668,510 results match your criteria Biomedical research Tokyo Japan[Journal]


Integral role for lysyl oxidase-like-1 in conventional outflow tissue function and behavior.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Lysyl oxidase-like-1 (LOXL1), a vital crosslinking enzyme in elastin fiber maintenance, is essential for the stability and strength of elastic vessels and tissues. Variants in the LOXL1 locus associate with a dramatic increase in risk of exfoliation syndrome (XFS), a systemic fibrillopathy, which often presents with ocular hypertension and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). We examined the role of LOXL1 in conventional outflow function, the prime regulator of intraocular pressure (IOP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000702RRDOI Listing

EpigenCentral: Portal for DNA methylation data analysis and classification in rare diseases.

Hum Mutat 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Epigenetic processes play a key role in regulating gene expression. Genetic variants that disrupt chromatin-modifying proteins are associated with a broad range of diseases, some of which have specific epigenetic patterns, such as aberrant DNA methylation, that may be used as disease biomarkers. While much of the epigenetic research has focused on cancer, there is a paucity of resources devoted to neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism spectrum disorder and many rare, clinically overlapping syndromes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24076DOI Listing

The Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption with Vascular Structure and Arterial Stiffness in the Spanish Population. EVA Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Primary Care Research Unit of Salamanca (APISAL), Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca (IBSAL), 37005, Salamanca, Spain.

Background: Controversy exists regarding the way alcohol use is associated with vascular structure and arterial stiffness parameters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption with vascular structure and arterial stiffness in an adult population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14411DOI Listing

Bufalin inhibits hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma development through androgen receptor dephosphorylation and cell cycle-related kinase degradation.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Liver Disease Department, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.528. Zhangheng Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which has a male predominance, lacks effective therapeutic options. Previously, the cardiac glycoside analogue bufalin has been found to inhibit HBV infection and HCC development. As yet, however, its molecular role in HBV-associated HCC has remained obscure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-020-00546-0DOI Listing

Gestational bisphenol A exposure induces fatty liver development in male offspring mice through the inhibition of HNF1b and upregulation of PPARγ.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Toxicology, Shaanxi Key Lab of Free Radical Biology and Medicine, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Air Force Medical University (Fourth Military Medical University), Changle West Road 169, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi Province, China.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The effects of gestational BPA exposure on hepatic lipid accumulation in offspring are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the sex-dependent effects of gestational BPA exposure on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in the offspring of mice to reveal the mechanisms underlying gestational BPA exposure-associated NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-020-09535-3DOI Listing

Menthol as an Ergogenic Aid for the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games: An Expert-Led Consensus Statement Using the Modified Delphi Method.

Sports Med 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Centre for Sport Science and Human Performance, Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, 3200, New Zealand.

Introduction: Menthol topical application and mouth rinsing are ergogenic in hot environments, improving performance and perception, with differing effects on body temperature regulation. Consequently, athletes and federations are beginning to explore the possible benefits to elite sport performance for the Tokyo 2021 Olympics, which will take place in hot (~ 31 °C), humid (70% RH) conditions. There is no clear consensus on safe and effective menthol use for athletes, practitioners, or researchers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01313-9DOI Listing

Secondary metabolites from acridocarpus orientalis inhibits 4T1 cells and promotes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Laboratory for Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine, Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, P. O. Box: 33, Nizwa, PC, 616, Oman.

Among medicinal plants, Acridocarpus orientalis (AO) possesses a remarkable anti-cancer potential, possibly because of its anti-oxidant property. In this study, the leaf and stem extracts from AO were assessed to find the bioactive compound with selective anti-cancer properties. The MTT viability and live and dead assays revealed that around 80% and 98% of 4T1 cells survival were declined after 48 h incubation with leaf and stem extracts, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05632-yDOI Listing

Next-Generation Sequencing of CYP2C19 in Stent Thrombosis: Implications for Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: Describe CYP2C19 sequencing results in the largest series of clopidogrel-treated cases with stent thrombosis (ST), the closest clinical phenotype to clopidogrel resistance. Evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 genetic variation detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) with comprehensive annotation and functional studies.

