2,391 results match your criteria Biomedical sciences instrumentation[Journal]


ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL MODELS AS SURROGATES FOR HUMAN TUMORS FROM THREE DIFFERENT ORGANS.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2018 Apr;54(1):308-316

Jackson State University and the University of Mississippi Medical Center.

The compositional balance and distribution of trace metals/elements in various body tissues are essential key players in tissue and cellular homeostasis. Low Zn levels as well as overexpression of metalothioneins were implicated in the development and progression of various cancers including the prostate. Nonetheless, wider elemental profiles that relate cancer and normal phenotypes with regards to metal homeostasis were not well elucidated in the literature. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402601PMC

ACETIC ACID REMEDIATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC CONTAMINATION OF WATER AT THE GBNERR IN MISSISSIPPI.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2018 Apr;54(1):309-316

Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Box 18540, Jackson, MS 39217, USA.

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GBNERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The GBNERR may be a potential source for contamination with anthropogenic bacterial pathogens that may play a significant role in the causation of waterborne human diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of physicochemical and microbiological water quality parameters at the GBNERR to determine quantitative levels and establish the potential for remediation of post-contamination of water and seafood by human fecal pollution from anthropogenic sources at the reserve. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369911PMC

DIFFERENTIAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TESTICULAR FUNCTION UPON LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO SUSTAINED DELIVERY OF TESTOSTERONE AND DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2018 Apr;54(1):138-144

Jackson State University, Jackson, MS.

The specific aim of this study was to assess, histopathologically, the seminiferous tubules area and germ layers upon the exposure to sustained delivery of testosterone (TE) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) through tricalcium phosphate lysine devices (TCPL). A total of 140 adult Male rats (280-320 gm) were randomly divided into four equal groups. Groups 1 and 2 animals were implanted with TCPL loaded with 40 mg TE and 40 mg DHT, respectively. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258073PMC
April 2018
1 Read

TOWARD AN OBJECTIVE METHOD TO CLASSIFY TREMOR DOMINANT AND POSTURAL INSTABILITY AND GAIT DIFFICULTY SUBTYPES OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A PILOT STUDY.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2017 Mar-Apr;53:138-142

Locomotion Research Laboratory, School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Discriminating the two subtypes of tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) at early stage is highly valuable and crucial for progression treatment of disease for caregivers. However, there is no objective method or a subtype-specific biomarker yet available for identifying these two subtypes. A computational approach in frequency domain could be a good candidate to introduce biomarker since PD tremor had frequency range of 3-7 Hz. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886717PMC

LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE FATIGUE INFLUENCES NONLINEAR VARIABILITY IN TRUNK ACCELERATIONS.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2017 Mar-Apr;53:47-54

School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ, 85287, USA.

Lower extremity fatigue has been associated with decline in postural stability, alteration of normal walking patterns and increased fall risk. Effects of lower extremity fatigue on amount of movement variability as assessed by linear variability such as standard deviation and root mean square is well known but there is lack of information about how fatigue influences nonlinear temporal structure of variability in healthy human gait. In this study ten subjects (5 males and 5 females) were asked to perform treadmill walking for three minutes with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor affixed at their trunk level, thereafter the participants conducted squatting exercises and fatigue was induced as per standard fatigue protocol. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886727PMC
April 2018
9 Reads

IMPACT OF ATRA ON OVALBUMIN AND MOLD-SENSITIZED F344 RATS AND REVERSAL OF HEALTH-RELATED IMPLICATIONS BY CITRAL.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2017 Mar-Apr;53:320-327

Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217.

The role of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of hypervitaminosis A pathophysiology is not well understood or established in the literature. As well, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function; a non-toxic chemical that exists in two forms (diethyl; C1 or cis-trans dimethyl; C2).) in the reversal of pathophysiological implications is also not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635838PMC
October 2017
11 Reads

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE F344 RAT LUNG UPON EXPOSURE TO RETENOIC ACID, OVALBUMIN, MOLD SPORES AND CITRAL.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2017 Mar-Apr;53:120-127

Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, and the University of Mississippi Medical Center.

