237,139 results match your criteria Biophysics Nagoya-shi Japan[Journal]


Telomere replication-When the going gets tough.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2020 Jun 23;94:102875. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, United States. Electronic address:

Telomeres consist of repetitive tracts of DNA that shield a chromosome's contents from erosion and replicative attrition. However, telomeres are also late-replicating regions of the genome in which a myriad of replicative obstructions reside. The obstacles contained within telomeres, as well as their genomic location, drive replicative stalling and subsequent fork collapse in these regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2020.102875DOI Listing

In silico drug repositioning of FDA-approved drugs to predict new inhibitors for alpha-synuclein aggregation.

Comput Biol Chem 2020 Jun 24;88:107308. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

One of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), a long-term neurodegenerative syndrome, is the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) fibrils. Despite numerous studies and efforts, inhibition of α-syn protein aggregation is still a challenge. To overcome this issue, we propose an in silico pharmacophore-based repositioning strategy, to find a pharmaceutical drug that, in addition to their defined role, can be used to prevent aggregation of the α-syn protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2020.107308DOI Listing

Anionic Lipids Impact RAS-Binding Site Accessibility and Membrane Binding Affinity of CRAF RBD-CRD.

Biophys J 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Electronic address:

CRAF activation requires binding to membrane-anchored and active GTP-bound RAS. Whereas its RAS-binding domain (RBD) contains the main binding interface to the RAS G domain, its cysteine-rich domain (CRD) is responsible for association to anionic lipid-rich membranes. Both RAF domains are connected by a short linker, and it remains unclear if the two domains act independently or if one domain can impact the function of the other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2020.06.021DOI Listing

Atrial functional mitral regurgitation.

Authors:
Brian D Hoit

Curr Opin Cardiol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the prevalence and prognosis of atrial functional mitral regurgitation (AFMR), the distinctive echocardiographic and mechanistic findings, and the therapeutic implications of this newly described disorder.

Recent Findings: Initial studies identified an association between atrial fibrillation, mitral annular dilation, and significant mitral regurgitation despite a normal mitral valve and left ventricle. Accumulating data suggest that AFMR is not rare and may have a prognosis as poor as functional MR associated with LV remodeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000761DOI Listing

Modeling the impact of point mutations on the stability of proteins.

J Bioinform Comput Biol 2020 Jul 10:2050019. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Molecular Biophysics, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia.

A new method has been introduced which allows us to determine the stability of protein complexes with point changes of amino acid residues that also take into account the three-dimensional structure of the complex. This formulated and proven theorem is aimed at determining the criterion for the stability of protein molecules. The algorithm and software package were developed for analyzing protein interactions, taking into account their three-dimensional structure from the PDB database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219720020500195DOI Listing

Synthesis of the Major Mammalian Metabolites of THCV.

J Nat Prod 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council of Italy, Pozzuoli (NA) 80078, Italy.

A simple synthesis of the major oxidized metabolites in mammalian tissues of (-)-Δ-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) () has been accomplished by kinetic studies of allylic oxidation using SeO on botanically derived THCV with the aim to yield primary and secondary allylic alcohols concurrently. This synthetic approach led to the preparation of numerous THCV derivatives, including two new compounds, 8α-hydroxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabivarin () and 8β-hydroxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabivarin (), and the known compounds 11-hydroxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabivarin () and Δ-tetrahydrocannabivarin-11-oic acid (), without affecting the C-10a stereogenic center in the natural precursor and without formation of tricyclic dibenzopyran derivatives. This simple synthetic methodology could be useful to investigate the pharmacological role of THCV metabolites at, among others, the endocannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors for which THCV reportedly acts as respectively a neutral antagonist and partial agonist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00831DOI Listing

Marine microbial physiology: An annotated selection of World Wide Web sites relevant to the topics in environmental microbiology.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2020 Aug;12(4):466-467

McKnight Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology & Biophysics, BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12864DOI Listing

Therapeutic targets and computational approaches on drug development for COVID-19.

Curr Top Med Chem 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036, Tamil Nadu. India.