Methods: Seventy ST cases on clopidogrel identified from the PLATO trial (n = 58) and Mayo Clinic biorepository (n = 12) were matched 1:1 with controls for age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, presentation, and stent type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-020-06988-wDOI Listing

Cell-based assays for the detection of MOG antibodies: a comparative study.

J Neurol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Neuroimmunology Laboratory, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: The detection of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is fundamental for the identification of MOG antibody-associated disorders (MOGAD), and the differential diagnosis of acquired demyelinating syndromes of the CNS, among which multiple sclerosis (MS). We compared the diagnostic performance of four cell-based assays (CBAs) for their detection.

Methods: Consecutive sera from 204 patients with 'possible MOGAD' (55), MS (112), and other neurological disorders (OND, 37) were tested for MOG-IgG with a live-CBA with anti-heavy-and-light chain secondary-antibody (LCBA-IgG), and a live-CBA for IgG (LCBA-IgG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10024-0DOI Listing

Identifying potential patient-specific predictors for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction outcome - a diagnostic in vitro tissue remodeling platform.

J Exp Orthop 2020 Jul 4;7(1):48. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Building 15, Groene Loper, Gemini-Zuid 4.12, PO Box 513, 5600MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Upon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, reconstruction is often required, with the hamstring tendon autograft as most widely used treatment. Post-operative autograft remodeling enhances graft rupture risk, which occurs in up to 10% of the patient population, increasing up to 30% of patients aged under 20 years. Therefore, this research aimed to identify potential biological predictors for graft rupture, derived from patient-specific tissue remodeling-related cell properties in an in vitro micro-tissue platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40634-020-00266-2DOI Listing

A mechano-chemo-biological model for bone remodeling with a new mechano-chemo-transduction approach.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018, Zaragoza, Spain.

Bone remodeling is a fundamental biological process that develops in bone tissue along its whole lifetime. It refers to a continuous bone transformation with new bone formation and old bone resorption that changes the internal microstructure and composition of the tissue. The main objectives of bone remodeling are: repair of the internal microcracks; adaptation of the macroscopic stiffness and strength to the actual changing mechanical demands; and control of the calcium homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-020-01353-0DOI Listing

Proton pencil-beam scanning radiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: dosimetric parameters and 2-year results.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Medical Biophysics and Informatics, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Praha 10 Ruská 87, 100 00, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objectives:  Patients with nasopharyngeal cancer are candidates for proton radiotherapy due to large and comprehensive target volumes, and the necessity for sparing of healthy tissues. The aim of this work is to evaluate treatment outcome and toxicity profile of patients treated with proton pencil-beam scanning radiotherapy.

Materials And Methods:  Between Jan 2013 and June 2018, 40 patients were treated for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) with IMPT (proton radiotherapy with modulated intensity). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06175-5DOI Listing

Lung base CT findings in COVID-19 adult patients presenting with acute abdominal complaints: case series from a major New York City health system.

Eur Radiol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Diagnostic, Molecular and Interventional Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1234, New York, NY, 10029-6574, USA.

Objective: To describe demographic, clinical, and lung base CT findings in COVID-19 patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 76 COVID-19 patients who underwent abdominal CT for abdominal complaints from March 1 to April 15, 2020, in a large urban multihospital Health System were included. Those with positive abdominal CT findings (n = 14) were then excluded, with 62 patients undergoing final analysis (30M/32F; median age 63 years, interquartile range (IQR) 52-75 years, range 30-90 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07040-zDOI Listing

Anxiety Mediates the Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Social Functioning in the General Population.

