286 results match your criteria Biomedicines[Journal]


Hepatoprotective Activity of InlB321/15, the HGFR Ligand of Bacterial Origin, in CCI4-Induced Acute Liver Injury Mice.

Biomedicines 2019 Apr 11;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, 123098 Moscow, Russia.

HGF (hepatocyte growth factor)/HGFR (HGF receptor) signaling pathway is a key pathway in liver protection and regeneration after acute toxic damage. toxin InlB contains a HGFR-interacting domain and is a functional analog of HGF. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the InlB HGFR-interacting domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020029DOI Listing

A High-Throughput Assay for Congenital and Age-Related Eye Diseases in Zebrafish.

Biomedicines 2019 Apr 11;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245, USA.

Debilitating visual impairment caused by cataracts or microphthalmia is estimated to affect roughly 20 million people in the United States alone. According to the National Eye Institute, by 2050 that number is expected to more than double to roughly 50 million. The identification of candidate disease-causing alleles for cataracts and microphthalmia has been accelerated with advanced sequencing technologies creating a need for verification of the pathophysiology of these genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020028DOI Listing

Platelet-Rich Plasma and Micrografts Enriched with Autologous Human Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Hair Re-Growth in Androgenetic Alopecia. Biomolecular Pathway Analysis and Clinical Evaluation.

Biomedicines 2019 Apr 8;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Institute of Dermatology, F. Policlinico Gemelli, IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and Micrografts containing human follicle mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs) were tried as a potential treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). However, little to no work has yet to be seen wherein the bio-molecular pathway of HF-MSCs or PRP treatments were analyzed. The aims of this work are to report the clinical effectiveness of HF-MSCs and platelet-rich plasma evaluating and reviewing the most updated information related to the bio-molecular pathway. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/7/2/27
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020027DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis: Current Perspectives.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 30;7(2). Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Baylor College of Medicine, Maxine Mesigner Multiple Sclerosis Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease-modifying therapies (DMT) targeting inflammation have been shown to reduce disease activity in patients with relapsing⁻remitting MS (RRMS). The current therapeutic challenge is to find an effective treatment to halt disease progression and reverse established neural damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020026DOI Listing

Cytotoxicity of Extracts from New Zealand Surf Clams Against Organ Cancer Cell Lines.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 30;7(2). Epub 2019 Mar 30.

School of Science, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.

In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of four fractions from three species of New Zealand (NZ) surf clam on four common organ cancer cells. In most cases, a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the proliferation of the cancer cells was observed. This was most significant in WiDr (colon) cells, where the percentages of viability reduced to as low as 6%, 5%, and 17% (at 1000 µg 72 h) by extracts from Diamond shell, Storm shell, and Tua tua species, respectively. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/7/2/25
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020025DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Transformative Possibilities of the Microbiota and Mycobiota for Health, Disease, Aging, and Technological Innovation.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 28;7(2). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

The gut microbiota is extremely important for the health of the host across its lifespan.Recent studies have elucidated connections between the gut microbiota and neurological diseaseand disorders such as depression, anxiety, Alzheimer's disease (AD), autism, and a host of otherbrain illnesses. Dysbiosis of the normal gut flora can have negative consequences for humans,especially throughout key periods during our lifespan as the gut microbes change with age in bothphenotype and number of bacterial species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020024DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Zebrafish Larvae as a Behavioral Model in Neuropharmacology.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 26;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

Zebrafish larvae show a clear and distinct pattern of swimming in response to light and dark conditions, following the development of a swim bladder at 4 days post fertilization. This swimming behavior is increasingly employed in the screening of neuroactive drugs. The recent emergence of high-throughput techniques for the automatic tracking of zebrafish larvae has further allowed an objective and efficient way of finding subtle behavioral changes that could go unnoticed during manual observations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010023DOI Listing

Assessment and Impact of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: An Overview.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 19;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Neurology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Neurology, Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río, Santiago 8320000, Chile.

