549,867 results match your criteria Biomedical Signal Processing and Control [Journal]


Translating the application of TGF-β1, chondroitinase-ABC, and lysyl oxidase-like 2 for mechanically robust tissue-engineered human neocartilage.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Strategies to overcome the limited availability of human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and their tendency to dedifferentiate during expansion are required to advance their clinical use and to engineer functional cartilage on par with native articular cartilage. This work sought to determine whether a biochemical factor, TGF-β1 (T), a biophysical agent, chondroitinase-ABC (C), and a collagen crosslinking enzyme, lysyl oxidase-like 2 (L) are efficacious in forming three-dimensional human neocartilage from expanded human articular chondrocytes. Among the treatment regimens, the combination of the three stimuli (TCL treatment) led to the most robust glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, total collagen content, and type II collagen production. Read More

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December 2018

Anthropometry, Physical and Movement Features, and Repeated-sprint Ability in Soccer Players.

Int J Sports Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

This study aimed to evaluate the associations of anthropometry, functional movement patterns (FMP) and physical performance characteristics with repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in male youth soccer players. Thirty six athletes (ages 16.6±0. Read More

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December 2018

Sleep Duration and Proteinuria Progression: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Am J Nephrol 2018 Dec 17;49(1):41-51. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei,

Background: Extensive studies have demonstrated that sleep is an important modulator of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, its impact on renal function remains uncertain.

Methods: A total of 26,249 adults aged ≥20 years were recruited through voluntary health examinations in Taiwan. Read More

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December 2018

Hybridization of graphene oxide into nanogels to acquire higher photothemal effects for therapeutic delivery.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Materials Science&Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, No.130, Meilong Rd, Xuhui District, Shanghai, Shanghai, 200237, CHINA.

Although the special architecture of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials endows them with unique properties, their poor colloidal stability remains a main bottleneck to fully exploit their applications in the biomedical field. Herein, this study aims to develop a simple and effective approach to in situ incorporate 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanopletlets into thermosensitive matrix to acquire hybrid nanogels with good stability and photothermal effect. In order to improve its stability, GO firstly underwent silanization to its surface with double bonds, followed by intercalation with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) in the presence of disulfide-containing crosslinker via an emulsion method. Read More

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December 2018

Controllable fabrication of hydroxybutyl chitosan/oxidized chondroitin sulfate hydrogels by 3D bioprinting technique for cartilage tissue engineering.

Biomed Mater 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, CHINA.

Biological regeneration of articular cartilage continues to be a challenge at present. Functional engineered implants with patient-specific sizes are difficult to achieve. The aim of this study is to fabricate a biocompatible cell-laden hydrogel with a designable structure. Read More

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December 2018

Brain activity in struggling readers before intervention relates to future reading gains.

Cortex 2018 Nov 16;111:286-302. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; Biomedical Imaging Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Neural markers for reading-related changes in response to intervention could inform intervention plans by serving as a potential index of the malleability of the reading network in struggling readers. Of particular interest is the role of brain activation outside the reading network, especially in executive control networks important for reading comprehension. However, it is unclear whether any intervention-related executive control changes in the brain are specific to reading tasks or reflect more domain general changes. Read More

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November 2018

Urinary metals and leukocyte telomere length in American Indian communities: The Strong Heart and the Strong Heart Family Study.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 5;246:311-318. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Area of Cardiometabolic and Renal Risk, Biomedical Research Institute Hospital Clinic of Valencia (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain; Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Chronic Diseases Epidemiology, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Health Institutes, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: While several mechanisms may explain metal-related health effects, the exact cellular processes are not fully understood. We evaluated the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and urine arsenic (ΣAs), cadmium (Cd) and tungsten (W) exposure in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, N = 1702) and in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS, N = 1793).

Methods: Urine metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS. Read More

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December 2018

Convergent microstructural brain changes across genetic models of autism spectrum disorder-A pilot study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 8;283:83-91. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 USA; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53705 USA. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and genetically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease affecting as many as 1 in 68 children. Large scale genetic sequencing of individuals along the autism spectrum has uncovered several genetic risk factors for ASD; however, understanding how, and to what extent, individual genes contribute to the overall disease phenotype remains unclear. Neuroimaging studies of ASD have revealed a wide spectrum of structural and functional perturbations that are thought to reflect, in part, the complex genetic heterogeneity underpinning ASD. Read More

