7,463 results match your criteria Biopsy Oropharynx

Regenerative medicine for end-stage fibrosis and tissue loss in the upper aerodigestive tract: a twenty-first century review.

J Laryngol Otol 2021 May 14:1-13. Epub 2021 May 14.

Head and Neck Academic Department, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London.

Objective: This review assesses regenerative medicine of the upper aerodigestive tract during the first two decades of the twenty-first century, focusing on end-stage fibrosis and tissue loss in the upper airways, salivary system, oropharynx and tongue.

Method: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Medline and clinicaltrials.org were searched from 2000 to 2019. Read More

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Exploring the Interplay Between Radiotherapy Dose and Physiological Changes in the Swallowing Mechanism in Patients Undergoing (Chemo)radiotherapy for Oropharynx Cancer.

Dysphagia 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Radiation Oncology Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia.

This study explored associative relationships between radiotherapy dose volumes delivered to the dysphagia aspiration risk structures (DARS) and swallowing physiological disturbance at 3 months post treatment in a homogenous cohort of patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy ((C)RT) for oropharyngeal head and neck cancer (HNC). Participants(n = 53) were a subgroup of patients previously recruited as part of a prospective randomised trial, and had undergone physiological swallowing assessment using videofluroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) at 3 months post (C)RT. The extended oral cavity (EOC), supraglottic larynx (SGL), glottic larynx (GL), cricopharyngeal inlet (CI), and pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCM) were contoured as per international consensus guidelines and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were generated for each structure. Read More

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Discrepancy in p16 expression in patients with HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Thailand: clinical characteristics and survival outcomes.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 6;21(1):504. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Lower prevalence HPV infection has been previously reported in Thai population when compared with Western countries. p16 expression indicates HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), but not non-OPSCC. We therefore evaluated the characteristic and association of p16 and HPV in Thai patients with HNSCC. Read More

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Pasteurella Multocida Bacteremia and Septic Arthritis in a Patient With Non-Bite Animal Exposure.

Cureus 2021 Mar 28;13(3):e14162. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Internal Medicine Residency, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, USA.

() is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, and it is most commonly found in the oropharynx of healthy domestic animals, especially cats and dogs.  is classified as an opportunistic pathogen, infecting individuals only through direct contact via local trauma caused by animal bites or scratches. More serious infections, while rare, are typically associated with immunocompromised states, known pre-existing cavitary lung pathology, or malignancy. Read More

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Diagnostic approaches to carcinoma of unknown primary of the head and neck.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 May 1:e13459. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Squamous cell carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes arising from an undetected primary tumour, termed carcinoma of unknown primary (SCCUP), is a well-recognized clinical presentation within head and neck oncology. SCCUP is a common presentation for patients with human papillomavirus-mediated oropharyngeal cancer (HPV + OPSCC), as patients with HPV + OPSCC often present with smaller primary tumours and early nodal metastasis. Meticulous work-up of the SCCUP patient is central to the management of these patients as identification of the primary site improves overall survival and allows for definitive oncologic resection or more focused radiation when indicated. Read More

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Complete resection of a huge parapharyngeal lesion without neurovascular injuries poses a big challenge.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 22;2021(4):rjab134. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Faculty of Medicine, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, accounting for 63% of all parotid gland tumors. Most tumors originate in the superficial lobe but, more rarely, these tumors may involve the deep lobe of the parotid gland, growing medially and occupying the parapharyngeal space (PPS). Our case presents a 48-year-old man with an extremely huge recurrent parapharyngeal lesion that bulging in the nasopharynx and the oropharynx and significantly comprised the airways. Read More

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Pemphigus Vulgaris and Bullous Pemphigoid of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Review Article and Novel Approaches to Management.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2021 Apr 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Background: Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare conditions characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. The 2 commonest forms are pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The oral cavity or oropharynx may be the initial site of presentation or often the only site involved. Read More

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Unusual cutaneous presentation in a corrosive acid ingestion.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Jodhpur, India.

Corrosive digestive tract injuries are considered to be a source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The cases of acid ingestion in Forensic Medicine practice are not infrequent. Corrosive ingestion usually presents with injuries over the face, oropharynx, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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Prevalence of oropharyngeal high-risk human papillomavirus in tumor-free tonsil tissue in adults.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 18;42(5):103063. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pathology, Pamukkale University, School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients undergoing tonsillectomy by detection of high-risk HPV in tonsil tissues using the in situ hybridization (ISH) technique.

Materials And Methods: The patients who underwent tonsillectomy between 2014 and 2018 were examined retrospectively. The pediatric cases and patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to malignancy were excluded. Read More

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TORS elective lingual tonsillectomy has less acute morbidity than therapeutic base of tongue TORS.