World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) as pandemic. Its outbreak started in China in Dec 2019 and rapidly spread across all over the world. SARS-CoV-2 infected more than 800,000 people and caused about 35,000 deaths so far and no approved drugs are available to treat COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026620666200710105507DOI Listing

Changes in inflammatory biomarkers are related to the antidepressant effects of Ayahuasca.

J Psychopharmacol 2020 Jul 10:269881120936486. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Background: Ayahuasca is a traditional Amazon brew and its potential antidepressant properties have recently been explored in scientific settings. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ayahuasca with treatment-resistant depression patients ( = 28) and healthy controls ( = 45).

Aims: We are evaluating the blood inflammatory biomarkers: C-reactive protein and interleukin 6, as a potential consequence of ayahuasca intake and their correlation with serum cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881120936486DOI Listing

Cell-Free Protein Synthesis and Its Perspectives for Assembling Cells from the Bottom-Up.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Jun 4;3(6):e1800322. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

The underlying idea of synthetic biology is that biological reactions/modules/systems can be precisely engineered and controlled toward desired products. Numerous efforts in the past decades in deciphering the complexity of biological systems in vivo have led to a variety of tools for synthetic biology, especially based on recombinant DNA. However, one generic limitation of all living systems is that the vast majority of energy input is dedicated to maintain the system as a whole, rather than the small part of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800322DOI Listing

Cytoskeletal and Actin-Based Polymerization Motors and Their Role in Minimal Cell Design.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Jun 1;3(6):e1800311. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry , Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

Life implies motion. In cells, protein-based active molecular machines drive cell locomotion and intracellular transport, control cell shape, segregate genetic material, and split a cell in two parts. Key players among molecular machines driving these various cell functions are the cytoskeleton and motor proteins that convert chemical bound energy into mechanical work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800311DOI Listing

Microfluidic Handling and Analysis of Giant Vesicles for Use as Artificial Cells: A Review.

Authors:
Tom Robinson

Adv Biosyst 2019 Jun 7;3(6):e1800318. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, 14424, Germany.

One of the goals of synthetic biology is the bottom-up construction of an artificial cell, the successful realization of which could shed light on how cellular life emerged and could also be a useful tool for studying the function of modern cells. Using liposomes as biomimetic containers is particularly promising because lipid membranes are biocompatible and much of the required machinery can be reconstituted within them. Giant lipid vesicles have been used extensively in other fields such as biophysics and drug discovery, but their use as artificial cells has only recently seen an increase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800318DOI Listing

Long short-term memory-based neural decoding of object categories evoked by natural images.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

The MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Visual perceptual decoding is one of the important and challenging topics in cognitive neuroscience. Building a mapping model between visual response signals and visual contents is the key point of decoding. Most previous studies used peak response signals to decode object categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25136DOI Listing

The intramolecular agonist is obligate for activation of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Rudolf Schönheimer Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

In contrast to most rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, the glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR) have a large extracellular N-terminus for hormone binding. The hormones do not directly activate the transmembrane domain but mediate their action via a, thus, far only partially known Tethered Agonistic LIgand (TALI). The existence of such an intramolecular agonist was initially indicated by site-directed mutation studies and activating peptides derived from the extracellular hinge region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000100RDOI Listing

Brefeldin A inhibits clathrin-dependent endocytosis and ion transport in Chara internodal cells.

Biol Cell 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Background: The Characeae are multicellular green algae, which are closely related to higher plants. Their internodal cells are a convenient model to study membrane transport and organelle interactions.

Results: In this study we report on the effect of brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicle trafficking, on internodal cells of Chara australis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boc.202000031DOI Listing

Neurogenetics of nictation, a dispersal strategy in nematodes.

J Neurogenet 2020 Jul 10:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Nictation is a behaviour in which a nematode stands on its tail and waves its head in three dimensions. This activity promotes dispersal of dauer larvae by allowing them to attach to other organisms and travel on them to a new niche. In this review, we describe our understanding of nictation, including its diversity in nematode species, how it is induced by environmental factors, and neurogenetic factors that regulate nictation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01677063.2020.1788552DOI Listing

Use of biophysical treatment for the management of mild anxiety, depression and stress: a randomized controlled trial.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2020 May-Jun;34(3):1171-1177

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23812/20-132-L-57DOI Listing

A career in biophysics.

