2,346 results match your criteria Biomolecules[Journal]


Effects of Flavanols on Enteroendocrine Secretion.

Biomolecules 2020 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

MoBioFood Research Group, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, c/Marcel·lí Domingo nº1, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.

Some beneficial effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can be explained by the modulation of enterohormone secretion. As GSPE comprises a combination of different molecules, the pure compounds that cause these effects need to be elucidated. The enterohormones and chemoreceptors present in the gastrointestinal tract differ between species, so if humans are to gain beneficial effects, species closer to humans-and humans themselves-must be used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060844DOI Listing

The S100B Protein and Partners in Adipocyte Response to Cold Stress and Adaptive Thermogenesis: Facts, Hypotheses, and Perspectives.

Biomolecules 2020 May 31;10(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Departament Of Kinesiology and Physical Education and Departament of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, H3A 2B4 Montreal, QC, Canada.

In mammals, adipose tissue is an active secretory tissue that responds to mild hypothermia and as such is a genuine model to study molecular and cellular adaptive responses to cold-stress. A recent study identified a mammal-specific protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is strongly induced in the inguinal subcutaneous white adipocyte upon exposure to cold, calsyntenin 3β (CLSTN3β). CLSTN3β regulates sympathetic innervation of thermogenic adipocytes and contributes to adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060843DOI Listing

Rats Lacking Dopamine Transporter Display Increased Vulnerability and Aberrant Autonomic Response to Acute Stress.

Biomolecules 2020 May 31;10(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Neurology and Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

The activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is pivotal in homeostasis and presides the adaptative response to stress. Dopamine Transporter (DAT) plays a key role in the regulation of the HPA axis. We used young adult female DAT Knockout (KO) rats to assess the effects of DAT ablation (partial, heterozygous DAT+/-, or total, homozygous DAT-/-) on vulnerability to stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060842DOI Listing

Pseudouridine Synthase RsuA Captures an Assembly Intermediate that Is Stabilized by Ribosomal Protein S17.

Biomolecules 2020 May 30;10(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

The ribosome is a large ribonucleoprotein complex that synthesizes protein in all living organisms. Ribosome biogenesis is a complex process that requires synchronization of various cellular events, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, ribosome assembly, and processing and post-transcriptional modification of rRNA. Ribosome biogenesis is fine-tuned with various assembly factors, possibly including nucleotide modification enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060841DOI Listing

Heme-Oxygenase and Kidney Transplantation: A Potential for Target Therapy?

Biomolecules 2020 May 30;10(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Organ Transplant Unit, University Hospital of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Kidney transplantation is a well-established therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. While a significant improvement of short-term results has been achieved in the short-term, similar results were not reported in the long-term. Heme-oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, converting heme to iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060840DOI Listing

Recent Advances in CRISPR/Cas9 Delivery Strategies.

Authors:
Bon Ham Yip

Biomolecules 2020 May 30;10(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Vector Development and Production Laboratory, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of gene editing. Continuous efforts in developing this technology have enabled efficient in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo gene editing through a variety of delivery strategies. Viral vectors are commonly used in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo delivery systems, but they can cause insertional mutagenesis, have limited cloning capacity, and/or elicit immunologic responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060839DOI Listing

Saturation Mutagenesis for Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases of Enhanced Catalytic Properties.

Biomolecules 2020 May 30;10(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Biocatalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University, Arany János street 11, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PALs) are attractive biocatalysts for the stereoselective synthesis of non-natural phenylalanines. The rational design of PALs with extended substrate scope, highlighted the substrate specificity-modulator role of residue I460 of PAL. Herein, saturation mutagenesis at key residue I460 was performed in order to identify PAL variants of enhanced activity or to validate the superior catalytic properties of the rationally explored I460V PAL compared with the other possible mutant variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060838DOI Listing

Rapid Clathrin-Mediated Uptake of Recombinant α-Gal-A to Lysosome Activates Autophagy.

Biomolecules 2020 May 30;10(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Lysosomal and Rare Disorders Research and Treatment Center, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.

Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant alpha-galactosidase A (rh-α-Gal A) is the standard treatment for Fabry disease (FD). ERT has shown a significant impact on patients; however, there is still morbidity and mortality in FD, resulting in progressive cardiac, renal, and cerebrovascular pathology. The main pathway for delivery of rh-α-Gal A to lysosome is cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) endocytosis, also known as insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) endocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060837DOI Listing

Pan-Proteomic Analysis and Elucidation of Protein Abundance among the Closely Related Species, and .