Oral Oncol 2021 Apr 17;117:105294. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Objective: To determine the impact of diagnostic TORS lingual tonsillectomy (DTLT) on objective swallowing measures for carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).

Methods: Between 10/2016-1/2020, 27 patients with p16+ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) level 2a nodal disease underwent DTLT and ipsilateral neck dissection for CUP. No patient had a history of cutaneous SCC. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence-based methods in head and neck cancer diagnosis: an overview.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Unit of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: This paper reviews recent literature employing Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML) methods for diagnostic evaluation of head and neck cancers (HNC) using automated image analysis.

Methods: Electronic database searches using MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar were conducted to retrieve articles using AI/ML for diagnostic evaluation of HNC (2009-2020). No restrictions were placed on the AI/ML method or imaging modality used. Read More

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First case of postmortem study in a patient vaccinated against SARS CoV2.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Pathology, KRH Hospital Nordstadt, Hannover, Germany.

A previously symptomless 86-year-old man received single mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Four weeks later, he succumbed to death due to acute renal and respiratory failure. Although he did not present with any symptoms specific for Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID19), he obtained positive testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), before he died. Read More

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Further Research Needed to Understand Relationship Between Tubarial Glands and Eustachian Tube Dysfunction.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Apr 13:1945998211004256. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The pathophysiology of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) remains poorly characterized, and it may result in significant patient morbidity. A recent study has identified a collection of previously unidentified salivary glands in the nasopharynx that overlay the torus tubarius. While salivary gland tissue has been described in the nasopharynx, the newly discovered salivary gland tissue has been denoted tubarial glands (TGs) and theorized to be a distinct organ. Read More

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Zero-TE MRI: Potential Applications in the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Apr;30(2):105-115

Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Abstract: Zero-echo time (ZTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the newest in a family of MRI pulse sequences that involve ultrafast sequence readouts, permitting visualization of short-T2 tissues such as cortical bone. Inherent sequence properties enable rapid, high-resolution, quiet, and artifact-resistant imaging. ZTE can be performed as part of a "one-stop-shop" MRI examination for comprehensive evaluation of head and neck pathology. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Apr;30(2):79-83

Neuroradiology Division, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY.

Abstract: Understanding oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy is important to identify various pathologies that may afflict them. This article reviews normal magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of these vital spaces and structures, with special attention to the complex musculature, mucosal surfaces, relevant osseous structures, salivary glands, and nerves. Anatomic awareness of these spaces and critical potential pathways for perineural tumoral spread are important to recognize to improve diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Read More

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Does HPV Subtype Predict Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancers?

Int J Otolaryngol 2021 9;2021:6672373. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Western University, ON, Canada.

Background: Recently, reanalysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas study demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in head and neck cancers other than HPV-16 have inferior survival to HPV-16-positive tumors. We aimed to examine the association of HPV subtypes and survival in a large cohort of patient samples from our institution.

Methods: Fresh frozen primary site biopsy samples were collected either in clinic or at the time of surgery. Read More

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February 2021

Genomic heterogeneity and copy number variant burden are associated with poor recurrence-free survival and 11q loss in human papillomavirus-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.

Cancer 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC) is the most prevalent HPV-associated malignancy in the United States. Favorable treatment outcomes have led to increased interest in treatment de-escalation to reduce treatment morbidity as well as the development of prognostic markers to identify appropriately low-risk patients. Intratumoral genomic heterogeneity and copy number alteration burden have been demonstrated to be predictive of poor outcomes in many other cancers; therefore, we sought to determine whether intratumor heterogeneity and genomic instability are associated with poor outcomes in HPV+ OPSCC. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Detection in Fecal Sample from a Patient with Typical Findings of COVID-19 Pneumonia on CT but Negative to Multiple SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Tests on Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 20;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy.

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative results in the upper respiratory tract represent a major concern for the clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Herein, we report the case of a 43-years-old man with a strong clinical suspicion of COVID-19, who resulted in being negative to multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR tests performed on different oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs, despite serology having confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM. The patient underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) that showed typical imaging findings of COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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Transoral Robotic Surgery for Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Cancers-A Prospective Medium-Term Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 2;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used for treating pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers for many years. However, the application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before TORS, the sparing rate of adjuvant irradiation after TORS, and the long-term oncologic/functional outcomes of TORS are seldom reported. From September 2014 to May 2018, 30 patients with clinical T1 to T3 cancers of oropharynx (7), larynx (3), and hypopharynx (20) were prospectively recruited for TORS in a tertiary referral medical center. Read More

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Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Morphology and Subtypes by Human Papillomavirus Type and by 16 Lineages and Sublineages.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is increasing in incidence and, in Western countries, strongly associated with transcriptionally-active high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Within HPV-positive tumors, there is wide morphologic diversity with numerous histologic subtypes of SCC. There are also variable degrees of keratinization, anaplasia, stromal fibrosis, and maturing squamous differentiation. Read More

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Hypoxia activates SUMO-1-HIF-1α signaling pathway to upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and permeability in human tonsil epithelial cells.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 29;276:119432. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Background: Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) can cause harmful effects on untreated children, which include mouth breathing, chronic intermittent hypoxia, sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and even some behavioral problems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathophysiological process have remained poorly understood.

