257,393 results match your criteria Biophysical journal[Journal]


Oocyte-Secreted Factors Synergize with FSH to Promote Aromatase Expression in Primary Human Cumulus Cells.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Context: The role of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) on aromatase regulation is poorly understood in humans.

Objective: Determine GDF9 and BMP15 effects on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation of estradiol production in primary human cumulus granulosa cells (GCs). We hypothesized that the combination of GDF9 and BMP15 potentiates FSH-induced aromatase expression. Read More

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December 2018

Intrinsically disordered regions regulate both catalytic and non-catalytic activities of the MutLα mismatch repair complex.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular Biosciences and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are present in at least 30% of the eukaryotic proteome and are enriched in chromatin-associated proteins. Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry and single-molecule biophysics, we characterize how IDRs regulate the functions of the yeast MutLα (Mlh1-Pms1) mismatch repair (MMR) complex. Shortening or scrambling the IDRs in both subunits ablates MMR in vivo. Read More

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December 2018

The Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe1 Modulates Network Excitability via GABA Release.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Brain functions are extremely sensitive to pH changes because of the pH-dependence of proteins involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Here, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger Nhe1, which uses the Na+ gradient to extrude H+, is expressed at both inhibitory and excitatory presynapses. We disrupted Nhe1 specifically in mice either in Emx1-positive glutamatergic neurons or in parvalbumin-positive cells, mainly GABAergic interneurons. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Dopamine Cells Differentially Regulate Striatal Cholinergic Transmission across Regions through Corelease of Dopamine and Glutamate.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3148-3157.e3

Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:

The balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in the dorsal striatum is critical for motor and learning functions. Midbrain dopamine cells and local cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) densely innervate the striatum and have strong reciprocal actions on each other. Although dopamine inputs regulate ChIs, the functional consequences of dopamine neuron activity across dorsal striatal regions is poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

V2-Directed Vaccine-like Antibodies from HIV-1 Infection Identify an Additional K169-Binding Light Chain Motif with Broad ADCC Activity.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3123-3135.e6

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Electronic address:

Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain genes. Here, we identify an HIV-infected donor with high-titer V2 peptide-binding antibodies and isolate two antibody lineages (CAP228-16H/19F and CAP228-3D) that mediate potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both lineages use the IGHV5-51 heavy chain germline gene, similar to the RV144 antibody CH58, but one lineage (CAP228-16H/19F) uses a light chain without the ED motif. Read More

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December 2018

Crystal Structure of the Double Homeodomain of DUX4 in Complex with DNA.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2955-2962.e3

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Double homeobox (DUX) transcription factors are unique to eutherian mammals. DUX4 regulates expression of repetitive elements during early embryogenesis, but misexpression of DUX4 causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and translocations overexpressing the DUX4 double homeodomain cause B cell leukemia. Here, we report the crystal structure of the tandem homeodomains of DUX4 bound to DNA. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Munc18-1 catalyzes neuronal SNARE assembly by templating SNARE association.

Elife 2018 Dec 12;7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, United States.

Sec1/Munc18-family (SM) proteins are required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, but their mechanism(s) of action remain controversial. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we found that the SM protein Munc18-1 catalyzes step-wise zippering of three synaptic SNAREs (syntaxin, VAMP2, and SNAP-25) into a four-helix bundle. Catalysis requires formation of an intermediate template complex in which Munc18-1 juxtaposes the N-terminal regions of the SNARE motifs of syntaxin and VAMP2, while keeping their C-terminal regions separated. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Structural organization of a major neuronal G protein regulator, the RGS7-Gβ5-R7BP complex.

Elife 2018 Dec 12;7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, United States.

Signaling by the G protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) plays fundamental role in a vast number of essential physiological functions. Precise control of GPCR signaling requires action of Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins that deactivate heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are elaborately regulated and comprise multiple domains and subunits, yet structural organization of these assemblies is poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018
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The protective effect of rifampicin on behavioral deficits, biochemical, and neuropathological changes in a cuprizone model of demyelination.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:417-426. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that some antibiotics have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Rifampicin, commonly used for the treatment of mycobacteria, has been shown to exert neuroprotective activities in neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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January 2019

Cotranslational Folding of a Pentarepeat β-Helix Protein.