Biophys Rev 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Molecular Cardiology and Biophysics, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Lowy Packer Building, 405 Liverpool Street, Darlinghurst, 2020, Australia.

My career in science started with my PhD under Professor Darcy Gilmour at the University of Sydney. I quickly learned his iconoclastic ways and completed the degree in early 1969 in just over three years. Professor Charles Birch was the Head of Zoology and had been watching my progress and offered me a position as Lecturer as soon as my PhD was submitted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12551-020-00714-4DOI Listing

CD33 and SIGLECL1 Immunoglobulin Superfamily Involved in Dementia.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

From the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (IBBC), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Naples, Italy (AR, EV).

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins, which are predominantly expressed in immune cells, represent a family of immunomodulatory receptors with inhibitory and activating signals, in both healthy and disease states. Genetic factors are important in all forms of dementia, especially in early onset dementia. CD33 was recently recognized as a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa055DOI Listing

Reconstruction of Average Subtracted Tubular Regions (RASTR) enables structure determination of tubular filaments by cryo-EM.

J Struct Biol X 2020 9;4:100023. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

As the field of electron microscopy advances, the increasing complexity of samples being produced demand more involved processing methods. In this study, we have developed a new processing method for generating 3D reconstructions of tubular structures. Tubular biomolecules are common throughout many cellular processes and are appealing targets for biophysical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjsbx.2020.100023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337063PMC

Subjective cognitive and non-cognitive complaints and brain MRI biomarkers in the MEMENTO cohort.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2020 5;12(1):e12051. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Clinical and Research Memory Centre of Lyon Lyon Institute for Elderly Charpennes Hospital University Hospital of Lyon Lyon France.

Introduction: Subjective cognitive complaints may be a signature of preclinical stage Alzheimer's disease. However, the link between subjective cognitive and non-cognitive complaints and brain alterations remains unclear.

Methods: The relationship between cognitive and non-cognitive complaints and brain biomarkers, measured by structural magnetic resonance imaging, was investigated in 2056 participants of the MEMENTO cohort of outpatients, who were dementia-free at baseline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335902PMC

Inhalation exposure to cigarette smoke and inflammatory agents induces epigenetic changes in the lung.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11290. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Smoking-related lung tumors are characterized by profound epigenetic changes including scrambled patterns of DNA methylation, deregulated histone acetylation, altered gene expression levels, distorted microRNA profiles, and a global loss of cytosine hydroxymethylation marks. Here, we employed an enhanced version of bisulfite sequencing (RRBS/oxRRBS) followed by next generation sequencing to separately map DNA epigenetic marks 5-methyl-dC and 5-hydroxymethyl-dC in genomic DNA isolated from lungs of A/J mice exposed whole-body to environmental cigarette smoke for 10 weeks. Exposure to cigarette smoke significantly affected the patterns of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in the lungs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67502-8DOI Listing

TGF-β regulates Sca-1 expression and plasticity of pre-neoplastic mammary epithelial stem cells.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11396. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, 612 65, Brno, Czech Republic.

The epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, in tight association with stemness, contributes to the mammary gland homeostasis, evolution of early neoplastic lesions and cancer dissemination. Focused on cell surfaceome, we used mouse models of pre-neoplastic mammary epithelial and cancer stem cells to reveal the connection between cell surface markers and distinct cell phenotypes. We mechanistically dissected the TGF-β family-driven regulation of Sca-1, one of the most commonly used adult stem cell markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67827-4DOI Listing

How the individual human mobility spatio-temporally shapes the disease transmission dynamics.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11325. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Biophysics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Human mobility plays a crucial role in the temporal and spatial spreading of infectious diseases. During the past few decades, researchers have been extensively investigating how human mobility affects the propagation of diseases. However, the mechanism of human mobility shaping the spread of epidemics is still elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68230-9DOI Listing

INTS10-INTS13-INTS14 form a functional module of Integrator that binds nucleic acids and the cleavage module.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 9;11(1):3422. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093, Zurich, Switzerland.

