law and Policy at Stetson University, in Gulfport, Florida. Luke Hunter is affiliated with Panthera, in New York, New York. Kim Jacobsen is affiliated with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) at University of Oxford, in Tubney, the United Kingdom. Miha Krofel is affiliated with the Department of Forestry at the University of Ljubljana, in Slovenia. Melissa Lewis is affiliated with the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University, in The Netherlands. José Vicente López-Bao is affiliated with the Research Unit of Biodiversity at Oviedo University, in Mieres, Spain. David Macdonald is with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) at University of Oxford, in Tubney, United Kingdom. Stephen Redpath is with the Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences at the University of Aberdeen, in the United Kingdom. Geoffrey Wandesforde-Smith is with the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Davis. John D. C. Linnell is affiliated with the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), in Trondheim.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862276PMC
September 2017
13 Reads

Corrigendum: Assessing National Biodiversity Trends for Rocky and Coral Reefs through the Integration of Citizen Science and Scientific Monitoring Programs.

Bioscience 2017 Aug 13;67(8):774. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Rick D. Stuart-Smith Graham J. Edgar, Neville S. Barrett, Nicholas J. Bax, Just Berkhout, Julia L. Blanchard, Antonia T. Cooper, Paul B. Day, Stuart Kininmonth, and Scott D. Ling are affiliated with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Amanda E. Bates is with Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom. Susan C. Baker is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Mikel A. Becerro is with the BITES Lab of the Natural Products and Agrobiology Institute (IPNA-CSIC), in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Daniel J. Brock is affiliated with the Science, Monitoring, and Knowledge Branch of South Australia's Department of Environment, Water, and Natural Resources, in Adelaide. Graeme F. Clark is with the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Tom R. Davis is with the National Marine Science Centre at Southern Cross University, in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. J. Emmett Duffy is affiliated with the Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network of the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Thomas H. Holmes is affiliated with the Marine Science Program, Science and Conservation Division, Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Kensington, Australia, and with the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley, Australia. Steffan A. Howe is with Parks Victoria, in Melbourne, Australia. Alan Jordan is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Nelson Bay, Australia. Nathan A. Knott is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Huskisson, Australia. Jonathan S. Lefcheck is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Amanda Parr is affiliated with Parks Australia, in Kingston, Tasmania, Australia. Elisabeth Strain is with the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, in Mosman, New South Wales, Australia. Hugh Sweatman is affiliated with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Russell Thomson is with the Centre for Research in Mathematics in the School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics at Western Sydney University, in Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biw180.]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862261PMC
August 2017
24 Reads

Google Haul Out: Earth Observation Imagery and Digital Aerial Surveys in Coastal Wildlife Management and Abundance Estimation.

Bioscience 2017 Aug 14;67(8):760-768. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Jerry H. Moxley completed this work during his dissertation at the Duke University Marine Lab, a division of the Nicholas School of the Environment in Beaufort, NC USA. He is currently a research scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, CA USA. Andrea Bogomolni is affiliated with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, in Woods Hole, USA. Mike O. Hammill is affiliated with the Maurice-Lamontagne Institute, in Department of Fisheries and Oceans, in Mont-Joli, Canada. Kathleen M.T. Moore is affiliated with the Marine Mammal Rescue and Research Program, at International Fund for Animal Welfare, in Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts, USA. Michael J. Polito is affiliated with the Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, at Louisiana State University, in Baton Rouge, USA. Lisa Sette is affiliated with the Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies, in Provincetown, USA. W. Brian Sharp is affiliated with the Marine Mammal Rescue and Research Program, at International Fund for Animal Welfare, in Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts, USA. Gordon T. Waring is affiliated with the Protected Species Branch, retired, at Northeast Fisheries Science Center, in Woods Hole, USA. James R. Gilbert is affiliated with the Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Conservation Biology, emeritus, at University of Maine, in Orono, USA. Patrick N. Halpin is affiliated with the Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab, at Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, in Durham, USA. David W. Johnston is affiliated with the Division of Marine Science and Conservation, at Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine Lab, in Beaufort, USA.

As the sampling frequency and resolution of Earth observation imagery increase, there are growing opportunities for novel applications in population monitoring. New methods are required to apply established analytical approaches to data collected from new observation platforms (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862293PMC
August 2017
10 Reads

Grant-Writing Bootcamp: An Intervention to Enhance the Research Capacity of Academic Women in STEM.