J Mol Biol 2018 Dec 27;430(24):5196-5206. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Science for Life Laboratory Stockholm University, Box 1031, SE-171 21 Solna, Sweden. Electronic address:

It is becoming increasingly clear that many proteins start to fold cotranslationally before the entire polypeptide chain has been synthesized on the ribosome. One class of proteins that a priori would seem particularly prone to cotranslational folding is repeat proteins, that is, proteins that are built from an array of nearly identical sequence repeats. However, while the folding of repeat proteins has been studied extensively in vitro with purified proteins, only a handful of studies have addressed the issue of cotranslational folding of repeat proteins. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Detection and Quantification of Pseudouridine in RNA.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:219-235

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Pseudouridylation is the most abundant of all RNA modifications. Pseudouridylation is dynamic and widespread among many different types of RNAs in living organisms, thus drawing a lot of recent interest from the RNA and epigenetics communities. To successfully carry out an investigation into RNA pseudouridylation, it is desirable to have a convenient and effective method capable of detection and quantification of pseudouridylation. Read More

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January 2019

LncVar: Deciphering Genetic Variations Associated with Long Noncoding Genes.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:189-198

CAS Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in various species and play important roles in many biological processes. The biological functions of most lncRNAs remain to be explored. Previous studies have revealed that a large amount of disease-associated variations are located in the lncRNA gene regions. Read More

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January 2019
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High-Resolution Mapping of N -Methyladenosine Using mA Crosslinking Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (mA-CLIP-Seq).

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:69-79

Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

N -Methyladenosine, an abundant chemical modification in mRNA, plays crucial roles in regulating gene expression and biological processes. Research on mA and its functions has progressed rapidly in the past few years, aided substantially by advances in high-throughput sequencing-based methods to profile mA along the transcriptome. We present here a protocol for mA crosslinking immunoprecipitation sequencing (mA-CLIP-seq), which profiles mA on mRNA at high resolution from as little as 1 μg of poly(A)-selected mRNA. Read More

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January 2019

Mitochondrial health and muscle plasticity after spinal cord injury.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Mitochondria are responsible for aerobic respiration and large-scale ATP production in almost all cells of the body. Their function is decreased in many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease states, in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity, and as a normal component of aging. Disuse of skeletal muscle from immobilization or unloading triggers alterations of mitochondrial density and activity. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Swelling behaviour of core-shell microgels in HO, analysed by temperature-dependent FTIR spectroscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Physical and Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.

Stimuli-responsive microgels are colloidal particles and promising candidates for applications such as targeted drug delivery, matrices for catalysts, nanoactuators and smart surface coatings. To tailor the response, the architecture of microgels is of paramount importance with respect to these applications. Statistical copolymer microgels based on N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NiPMAM) and N-n-propylacrylamide (NnPAM) show a cooperative phase transition leading to a collapse at a specific temperature. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing photoreceptor structure in patients with traumatic head injury.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 24;3(1):e000104. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of WI - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Objective: Previous work using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) imaging has shown photoreceptor disruption to be a common finding in head and ocular trauma patients. Here an expanded trauma population was examined using a novel imaging technique, split-detector AOSLO, to assess remnant cone structure in areas with significant disruption on confocal AOSLO imaging and to follow photoreceptor changes longitudinally.

Methods And Analysis: Eight eyes from seven subjects with head and/or ocular trauma underwent imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, confocal AOSLO and split-detector AOSLO to assess foveal and parafoveal photoreceptor structure. Read More

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November 2018

Unexpected Routes of the Mutagenic Tautomerization of the T Nucleobase in the Classical A·T DNA Base Pairs: A QM/QTAIM Comprehensive View.

Front Chem 2018 27;6:532. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular and Quantum Biophysics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.

In this paper using quantum-mechanical (QM) calculations in combination with Bader's quantum theory of "Atoms in Molecules" (QTAIM) in the continuum with ε = 1, we have theoretically demonstrated for the first time that revealed recently highly-energetic conformers of the classical A·T DNA base pairs - Watson-Crick [A·T(w)], reverse Watson-Crick [A·T(w)], Hoogsteen [A·T(w)] and reverse Hoogsteen [A·T(w)] - act as intermediates of the intrapair mutagenic tautomerization of the T nucleobase owing to the novel tautomerisation pathways: A·T(w)↔A·T(w); A·T(w)↔A· (w); A·T(w)↔A·T(w); A·T(w)↔A· (w). All of them occur the transition states as tight ion pairs (A, protonated by the N6H amino group)·(T, deprotonated by the N3H group) with quasi-orthogonal geometry, which are stabilized by the participation of the strong (A)N6H···O4/O2(T) and (A)N6H···N3(T) H-bonds. Established tautomerizations proceed through a two-step mechanism of the protons moving in the opposite directions along the intermolecular H-bonds. Read More

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November 2018

Understanding the Effects and Adverse Reactions of Deep Brain Stimulation: Is It Time for a Paradigm Shift Toward a Focus on Heterogenous Biophysical Tissue Properties Instead of Electrode Design Only?