Biomolecules 2020 May 30;10(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection caused by bacteria of the genus . The species, and , major causative agents of human brucellosis, share remarkably similar genomes, but they differ in their natural hosts, phenotype, antigenic, immunogenic, proteomic and metabolomic properties. In the present study, label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was applied to investigate protein expression level differences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060836DOI Listing

The Cancer Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Potential of Tetrahydrocurcumin.

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

In recent decades, cancer has been one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite advances in understanding the molecular basis of tumorigenesis, diagnosis, and clinical therapies, the discovery and development of effective drugs is an active and vital field in cancer research. Tetrahydrocurcumin is a major curcuminoid metabolite of curcumin, naturally occurring in turmeric. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060831DOI Listing

Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of ; Characterization, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities.

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon 999077, Hong Kong.

Due to their versatile applications, gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by many approaches, including green processes using plant extracts for reducing metal ions. In this work, we propose to use plant extract with active biomedical components for NPs synthesis, aiming to obtain NPs inheriting the biomedical functions of the plants. By using leaves extract of () as both a reducing agent and a capping agent, we have synthesized gold (CI-Au) and silver (CI-Ag) NPs covered with biomedically active functional groups from . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060835DOI Listing

The Architectural Dynamics of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor Switch.

Authors:
Shahid Khan

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Molecular Biology Consortium, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

The rotary bacterial flagellar motor is remarkable in biochemistry for its highly synchronized operation and amplification during switching of rotation sense. The motor is part of the flagellar basal body, a complex multi-protein assembly. Sensory and energy transduction depends on a core of six proteins that are adapted in different species to adjust torque and produce diverse switches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060833DOI Listing

Significance of STAT3 in Immune Infiltration and Drug Response in Cancer.

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor and regulates tumorigenesis. However, the functions of STAT3 in immune and drug response in cancer remain elusive. Hence, we aim to reveal the impact of STAT3 in immune infiltration and drug response comprehensively by bioinformatics analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060834DOI Listing

Naturally Occurring and Artificial N9-Cytokinin Conjugates: From Synthesis to Biological Activity and Back.

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Palacký University & Institute of Experimental Botany ASCR, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ-783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Cytokinins and their sugar or non-sugar conjugates are very active growth-promoting factors in plants, although they occur at very low concentrations. These compounds have been identified in numerous plant species. This review predominantly focuses on 9-substituted adenine-based cytokinin conjugates, both artificial and endogenous, sugar and non-sugar, and their roles in plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060832DOI Listing

Novel Intact Polar and Core Lipid Compositions in the Model Species, and , Reveal the Largest Lipid Diversity Amongst Thermococcales.

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

University Lyon, INSA Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5240, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France.

Elucidating the lipidome of Archaea is essential to understand their tolerance to extreme environmental conditions. Previous characterizations of the lipid composition of species, a model genus of hyperthermophilic archaea belonging to the Thermococcales order, led to conflicting results, which hindered the comprehension of their membrane structure and the putative adaptive role of their lipids. In an effort to clarify the lipid composition data of the genus, we thoroughly investigated the distribution of both the core lipids (CL) and intact polar lipids (IPL) of the model and, for the first time, of , the sole obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon known to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060830DOI Listing

Subcutaneous Administration of Apolipoprotein J-Derived Mimetic Peptide d-[113-122]apoJ Improves LDL and HDL Function and Prevents Atherosclerosis in LDLR-KO Mice.

Biomolecules 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Cardiovascular Biochemistry Group, Research Institute of the Hospital de Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08041 Barcelona, Spain.

Mimetic peptides are potential therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis. d-[,,,,,,,,,]apolipoprotein (apo) J (D-[,,,,,,,,,]apoJ) is a 10-residue peptide that is predicted to form a class G* amphipathic helix 6 from apoJ; it shows anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of d-[,,,,,,,,,]apoJ in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice(LDLR-KO) on the development of atherosclerosis and lipoprotein function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060829DOI Listing

Heparin Blocks the Inhibition of Tissue Kallikrein 1 by Kallistatin through Electrostatic Repulsion.