Cognitive impairment affects 40⁻60% of patients with multiple sclerosis. It may be present early in the course of the disease and has an impact on a patient's employability, social interactions, and quality of life. In the last three decades, an increasing interest in diagnosis and management of cognitive impairment has arisen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010022DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Can Activate the Epithelial⁻Mesenchymal Transition in an Experimental Gastric Cancer Model.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 19;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Biophysics and Condensed Matter Physics, Orenburg State University, Orenburg 460018, Russia.

Previously, we have shown the possibility of intramucosal gastric carcinoma induction by the intragastric administration of a mixture of formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide in rats. In this study, we report a sizable increase in carcinogenic properties of the mixture when a suspension containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles was added to it. This technique allowed us to reduce both the number of the carcinogen administrations from twelve to two and the time to the cancer induction from six to four months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010021DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Monoclonal Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis: Present and Future.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 14;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Rocky Mountain Multiple Sclerosis Center at the University of Colorado, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Academic Office 1, Mail Stop B-185, 12631 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

The global incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) appears to be increasing. Although it may not be associated with a high mortality rate, this disease has a high morbidity rate which affects the quality of life of patients and reduces their ability to do their activities of daily living. Thankfully, the development of novel disease modifying therapies continues to increase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010020DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Current Knowledge of IL-6 Cytokine Family Members in Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 13;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Dobney Hypertension Centre, School of Biomedical Science-Royal Perth Hospital Unit, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6000, Western Australia, Australia.

Healthy kidneys are important for the efficient regulation of metabolism. However, there is an ever increasing population of patients suffering from both acute and chronic kidney diseases that disrupt this homeostasis. This review will explore the emerging roles that interleukin 6 (IL-6) cytokine family members play in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010019DOI Listing

Alcohol Interaction with Cocaine, Methamphetamine, Opioids, Nicotine, Cannabis, and γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid.

Authors:
Ashok K Singh

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 7;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Millions of people around the world drink alcoholic beverages to cope with the stress of modern lifestyle. Although moderate alcohol drinking may have some relaxing and euphoric effects, uncontrolled drinking exacerbates the problems associated with alcohol abuse that are exploding in quantity and intensity in the United States and around the world. Recently, mixing of alcohol with other drugs of abuse (such as opioids, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, cannabis, and γ-hydroxybutyric acid) and medications has become an emerging trend, exacerbating the public health concerns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010016DOI Listing
March 2019
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Daclizumab: Mechanisms of Action, Therapeutic Efficacy, Adverse Events and Its Uncovering the Potential Role of Innate Immune System Recruitment as a Treatment Strategy for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 11;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Providence Health and Services, Regional Research Department, Portland, OR 97213, USA.

Daclizumab (DAC) is a humanized, monoclonal antibody that blocks CD25, a critical element of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). DAC HYP blockade of CD25 inhibits effector T cell activation, regulatory T cell expansion and survival, and activation-induced T-cell apoptosis. Because CD25 blockade reduces IL-2 consumption by effector T cells, it increases IL-2 bioavailability allowing for greater interaction with the intermediate-affinity IL-2R, and therefore drives the expansion of CD56 natural killer (NK) cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Therapeutic Targeting Strategies of Cancer Stem Cells in Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

Biomedicines 2019 Mar 10;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be a distinct population of cells within a tumor mass that are capable of asymmetric division and known to have chemoresistant characteristics. The description and identification of CSC models in cancer growth and recurrence has inspired the design of novel treatment strategies to overcome treatment resistance by targeting both CSCs and non-CSC tumor cells. Several cellular signaling pathways have been described as playing a role in the induction and maintenance of stemness in CSCs, such as the Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, STAT3, and Hedgehog pathways. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/7/1/17
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010017DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

On Zebrafish Disease Models and Matters of the Heart.