Bioscience 2017 Jul 7;67(7):638-645. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Jessi L. Smith is a professor in the Department of Psychology, Chatanika Stoop is a grant training coordinator with the Center for Faculty Excellence of the Office of the Provost, Micaela Young is a pre-award specialist with the Office of Sponsored Programs, Rebecca Belou is an equity-data analyst with the Office of Planning and Analysis, and Suzanne Held is a professor in the Department of Health and Human Development at Montana State University, in Bozeman.

Broadening the participation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) fields is more than a social-justice issue; diversity is paramount to a thriving national research agenda. However, women face several obstacles to fully actualizing their research potential. Enhancing the research capacity and opportunity of women faculty requires purposeful changes in university practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862288PMC
July 2017
4 Reads

Society Is Ready for a New Kind of Science-Is Academia?

Bioscience 2017 Jul 24;67(7):591-592. Epub 2017 May 24.

Bonnie L. Keeler is with the Natural Capital Project at the Institute on the Environment at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer and Anne D. Guerry are with the Natural Capital Project at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment in Stanford, California. ADG is also affiliated with the Natural Capital Project at the School of Environment and Forest Sciences at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Prue F. E. Addison is with the Interdisciplinary Centre for Conservation Science, Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom. Charles Bettigole, Ingrid C. Burke, and Brad Gentry are with the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut. Lauren Chambliss and Carrie Young are with the Department of Communication and Alexander J. Travis is with the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York. Chris T. Darimont is with the Department of Geography at the University of Victoria, and with the Raincoast Conservation Foundation, in British Columbia, Canada. Doria R. Gordon is with the Environmental Defense Fund, in Washington, DC, and the Department of Biology at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, Florida. Jessica Hellmann is with the Institute on the Environment at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Peter Kareiva is with the Institute on Environment and Sustainability at the University of California, Los Angeles. Steve Monfort is with the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, in Washington, DC. Lydia Olander and Tim Profeta are with the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina. Hugh P. Possingham is with The Nature Conservancy, in Arlington, Virginia, and with the Center of Excellence for Enviromental Decisions at the University of Queensland, in Brisbane, Australia. Carissa Slotterback is with the Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis. Eleanor Sterling is with the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, New York. Tamara Ticktin is with the Department of Botany at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, in Honolulu, Hawaii. Bhaskar Vira is with the University of Cambridge Conservation Research Institute, and the Department of Geography, at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862262PMC
July 2017
20 Reads

Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat.

Bioscience 2017 Oct 20;67(10):919-927. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Dr. Sonja Jähnig is a group leader, Vanessa Bremerich a technician, Dr. Jörg Freyhof a project leader, Dr. Simone D. Langhans a postdoctoral researcher, and Fengzhi He a doctoral student at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, in Berlin, Germany; FH is also affiliated with the Institute of Biology at Freie Universität Berlin. Dr. Savrina F. Carrizo was a program officer with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Species Programme's Freshwater Biodiversity Unit at the time of this research. Dr. Ian Harrison is working for the IUCN Freshwater Fish Specialist Group, in Flagstaff, Arizona. Professor Klement Tockner currently serves as the president of the Austrian Science Fund, in Vienna. Dr. Christiane Zarfl is a junior professor at the Center for Applied Geosciences at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, in Germany. Dr. William Darwall is the head of the IUCN Global Species Programme's Freshwater Biodiversity Unit, in Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862257PMC
October 2017
5 Reads

From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks.

Bioscience 2017 Oct 28;67(10):912-918. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Silke Bauer is affiliated with the Swiss Ornithological Institute, in Sempach, Switzerland. Jason W. Chapman is affiliated with the Centre for Ecology and Conservation and with the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom. Don R. Reynolds is with the Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich, in Chatham, United Kingdom. José A. Alves is affiliated with CESAM at the University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, in Portugal, and with the South Iceland Research Centre at the University of Iceland, in Selfoss. Adriaan M. Dokter and Judy Shamoun-Baranes are affiliated with the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics at the University of Amsterdam, in The Netherlands. AMD is also affiliated with the Lab of Ornithology at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York. Myles M. H. Menz is affiliated with the Institute of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Bern, in Switzerland, and with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley. Nir Sapir is with the Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology at the University of Haifa, in Israel. Michał Ciach is affiliated with the Department of Forest Biodiversity at the University of Agriculture, in Krakow, Poland. Lars B. Pettersson is with the Biodiversity Unit, Department of Biology, at the University of Lund, in Sweden. Jeffrey F. Kelly is affiliated with the Oklahoma Biological Survey and the Department of Biology at the University of Oklahoma, in Norman. Hidde Leijnse is with the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, in De Bilt, The Netherlands.