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:468. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Psychiatry Emmendingen, Emmendingen, Germany.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proven to be an effective treatment modality for various late-stage neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, knowledge on the electrical field distribution in the brain tissue is still scarce. Most recent attempts to understand electric field spread were primarily focused on the effect of different electrodes on rather simple tissue models. Read More

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November 2018

A Hyperfluorinated Hydrophilic Molecule for Aqueous F MRI Contrast Media.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2018 12;2018:1693513. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Fluorine-19 (F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential for a wide range of applications but is limited by lack of flexibility in exogenous probe formulation. Most F MRI probes are composed of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) or perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) with intrinsic properties which limit formulation options. Hydrophilic organofluorine molecules can provide more flexibility in formulation options. Read More

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November 2018
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Potential effects of different natural antioxidants on inflammatory damage and oxidative-mediated hepatotoxicity induced by gold nanoparticles.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 23;13:7931-7938. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

Objective: The objective of this study was to verify and confirm the oxidative-mediated hepatotoxicity, inflammatory liver damage, and oxidative stress induced by intraperitoneal administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in vivo; characterize the effect of different natural antioxidants on these hazardous changes; and finally choose the most powerful antioxidant among these different natural antioxidants.

Methods: Ten-nanometer GNPs were dissolved in aqueous solution of 0.01% concentration. Read More

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November 2018

Histone demethylase LSD1 is required for germinal center formation and BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis.

Nat Immunol 2019 Jan 10;20(1):86-96. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Germinal center (GC) B cells feature repression of many gene enhancers to establish their characteristic transcriptome. Here we show that conditional deletion of Lsd1 in GCs significantly impaired GC formation, associated with failure to repress immune synapse genes linked to GC exit, which are also direct targets of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that BCL6 directly binds LSD1 and recruits it primarily to intergenic and intronic enhancers. Read More

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January 2019

Neonatal intermittent hypoxemia events are associated with diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks postmenstrual age.

Pediatr Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Neonatology, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease and major pulmonary complication after premature birth. We have previously shown that increased intermittent hypoxemia (IH) events have been correlated to adverse outcomes and mortality in extremely premature infants. We hypothesize that early IH patterns are associated with the development of BPD. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanical loading of desmosomes depends on the magnitude and orientation of external stress.

Nat Commun 2018 12 11;9(1):5284. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Group of Molecular Mechanotransduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, 82152, Martinsried, Germany.

Desmosomes are intercellular adhesion complexes that connect the intermediate filament cytoskeletons of neighboring cells, and are essential for the mechanical integrity of mammalian tissues. Mutations in desmosomal proteins cause severe human pathologies including epithelial blistering and heart muscle dysfunction. However, direct evidence for their load-bearing nature is lacking. Read More

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December 2018
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Crystal structure of the human NK tachykinin receptor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biophysics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390;

The NK tachykinin G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) binds substance P, the first neuropeptide to be discovered in mammals. Through activation of NKR, substance P modulates a wide variety of physiological and disease processes including nociception, inflammation, and depression. Human NKR (hNKR) modulators have shown promise in clinical trials for migraine, depression, and emesis. Read More

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December 2018
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Optical stimulation of cardiac cells with a polymer-supported silicon nanowire matrix.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637;

Electronic pacemakers can treat electrical conduction disorders in hearts; however, they are invasive, bulky, and linked to increased incidence of infection at the tissue-device interface. Thus, researchers have looked to other more biocompatible methods for cardiac pacing or resynchronization, such as femtosecond infrared light pulsing, optogenetics, and polymer-based cardiac patches integrated with metal electrodes. Here we develop a biocompatible nongenetic approach for the optical modulation of cardiac cells and tissues. Read More

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December 2018
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Structural-functional interactions of NS1-BP protein with the splicing and mRNA export machineries for viral and host gene expression.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390;

The influenza virulence factor NS1 protein interacts with the cellular NS1-BP protein to promote splicing and nuclear export of the viral M mRNAs. The viral M1 mRNA encodes the M1 matrix protein and is alternatively spliced into the M2 mRNA, which is translated into the M2 ion channel. These proteins have key functions in viral trafficking and budding. Read More

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December 2018

Cofactors are essential constituents of stable and seeding-active tau fibrils.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106;

Amyloid fibrils are cross-β-rich aggregates that are exceptionally stable forms of protein assembly. Accumulation of tau amyloid fibrils is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heparin-induced aggregates have been widely used and assumed to be a good tau amyloid fibril model for most biophysical studies. Read More

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December 2018

Role of HHV-6 subtypes in accelerating EAE progression.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Department of Neurology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1419733141, Iran

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December 2018
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TIAR marks nuclear G2/M transition granules and restricts CDK1 activity under replication stress.