Biomedicines 2019 Feb 28;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Zebrafish Disease Models Lab, Center for Clinical Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the primary cause of mortality worldwide. It is a complex disease with genetic and environmental risk factor contributions. Reports in human and mammalian models elucidate age-associated changes in cardiac function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010015DOI Listing
February 2019

Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration and Axonal Dysfunction in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Biomedicines 2019 Feb 20;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, FLENI, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a major cause of neurological disability, which increases predominantly during disease progression as a result of cortical and grey matter structures involvement. The gradual accumulation of disability characteristic of the disease seems to also result from a different set of mechanisms, including in particular immune reactions confined to the Central Nervous System such as: (a) B-cell dysregulation, (b) CD8⁺ T cells causing demyelination or axonal/neuronal damage, and (c) microglial cell activation associated with neuritic transection found in cortical demyelinating lesions. Other potential drivers of neurodegeneration are generation of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, and mitochondrial damage, inducing impaired energy production, and intra-axonal accumulation of Ca, which in turn activates a variety of catabolic enzymes ultimately leading to progressive proteolytic degradation of cytoskeleton proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010014DOI Listing
February 2019

The TLR3 Agonist Poly Inosinic:Cytidylic Acid Significantly Augments the Therapeutic Activity of an Anti-CD7 Immunotoxin for Human T-cell Leukaemia.

Biomedicines 2019 Feb 16;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 16.

The Simon Flavell Leukaemia Research Laboratory, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.

We have previously shown that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) cooperates with immunotoxin (IT)-mediated killing of human leukaemia cells in an severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (SCID-HSB-2 mice), but not in an equivalent non-obese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mouse model. In these earlier studies, we reasoned that diminished ADCC due to the functional deficit in natural killer (NK) cell activity in NOD/SCID mice resulted in a failure of effective perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity necessary for the delivery of the augmentative effect. Poly-inosinic-cytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] is a synthetic dsRNA toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist that possesses a number of biological properties that includes the in vivo activation of NK cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010013DOI Listing
February 2019

Ultrastructure in Transthyretin Amyloidosis: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Insights.

Biomedicines 2019 Feb 5;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis is caused by systemic deposition of wild-type or variant amyloidogenic TTR (ATTRwt and ATTRv, respectively). ATTRwt amyloidosis has traditionally been termed senile systemic amyloidosis, while ATTRv amyloidosis has been called familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Although ATTRwt amyloidosis has classically been regarded as one of the causes of cardiomyopathy occurring in the elderly population, recent developments in diagnostic techniques have significantly expanded the concept of this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010011DOI Listing
February 2019
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Bioactive Titanium Surfaces: Interactions of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells of Nano Devices Applied to Dental Practice.

Biomedicines 2019 Feb 12;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences Morphological and Functional Imaging, Messina University, 98100 Messina, ME, Italy.

Background: In recent years, many advances have been made in the fields of bioengineering and biotechnology. Many methods have been proposed for the in vitro study of anatomical structures and alloplastic structures. Many steps forward have been made in the field of prosthetics and grafts and one of the most debated problems lies in the biomimetics and biocompatibility of the materials used. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/7/1/12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010012DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Reply to the Comment on: Subrat Khanal et al. The Repertoire of Adenovirus in Human Disease: The Innocuous to the Deadly. 2018, , 30.

Biomedicines 2019 Feb 2;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

We would like to thank Dr. Atkinson for his comments on our review article on the manifestations of adenoviral infections in humans. [. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010010DOI Listing
February 2019

Comment on Khanal et al. The Repertoire of Adenovirus in Human Disease: The Innocuous to the Deadly. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 30.

Biomedicines 2019 Jan 22;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23103, USA.

In their comprehensive review on adenoviruses, Khanal et al. omitted obesity as a disease caused by adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Animal studies have shown that experimental infection with Adv36 causes increased adiposity, and human association studies have shown that prior infection with Adv36 is correlated with greater body weight in humans in multiple countries of the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010008DOI Listing
January 2019

Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Infertility Treatment for Chemotherapy Induced Premature Ovarian Insufficiency.

Biomedicines 2019 Jan 18;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Background: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a challenging disease, with limited treatment options at the moment. Umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) have demonstrated promising regenerative abilities in several diseases including POI.

Materials And Method: A pre-clinical murine case versus vehicle control randomized study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010007DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Clinical Activity and Tolerability of SL-401 (Tagraxofusp): Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin and Interleukin-3 in Hematologic Malignancies.

Biomedicines 2019 Jan 5;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604, USA.