Biomolecules 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Pathophysiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

Kallistatin, also known as SERPINA4, has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure and angiogenesis, due to its specific inhibition of tissue kallikrein 1 (KLK1) and/or by its heparin binding ability. The binding of heparin on kallistatin has been shown to block the inhibition of KLK1 by kallistatin but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this blockade is unclear. Here we solved the crystal structures of human kallistatin and its complex with heparin at 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060828DOI Listing

AP-TSS: A New Method for the Analysis of RNA Expression from Particular and Challenging Transcription Start Sites.

Biomolecules 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Structure et Instabilité des Génomes, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7196, INSERM U1154, 43 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France.

Alternative promoter usage involved in the regulation of transcription, splicing, and translation contributes to proteome diversity and is involved in a large number of diseases, in particular, cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms and cis regulatory elements are involved in alternative promoter activity. Multiple transcript isoforms can be produced from a gene, due to the initiation of transcription at different transcription start sites (TSS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060827DOI Listing

Activation of 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase by Glutaredoxin Reducing System.

Biomolecules 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Isotope Research Laboratory, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan.

Glutaredoxin (EC 1.15-1.21) is known as an oxidoreductase that protects cysteine residues within proteins against oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060826DOI Listing

Hamp Type-1 Promotes Antimicrobial Defense via Direct Microbial Killing and Regulating Iron Metabolism in Grass Carp ().

Biomolecules 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Aquatic Animal Medicine, College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide and regulator of iron homeostasis which has two isoforms in most fishes and some mammals. Previous studies have reported that the two hepcidin isoforms have different roles. Hamp type-1 plays a regulatory role in iron metabolism and hamp type-2 mostly performs an antimicrobial role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060825DOI Listing

Extracellular Vesicles: Current Analytical Techniques for Detection and Quantification.

Biomolecules 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

Since their first observation, understanding the biology of extracellular vesicles (EV) has been an important and challenging field of study. They play a key role in the intercellular communication and are involved in important physiological and pathological functions. Therefore, EV are considered as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring the response to treatment in some diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060824DOI Listing

Valorization of Hemp Core Residues: Impact of NaOH Treatment on the Flexural Strength of PP Composites and Intrinsic Flexural Strength of Hemp Core Fibers.

Biomolecules 2020 May 27;10(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

LEPAMAP Research Group, University of Girona, Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17003 Girona, Spain.

Hemp core is a lignocellulosic residue in the production chain of hemp strands. Huge amounts of hemp core are gathered annually in Europe (43,000 tons) with no major application end. Such lignocellulosic wastes have potential as filling or reinforcing material to replace synthetic fibers and wood fibers in polymer composites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060823DOI Listing

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in Protein Chromatography: Development of an Affinity Adsorbent from Waste Paper and Its Application for the Purification of Proteases from Fish By-Products.

Biomolecules 2020 May 27;10(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Laboratory of Enzyme Technology, Department of Biotechnology, School of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, GR-11855 Athens, Greece.

In the present study, we report the development of a cellulose-based affinity adsorbent and its application for the purification of proteases from fish by-products. The affinity adsorbent was synthesized using cellulose microfibers as the matrix, isolated from recycled newspapers using the acid precipitation method. As an affinity ligand, the triazine dye Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB3GA) was used and immobilized directly onto the cellulose microfibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060822DOI Listing

Mercury Exposure Assessment in Mother-Infant Pairs from Continental and Coastal Croatia.

Biomolecules 2020 May 27;10(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

The main source of mercury (Hg) exposure in the general population is fish. Another possible source is dental amalgam. Here, we compare the levels of Hg and selenium (Se) in samples of maternal and fetal origin collected shortly after childbirth of healthy postpartum women in the coastal ( = 96) and continental ( = 185) areas of Croatia related to maternal seafood/fish consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060821DOI Listing

Autocrine TGF-β1 Maintains the Stability of Foxp3 Regulatory T Cells via IL-12Rβ2 Downregulation.

Biomolecules 2020 May 27;10(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is an immunosuppresive cytokine that plays an essential role in immune homeostasis. It is well known that regulatory T (Treg) cells express TGF-β1; however, the role of autocrine TGF-β1 in the development, function, and stability of Treg cells remains poorly understood. We found that Treg cell-derived TGF-β1 was not required for the development of thymic Treg cells in mice, but played a role in the expression of latency-associated peptide and optimal suppression of naïve T cell proliferation in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060819DOI Listing

An Isoform of the Oncogenic Splice Variant AIMP2-DX2 Detected by a Novel Monoclonal Antibody.