The paradoxical role of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of allergic and/or inflammatory complications in contrast to a therapeutic modality for lung pathology is not well understood or established in the literature. As well, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function; a non-toxic chemical that exists in two forms (diethyl; C1 or cis-trans dimethyl; C2), in the reversal of retinoic acid, ovalbumin and allergic mold spore pathophysiology is also not well ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that exposure of F344 lung tissues to supra-physiologic levels of retinoic acid, ovalbumin and mold spores individually or in combination with each other will lead to inflammatory tissue pathology and that Citral 1 and 2 will reverse or ameliorate the related pathological damage to lung tissues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635841PMC
October 2017
7 Reads

VISUAL FEEDBACK ARRAY TO ACHIEVE REPRODUCIBLE LIMB DISPLACEMENTS AND VELOCITIES IN HUMANS.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2017 Mar-Apr;53:100-105

Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233.

Precise and reproducible feedback is important for studies on motor control, the adaptive responses to exercise training and the limits of human neuromuscular performance. For this purpose, a custom instrumentation array was previously developed to provide human subjects with visual feedback on their contractile durations and limb velocities during knee extension exercise. The array consisted of two columns, each with 14 high-visibility light emitting diodes. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086354PMC
August 2018
18 Reads

Impact of Triple Combinations of Retinoic Acid, Mold Spores and Citral on the F344 Rat Lung Tissue Pathology.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2016 04;52:104-111

Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, and the University of Mississippi Medical Center.

The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5463610PMC
April 2016
10 Reads

Cellular Glycolysis and The Differential Survival of Lung Fibroblast and Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines.

Authors:
Ibrahim O Farah

Biomed Sci Instrum 2016 04;52:96-103

Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217.

Tumor growth and abnormal cell survival were shown to be associated with a number of cellular metabolic abnormalities revealed by impaired oral glucose tolerance, depressed lipoprotein lipase activity leading to hypertriglyceridemia, and changes in amino acid profile as evidenced by increased plasma free tryptophan levels in patients with breast, lung, colon, stomach, and other cancers from various origins. The above findings seem to relate to or indicate a shift to non-oxidative metabolic pathways in cancer. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells may lose the ability to utilize aerobic respiration due to either defective mitochondria or hypoxia within the tumor microenvironments. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5463575PMC
April 2016
8 Reads

Two and Three-Dimensional in Vitro Models of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:439-45

Virginia Tech.

Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has become an increasingly significant concern in Veterans returning from warfare. Associated brain injury and cognitive deficits are difficult to diagnose as the nature of this injury is progressive. In order to better understand the mechanisms of BINT at the microscopic level, two- and three-dimensional models of astrocytes were studied. Read More

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February 2016
12 Reads

Injuries to Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Oblique Aircraft Seat Environment.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:431-8

Medical College of Wisconsin.

Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. Read More

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February 2016
8 Reads

Blast Induced Neurotrauma Leads To Changes In The Epigenome.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:423-30

Virginia Tech.

Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) leads to widespread aberrant gene expression and molecular changes resulting in cognitive impairment. Enzymes such as HDAC2, HDAC6, SIRT1, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b control histone acetylation and DNA methylation which play a major role in regulation of the transcriptome. Changes in the expression of these enzymes have been implicated in the pathology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Read More

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February 2016
2 Reads

Neovascularization And Macrophage Behavior Under The Influence Of Androgens In The Tissue-Implant Response.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:415-22

University of Mississippi Medical Center.

Macrophages and blood vessels are critical components in the biocompatibility and functionality of implantable ceramic materials used in drug delivery applications. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of macrophage and neovascularization by further defining their presence, relationship, and correlation in the fibrous tissue capsule of calcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic drug delivery systems. Sixteen animals in four experimental groups were implanted with one TCP bioceramic each. Read More

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February 2016
5 Reads

The Tissue Implant Response Surrounding Subcutaneous TCP, HA, And ALCAP Bioceramics.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:407-14

University of Mississippi Medical Center.