Migratory animals provide a multitude of services and disservices-with benefits or costs in the order of billions of dollars annually. Monitoring, quantifying, and forecasting migrations across continents could assist diverse stakeholders in utilizing migrant services, reducing disservices, or mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Radars are powerful tools for such monitoring as they can assess directional intensities, such as migration traffic rates, and biomass transported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862237PMC
October 2017
10 Reads

The Multitrophic Effects of Climate Change and Glacier Retreat in Mountain Rivers.

Bioscience 2017 Oct 20;67(10):897-911. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Sarah Fell is a PhD student studying alpine-river ecosystem response to glacier retreat. Dr. Lee Brown is an associate professor of aquatic science with a research interest in the population and community ecology, hydrology, and geomorphology of cold-environment river systems. Dr. Jonathan Carrivick is a senior lecturer in geomorphology, with a research focus spanning Earth-surface processes and landforms in polar, Arctic, and alpine environments. All authors are affiliated with the School of Geography and water@leeds at the University of Leeds, in the United Kingdom.

Climate change is driving the thinning and retreat of many glaciers globally. Reductions of ice-melt inputs to mountain rivers are changing their physicochemical characteristics and, in turn, aquatic communities. Glacier-fed rivers can serve as model systems for investigations of climate-change effects on ecosystems because of their strong atmospheric-cryospheric links, high biodiversity of multiple taxonomic groups, and significant conservation interest concerning endemic species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862337PMC
October 2017
4 Reads

An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 5;67(6):534-545. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Eric Dinerstein David Olson, Carly Vynne Eric Wikramanayake, Nathan Hahn, Suzanne Palminteri, Lori Price, and Nadia de Souza are conservation biologists at RESOLVE's Biodiversity and Wildlife Solutions Program, in Washington, DC. Anup Joshi is a research associate and program coordinator at the Conservation Biology Program at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Neil D. Burgess and Yara Shennan-Farpón are with the Science Programme at the United Nations Environment Program-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Prashant Hedao is in the Geography Graduate Group at the University of California, Davis. Reed Noss is a professor of biological sciences at the University of Central Florida, in Orlando. Matthew Hansen is a remote sensing scientist at the University of Maryland, in College Park. Harvey Locke is cofounder of the Nature Needs Half Movement and cofounder and strategic advisor of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative, in Banff, Alberta. Erle C. Ellis is a professor of geography and environmental systems at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Charles Victor Barber is the director of the Forest Legality Initiative, Crystal Davis is the director of Global Forest Watch, and Benjamin Jones is a senior fellow at World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Randy Hayes is the executive director of Foundation Earth, in Washington, DC. Cyril Kormos and Vance Martin are vice president for policy and president, respectively, at the Wild Foundation, in Boulder, Colorado. Eileen Crist is an associate professor in the Department of Science and Technology in Society at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Wes Sechrest is the chief scientist and CEO at Global Wildlife Conservation, in Austin, Texas. Jonathan E. M. Baillie is chief scientist and senior vice president at National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. Don Weeden is the executive director of the Weeden Foundation, in Bedford Hills, New York. Kierán Suckling is the executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity, in Tucson, Arizona. Nigel Sizer is president of the Rainforest Alliance, in New York. Rebecca Moore, David Thau, and Tanya Birch are with the Google Earth Outreach and Google Earth Engine programs, in Mountain View, California. Lilian Pintea is the vice president for science at the Jane Goodall Institute, in Vienna, Virginia. José C. Brito is a researcher with CIBIO-InBIO, in Vairão, Portugal. Othman A. Llewellyn is an environmental planner in the Department of Protected Area Planning at the Saudi Wildlife Authority, in Saudi Arabia. Anthony G. Miller is the director of the Centre for Middle Eastern Plants at the Royal Botanic Garden, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Annette Patzelt is the scientific director at the Oman Botanic Garden, in the Sultanate of Oman. Shahina A. Ghazanfar is research leader in identification and naming-Asia and Jonathan Timberlake is a botanist at the Royal Botanic Gardens, in Kew, Surrey, United Kingdom. Heinz Klöser is at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, in Bremerhaven, Bremen, Germany. Roeland Kindt is a scientist at the World Agroforestry Centre, in Nairobi, Kenya. Jens-Peter Barnekow Lillesø and Paulo van Breugel are at the University of Copenhagen, in Denmark. Lars Graudal is a senior advisor at the University of Copenhagen, in Denmark, and science domain leader at ICRAF (the World Agroforestry Centre), in Nairobi. Maianna Voge is a geospatial analyst at Greeninfo Network. Khalaf F. Al-Shammari and Mohammed Saleem are information specialists with the Environmental Information Unit of the General Department of Studies and Research at the Saudi Wildlife Authority.