The Integrator complex processes 3'-ends of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Furthermore, it regulates transcription of protein coding genes by terminating transcription after unstable pausing. The molecular basis for Integrator's functions remains obscure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17232-2DOI Listing

Arabidopsis cryptochrome is responsive to Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11260. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering and Science, Florida Institute of Technology, 150W University Blvd, Melbourne, Fl, 32901, USA.

How living systems respond to weak electromagnetic fields represents one of the major unsolved challenges in sensory biology. Recent evidence has implicated cryptochrome, an evolutionarily conserved flavoprotein receptor, in magnetic field responses of organisms ranging from plants to migratory birds. However, whether cryptochromes fulfill the criteria to function as biological magnetosensors remains to be established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67165-5DOI Listing

Isoform-specific regulation of HCN4 channels by a family of endoplasmic reticulum proteins.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045;

Ion channels in excitable cells function in macromolecular complexes in which auxiliary proteins modulate the biophysical properties of the pore-forming subunits. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive HCN4 channels are critical determinants of membrane excitability in cells throughout the body, including thalamocortical neurons and cardiac pacemaker cells. We previously showed that the properties of HCN4 channels differ dramatically in different cell types, possibly due to the endogenous expression of auxiliary proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006238117DOI Listing

Prototypical pacemaker neurons interact with the resident microbiota.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, D-24118 Kiel, Germany;

Pacemaker neurons exert control over neuronal circuit function by their intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic bursts of action potential. Recent work has identified rhythmic gut contractions in human, mice, and hydra to be dependent on both neurons and the resident microbiota. However, little is known about the evolutionary origin of these neurons and their interaction with microbes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1920469117DOI Listing

Structure-activity analysis of truncated albumin-binding domains suggests new lead constructs for potential therapeutic delivery.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Australia.

Rapid clearance by renal filtration is a major impediment to the translation of small bioactive biologics into drugs. To extend serum half-life, a commonly used approach is to attach drug leads to the G-related albumin-binding domain (ABD) to bind albumin and evade clearance. Despite the success of this approach in extending half-lives of a wide range of biologics, it is unclear whether the existing constructs are optimized for binding and size; any improvements along these lines could lead to improved drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014168DOI Listing

HEM1 deficiency disrupts mTORC2 and F-actin control in inherited immunodysregulatory disease.

Science 2020 Jul;369(6500):202-207

Molecular Development of the Immune System Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, and Clinical Genomics Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in , which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aay5663DOI Listing

Contact area-dependent cell communication and the morphological invariance of ascidian embryogenesis.

Science 2020 Jul;369(6500)

CRBM, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, 34293 Montpellier, France.

Marine invertebrate ascidians display embryonic reproducibility: Their early embryonic cell lineages are considered invariant and are conserved between distantly related species, despite rapid genomic divergence. Here, we address the drivers of this reproducibility. We used light-sheet imaging and automated cell segmentation and tracking procedures to systematically quantify the behavior of individual cells every 2 minutes during embryogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aar5663DOI Listing

Structure of human Dispatched-1 provides insights into Hedgehog ligand biogenesis.

Life Sci Alliance 2020 Aug 9;3(8). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Hedgehog (HH) signaling is essential for metazoan development. The HH ligand is secreted into the extracellular space by a cell surface protein named Dispatched-1 (DISP1). Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of human DISP1 protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.202000776DOI Listing

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anti-proliferative activity of Viscum album ethanolic extracts.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jul 9;20(1):215. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Hiscia Institute, Society for Cancer Research, Arlesheim, Switzerland.

Background: Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a hemiparasitic plant traditionally used in complementary cancer treatment. Its antitumor potential is mostly attributed to the presence of aqueous soluble metabolites; however, the use of ethanol as solvent also permits the extraction of pharmacological compounds with antitumor potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02987-4DOI Listing

Mutation Patterns of Human SARS-CoV-2 and Bat RaTG13 Coronavirus Genomes Are Strongly Biased Towards C>U Transitions, Indicating Rapid Evolution in Their Hosts.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;11(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Královopolská 135, 61265 Brno, Czech Republic.