The objective of this investigation was to quantify and further elucidate the tissue-implant response in the fibrous tissue surrounding tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and aluminum calcium phosphate (ALCAP) implants when implanted subcutaneously. Sixteen animals in four experimental groups (n = 4/group) were implanted with one implant each: Group I (control, TCP), Group II (HA), and Group III (ALCAP). At 90 days post-implantation, the fibrous tissue surrounding the implants was harvested. Read More

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February 2016

The Effect Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Antidiabetic Drugs on Cardiomyocytes.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:400-6

University of Mississippi Medical Center.

Recent reports in the literature show an increase in the risk of heart related events in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants. There is also evidence that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are negatively associated with heart failure. The objective of our study is to determine if cardiomyocytes in culture can be used as a tool to mimic clinical scenarios and to evaluate therapeutic concentrations of SSRIs (fluoxetine) and antidiabetic (troglitazone) medication. Read More

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February 2016
6 Reads

The Effects of Metformin and EGCG On PANC-1 Cell Survival.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:393-9

University of Mississippi Medical Center.

There is less than a thirty percent survival rate for patients with a localized pancreatic tumor, and less than a ten percent survival rate for patients with metastases. Patients with pancreatic cancer often have altered glucose metabolism and are prescribed metformin which has been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation. Metformin administered at doses ranging between 10-20 mM has been reported in the literature to induce AMPK signaling pathways which increase cellular apoptosis. Read More

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February 2016
12 Reads

Predicting Targets of Human Reaching Motions With an Arm Rehabilitation Exoskeleton.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:385-92

University of Wyoming.

Rehabilitation robots physically support patients during exercise, but their assistive strategies often constrain patients by forcing them to execute predefined motions. To allow more freedom during rehabilitation, the robot should be able to predict what motion the patient wants to perform, then intelligently support the motion. As a first step, this paper presents an algorithm that predicts targets of reaching motions made with an arm rehabilitation exoskeleton. Read More

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February 2016
1 Read

Inexpensive Complex Hand Model Twenty Years Later.

Authors:
Paul Frenger

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:378-84

A Working Hypothesis, Inc.

Twenty years ago the author unveiled his inexpensive complex hand model, which reproduced every motion of the human hand. A control system programmed in the Forth language operated its actuators and sensors. Follow-on papers for this popular project were next presented in Texas, Canada and Germany. Read More

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February 2016

The Negative Impact of Combining Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Mold Spores on F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:370-7

Jackson State University.

The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557780PMC
February 2016
6 Reads

Health Impact of Retinoic Acid (ATRA) on Ovalbumin-Sensitized F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:362-9

Jackson State University.

The health impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling has not been well established in the literature. Equally, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in vivo. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Ovalbumin (Egg albumin; OVA) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse or ameliorate the related pathological damage to lung tissues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557783PMC
February 2016
4 Reads

Segmentation and Analysis of Corpus Callosum in Alzheimer MR Images using Total Variation Based Diffusion Filter and Level Set Method.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:355-61

Anna University.

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a common form of dementia that affects gray and white matter structures of brain. Manifestation of AD leads to cognitive deficits such as memory impairment problems, ability to think and difficulties in performing day to day activities. Although the etiology of this disease is unclear, imaging biomarkers are highly useful in the early diagnosis of AD. Read More

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February 2016
2 Reads

An Approach to Diagnosis of Auto-Immune Diseases using HEP-2 Staining Pattern and Fractal Texture Features.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:349-54

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Observing and classifying the indirect immunofluorescence patterns on HEp-2 cells can help in detecting Anti-Nuclear-Antibodies. A computer algorithm to perform this function can lead to a more standardized, faster and accurate diagnosis of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, sjogren’s syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, HEp-2 staining patterns are classified using segmentation based fractal texture features. Read More

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February 2016

Robust Anisotropic Diffusion Based Edge Enhancement for Level Set Segmentation and Asymmetry Analysis of Breast Thermograms using Zernike Moments.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:341-8

Anna University.

Breast thermography plays a major role in early detection of breast cancer in which the thermal variations are associated with precancerous state of breast. The distribution of asymmetrical thermal patterns indicates the pathological condition in breast thermal images. In this work, asymmetry analysis of breast thermal images is carried out using level set segmentation and Zernike moments. Read More

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February 2016

Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Progression In MR Brain Images based on Segmentation and Analysis of Ventricles using Modified DRLSE Method and Minkowski Functionals.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:332-40

Anna University.