We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature-a companion to the Paris Climate Deal-to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451287PMC
June 2017
41 Reads

Metaresearch for Evaluating Reproducibility in Ecology and Evolution.

Bioscience 2017 Mar 13;67(3):282-289. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Associate Professor Fiona Fidler holds a joint appointment in the School of BioSciences and the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies (History and Philosophy of Science Discipline) at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Fiona is interested in how scientists and experts make decisions. Bonnie C. Wintle is a postdoctoral fellow and Mark Burgman and Michael McCarthy are professors in the School of BioSciences at the University of Melbourne, Australia; they are interested in a broad range of topics related to environmental decisionmaking. Bonnie Wintle is now a research fellow at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Cambridge. Yung En Chee is a senior research fellow in the School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Yung applies ecological and decision-analytic theory and models to conservation problems. Ascelin Gordon is a senior research fellow in the Interdisciplinary Conservation Science Research Group in the School of Global, Urban, and Social Studies at RMIT University, in Melbourne, Australia; Ascelin is broadly interested in modeling approaches for understanding the impacts of environmental policies. FF, YC, BW, MB and MM were involved in discussion group about reproducibility and type 1 errors in ecology in 2014, which helped develop the outline for this article. AG and FF independently discussed the application of open science initiatives in ecology. FF wrote the first draft; YC wrote sections on data and code sharing with substantial input from AG. BW, MB, and MM made edits throughout.

Recent replication projects in other disciplines have uncovered disturbingly low levels of reproducibility, suggesting that those research literatures may contain unverifiable claims. The conditions contributing to irreproducibility in other disciplines are also present in ecology. These include a large discrepancy between the proportion of "positive" or "significant" results and the average statistical power of empirical research, incomplete reporting of sampling stopping rules and results, journal policies that discourage replication studies, and a prevailing publish-or-perish research culture that encourages questionable research practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384162PMC
March 2017
18 Reads
5.377 Impact Factor

Using Social Network Measures in Wildlife Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, and Management.

Bioscience 2017 Mar 1;67(3):245-257. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Matthew J. Silk and Robbie A. McDonald are affiliated with the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom. Darren P. Croft is with the Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour at the University of Exeter, in the United Kingdom. Richard J. Delahay is affiliated with the National Wildlife Management Centre of the Animal and Plant Health Agency at Woodchester Park, in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. David J. Hodgson, Mike Boots, and Nicola Weber are with the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom; MB is also affiliated with the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.

Contact networks, behavioral interactions, and shared use of space can all have important implications for the spread of disease in animals. Social networks enable the quantification of complex patterns of interactions; therefore, network analysis is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of infectious disease in animals, including wildlife. We present an introductory guide to using social-network-analytical approaches in wildlife disease ecology, epidemiology, and management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384163PMC
March 2017
12 Reads

Assessing National Biodiversity Trends for Rocky and Coral Reefs through the Integration of Citizen Science and Scientific Monitoring Programs.