Psychopathology 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Introduction: Within the psychosis continuum that includes schizophrenia (SZ) at the severe end and the general population at the mild end, anxiety may negatively impact social functioning more than psychosis or psychotic-like experiences (PLE). This claim is supported by previous reports that show anxiety mediates the relationship between psychosis and social functioning in SZ, suggesting anxiety is critical to social functioning in SZ. Yet no studies have examined a similar relationship in the general population, and this is important because people with PLE are at a significantly higher risk for developing full-blown psychosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507869DOI Listing

Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Short Chain Fatty Acids in the AppNL-G-F Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA.

Background: The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites, particularly short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have been implicated in immune function, host metabolism, and even behavior.

Objective: This study was performed to investigate whether probiotic administration influences levels of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites in a fashion that may attenuate brain changes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were compared to AppNL-G-Fmice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200436DOI Listing

Development of Classification Models for the Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Utilizing Circulating Sex Hormone Ratios.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health and Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Hospital, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: While sex hormones are essential for normal cognitive health, those individuals with greater endocrine dyscrasia around menopause and with andropause are more likely to develop cognitive loss and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Objective: To assess whether circulating sex hormones may provide an etiologically significant, surrogate biomarker, for cognitive decline.

Methods: Plasma (n = 152) and serum (n = 107) samples from age- and gender-matched AD and control subjects from the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) were analyzed for11 steroids and follicle-stimulating hormone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200418DOI Listing

Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell line from Alzheimer's disease patient with PSEN2 N141I mutation using integration-free non-viral method.

Stem Cell Res 2020 Jun 29;47:101892. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line HUi001-A was reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts via non-integrating, virus free self-replicating RNA. Skin fibroblasts from an 81-year-old female Caucasian familial Alzheimer's disease patient of Volga German family carrying N141I mutation in the PSEN2 gene (familial AD4, clinical summary confirmed Alzheimer's disease) was obtained from the Coriell Institute (AG09908). Generated iPSCs were characterized and pluripotency was confirmed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.101892DOI Listing

Chromosome 6p SNP microhaplotypes and IgG3 levels in hemochromatosis probands with HFE p.C282Y homozygosity.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2020 Jun 27;85:102461. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC), i3S (Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde), Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Clinical Hematology, Santo António Hospital - Porto University Hospital Center (CHUP), Porto, Portugal; Molecular Pathology and Immunology, Abel Salazar Institute for Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Subnormal IgG1 or IgG3 levels occurred in 30% of hemochromatosis probands with HFE p.C282Y homozygosity and were concordant in HLA-identical siblings. We sought to identify factors associated with IgG subclasses in Alabama probands with p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2020.102461DOI Listing

Electron Transport Chain Complex II Regulates Steroid Metabolism.

iScience 2020 Jun 20;23(7):101295. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

The first steroidogenic enzyme, cytochrome P450-side-chain-cleavage (SCC), requires electron transport chain (ETC) complexes III and IV to initiate steroid metabolic processes for mammalian survival. ETC complex II, containing succinate dehydrogenase (quinone), acts with the TCA cycle and has no proton pumping capacity. We show that complex II is required for SCC activation through the proton pump, generating an intermediate state for addition of phosphate by succinate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101295DOI Listing

Brain Hepcidin Suppresses Major Pathologies in Experimental Parkinsonism.

iScience 2020 Jun 19;23(7):101284. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China; Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Despite intensive research on Parkinson disease (PD) for decades, this common neurodegenerative disease remains incurable. We hypothesize that abnormal iron accumulation is a common thread underlying the emergence of the hallmarks of PD, namely mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein accumulation. We investigated the powerful action of the main iron regulator hepcidin in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101284DOI Listing

The gluteus maximus V-Y advancement flap for reconstruction of extensive soft tissue loss following an advanced sacral pressure ulcer. A case report and mini review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 Jun 17;73:15-21. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Background: The occurrence of pressure injuries (PIs) in an inpatient is a serious medical condition that requires a rigorous clinical evaluation. Management of these lesions should be comprehensive, including general measures and local care. Wound care occupies a large part of the treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.06.060DOI Listing

Development of a reliable bioanalytical method based on prostate specific antigen trapping on the cavity of molecular imprinted polymer towards sensing of PSA using binding affinity of PSA-MIP receptor: A novel biosensor.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jun 26;188:113447. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics Linköping University, Sweden.