In this work, the ventricles in MR brain images are segmented using edge based modified Distance Regularized Level Set Evolution (DRLSE) method and the structural changes in the disease is further analysed using Minkowski functionals (MFs). Twenty normal and abnormal T1-weighted coronal mid slice MR image are considered for the analysis. The MR brain image is pre-processed using contrast enhancement method. Read More

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February 2016

Subcortical Region Segmentation using Fuzzy Based Augmented Lagrangian Multiphase Level Sets Method in Autistic MR Brain Images.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:323-31

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

In this work, the subcortical regions of control and autistic MR brain are segmented from the skull stripped images using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) based Augmented Lagrangian (AL) multiphase level set method. The FCM method is used as he intensity discriminator for the multiphase level set method. The AL function avoids the re-initialization procedure. Read More

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February 2016

Implementation of a Smart Phone for Motion Analysis.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:315-22

King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok.

In today’s information-rich environment, one of the most popular devices is a smartphone. Research has shown significant growth in the use of smartphones and apps all over the world. Accelerometer within smartphone is a motion sensor that can be used to detect human movements. Read More

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February 2016
1 Read

Ependymal Proliferation: A Conduit for Tricking the Central Nervous System into Bioengineering Itself.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:309-14

University of Saskatchewan.

Ependymal Cells are a type of Glial Cell lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Their primary function is to secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neural stem cells (NSC) exist within the ependymal lining that are capable of neurogenesis. Read More

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February 2016
3 Reads

Interaction of Radio Frequency and LAMBDA-DNA.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:303-8

North Dakota State University.

With the prevalence of wireless radio frequency (RF) devices, interest is growing to more fully understand the effect of RF on biological tissue. This research explores how ?DNA interacts with RF energy. By sweeping a radio frequency range from 1 GHz to 8. Read More

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February 2016
2 Reads

Characterization of Lumbar Spine Annular Disruption in PMHS Using MRI, Cryomicrotomy and Histology Techniques.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:297-302

Medical College of Wisconsin.

Internal intervertebral disc disruption is involved in the onset of a wide range of spinal dysfunction, ultimately affecting not only the disc itself but the surrounding osseous and neural structures as well. The ability of disc to withstand and effectively distribute axial load is dependent upon whether peripherally located annular fibers provide the support necessary to contain and corral the pressure sensitive nucleus. Any alteration in the structures immediate to the nucleus jeopardize this ability. Read More

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February 2016
3 Reads

In-Home Behavioral Monitoring Using Simultaneous Localization and Activity Detection.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:289-96

University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Shifting demographics in the U.S. has created an urgent need to reform the policies, practices, and technology associated with delivering healthcare to geriatric populations. Read More

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February 2016
4 Reads

Regional Variation of Gap Junction Conductance on Reentrant Arrhythmia.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:281-8

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Arrhythmia generating conditions like ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction or ischemia modify the intercellular coupling by modifying the conductance of gap junctions in the normal electric propagation pathway of the heart. A discrete ventricular cell network of 100x100 cells interconnected using resistive gap junctions is simulated to study the effect of size, shape and position of inhomogeneity as well as the value of gap junction conductance of inhomogeneity on the occurrence of reentrant arrhythmia. In addition to lowering the conduction, a unidirectional block is also created using exactly timed stimulation inputs thus setting the ideal conditions for a reentrant activation to arise from the zone of varied gap junction conductance. Read More

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February 2016
1 Read

Design of Content Based Image Retrieval Scheme for Diabetic Retinopathy Images using Harmony Search Algorithm.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:273-80

Madras Institute of Technology.

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Automated segmentation of blood vessel is vital for periodic screening and timely diagnosis. An attempt has been made to generate continuous retinal vasculature for the design of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) application. Read More

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February 2016
1 Read

A Clinical Study to Validate the Pupil Rescaling Technique by using COAS Shack Hartmann Aberrometer.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:266-72

Elite School of Optometry.