Bioscience 2017 Feb;67(2):134-146

Rick D. Stuart-Smith Graham J. Edgar, Neville S. Barrett, Nicholas J. Bax, Just Berkhout, Julia L. Blanchard, Antonia T. Cooper, Paul B. Day, Stuart Kininmonth, and Scott D. Ling are affiliated with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Amanda E. Bates is with Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom. Susan C. Baker is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Mikel A. Becerro is with the BITES Lab of the Natural Products and Agrobiology Institute (IPNA-CSIC), in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Daniel J. Brock is affiliated with the Science, Monitoring, and Knowledge Branch of South Australia's Department of Environment, Water, and Natural Resources, in Adelaide. Graeme F. Clark is with the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Tom R. Davis is with the National Marine Science Centre at Southern Cross University, in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. J. Emmett Duffy is affiliated with the Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network of the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Thomas H. Holmes is affiliated with the Marine Science Program, Science and Conservation Division, Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Kensington, Australia, and with the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley, Australia. Steffan A. Howe is with Parks Victoria, in Melbourne, Australia. Alan Jordan is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Nelson Bay, Australia. Nathan A. Knott is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Huskisson, Australia. Jonathan S. Lefcheck is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Amanda Parr is affiliated with Parks Australia, in Kingston, Tasmania, Australia. Elisabeth Strain is with the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, in Mosman, New South Wales, Australia. Hugh Sweatman is affiliated with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Russell Thomson is with the Centre for Research in Mathematics in the School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics at Western Sydney University, in Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.

Reporting progress against targets for international biodiversity agreements is hindered by a shortage of suitable biodiversity data. We describe a cost-effective system involving Reef Life Survey citizen scientists in the systematic collection of quantitative data covering multiple phyla that can underpin numerous marine biodiversity indicators at high spatial and temporal resolution. We then summarize the findings of a continental- and decadal-scale State of the Environment assessment for rocky and coral reefs based on indicators of ecosystem state relating to fishing, ocean warming, and invasive species and describing the distribution of threatened species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384302PMC
February 2017
37 Reads

The Arctic in the Twenty-First Century: Changing Biogeochemical Linkages across a Paraglacial Landscape of Greenland.

Bioscience 2017 Feb;67(2):118-133

N. John Anderson is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Jasmine E. Saros, is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Joanna E. Bullard, is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Sean M.P. Cahoon, was at the Department of Biology at Penn State University, in University Park, Pennsylvania. He is presently affiliated with the Environment and Natural Resources Institute at the University of Alaska Anchorage, AK. Suzanne McGowan is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham in Nottingham, UK. Elizabeth A. Bagshaw is affiliated with the Earth and Ocean Sciences at Cardiff University in Cardiff, UK. Christopher D. Barry, is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at Queen's University in Belfast, UK. Richard Bindler is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Environmental Science at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden. Benjamin T. Burpee is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Jonathan L. Carrivick, is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Leeds in Leeds, UK. Rachel A. Fowler, is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Anthony D. Fox is affiliated with the Department of Bioscience, at Aarhus University in Rønde, Denmark. Sherilyn C. Fritz is affiliated with the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska. Madeleine E. Giles, is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Essex in Colchester, UK. Ladislav Hamerlik, was affiliated with the Department of Biology and Ecology at Matthias Belius University in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia. He is presently affiliated with the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen is affiliated with the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark in Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Antonia C. Law is affiliated with the Department of Geography, Geology and the Environment at Keele University in Keele, UK. Sebastian H. Mernild is affiliated with the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. He also has positions at Faculty of Engineering and Science, Sogn og Fjordane University College, Sogndal, Norway and Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Program, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile. Faculty of Engineering and Science at Sogn og Fjordane University College in Sogndal, Norway. Robert M. Northington is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Christopher L. Osburn is affiliated with the School of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences at NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Sergi Pla-Rabès is affiliated with the Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplications Forestals in Cerdanyola del Vallés, Spain. Eric Post is affiliated with the Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology at the University of California in Davis, California. Jon Telling was affiliated with the School of Geographical Sciences at the University of Bristol in Bristol, UK. He is presently affiliated with the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, UK. David A. Stroud is affiliated with the UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee in Peterborough, UK. Erika J. Whiteford is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Marian L. Yallop is affiliated with the School of Biological Science, at University of Bristol in Bristol, UK. Jacob C. Yde is affiliated with the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Sogn og Fjordane University College in Sogndal, Norway.