Biomolecules 2020 May 27;10(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Medicinal Bioconvergence Research Center, College of Pharmacy and College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, Incheon 21983, Korea.

AIMP2-DX2, an exon 2-deleted splice variant of AIMP2 (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 2), is highly expressed in lung cancer and involved in tumor progression in vivo. Oncogenic function of AIMP2-DX2 and its correlation with poor prognosis of cancer patients have been well established; however, the application of this potentially important biomarker to cancer research and diagnosis has been hampered by a lack of antibodies specific for the splice variant, possibly due to the poor immunogenicity and/or stability of AIMP2-DX2. In this study a monoclonal antibody, H5, that specifically recognizes AIMP2-DX2 and its isoforms was generated via rabbit immunization and phage display techniques, using a short peptide corresponding to the exon 1/3 junction sequence as an antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060820DOI Listing

Phytochemical and Biological Screening of L. Hydroalcoholic Extract.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Eftimie Murgu Square, No. 2, 300041 Timişoara, Romania.

L. (OB), also commonly known as evening primrose, belongs to the Onagraceae family and has the best studied biological activity of all the members in the family. In therapy, the most frequently used type of extracts are from the aerial part, which are the fatty oils obtained from the seeds and have a wide range of medicinal properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060818DOI Listing

Zoopharmacology: A Way to Discover New Cancer Treatments.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alcalá, Carretera Madrid-Barcelona, Km 33.100, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Zoopharmacognosy is the multidisciplinary approach of the self-medication behavior of many kinds of animals. Recent studies showed the presence of antitumoral secondary metabolites in some of the plants employed by animals and their use for the same therapeutic purposes in humans. Other related and sometimes confused term is Zootherapy, which consists on the employment of animal parts and/or their by-products such as toxins, venoms, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060817DOI Listing

Post-Treatment of Synthetic Polyphenolic 1,3,4 Oxadiazole Compound A3, Attenuated Ischemic Stroke-Induced Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Ischemic stroke is categorized by either permanent or transient blood flow obstruction, impeding the distribution of oxygen and essential nutrients to the brain. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of compound A3, a synthetic polyphenolic drug product, against ischemic brain injury by employing an animal model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (p-MCAO). Ischemic stroke induced significant elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species and, ultimately, provoked inflammatory cascade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060816DOI Listing

Understand the Specific Regio- and Enantioselectivity of Fluostatin Conjugation in the Post-Biosynthesis.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Fluostatins, benzofluorene-containing aromatic polyketides in the atypical angucycline family, conjugate into dimeric and even trimeric compounds in the post-biosynthesis. The formation of the C-C bond involves a non-enzymatic stereospecific coupling reaction. In this work, the unusual regio- and enantioselectivities were rationalized by density functional theory calculations with the M06-2X (SMD, water)/6-311 + G(d,p)//6-31G(d) method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060815DOI Listing

Small Circular DNA Molecules as Triangular Scaffolds for the Growth of 3D Single Crystals.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, China.

DNA is a very useful molecule for the programmed self-assembly of 3D (three dimension) nanoscale structures. The organised 3D DNA assemblies and crystals enable scientists to conduct studies for many applications such as enzymatic catalysis, biological immune analysis and photoactivity. The first self-assembled 3D DNA single crystal was reported by Seeman and his colleagues, based on a rigid triangle tile with the tile side length of two turns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060814DOI Listing

The Use of Mart. As a New Perspective for Disease Treatment and Prevention.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Laboratório Escola de Farmácia Industrial, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN 59012-570, Brazil.

Euterpe oleracea Mart. (EO), popularly known as açaí, belongs to the Arecaceae family and grows abundantly in Brazil. The fruit of this palm tree is widely used because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060813DOI Listing

In Silico Drug Design for Purinergic GPCRs: Overview on Molecular Dynamics Applied to Adenosine and P2Y Receptors.