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December 2018

Welfare assessment in rabbits raised for meat and laboratory purposes in enclosures with two floor types: Perforated plastic with holes versus slats.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Nov 13;122:200-209. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Center for Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Due to welfare concerns and legal restrictions in certain countries, alternatives to wire net floors must be developed in rabbit husbandries. Also, there is a difference in regulations in Europe for laboratory rabbits vs. rabbits bred and kept for meat production. Read More

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November 2018

One of us? how facial and symbolic cues to own- versus other-race membership influence access to perceptual awareness.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:19-27. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Information that conveys racial group membership plays a powerful role in influencing people's information processing including perceptual, memory and evaluative judgments. Yet whether own- and other-race information can differentially impact people's perceptual awareness at a preconscious level remains unclear. Employing a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, we investigated whether compared with other-race stimuli, participants' own-race stimuli would be prioritized to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness. Read More

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December 2018

Pruritus is Common and Under-treated in Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis in the United Kingdom.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; NIHR Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Background And Aims: Little is known about the prevalence or treatment of pruritus associated with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We analyzed data from patients with PBC recruited from all clinical centers in the United Kingdom (UK) to characterize the prevalence, severity, progression, and treatment of pruritus.

Methods: We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal study of patients in the UK-PBC cohort to assess trajectories of pruritus. Read More

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December 2018

Status of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Nigerian tertiary healthcare facilities; findings and implications.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Health Economics Centre, Liverpool University Management School, Chatham Street, Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: The problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing worldwide with health-related and economic consequences. This is a concern in Africa, including Nigeria the most populous country in Africa, with its high rates of infectious diseases. Approaches to reducing AMR include instigating antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in hospitals. Read More

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December 2018

Macrophage functionality and homeostasis in response to oligoethyleneglycol-coated IONPs: impact of a dendritic architecture.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, CAMB UMR 7199, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.

The engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for biomedical use has received great interest over the past decade. In the present study we investigated the biocompatibility of IONPs grafted with linear (2P) or generation 1 (2PG1) or 2 (2PG2) dendronized oligoethyleneglycol units in THP-1-derived macrophages. To evaluate IONP effects on cell functionality and homeostasis, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), membrane permeability (LDH release), inflammation (IL-8), oxidative stress (reduced glutathione, GSH), NLRP3-inflammasome activation (IL-1β) and nanoparticle cellular uptake (intracellular iron content) were quantified after a 4-h or 24-h cell exposure to increasing IONP concentrations (0-300 µg Fe/mL). Read More

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December 2018
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Single nanomolar doxorubicin exposure triggers compensatory mitochondrial responses in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, UC Biotech Building, Biocant Park, 3060-197, Cantanhede, Portugal. Electronic address:

Dose-dependent and cumulative cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) is the main limitation of anticancer therapy. Pediatric cancer survivors are particularly vulnerable, and no effective prevention measures are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the persistent effects of nanomolar DOX concentrations and determine whether a pretreatment would induce mitochondrial adaptations in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Read More

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December 2018

Non-invasive MRI of brain clearance pathways using multiple echo time arterial spin labelling: An Aquaporin-4 study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

UCL Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, Division of Medicine, UCL, London, UK.

There is currently a lack of non-invasive tools to assess water transport in healthy and pathological brain tissue. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are central to many water transport mechanisms, and emerging evidence also suggests that AQP4 plays a key role in amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance, possibly via the glymphatic system. Here, we present the first non-invasive technique sensitive to AQP4 channels polarised at the blood-brain interface (BBI). Read More

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December 2018

Following spinal cord injury, PDE4B drives an acute, local inflammatory response and a chronic, systemic response exacerbated by gut dysbiosis and endotoxemia.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, 511 S. Floyd St., MDR 616, Louisville, KY 40202, USA; Department of Anatomical Science & Neurobiology, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, 511 S. Floyd St., MDR 616, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Emerging evidence links changes in the gut microbiome and intestinal barrier function to alterations in CNS function. We examined the role of endotoxin-responsive, cAMP-specific, Pde4 subfamily b (Pde4b) enzyme in gut dysbiosis induced neuro-inflammation and white matter loss following spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a thoracic contusion model in C57Bl/6 wild type female mice, SCI led to significant shifts in the gut bacterial community including an increase in the phylum Proteobacteria, which consists of endotoxin-harboring, gram-negative bacteria. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular vesicles enhance the targeted delivery of immunogenic oncolytic adenovirus and paclitaxel in immunocompetent mice.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), are naturally occurring cargo delivery tools with the potential to be used as drug vehicles of single agents or combination therapies. We previously demonstrated that human lung cancer cell-derived EVs could be used for the systemic delivery of oncolytic virus (OVs) and chemotherapy drugs such as paclitaxel (PTX), leading to enhanced anti-tumor effects in nude mice. In the current work, we evaluated the biodistribution of EVs by using bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging technologies, thus proving the ability of these EVs-formulations to specifically target the neoplasia, while leaving other body tissues unaffected. Read More