Overcoming the leukemia stem cell resistance to intensive chemotherapy has been an area of extensive research over the last two decades. Advances and greater understanding of the molecular biology of leukemia stem cells are in rapid progress. Targeted therapies are currently being used in clinical practice with reasonable response rates, but a cure is being achieved in only a small percentage of patients, most likely due to tumor mutational heterogeneity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010006DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility.

Biomedicines 2019 Jan 4;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility and Genetics, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction. HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three categories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Group I ovulation disorders involve hypothalamic failure characterized as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010005DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

α-Ketoglutaric Acid-Modified Carbonate Apatite Enhances Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity of a Raf- Kinase Inhibitor in Breast Cancer Cells through Inhibition of MAPK and PI-3 Kinase Pathways.

Biomedicines 2019 Jan 3;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan,Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

AZ628 is a hydrophobic Raf-kinase inhibitor (rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma) currently in clinical trial of various cancer. The physicochemical properties of hydrophobic drugs that affect the drug-particle interactions and cause aggregation of drugs and particles might be the key aspect to impede effective drug delivery. Retaining smaller particle size is the prerequisite to overcome the opsonization and improve cytotoxicity in the targeted region. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/7/1/4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010004DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Special Issue: Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs.

Biomedicines 2019 Jan 2;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. [.. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/7/1/3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010003DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Premature Ovarian Insufficiency: Procreative Management and Preventive Strategies.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 28;7(1). Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the loss of normal hormonal and reproductive function of ovaries in women before age 40 as the result of premature depletion of oocytes. The incidence of POI increases with age in reproductive-aged women, and it is highest in women by the age of 40 years. Reproductive function and the ability to have children is a defining factor in quality of life for many women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010002DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Immunotoxins Targeting B cell Malignancy-Progress and Problems With Immunogenicity.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 21;7(1). Epub 2018 Dec 21.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Few immunotoxins or targeted toxins have become mainline cancer therapies. Still immunotoxins continue to be of major interest and subject of research and development as alternative therapies for drug resistant cancer. A major matter of concern continues to be immunogenicity exemplified by the anti-toxin response of the treated patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010001DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Constrained α-Helical Peptides as Inhibitors of Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interactions.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 18;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Biophysics, Bose Institute, P1/12 CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata 700054, India.

Intracellular regulatory pathways are replete with protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, offering attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. So far, most drugs are targeted toward enzymes and extracellular receptors. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions have long been considered as "undruggable". Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315407PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Genetic Association and Altered Gene Expression of in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 18;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, 20090 Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced by macrophages and leading to oxidative stress, have been implicated as mediators of demyelination and axonal injury in both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the murine model of the disease. On the other hand, reduced ROS levels can increase susceptibility to autoimmunity. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/117
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315774PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Structural Features and Binding Modes of Thioether-Cyclized Peptide Ligands.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 13;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, 113-0033 Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

Macrocyclic peptides are an emerging class of bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. In part, this is because they are capable of high potency and excellent target affinity and selectivity. Over the last decade, several biochemical techniques have been developed for the identification of bioactive macrocyclic peptides, allowing for the rapid isolation of high affinity ligands to a target of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316662PMC
December 2018

Oral Dysbiosis in Pancreatic Cancer and Liver Cirrhosis: A Review of the Literature.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 11;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Fondazione Novara Sviluppo, 28100 Novara, Italy.

The human body is naturally colonized by a huge number of different commensal microbial species, in a relatively stable equilibrium. When this microbial community undergoes dysbiosis at any part of the body, it interacts with the innate immune system and results in a poor health status, locally or systemically. Research studies show that bacteria are capable of significantly influencing specific cells of the immune system, resulting in many diseases, including a neoplastic response. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316311PMC
December 2018
24 Reads

The Role of Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) in Regulating Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) in Thoracic Cancer.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 7;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Surgery, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.

The programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1)/PD-1 pathway is an immunological checkpoint in cancer cells. The binding of PD-L1 and PD-1 promotes T-cell tolerance and helps tumor cells escape from host immunity. Immunotherapy targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis has been developed as an anti-cancer therapy and used in treating advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315659PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Differences in Anxiety Levels of Various Murine Models in Relation to the Gut Microbiota Composition.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 4;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Advanced Green Energy and Environment, Handong Global University, Pohang-si, Gyeongbuk 37554, Korea.