Biomolecules 2020 May 26;10(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Molecular modeling has contributed to drug discovery for purinergic GPCRs, including adenosine receptors (ARs) and P2Y receptors (P2YRs). Experimental structures and homology modeling have proven to be useful in understanding and predicting structure activity relationships (SAR) of agonists and antagonists. This review provides an excursus on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations applied to ARs and P2YRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060812DOI Listing

Hindering of Cariogenic Biofilm by Fatty Acid Array Derived from an Endophytic Strain.

Biomolecules 2020 May 25;10(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmaceutical Industries, Future University in Egypt (FUE), Cairo 11835, Egypt.

has been considered as the major etiological agent of dental caries, mostly due to its arsenal of virulence factors, including strong biofilm formation, exopolysaccharides production, and high acid production. Here, we present the antivirulence activity of fatty acids derived from the endophytic fungus isolated from against . The chemical composition of the fatty acids was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS and revealed nine compounds representing 99. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050811DOI Listing

Reduced Reverse Cholesterol Transport Efficacy in Healthy Men with Undesirable Postprandial Triglyceride Response.

Biomolecules 2020 May 25;10(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Research Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolism and Nutrition, Faculté de Médecine - Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Sorbonne University, Inserm, UMR_S1166-ICAN, F-75013 Paris, France.

Elevation of nonfasting triglyceride (TG) levels above 1.8 g/L (2 mmol/L) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Exacerbated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PP-HTG) and metabolic context both modulate the overall efficacy of the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway, but the specific contribution of exaggerated PP-HTG on RCT efficacy remains indeterminate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050810DOI Listing

Trehalose for Ocular Surface Health.

Biomolecules 2020 May 25;10(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland.

Trehalose is a natural disaccharide synthesized in various life forms, but not found in vertebrates. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates exceptional bioprotective characteristics of trehalose. This review discusses the scientific findings on potential functions of trehalose in oxidative stress, protein clearance, and inflammation, with an emphasis on animal models and clinical trials in ophthalmology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050809DOI Listing

Novel Barbiturate-Nitrate Compounds Inhibit the Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Gene Expression in Intestinal Inflammation through a cGMP-Mediated Pathway.

Biomolecules 2020 May 25;10(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Dublin, Ireland.

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease. Barbiturate nitrate hybrid compounds have been designed to inhibit MMP secretion and enzyme activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of barbiturate-nitrate hybrid compounds and their component parts using models of intestinal inflammation in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050808DOI Listing

ATBF1 Participates in Dual Functions of TGF-β via Regulation of Gene Expression and Protein Translocalization.

Biomolecules 2020 May 24;10(5). Epub 2020 May 24.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China.

TGF-β is a critical cytokine to regulate multiple pathophysiological functions. For tumor development and progression, TGF-β was reported to play dual functions as a tumor suppressor and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. The mechanism of the TGF-β signaling pathway is essential for TGF-β/Smad-targeted therapy in clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050807DOI Listing

Enhanced Biomass Yield of and Saccharification in Transgenic Tobacco Over-Expressing β-Glucosidase.

Biomolecules 2020 May 23;10(5). Epub 2020 May 23.

Bio-Energy Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Here, we report an increase in biomass yield and saccharification in transgenic tobacco plants (.) overexpressing thermostable β-glucosidase from , , targeted to the chloroplasts and vacuoles. The transgenic tobacco plants showed phenotypic characteristics that were significantly different from those of the wild-type plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050806DOI Listing

Viridistratins A-C, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Benzo[]fluoranthenes from Stromata of (Hypoxylaceae, Ascomycota).

Biomolecules 2020 May 23;10(5). Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research GmbH (HZI), Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

During the course of our search for novel biologically active metabolites from tropical fungi, we are using chemotaxonomic and taxonomic methodology for the preselection of interesting materials. Recently, three previously undescribed benzo[]fluoranthenes (-) together with the known derivatives truncatones A and C (, ) were isolated from the stromata of the recently described species collected in Thailand. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of spectral methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050805DOI Listing

Structure of O-Polysaccharide and Lipid A of 8488.

Biomolecules 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian, National University, 76018 Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine.

The 8488 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was isolated, purified and characterized by monosaccharide and fatty acid analysis. The O-polysaccharide and lipid A components of the LPS were separated by mild acid degradation. Lipid A was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and found to consist of hexa-, penta-, tetra- and tri-acylated species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050804DOI Listing

Hemp ( L.) Protein Hydrolysates Promote Anti-Inflammatory Response in Primary Human Monocytes.