The Kangerlussuaq area of southwest Greenland encompasses diverse ecological, geomorphic, and climate gradients that function over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Ecosystems range from the microbial communities on the ice sheet and moisture-stressed terrestrial vegetation (and their associated herbivores) to freshwater and oligosaline lakes. These ecosystems are linked by a dynamic glacio-fluvial-aeolian geomorphic system that transports water, geological material, organic carbon and nutrients from the glacier surface to adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384161PMC
February 2017
56 Reads

Skills and Knowledge for Data-Intensive Environmental Research.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 3;67(6):546-557. Epub 2017 May 3.

Stephanie E. Hampton is affiliated with the Center for Environmental Research, Education and Outreach at Washington State University, in Pullman. Matthew B. Jones is affiliated with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Leah A. Wasser is affiliated with EarthLab at the University of Colorado, in Boulder. Mark P. Schildhauer is with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Sarah R. Supp is affiliated with the University of Maine's School of Biology and Ecology, in Orono. Julien Brun is with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Rebecca R. Hernandez is affiliated with the Land, Air, and Water Resources Department at the University of California, Davis; with the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California, Berkeley; and with the Climate and Carbon Science Program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, in Berkeley, California. Carl Boettiger is affiliated with the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at the University of California, Berkeley. Scott L. Collins is with the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Louis J. Gross is affiliated with the Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics at the University of Tennessee, in Knoxville. Denny S. Fernández is with the Department of Biology at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao. Amber Budden is affiliated with DataONE at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Ethan P. White is with the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation and The Informatics Institute at the University of Florida, in Gainesville. Tracy K. Teal is affiliated with Data Carpentry, in Davis, California. Stephanie G. Labou is with the Center for Environmental Research, Education and Outreach, at Washington State University, in Pullman. Juliann E. Aukema is affiliated with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

The scale and magnitude of complex and pressing environmental issues lend urgency to the need for integrative and reproducible analysis and synthesis, facilitated by data-intensive research approaches. However, the recent pace of technological change has been such that appropriate skills to accomplish data-intensive research are lacking among environmental scientists, who more than ever need greater access to training and mentorship in computational skills. Here, we provide a roadmap for raising data competencies of current and next-generation environmental researchers by describing the concepts and skills needed for effectively engaging with the heterogeneous, distributed, and rapidly growing volumes of available data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451289PMC
June 2017
42 Reads

Mapping Conservation Strategies under a Changing Climate.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 5;67(6):494-497. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

R. Travis Belote is a research ecologist with The Wilderness Society (TWS) in Bozeman, Montana. Matthew S. Dietz is lead ecologist with TWS in San Francisco, California. Peter S. McKinley is a climate adaptation ecologist with TWS in Hallowell, Maine. Anne A. Carlson is a climate adaptation specialist with TWS in Bozeman, Montana. Carlos Carroll is conservation scientist with the Klamath Center for Conservation Research. Clinton N. Jenkins is a professor of conservation science at the Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (IPÊ), in Nazaré Paulista, Brazil. Dean L. Urban is a professor of landscape ecology at Duke University. Timothy J. Fullman is a senior ecologist and Jason C. Leppi is an aquatic ecologist with TWS in Anchorage, Alaska. Gregory H. Aplet is senior science director at TWS in Denver, Colorado.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451290PMC
June 2017
26 Reads

How to Produce Translational Research to Guide Arctic Policy.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 18;67(6):490-493. Epub 2017 Feb 18.

Alyson H. Fleming is a postdoctoral fellow studying the ecological and policy implications of global change on marine mammals and Nicholas D. Pyenson is curator of fossil marine mammals at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, DC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451288PMC
June 2017
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Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States.

Bioscience 2017 May 1;67(5):418-428. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Julia G. Mason is a PhD candidate and Larry B. Crowder is a professor at Stanford University Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California. Mason studies the interacting effects of climate and management on fisheries resilience. Crowder, also the science director at the Center for Ocean Solutions, in Monterey, California, works with interdisciplinary approaches to marine conservation. Murray A. Rudd is an associate professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia. His research focuses on conservation social science and the environmental science-policy interface. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5421313PMC
May 2017
10 Reads