Upgrading agricultural wastes using three different carbonization methods: Thermal, hydrothermal and vapothermal.
Bioresour Technol 2018 Jun 15;265:365-371. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:
In this study, three different methods for high quality solid fuel production were tested and compared experimentally. Oil palm empty fruit bunches, mesocarp fibers, palm kernel shells and rubber seeds shells were treated using thermal (TC), hydrothermal (HTC) and vapothermal (VTC) carbonization. All thermochemical methods were accomplished by using a custom made batch-type reactor. Read More