The pandemic caused by the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has led to considerable interest in its evolutionary origin and genome structure. Here, we analyzed mutation patterns in 34 human SARS-CoV-2 isolates and a closely related RaTG13 isolated from (a horseshoe bat). We also evaluated the CpG dinucleotide contents in SARS-CoV-2 and other human and animal coronavirus genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11070761DOI Listing

Basophils from Cancer Patients Respond to Immune Stimuli and Predict Clinical Outcome.

Cells 2020 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

St. John's Institute of Dermatology, School of Basic & Medical Biosciences, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK.

Basophils are involved in manifestations of hypersensitivity, however, the current understanding of their propensity for activation and their prognostic value in cancer patients remains unclear. As in healthy and atopic individuals, basophil populations were identified in blood from ovarian cancer patients ( = 53) with diverse tumor histologies and treatment histories. Ex vivo basophil activation was measured by CD63 expression using the basophil activation test (BAT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071631DOI Listing

Combination of Alanine and Glutathione as Targeting Ligands of Nanoparticles Enhances Cargo Delivery into the Cells of the Neurovascular Unit.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre, Temesvári krt. 62, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary.

Inefficient drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into target cells in the brain hinders the treatment of neurological diseases. One strategy to increase the brain penetration of drugs is to use vesicular nanoparticles functionalized with multiple ligands of BBB transporters as vehicles. Once within the brain, however, drugs must also be able to reach their therapeutic targets in the different cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070635DOI Listing

Therapy with Cardiomyocytes Derived from Pluripotent Cells in Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy.

Cells 2020 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 21941-902, Brazil.

Chagas disease discovered more than a century ago remains an incurable disease. The objective of this work was to investigate the therapeutic potential of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (CM-mESC) in a model of chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) were characterized, transduced with luciferase, and submitted to cardiac differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071629DOI Listing

Efficacy of ruthenium coordination complex-based Rutherrin in a preclinical rat glioblastoma model.

Neurooncol Adv 2019 May-Dec;1(1):vdz006. Epub 2019 May 28.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain cancer in adults with a grave prognosis, aggressive radio and chemotherapy provide only a 15 months median survival.

Methods: We evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the Ruthenium-based photosensitizer TLD-1433 with apo-Transferrin (Rutherrin) in the rat glioma 2 (RG-2) model. The specific tumor uptake ratio and photodynamic therapy (PDT) threshold of the rat glioblastoma and normal brain were determined, survival and CD8T-cell infiltration post-therapy were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdz006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212850PMC

Recent advances on the structure and function of NDH-1: The complex I of oxygenic photosynthesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2020 Jul 6:148254. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Molecular Biophysics and Integrative Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Photosynthetic NADH dehydrogenase-like complex type-1 (a.k.a, NDH, NDH-1, or NDH-1 L) is a multi-subunit, membrane-bound oxidoreductase related to the respiratory complex I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2020.148254DOI Listing

A scoutRNA Is Required for Some Type V CRISPR-Cas Systems.

Mol Cell 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Molecular Biophysics & Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA. Electronic address:

CRISPR-Cas12c/d proteins share limited homology with Cas12a and Cas9 bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nucleases used widely for genome editing and DNA detection. However, Cas12c (C2c3)- and Cas12d (CasY)-catalyzed DNA cleavage and genome editing activities have not been directly observed. We show here that a short-complementarity untranslated RNA (scoutRNA), together with crRNA, is required for Cas12d-catalyzed DNA cutting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.022DOI Listing

The SAGA continues: The rise of cis- and trans-histone crosstalk pathways.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2020 Jul 6:194600. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Purdue University Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, Hansen Life Science Research Building, 201S, University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907; USA. Electronic address:

Fueled by key technological innovations during the last several decades, chromatin-based research has greatly advanced our mechanistic understanding of how genes are regulated by epigenetic factors and their associated histone-modifying activities. Most notably, the landmark finding that linked histone acetylation by Gcn5 of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex to gene activation ushered in a new area of chromatin research and a realization that histone-modifying activities have integral genome functions. This review will discuss past and recent studies that have shaped our understanding of how the histone-modifying activities of SAGA are regulated by, and modulate the outcomes of, other histone modifications during gene transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2020.194600DOI Listing