In any optical system, optical aberrations of the imaging system affect the image quality. The human eye is also like an optical system which has optical aberrations influencing the quality of the retinal image. When pupil size exceeds 3 mm, ocular aberrations increase and play a major role on retinal image degradation. Read More

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February 2016

Managing Medical Device Incident Investigations.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:260-5

Baretich Engineering, Inc.

When medical device-related incidents occur in the clinical environment, it’s important for the healthcare organization to respond quickly and effectively. This paper outlines seven steps that will help the organization conduct an investigation that will protect its interests, comply with federal regulations and accreditation standards, and improve patient safety by avoiding recurrences. The paper emphasizes the role of engineering design in reducing the likelihood and impact of medical device-related incidents. Read More

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February 2016

Preliminary Development and Validation of an Atlas-Based Finite Element Brain Model.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:253-9

Virginia Tech - Wake Forest University.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and injury-related death, accounting for nearly one third of all injury-related deaths. To prevent and understand these types of injuries, finite element models can be employed. In this study, an anatomically accurate finite element model was developed from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) using a voxel-based mesh generation approach. Read More

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February 2016
10 Reads

Analysis Of SEMG Signal Complexity Associated with Fatigue Conditions in Biceps Brachii Muscle using Multiscale Approximate Entropy.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:246-52

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition which causes a decline in muscle performance. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are widely used to evaluate muscle fatigue and these signals are highly complex in nature. To address this, advanced signal processing techniques are necessary. Read More

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February 2016
30 Reads

Analysis of Surface EMG Signals in Isometric Contraction at Different Angles Using Rainflow Counting Algorithms.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:238-45

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Endurance and muscle strengthening are required in a number of applications including fitness training, sports and prosthetics. Optimal performance can be achieved by understanding the relationship between muscle activity and angular variation of the elbow joint. Biceps brachii is an important muscle of the upper arm that helps in providing stability during flexion and extension. Read More

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February 2016

Hybrid III Lower Leg Injury Assessment Reference Curves Under Axial Impacts Using Matched-Pair Tests.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:230-7

Medical College of Wisconsin.

The objective of the present study was to derive injury probability curves applicable to the Hybrid III dummy (also termed the Anthropomorphic Test Device, ATD) lower leg under axial impacts for military applications. A matched-pair approach was used. Axial impacts were delivered to below knee foot-ankle complex preparations of the lower leg of the ATD using pendulum and custom vertical accelerator devices. Read More

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February 2016
3 Reads

Methodology to Calibrate Disc Degeneration in the Cervical Spine During Cyclic Fatigue Loading.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:222-9

Medical College of Wisconsin.

Prolonged exposure to vibrational working conditions can cause neck, back, and shoulder pain. Mechanical degradation of soft tissues resulting from this type of fatigue was experimentally shown to contribute to endplate and compression fractures. However, effects of repetitive subfailure loading on intervertebral disc (IVD) behavior have not been well defined. Read More

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February 2016
7 Reads

Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure Exposure on Hepatic Progenitor Cells.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:214-21

Miami University.

Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) have the potential to regenerate healthy tissue in the setting of chronic liver disease. The goal of this study was to characterize the mechanosensitivity of HPCs to sustained hydrostatic pressure (20 mmHg) similar to that observed in liver cirrhosis. Bipotential Murine Oval Liver (BMOL) cells, an HPC-like cell line, were cultured in a hydrostatic pressure controlled chamber at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 4 days (to 90% confluency) or 12 days (superconfluency). Read More

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February 2016

Material Parameter Determination of an L4-L5 Motion Segment Finite Element Model Under High Loading Rates.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:206-13

John Hopkins University.

Underbody blast (UBB) events impart vertical loads through a victim’s lumbar spine, resulting in fracture, paralysis, and disc rupture. Validated biofidelic lumbar models allow characterization of injury mechanisms and development of personal protective equipment. Previous studies have focused on lumbar mechanics under quasi-static loading. Read More

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February 2016
16 Reads

Evaluation of Fall Recovery and Gait Adaptation to Medial and Lateral Gait Perturbations.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:198-205

Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

The aim of this study was to develop an active gait perturbation system and to evaluate its efficacy in evaluating fall recovery and gait adaptation. We hypothesized that a translating perturbation during the single stance phase would alter gait adaptations, in terms of gait parameters and muscle co-contractions, during recovery to maintain dynamic stability for continued walking. A customized miniature treadmill, built on a large force plate and embedded perpendicular to the walkway, was used to translate the loaded stance foot medially and laterally to interrupt swing foot trajectory. Read More

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February 2016

Comparison of Slip Training in VR Environment And on Moveable Platform.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:189-97

Marshall University.