EMBO Rep 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

The G2/M checkpoint coordinates DNA replication with mitosis and thereby prevents chromosome segregation in the presence of unreplicated or damaged DNA Here, we show that the RNA-binding protein TIAR is essential for the G2/M checkpoint and that TIAR accumulates in nuclear foci in late G2 and prophase in cells suffering from replication stress. These foci, which we named G2/M transition granules (GMGs), occur at low levels in normally cycling cells and are strongly induced by replication stress. In addition to replication stress response proteins, GMGs contain factors involved in RNA metabolism as well as CDK1. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Contribution of Cotranslational Folding Defects to Membrane Protein Homeostasis.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Membrane proteins are prone to misfolding and degradation within the cell, yet the nature of the conformational defects involved in this process remain poorly understood. The earliest stages of membrane protein folding are mediated by the Sec61 translocon, a molecular machine that facilitates the lateral partitioning of the polypeptide into the membrane. Proper partitioning into the membrane is an essential prerequisite for folding of the nascent chain. Read More

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December 2018

STING-dependent sensing of self-DNA drives silica-induced lung inflammation.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5226. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

CNRS, UMR7355, Orleans, 45071, France.

Silica particles induce lung inflammation and fibrosis. Here we show that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for silica-induced lung inflammation. In mice, silica induces lung cell death and self-dsDNA release in the bronchoalveolar space that activates STING pathway. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

An inflammatory-CCRK circuitry drives mTORC1-dependent metabolic and immunosuppressive reprogramming in obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5214. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Obesity increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in men, but the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here, we show that an androgen receptor (AR)-driven oncogene, cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), collaborates with obesity-induced pro-inflammatory signaling to promote non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related hepatocarcinogenesis. Lentivirus-mediated Ccrk ablation in liver of male mice fed with high-fat high-carbohydrate diet abrogates not only obesity-associated lipid accumulation, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, but also HCC development. Read More

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December 2018

Single-molecule imaging correlates decreasing nuclear volume with increasing TF-chromatin associations during zebrafish development.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5218. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Biophysics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the onset of transcription after initial quiescence, is a major developmental step in many species, which occurs after ten cell divisions in zebrafish embryos. How transcription factor (TF)-chromatin interactions evolve during early development to support ZGA is largely unknown. We establish single molecule tracking in live developing zebrafish embryos using reflected light-sheet microscopy to visualize two fluorescently labeled TF species, mEos2-TBP and mEos2-Sox19b. Read More

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December 2018

Jasmonic acid and ethylene are involved in the accumulation of osmotin in germinating tomato seeds.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 20;232:74-81. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 1A, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland.

The expression of SlNP24 encoding osmotin was studied in germinating tomato seeds Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker. Read More

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November 2018

Using GPUs to accelerate computational diffusion MRI: From microstructure estimation to tractography and connectomes.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging - Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

The great potential of computational diffusion MRI (dMRI) relies on indirect inference of tissue microstructure and brain connections, since modelling and tractography frameworks map diffusion measurements to neuroanatomical features. This mapping however can be computationally highly expensive, particularly given the trend of increasing dataset sizes and the complexity in biophysical modelling. Limitations on computing resources can restrict data exploration and methodology development. Read More

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December 2018

Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Separating Normosmic and Anosmic Patients Based on Entropy Evaluation of Olfactory Event-Related Potentials.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Interdisciplinary Center "Smell and Taste", Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Objective: Methods based on electroencephalography (EEG) are used to evaluate brain responses to odors which is challenging due to the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. This is especially difficult in patients with olfactory loss. In the present study, we aim to establish a method to separate functionally anosmic and normosmic individuals by means of recordings of olfactory event-related potentials (OERP) using an automated tool. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Evolution of Early-Onset Prostate Cancer Identifies Molecular Risk Markers and Clinical Trajectories.