Melanopsin mediates UVA-dependent modulation of proliferation, pigmentation, apoptosis, and molecular clock in normal and malignant melanocytes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2020 Jul 6:118789. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Laboratory of Comparative Physiology of Pigmentation, Department of Physiology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Cutaneous melanocytes and melanoma cells express several opsins, of which melanopsin (OPN4) detects temperature and UVA radiation. To evaluate the interaction between OPN4 and UVA radiation, normal and malignant Opn4 and Opn4 melanocytes were exposed to three daily low doses (total 13.2 kJ/m) of UVA radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2020.118789DOI Listing

Cell-type-specific differences in KDEL receptor clustering in mammalian cells.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235864. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Molecular and Cell Biology, Department of Biosciences and Center of Human and Molecular Biology (ZHMB), Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.

In eukaryotic cells, KDEL receptors (KDELRs) facilitate the retrieval of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal proteins from the Golgi compartment back to the ER. Apart from the well-documented retention function, recent findings reveal that the cellular KDELRs have more complex roles, e.g. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235864PLOS

Cell lineage-dependent chiral actomyosin flows drive cellular rearrangements in early development.

Elife 2020 Jul 9;9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

Proper positioning of cells is essential for many aspects of development. Daughter cell positions can be specified via orienting the cell division axis during cytokinesis. Rotatory actomyosin flows during division have been implied in specifying and reorienting the cell division axis, but how general such reorientation events are, and how they are controlled, remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.54930DOI Listing

Munc13 activates the Munc18-1/syntaxin-1 complex and enables Munc18-1 to prime SNARE assembly.

EMBO J 2020 Jul 9:e103631. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Priming of synaptic vesicles involves Munc13-catalyzed transition of the Munc18-1/syntaxin-1 complex to the SNARE complex in the presence of SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin-2; Munc13 drives opening of syntaxin-1 via the MUN domain while Munc18-1 primes SNARE assembly via domain 3a. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we have identified a number of residues in domain 3a of Munc18-1 that are crucial for Munc13 and Munc18-1 actions in SNARE complex assembly and synaptic vesicle priming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019103631DOI Listing

Prospects for the accelerated improvement of the resilient crop quinoa.

J Exp Bot 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

NovoCrops Centre, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Crops tolerant to drought and salt stress may be developed by two approaches. First, major crops may be improved by introducing genes from tolerant plants. For example, many major crops have wild relatives that are more tolerant to drought and high salinity than the cultivated crops, and, once deciphered, the underlying resilience mechanisms could be genetically manipulated to produce crops with improved tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa285DOI Listing

Polymeric Nanoparticles for Selective Protein Recognition by using Thiol-ene Mini-emulsion Photopolymerization.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 Jul 8:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biophysics, 34390 Istanbul.

The fabrication of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MIP-NPs) specific for myoglobin by using thiol-ene photopolymerization in miniemulsion was described. Allyl derivatives of phenylalanine as a functional monomer was synthesized and copolymerized with acrylic monomers via miniemulsion polymerization to produce NIP-NPs with approximately 74 nm number average particle diameter. FT-IR and H-NMR analysis confirmed the synthesis of functional monomer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1793705DOI Listing

Identification of bioactive molecule from (Ashwagandha) as SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Jul 8:1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and has been declared as pandemic disease by World Health Organization. Lack of targeted therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-2019 have triggered the scientific community to develop new vaccines or drugs against this novel virus. Many synthetic compounds and antimalarial drugs are undergoing clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1790425DOI Listing

The effect of simvastatin on gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA in rat hepatic tissues.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Jul 9:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Gorgan Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

The study aimed to assess the effect of simvastatin on gene expression of LDLR, SREBPs, and SCD1 in rat hepatic tissues fed with high-fat diets (HFD) and its association with some biochemical parameters. Thirty-two male Wister albino rats were divided into four equal groups (three test and one control groups). The biochemical parameters were determined by using spectrophotometer techniques and the Elisa method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1772829DOI Listing