Slip training is gaining popularity as an innovative fall intervention approach. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different slip training modality (moveable platform and virtual reality) in reducing fall frequency and improving reactive recovery in older adults. Thirty-six healthy older adults were involved in a laboratory study, and were equally and randomly divided into the control group, the moveable platform training (MPT) group, and the virtual reality training (VRT) group. Read More

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February 2016
16 Reads

Mesh Smoothing Algorithm Applied to a Finite Element Model of the Brain for Improved Brain-Skull Interface.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:181-8

Wake forest University School of Medicine.

The brain-skull interface plays an important role in the strain and pressure response of the brain due to impact. In this study, a finite element (FE) model was developed from a brain atlas, representing an adult brain, by converting each 1mm isotropic voxel into a single element of the same size using a custom code developed in MATLAB. This model includes the brain (combined cerebrum and cerebellum), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ventricles, and a rigid skull. Read More

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February 2016
6 Reads

Skull Thickness Morphing for an Age and Sex Specific FE Model of the Skull.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:173-80

Wake forest University School of Medicine.

Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Furthermore, skull thickness is thought to be an important factor governing deformation of the skull and its susceptibility to fracture. Although many studies have been done to understand the mechanisms of brain injury and skull fracture, the majority of the cadaveric and finite element (FE) modeling efforts are comprised of older males and 50th percentile male skulls, respectively, which do not accurately represent the population as a whole. Read More

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February 2016
7 Reads

Automated Measurement Technique for the Determination of Regional Skull and Scalp Constituent Thickness.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:165-72

John Hopkins University.

The human skull is a multi-layered composite system critical in protecting the brain during head impact. Head impact studies investigating skull injury thresholds have suggested that the skull and scalp thickness affect the risk of fracture. Therefore, accurately determining the dimensions of skull-scalp constituents is a necessary step in attributing the contribution to response, failure mechanisms and in developing high fidelity human models. Read More

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February 2016

A Method to Quantify Supine to Prone Thoracoabdominal Deformation and Organ Migration in a Set of Healthy Young Adults.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:159-64

Wake forest University School of Medicine.

Medical image data used for the development of computational human body models are often retrospectively acquired, and researchers are unlikely to encounter scans of healthy individuals in specific postures. We prospectively acquired scans in both prone and supine postures from 22 healthy young adults; M:F 1:1, with age, height, and weight of 28.8±7. Read More

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February 2016
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Experimental Characterization of the Anatomical Structures of the Lumbar Spine Under Dynamic Sagittal Bending.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:151-8

John Hopkins University.

Underbody blast (UBB) events transmit high-rate vertical loads through the seated occupant’s lumbar spine and have a high probability of inducing severe injury. While previous studies have characterized the lumbar spine under quasi-static loading, additional work should focus on the complex kinetic and kinematic response under high loading rates. To discern the biomechanical influence of the lumbar spine’s anatomical structures during dynamic loading, the axial force, flexion-extension moments and range of motion for lumbar motion segments (n=18) were measured during different states of progressive dissection. Read More

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February 2016

Effects of Filtering on Experimental Blast Overpressure Measurements.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2015 ;51:143-50

Virginia Tech - Wake Forest University.

When access to live-fire test facilities is limited, experimental studies of blast-related injuries necessitate the use of a shock tube or Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) to mimic free-field blast overpressure. However, modeling blast overpressure in a laboratory setting potentially introduces experimental artifacts in measured responses. Due to the high sampling rates required to capture a blast overpressure event, proximity to alternating current (AC-powered electronics) and poorly strain-relieved or unshielded wires can result in artifacts in the recorded overpressure trace. Read More

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February 2016
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