Psychobiotics are probiotic strains that confer mental health benefits to the host through the modulation of the gut microbial population. Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota play an important role in communication within the gut⁻brain axis. However, the relationship between the host genetics and the gut microbiota and their influence on anxiety are still not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315404PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Viral-Mediated mRNA Degradation for Pathogenesis.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 29;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

MOE& MOH Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Cellular RNA decay machinery plays a vital role in regulating gene expression by altering the stability of mRNAs in response to external stresses, including viral infection. In the primary infection, viruses often conquer the host cell's antiviral immune response by controlling the inherently cellular mRNA degradation machinery to facilitate viral gene expression and establish a successful infection. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the diverse strategies of viral-mediated regulatory RNA shutoff for pathogenesis, and particularly sheds a light on the mechanisms that viruses evolve to elude immune surveillance during infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315618PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Multiple Sclerosis: A Global Concern with Multiple Challenges in an Era of Advanced Therapeutic Complex Molecules and Biological Medicines.

Authors:
Victor M Rivera

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 30;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) has become a common neurological disorder involving populations previously considered to be infrequently affected. Genetic dissemination from high- to low-risk groups is a determining influence interacting with environmental and epigenetic factors, mostly unidentified. Disease modifying therapies (DMT) are effective in treating relapsing MS in variable degrees; one agent is approved for primary progressive disease, and several are in development. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/112
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316848PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Dissecting the Immune Landscape of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 25;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 25.

John van Geest Cancer Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a molecularly heterogeneous hematological malignancy with variable response to treatment. Recurring cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular lesions identify AML patient subgroups with different survival probabilities; however, 50⁻70% of AML cases harbor either normal or risk-indeterminate karyotypes. The discovery of better biomarkers of clinical success and failure is therefore necessary to inform tailored therapeutic decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316310PMC
November 2018

HSP70 Inhibitor Suppresses IGF-I-Stimulated Migration of Osteoblasts through p44/p42 MAP Kinase.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 21;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone in a variety of cells including osteoblasts. We previously showed that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) elicits migration of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HSP70 inhibitors on the IGF-I-elicited migration of these cells and the mechanism involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316248PMC
November 2018

The Antidepressant-Like Effect of Lactate in an Animal Model of Menopausal Depression.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 21;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of lactate and elucidate its mechanisms in ovariectomized rats with repeated stress.

Methods: Two experiments were conducted on female rats in which all groups, except normal, were ovariectomized and underwent immobilization for 14 days. Lactate was administered orally (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, and the rats' cutaneous body temperature was measured during the same period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316721PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Selected Green Leafy Vegetables.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 19;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada.

The study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the hydro methanolic extract of six leafy vegetables, namely , , , , , and . The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts of leafy vegetables was evaluated using four in vitro-based assays: hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results showed that the percent inhibition of hemolysis from these leaf extracts (25⁻100 µg/mL dry weight basis (DW)) was within the range from 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316011PMC
November 2018
15 Reads

Alcoholic Liver Disease: Alcohol Metabolism, Cascade of Molecular Mechanisms, Cellular Targets, and Clinical Aspects.

Authors:
Rolf Teschke

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 12;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, Leimenstrasse 20, D-63450 Hanau, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Medical Faculty, Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Alcoholic liver disease is the result of cascade events, which clinically first lead to alcoholic fatty liver, and then mostly via alcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis potentially to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathogenetic events are linked to the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde as its first oxidation product generated via hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), which depends on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), and is inducible by chronic alcohol use. MEOS induction accelerates the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde that facilitates organ injury including the liver, and it produces via CYP 2E1 many reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as ethoxy radical, hydroxyethyl radical, acetyl radical, singlet radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, alkoxyl radical, and peroxyl radical. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/106
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316574PMC
November 2018
19 Reads

CRISPR/Cas9 for Cancer Therapy: Hopes and Challenges.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 12;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Molecular Cytogenetics Group, Human Cancer Genetics Program, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and remains a major economic and social burden. Although our understanding of cancer at the molecular level continues to improve, more effort is needed to develop new therapeutic tools and approaches exploiting these advances. Because of its high efficiency and accuracy, the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technique has recently emerged as a potentially powerful tool in the arsenal of cancer therapy. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/105
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315587PMC
November 2018
21 Reads