In this study, electrically-conducting poly [Toluidine Blue (PTB)] was applied as artificial receptor. It was organized by molecular imprinting approaches and via electrochemical technique for the sensitive monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The protein-imprinted PTB was electropolymerized in a pre-formed glutaraldehyde-cysteamine (GA-Cys A) matrix on the surface of gold electrode, which significantly boosted the stability against degradation of the Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) on the surface of pre-modified gold electrode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113447DOI Listing

GBA variation and susceptibility to multiple system atrophy.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Jun 22;77:64-69. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; Neuroscience Track, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; Department of Clinical Genomics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Genetic variants in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have been previously associated with susceptibility to synucleinopathies. The risk is well-established in Lewy body disease but is not as confirmed for multiple system atrophy (MSA). We aim to evaluate associations between exonic variants in GBA and risk of neuropathologically-confirmed multiple system atrophy (MSA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.06.007DOI Listing

SLIR: Synthesis, localization, inpainting, and registration for image-guided thermal ablation of liver tumors.

Med Image Anal 2020 Jun 25;65:101763. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address:

Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive procedure for treating small or unresectable tumors. Although CT is widely used for guiding ablation procedures, yet the contrast of tumors against normal soft tissues is often poor in CT scans, aggravating the accurate thermal ablation. In this paper, we propose a fast MR-CT image registration method to overlay pre-procedural MR (pMR) and pre-procedural CT (pCT) images onto an intra-procedural CT (iCT) image to guide the thermal ablation of liver tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101763DOI Listing

Spatio-temporal visual attention modelling of standard biometry plane-finding navigation.

Med Image Anal 2020 Jun 20;65:101762. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.

We present a novel multi-task neural network called Temporal SonoEyeNet (TSEN) with a primary task to describe the visual navigation process of sonographers by learning to generate visual attention maps of ultrasound images around standard biometry planes of the fetal abdomen, head (trans-ventricular plane) and femur. TSEN has three components: a feature extractor, a temporal attention module (TAM), and an auxiliary video classification module (VCM). A soft dynamic time warping (sDTW) loss function is used to improve visual attention modelling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101762DOI Listing

Cross-validation of a non-invasive positron detector to measure the arterial input function for pharmacokinetic modelling in dynamic positron emission tomography.

Phys Med 2020 Jul 2;76:92-99. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3H 2L9, Canada; Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada.

Kinetic modeling of positron emission tomography (PET) data can assess index rate of uptake, metabolism and predict disease progression more accurately than conventional static PET. However, it requires knowledge of the time-course of the arterial blood radioactivity concentration, called the arterial input function (AIF). The gold standard to acquire the AIF is by invasive means. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Gut-on-a-chip: Current progress and future opportunities.

Biomaterials 2020 Jun 14;255:120196. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Center for Minimally Invasive Therapeutics (C-MIT), University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Samueli School of Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Samueli School of Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Organ-on-a-chip technology tries to mimic the complexity of native tissues in vitro. Important progress has recently been made in using this technology to study the gut with and without microbiota. These in vitro models can serve as an alternative to animal models for studying physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120196DOI Listing

Neurological impact of emboli during adult cardiac surgery.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Jun 27;416:117006. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK; Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK; University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study draws on advances in Doppler ultrasound bubble sizing to investigate whether high volumes of macro-bubbles entering the brain during cardiac surgery increase the risk of new cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), ischemic MR lesions, or post-operative cognitive decline (POCD).

Methods: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound recordings were analysed to estimate numbers of emboli and macrobubbles (>100 μm) entering the brain during cardiac surgery. Logistic regression was used to explore the hypothesis that emboli characteristics affect the incidence of new brain injuries identified through pre- and post-operative MRI and neuropsychological testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117006DOI Listing

Neuroimaging findings in headache with normal neurologic examination: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Jun 26;416:116997. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide and Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.