Biomolecules 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Food & Health, Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, 41013 Seville, Spain.

Hemp seeds have a wide variety of chemical compounds which present biological activity. Specifically, the focus on proteins and bioactive peptides are increasing as alternative sources of nutraceutical uses. In the literature, hemp protein products (HPPs) have reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050803DOI Listing

Effect of Erufosine on Membrane Lipid Order in Breast Cancer Cell Models.

Biomolecules 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Street 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

Alkylphospholipids are a novel class of antineoplastic drugs showing remarkable therapeutic potential. Among them, erufosine (EPC3) is a promising drug for the treatment of several types of tumors. While EPC3 is supposed to exert its function by interacting with lipid membranes, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not known yet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050802DOI Listing

Effects of Chronic Cannabidiol Treatment in the Rat Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model of Depression.

Biomolecules 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Several neuropharmacological actions of cannabidiol (CBD) due to the modulation of the endocannabinoid system as well as direct serotonergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic actions have recently been identified. The current study aimed to reveal the effect of a long-term CBD treatment in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 24) were exposed to various stressors on a daily basis in order to induce anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050801DOI Listing

Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids of Belladine-Type from cv. Carlton as New Selective Inhibitors of Butyrylcholinesterase.

Biomolecules 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

ADINACO Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Thirteen known (- and ) and three previously undescribed Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of belladine structural type, named carltonine A-C (-), were isolated from bulbs of cv. Carlton (Amaryllidaceae) by standard chromatographic methods. Compounds isolated in sufficient amounts, and not tested previously, were evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE; E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050800DOI Listing

In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Four Species and the Isolation of Compounds from Rhizome.

Biomolecules 2020 May 21;10(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Center of Chemical Innovation for Sustainability (CIS) and School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.

The genus is part of the Zingiberaceae family, and many species have been used as traditional medicine and cosmetics in Thailand. To find new cosmeceutical ingredients, the in vitro anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and cytotoxic activities of four species as well as the isolation of compounds from the most active crude extract () were investigated. The crude extract of showed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with an IC value of 102. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050799DOI Listing

Galectin-3: Roles in Neurodevelopment, Neuroinflammation, and Behavior.

Biomolecules 2020 May 21;10(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica 69, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia.

There is a plethora of evidence to suggest that Galectin-3 plays an important role in normal functions of mammalian cells, as well as in different pathogenic conditions. This review highlights recent data published by researchers, including our own team, on roles of Galectin-3 in the nervous system. Here, we discuss the roles of Galectin-3 in brain development, its roles in glial cells, as well as the interactions of glial cells with other neural and invading cells in pathological conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050798DOI Listing

Study of Synthesis Pathways of the Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid 20:5n-3 in the Diatom Using C-Isotope Labeling.

Biomolecules 2020 May 21;10(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Univ Brest, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UMR 6539 LEMAR F-29280 Plouzané, France.

The present study sought to characterize the synthesis pathways producing the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 20:5n-3 (EPA). For this, the incorporation of C was experimentally monitored into 10 fatty acids (FA) during the growth of the diatom for 24 h preferentially and quickly incorporated C into C PUFAs such as 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6 as well as 16:0 and 16:1n-7, which were thus highly C-enriched. During the experiment, 20:5n-3 and 16:3n-4 were among the least-enriched fatty acids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050797DOI Listing

Unstructured Biology of Proteins from Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Roles in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Biomolecules 2020 May 21;10(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, VPO Kamand, Himachal Pradesh 175005, India.

The 26S proteasome is a large (~2.5 MDa) protein complex consisting of at least 33 different subunits and many other components, which form the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), an ATP-dependent protein degradation system in the cell. UPS serves as an essential component of the cellular protein surveillance machinery, and its dysfunction leads to cancer, neurodegenerative and immunological disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050796DOI Listing

Characterization of Chenopodin Isoforms from Quinoa Seeds and Assessment of Their Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Caco-2 Cells.

Biomolecules 2020 May 21;10(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milano, Italy.

Several food-derived molecules, including proteins and peptides, can show bioactivities toward the promotion of well-being and disease prevention in humans. There is still a lack of information about the potential effects on immune and inflammatory responses in mammalian cells following the ingestion of seed storage proteins. This study, for the first time, describes the potential immunomodulation capacity of chenopodin, the major protein component of quinoa seeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050795DOI Listing