A New Role for Vitamin D: The Enhancement of Oncolytic Viral Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 5;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Oncolytic viruses have emerged as a novel class of anti-cancer therapeutics with one virus already receiving United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval (talimogene laherparepvec) and many others undergoing testing in clinical trials. These viruses have direct lytic effects on tumor cells as well as immunomodulatory functions to increase inflammatory cell infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment. Despite all of the advances in cancer care, pancreatic cancer remains a highly lethal malignancy. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/104
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316500PMC
November 2018
18 Reads

Cellular Plasticity of Mammary Epithelial Cells Underlies Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 1;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, INSERM U934, CNRS UMR3215, F-75248 Paris CEDEX 05, France.

The hierarchical relationships between stem cells, lineage-committed progenitors, and differentiated cells remain unclear in several tissues, due to a high degree of cell plasticity, allowing cells to switch between different cell states. The mouse mammary gland, similarly to other tissues such as the prostate, the sweat gland, and the respiratory tract airways, consists of an epithelium exclusively maintained by unipotent progenitors throughout adulthood. Such unipotent progenitors, however, retain a remarkable cellular plasticity, as they can revert to multipotency during epithelial regeneration as well as upon oncogene activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315661PMC
November 2018

The Role of Gene Therapy in Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Management.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 1;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 820 South Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly prevalent disorder, characterized by the development of menopause before the age of 40. Most cases are idiopathic; however, in some women the cause of this condition (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316312PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Notch and Wnt Dysregulation and Its Relevance for Breast Cancer and Tumor Initiation.

Biomedicines 2018 Nov 1;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the world. Treatment has been improved and, in combination with early detection, this has resulted in reduced mortality rates. Further improvement in therapy development is however warranted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315509PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Gastric Stem Cell and Cellular Origin of Cancer.

Biomedicines 2018 Oct 31;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 1138655, Japan.

Several stem cell markers within the gastrointestinal epithelium have been identified in mice. One of the best characterized is (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5) and evidence suggests that + cells in the gut are the origin of gastrointestinal cancers. Reserve or facultative stem or progenitor cells with the ability to convert to + cells following injury have also been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315982PMC
October 2018

Pyrrole-Mediated Peptide Cyclization Identified through Genetically Reprogrammed Peptide Synthesis.

Biomedicines 2018 Oct 30;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Flexible in vitro translation (FIT) was used as a screening method to uncover a new methodology for peptide constraining based on the attack of a nucleophilic side-chain functionality onto an oxidized furylalanine side chain. A set of template peptides, each containing furylalanine as furan-modified amino acid and a nucleophilic residue (Cys, His, Lys, Arg, Ser, or Tyr), was produced through FIT. The translation mixtures were treated with -bromosuccinimide (NBS) to achieve selective furan oxidation and subsequent MALDI analysis demonstrated Lys and Ser as promising residues for cyclisation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315747PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Azasulfurylpeptide Modulation of CD36-Mediated Inflammation Without Effect on Neovascularization.

Biomedicines 2018 Oct 22;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Departments of Chemistry, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

Modulation of the cluster of differentiation-36 receptor (CD36) has proven promising for dampening pro-inflammatory macrophage signaling. For example, azapeptides (e.g. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/98
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315388PMC
October 2018
11 Reads

Engineering of an Anti-Inflammatory Peptide Based on the Disulfide-Rich Linaclotide Scaffold.

Biomedicines 2018 Oct 6;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, AITHM, James Cook University, Cairns 4870, Australia.

Inflammatory bowel diseases are a set of complex and debilitating diseases, for which there is no satisfactory treatment. Peptides as small as three amino acids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in mouse models of colitis, but they are likely to be unstable, limiting their development as drug leads. Here, we have grafted a tripeptide from the annexin A1 protein into linaclotide, a 14-amino-acid peptide with three disulfide bonds, which is currently in clinical use for patients with chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/4/97
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316043PMC
October 2018
4 Reads