Objective: To determine if pooled estimates of the prevalence of unexpected findings in patients with headache and normal neurologic examination support current expert opinion-based neuroimaging guidelines.

Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies reporting neuroimaging findings in patients with headache and normal neurologic examination up to September 30, 2017. The overall and disease-specific prevalence of unexpected findings were pooled through random-effects meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116997DOI Listing

Emotion self-regulation training in major depressive disorder using simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 27;27:102331. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, USA; Stephenson School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback (rtfMRI-EEG-nf) is an emerging neuromodulation approach, that enables simultaneous volitional regulation of both hemodynamic (BOLD fMRI) and electrophysiological (EEG) brain activities. Here we report the first application of rtfMRI-EEG-nf for emotion self-regulation training in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this proof-of-concept study, MDD patients in the experimental group (n = 16) used rtfMRI-EEG-nf during a happy emotion induction task to simultaneously upregulate two fMRI and two EEG activity measures relevant to MDD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102331DOI Listing

Characterization of serial hyperpolarized C metabolic imaging in patients with glioma.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 24;27:102323. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Hyperpolarized carbon-13 (HP-C) MRI is a non-invasive imaging technique for probing brain metabolism, which may improve clinical cancer surveillance. This work aimed to characterize the consistency of serial HP-C imaging in patients undergoing treatment for brain tumors and determine whether there is evidence of aberrant metabolism in the tumor lesion compared to normal-appearing tissue.

Methods: Serial dynamic HP [1-C]pyruvate MRI was performed on 3 healthy volunteers (6 total examinations) and 5 patients (21 total examinations) with diffuse infiltrating glioma during their course of treatment, using a frequency-selective echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102323DOI Listing

Network reorganisation following anterior temporal lobe resection and relation with post-surgery seizure relapse: A longitudinal study.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 26;27:102320. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

CNNP lab(1), Interdisciplinary Complex Systems Group, School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterise temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery-induced changes in brain network properties, as measured using diffusion weighted MRI, and investigate their association with postoperative seizure-freedom.

Methods: For 48 patients who underwent anterior temporal lobe resection, diffusion weighted MRI was acquired pre-operatively, 3-4 months post-operatively (N = 48), and again 12 months post-operatively (N = 13). Data for 17 controls were also acquired over the same period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102320DOI Listing

Influence of titanium and zirconia modified surfaces for rapid healing on adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 Jun 22;117:104824. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande Do Sul (PUCRS), School of Health and Life Sciences, Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Av. Ipiranga, P.O. Box 6681, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Objective: Surface alterations have been employed to enhance the osseointegration process in biomedical implants. However, these modifications may influence bacterial adhesion in different ways. Therefore, this study developed five different surfaces and evaluated the Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in early (1 h) and late (24 h) contact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104824DOI Listing

Non-viral Gene Delivery of HIF-1α Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

Acta Biomater 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA; Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA; Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA; Department of Oncology and Bloomberg∼Kimmel Immunotherapy Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA; Department of Ophthalmology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. Electronic address:

Stable and mature vascular formation is a current challenge in engineering functional tissues. Transient, non-viral gene delivery presents a unique platform for delivering genetic information to cells for tissue engineering purposes and to restore blood flow to ischemic tissue. The formation of new blood vessels can be induced by upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1), among other factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.06.042DOI Listing

The incidence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic patients: a systematic review.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, QU health, Doha, Qatar; Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, QU health, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

Background: the recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread globally since its discovery in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. A comprehensive strategy, including surveillance, diagnostics, research, and clinical treatment is urgently needed to win the battle against COVID-19. Recently, numerous studies reported the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330573PMC

Functionalized exosome harboring bioactive molecules for cancer therapy.