Cancer Cell 2018 Dec;34(6):996-1011.e8

Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark; Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC), University of Copenhagen, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Identifying the earliest somatic changes in prostate cancer can give important insights into tumor evolution and aids in stratifying high- from low-risk disease. We integrated whole genome, transcriptome and methylome analysis of early-onset prostate cancers (diagnosis ≤55 years). Characterization across 292 prostate cancer genomes revealed age-related genomic alterations and a clock-like enzymatic-driven mutational process contributing to the earliest mutations in prostate cancer patients. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Efficiency of excitation energy trapping in the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Biophysics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands; MicroSpectroscopy Research Facility, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

During the millions of years of evolution, photosynthetic organisms have adapted to almost all terrestrial and aquatic habitats, although some environments are obviously more suitable for photosynthesis than others. Photosynthetic organisms living in low-light conditions require on the one hand a large light-harvesting apparatus to absorb as many photons as possible. On the other hand, the excitation trapping time scales with the size of the light-harvesting system, and the longer the distance over which the formed excitations have to be transferred, the larger the probability to lose excitations. Read More

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December 2018

Hyperactivation of Nrf2 increases stress tolerance at the cost of aging acceleration due to metabolic deregulation.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 10:e12845. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance. Read More

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December 2018

Psychological stress effects on myelin degradation in the cuprizone-induced model of demyelination.

Neuropathology 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as the most common demyelinating disease worldwide in which previous studies have shown that stress is a risk factor for the disease's onset and progression. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate the consequences of stress in MS pathology. In this study, after 5 days of exposure to psychological and physical stress as a repetitive distress modality, rats were treated with cuprizone. Read More

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December 2018

The methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (caesalpiniaceae) and selenium modulate cytosolic calcium accumulation, apoptosis and oxidative stress in R2C tumour Leydig cells: Involvement of TRPV1 channels.

Andrologia 2018 Dec 10:e13216. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

This study evaluated the effects of the methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (GT) and selenium (Se) on cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca ] ), apoptosis and oxidative stress through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity in CCL-97 (R2C) tumour Leydig cells. The cells were divided into nine groups and treated as follows: (a)-Control, (b)-Capsazepine (CPZ, 0.1 mM, a TRPV1 channel blocker), (c)-Capsaicin (CAP, 0. Read More

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December 2018

Robust kidney perfusion mapping in pediatric chronic kidney disease using single-shot 3D-GRASE ASL with optimized retrospective motion correction.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To develop a robust renal arterial spin labeling (ASL) acquisition and processing strategy for mapping renal blood flow (RBF) in a pediatric cohort with severe kidney disease.

Methods: A single-shot background-suppressed 3D gradient and spin-echo (GRASE) flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL acquisition method was used to perform 2 studies. First, an evaluation of the feasibility of single-shot 3D-GRASE and retrospective noise reduction methods was performed in healthy volunteers. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Identification of temperature-sensitive mutations and characterization of thermolabile RNase II variants.

FEBS Lett 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.

The RNase II family of ribonucleases is ubiquitous and critical for RNA metabolism. The rnb500 allele has been widely used for over 30 years; however, the underlying genetic changes which result in RNase II thermolabile activity remain unknown. Here, we combine molecular and biophysical studies to carry out an in vivo and in vitro investigation of RNase II mutation(s) that confer the rnb500 phenotype. Read More

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December 2018

Etiology of subjective taste loss.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.

Background: Taste complaints are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Although changes in taste function may arise from varied etiologies, numerous other factors may impact patients' taste perceptions, the most common of which is olfactory dysfunction. Thus, patients with taste complaints may or may not have measurable deficits in taste function. Read More

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December 2018

Opioid receptors and opioid peptides in the cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Free Radical Pathophysiology, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic.

The stimulation of myocardium repair is restricted due to the limited understanding of heart regeneration. Interestingly, endogenous opioid peptides such as dynorphins and enkephalins are suggested to support this process. However, the mechanism-whether through the stimulation of the regenerative capacity of cardiac stem cells or through effects on other cell types in the heart-is still not completely understood. Read More

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December 2018

Reproducibility of 2 Liver 2-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastographic Techniques in the Fasting and Postprandial States.

J Ultrasound Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departments of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability and agreement of 2 methods of 2-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography (SWE) on liver stiffness in healthy volunteers. We also assessed effects of the prandial state and operator experience on measurements.

Methods: Two operators, 1 experienced and 1 novice, independently examined 20 healthy volunteers with 2D SWE on 2 ultrasound machines (Aixplorer [SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France] and Aplio 500 [Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Japan]). Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and Biophysical Outcomes of Combining Microfocused Ultrasound with Visualization and Calcium Hydroxylapatite Filler for Facial Treatment.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Merz Pharmaceuticals, Frankfurt, Germany.

Introduction: Combined cosmetic treatments are becoming increasingly popular. The objective of this clinical evaluation was to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of combining microfocused ultrasound with visualization (MFU-V) treatment with a calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) dermal filler to tighten skin at the submental region and contour the jawline.

Methods: Women with loss of contour and skin laxity in the lower face received MFU-V treatment. Read More

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December 2018
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