Methods: In this study, SUMO was induced silencing and overexpression using RNAi and lentiviral-mediated vector. Read More

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Avelumab plus standard-of-care chemoradiotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 04;22(4):450-462

Moores Cancer Center, UC San Diego Health, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for unresected locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. We aimed to assess if addition of avelumab (anti-PD-L1) to chemoradiotherapy could improve treatment outcomes for this patient population.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, patients were recruited from 196 hospitals and cancer treatment centres in 22 countries. Read More

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Replicating bacterium-vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins protects against severe COVID-19-like disease in hamsters.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Mar 30;6(1):47. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 37-121 Center for Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

To generate an inexpensive readily manufactured COVID-19 vaccine, we employed the LVS ΔcapB vector platform, previously used to generate potent candidate vaccines against Select Agent diseases tularemia, anthrax, plague, and melioidosis. Vaccines expressing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins are constructed using the LVS ΔcapB vector, a highly attenuated replicating intracellular bacterium, and evaluated for efficacy in golden Syrian hamsters, which develop severe COVID-19-like disease. Hamsters immunized intradermally or intranasally with a vaccine co-expressing the Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins and challenged 5 weeks later with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 are protected against severe weight loss and lung pathology and show reduced viral loads in the oropharynx and lungs. Read More

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Maxillofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Patients with Resection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Report of Two Cases.

Contemp Clin Dent 2020 Jul-Sep;11(3):294-297. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation is almost always indicated after surgical treatment of affected individuals with oral cavity and pharynx cancers. Few articles have described in detail the technical sequence of maxillofacial prosthesis fabrication. The first case is a 56-year-old woman who was rehabilitated with pharyngeal obturator prosthesis after a partial maxillectomy, including soft palate, tonsil, oropharynx, and retromolar space regions. Read More

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November 2020

Analysis of PET parameters as prognosticators of survival and tumor extent in Oropharyngeal Cancer treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy.

BMC Cancer 2021 Mar 25;21(1):317. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Positron-emission tomography (PET) is widely used to detect malignancies, but consensus on its prognostic value in oropharyngeal cancer has not been established. The purpose of this study was to analyze the PET parameters associated with tumor extent and survival in resectable oropharyngeal cancer.

Methods: The PET parameters in oropharyngeal cancer patients with regional node metastasis who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy between January 2005 and January 2019 were analyzed. Read More

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Neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 in stray animals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0248578. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel Betacoronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a public health emergency worldwide. Few reports indicate that owned pets from households with at least one human resident that was diagnosed with COVID-19 can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, the exposure to SARS-CoV-2 of pets from households with no COVID-19 cases or stray animals remains less assessed. Read More

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Congenital Hairy Polyp Causing Severe Upper Airway Obstruction in a Newborn: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Mar 25;22:e930200. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Special Surgery, School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

BACKGROUND Hairy polyps are rare tumors mainly comprising fatty tissues covered by skin and hair follicles, with varied localizations and sizes. Early excision of the polyps by surgery is an effective treatment resulting in a permanent cure. We present a case of successful management of severe obstruction of the oropharynx in a newborn who presented with a large mass of congenital hairy polyp. Read More

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Whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 reveals the detection of G614 variant in Pakistan.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(3):e0248371. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Since its emergence in China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide including Pakistan. During the pandemic, whole genome sequencing has played an important role in understanding the evolution and genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2. Although an unprecedented number of SARS-CoV-2 full genomes have been submitted in GISAID and NCBI, data from Pakistan is scarce. Read More

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[Actinomycosis in temporal bone. A pediatric case report].

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 04;119(2):e153-e157

División de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Actinomycosis is an infection caused by a Gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacillus. Mainly belonging to the human commensal flora of the oropharynx, it normally colonizes the human digestive and genital tracts and the bronchial tree. It is slightly frequent in the temporal bone. Read More

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Rhinosporidiosis in Central India: A cross-sectional study from a tertiary care hospital in Chhattisgarh.

Trop Parasitol 2020 Jul-Dec;10(2):120-123. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India.

Background And Aims: Chhattisgarh is an endemic region for rhinosporidiosis infection in Central India. This high prevalence can be explained by suitable hot tropical environment as well as social practice of common bathing of public with animals outdoor, mainly in ponds and river. There are more than 200 ponds in and around Bilaspur district, mainly in Ratanpur region. Read More

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January 2021