Cancer Lett 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea; Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Exosomes are nanosized vesicles with a lipid membrane that are secreted by most cells and play a crucial role as intermediates of intercellular communication because they carry bioactive molecules. Exosomes are promising for drug delivery of chemicals, proteins, and nucleic acids owing to their inherent properties such as excellent biocompatibility, high tumor targetability, and prolonged circulation in vivo. In this review, we cover recent approaches and advances made in the field of exosome-mediated delivery of bioactive molecules for cancer therapy and factors that affect the clinical use of exosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.05.036DOI Listing

Mesenchymal stromal cells and their secreted extracellular vesicles as therapeutic tools for COVID-19 pneumonia? (*).

J Control Release 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Padova, Italy.

The COVID-19 epidemic represents an unprecedented global health emergency, further aggravated by the lack of effective therapies. For this reason, several clinical trials are testing different off-label drugs, already approved for other pathologies. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been tested during the last two decades for the treatment of various pathologic conditions, including acute and chronic lung diseases, both in animal models and in patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.036DOI Listing

Graphene nanoribbons: A promising nanomaterial for biomedical applications.

J Control Release 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Govt. Medical College, Kozhikode 673008, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are narrow lengthened strips of single-layer graphene. Among the graphene family of nanomaterials, GNRs are remarkable materials due to their attractive physical, chemical, electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. They have an ultra-high surface area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.034DOI Listing

RAGE modulatory effects on cytokines network and histopathological conditions in malarial mice.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Jul 2:107946. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Dept. of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) during malaria infection and the effects of modulating RAGE on the inflammatory cytokines release and histopathological conditions of affected organs in malarial animal model. Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA-infected ICR mice were treated with mRAGE/pAb and rmRAGE/Fc Chimera drugs from day 1 to day 4 post infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107946DOI Listing

Tissue Characterization Utilizing Hyperspectral Imaging for Liver Thermal Ablation.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Jul 2:101899. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Thermal ablation is the dominant modality to treat liver tumors for discriminating patients who are not allowed to have surgical intervention. Conversely observing or foreseeing the size of the subsequent tissue putrefaction during the Thermal Ablation techniques is a difficult undertaking.

Objective: To examine the impacts of ablation zone volume following Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of an ex-vivo bovine liver to correlate the impacts of thermal ablation with target organ perfusion; by exploiting the unique properties of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101899DOI Listing

Abdominal ice following laparoscopic hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America. Electronic address:

Study Objective: To assess impact of abdominal ice packs on opioid use and pain control following laparoscopic hysterectomy DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial SETTING: Academic tertiary care medical center PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: One-hundred-forty-two adult women undergoing laparoscopic (either conventional or robotic) hysterectomy were randomized to control (n=69) or intervention (n=73). Exclusion criteria included preoperative opioid use, planned ICU admission or same-day discharge, an incision ≥4 cm, and regional anesthesia use.

Interventions: Subjects in the intervention group had a large ice pack placed directly on the lower abdomen prior to leaving the operating room. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2020.06.027DOI Listing

Systematic review of artemisinin embryotoxicity in animals: Implications for malaria control in human pregnancy.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 Jul 2:115127. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain; Manhiça Health Research Center (CISM), Manhiça, Mozambique. Electronic address:

Pregnant women are one of the most susceptible and vulnerable groups to malaria, the most important parasitic disease worldwide. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in all population groups including pregnant women. However, due to the embryotoxicity observed in animal studies, ACTs have long been contraindicated during the first trimester in pregnant women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115127DOI Listing

Nanovehicles for co-delivery of anticancer agents.

Drug Discov Today 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address:

Effective cancer treatment remains a significant challenge in human healthcare. Although many different types of cancer therapy have been tested, scientists have now concluded that combinations of drugs, or drugs plus gene therapy, can target multiple pathways to fight cancer. Nanovehicles can increase drug uptake inside tumor cells, improve biodistribution and accumulation at tumor sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.06.027DOI Listing

Fifty years of bisphosphonates: What are their mechanical effects on bone?

Authors:
David B Burr

Bone 2020 Jul 2:115518. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States of America; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States of America. Electronic address:

After fifty years of experience with several generations of bisphosphonates (BPs), and 25 years after these drugs were approved for use in humans, their mechanical effects on bone are still not fully understood. Certainly, these drugs have transformed the treatment of osteoporosis in both men and women. There is no question that they do prevent fractures related to low bone mass, and there is widespread agreement that they increase strength and stiffness of the vertebrae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115518DOI Listing

Learning cytology in times of pandemic: an educational institutional experience with remote teaching.

Authors:
Paul Z Chiou

J Am Soc Cytopathol 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Clinical Laboratory and Medical Imaging, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, New Jersey. Electronic address:

Introduction: As the coronavirus pandemic swept across national and state borders, institutions of higher learning, including cytology, began closing campuses and moving instruction online. We have described a method of remotely teaching cytology in our institution, including using the telecytology concept used with rapid onsite evaluation and remote conferencing and educational tools to conduct eCytology learning. This is a cost-effective method to transition a traditional in-classroom program into online teaching for cytology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasc.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Flipping the Switch from Inflammation to Cell Death.

Trends Immunol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Graduate Program in Genetics, Tufts Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Boston, MA 02111, USA; Department of Immunology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA; Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia 185910, Russia. Electronic address:

Multiple research groups have demonstrated that caspase-8 (CASP8)-mediated gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage drives pyroptotic cell death. Here, we discuss a novel role for the enzymatically inactive homolog of CASP8, the long isoform of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP), in the regulation of this process. Specifically, cFLIP-deficiency provides a model in which to study the mechanisms regulating CASP8-mediated activation of cell death and inflammatory signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Intractable diffuse pulmonary diseases: Manual for diagnosis and treatment.

Respir Investig 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

This manual has been compiled by a joint production committee with the Diffuse Lung Disease Assembly of the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) to provide a practical manual for the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of intractable diffuse pulmonary diseases. The contents are based upon the results of research into these diseases by the Diffuse Pulmonary Diseases Study Group (principal researcher: Sakae Homma) supported by the FY2014-FY2016 Health and Labor Sciences Research Grant on Intractable Diseases. This manual focuses on: 1) pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, 2) bronchiolitis obliterans, and 3) Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome with interstitial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resinv.2020.04.004DOI Listing

Rapid scale-up and production of active-loaded PEGylated liposomes.

Int J Pharm 2020 Jul 2:119566. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, G4 0RE. Electronic address:

Manufacturing of liposomal nanomedicines (e.g. Doxil®/Caelyx®) is a challenging and slow process based on multiple-vessel and batch processing techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119566DOI Listing

Possible utility of peptide-transporter-targeting [F]dipeptides for visualization of the biodistribution of cancers by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

Int J Pharm 2020 Jul 2:119575. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 370-0033, Japan; Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 370-0033, Japan.

Stable-isotope-labeled probes suitable for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would have various potential medical applications, such as tumor imaging. Here, with the aim of developing MRI probes targeting peptide transporters, we synthesized a series of [F]dipeptides by introducing one or two fluorine atoms or a trifluoromethyl group into the benzene ring of L-phenylalanyl-ψ[CS-N]-L-alanine (Phe-ψ-Ala), which is resistant to cleavage by peptidases. The mono- and difluoro dipeptides were efficiently transported by PEPT1 and PEPT2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119575DOI Listing

Magnetic resonance-based synthetic computed tomography images generated using generative adversarial networks for nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy treatment planning.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of synthesizing computed tomography (CT) images from magnetic resonance (MR) images using generative adversarial networks (GANs) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning.

Materials And Methods: Conventional T1-weighted MR images and CT images were acquired from 173 NPC patients. The MR and CT images of 28 patients were randomly chosen as the independent tested set. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.06.049DOI Listing
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