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December 2018

Enhanced intranasal insulin delivery by formulations and tumor protein-derived protein transduction domain as an absorption enhancer.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

One of the key factors for successful development of an intranasal insulin formulation is an absorption enhancer that would deliver insulin efficiently across nasal membranes without causing damage to mucosa or inducing protein aggregation under physiological conditions. In the present study, a protein transduction domain (PTD1) and its L-form with the double substitution A6L and I8A (PTD4), derived from human translationally controlled tumor protein, were used as absorption enhancers. PTD4 exhibited higher compatibility with insulin in terms of biophysical properties analyzed using μDSC, DLS, and CD. Read More

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December 2018

Role of anoctamin 5, a gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia, in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

Bone 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Anoctamin 5 (Ano5) mutations are responsible for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia, a rare skeletal syndrome. Despite the close linkage of Ano5 to bone remodeling, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Ano5 in bone remodeling remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Ano5 regulates osteoblast or osteoclast differentiation to maintain normal bone remodeling. Read More

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December 2018

Effective Effectors: How T cells Access and Infiltrate the Central nervous System.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States. Electronic address:

Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. In large part, effector T cells mediate much of the antitumor efficacy in these trials, and potent antitumor T cells can be generated through vaccination, immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive transfer, and genetic manipulation. However, activated T cells must still traffic to, infiltrate, and persist within tumor in order to mediate tumor lysis. Read More

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December 2018

Regulation of asymmetries in the kinetics and protein numbers of bacterial gene expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Biosystem Dynamics, BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Genetic circuits change the status quo of cellular processes when their protein numbers cross thresholds. We investigate the regulation of RNA and protein threshold crossing propensities in Escherichia coli. From in vivo single RNA time-lapse microscopy data from multiple promoters, mutants, induction schemes and media, we study the asymmetry and tailedness (quantified by the skewness and kurtosis, respectively) of the distributions of time intervals between transcription events. Read More

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December 2018

A tale of two steroids: the importance of the androgens DHEA and DHEAS for early neurodevelopment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University - Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

DHEA and DHEAS are neuroactive neurosteroids that interact with several major receptor system in the brain, including sigma (σ), glutamate, and GABA-A receptors. It has been recognized as early as 1952, that the loss of DHEA/DHEAS in adult life is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders (eg schizophrenia, depression). However, the mechanistic role for DHEA/DHEAS in any of these domains remains speculative, not the least because the presence of these androgens in the adrenal gland and brain is largely confined to humans and only some non-human primates. Read More

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December 2018

Exploration of sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variability in multivariate parameter spaces for a pharmacokinetic compartment model.

Math Biosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 599 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Electronic address:

Pharmacokinetic models are particularly useful to study the underlying and complex physiological mechanisms contributing to clinical differences across patient subgroups or special populations. Unfortunately, the inherent variability of biological systems and knowledge gaps in physiological data limit confidence in model predictions for special populations. Sourcing data to reflect the desired physiologies can be resource intensive, particularly for a larger model. Read More

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December 2018

Lectin Complement Pathway in Emphysema.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Jewish Health, Medicine, Denver, Colorado, United States.

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December 2018

Fabrication of scaffold-free tubular cardiac constructs using a Bio-3D printer.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209162. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Regenerative Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

A major challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the host's immune response to artificial materials. To overcome this problem, we established a scaffold-free system for assembling cell constructs using an automated Bio-3D printer. This printer has previously been used to fabricate other three-dimensional (3D) constructs, including liver, blood vessels, and cartilage. Read More

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December 2018

Whole genome sequencing of Moraxella bovoculi reveals high genetic diversity and evidence for interspecies recombination at multiple loci.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209113. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Genetics, Breeding, and Animal Health Research Unit, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America.

Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity in this species is quite high with 81,284 SNPs identified in eight genomes representing two distinct genotypes isolated from IBK affected eyes (genotype 1) and the nasopharynx of cattle without clinical IBK signs (genotype 2), respectively. The goals of this study were to identify SNPs from a collection of geographically diverse and epidemiologically unlinked M. Read More

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December 2018

EBV-miR-BART1-5P activates AMPK/mTOR/HIF1 pathway via a PTEN independent manner to promote glycolysis and angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1007484. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Viral Oncology, the Clinical Innovation & Research Center (CIRC), Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Abnormal metabolism and uncontrolled angiogenesis are two important characteristics of malignant tumors. The occurrence of both events involves many key molecular changes including miRNA. However, EBV encoded miRNAs are rarely mentioned as capable of regulating tumor metabolism and tumor angiogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Use of C-reactive protein for the early prediction of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy: Systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209272. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Division of General Surgery, University of Milan, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy.

Background: Early suspicion, diagnosis, and timely treatment of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy is essential. Retrospective studies have investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as early marker of anastomotic leakage. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the predictive value of CRP after esophageal resection. Read More

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December 2018

Tumor suppressor RARRES1- A novel regulator of fatty acid metabolism in epithelial cells.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208756. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biochemical, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) is silenced in many cancers and is differentially expressed in metabolism associated diseases, such as hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Here we report a novel function of RARRES1 in metabolic reprogramming of epithelial cells. Using non-targeted LC-MS, we discovered that RARRES1 depletion in epithelial cells caused a global increase in lipid synthesis. Read More

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December 2018

Multiscale dynamics of interstimulus interval integration in visual cortex.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208822. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Bioengineering Institute, Miguel Hernández University (UMH), Alicante, Spain.

Although the visual cortex receives information at multiple temporal patterns, much of the research in the field has focused only on intervals shorter than 1 second. Consequently, there is almost no information on what happens at longer temporal intervals. We have tried to address this question recording neuronal populations of the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with repetitive grating stimuli and intervals ranging from 1 to 7 seconds. Read More

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December 2018

Nab3's localization to a nuclear granule in response to nutrient deprivation is determined by its essential prion-like domain.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209195. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are higher order assemblies of RNA, RNA-binding proteins, and other proteins, that regulate the transcriptome and protect RNAs from environmental challenge. There is a diverse range of RNP granules, many cytoplasmic, which provide various levels of regulation of RNA metabolism. Here we present evidence that the yeast transcription termination factor, Nab3, is targeted to intranuclear granules in response to glucose starvation by Nab3's proline/glutamine-rich, prion-like domain (PrLD) which can assemble into amyloid in vitro. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer in Japanese predicted regulatory variants in 22q13.1.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209096. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Clinical Genome Sequencing, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified greater than 30 variants associated with ovarian cancer, but most of these variants were investigated in European populations. Here, we integrated GWAS and subsequent functional analyses to identify the genetic variants with potential regulatory effects. We conducted GWAS for ovarian cancer using 681 Japanese cases and 17,492 controls and found that rs137672 on 22q13. Read More

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December 2018
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Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

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December 2018

Disclosure of HIV serostatus and condomless sex among men living with HIV/AIDS in Florida.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207838. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Medicine and College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Despite campaigns to increase safer sex practices, there are people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) who do not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners and engage in condomless sex. The purpose of this research was to: 1) describe factors associated with disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners; and 2) determine if disclosure and/or receipt of prevention counseling are independently associated with condomless sex. We used the Florida Medical Monitoring Project to analyze data from 376 HIV positive men with more than one sexual partner. Read More

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December 2018

Familial episodic limb pain in kindreds with novel Nav1.9 mutations.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208516. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

We previously performed genetic analysis in six unrelated families with infantile limb pain episodes, characterized by cold-induced deterioration and mitigation in adolescence, and reported two new mutations p.R222H/S in SCN11A responsible for these episodes. As no term described this syndrome (familial episodic pain: FEP) in Japanese, we named it as". Read More

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December 2018
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HIV screening among patients seeking care at Xuanwu Hospital: A cross-sectional study in Beijing, China, 2011-2016.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208008. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Objectives: One-third of people living with HIV in China are still unaware of their status, so we sought to better understand HIV testing in the general hospital setting in China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the electronic medical records of all patients who attended Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016. HIV screening and detection rates and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Cell-intrinsic regulation of peripheral memory-phenotype T cell frequencies.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0200227. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.

Memory T and B lymphocyte numbers are thought to be regulated by recent and cumulative microbial exposures. We report here that memory-phenotype lymphocyte frequencies in B, CD4 and CD8 T-cells in 3-monthly serial bleeds from healthy young adult humans were relatively stable over a 1-year period, while Plasmablast frequencies were not, suggesting that recent environmental exposures affected steady state levels of recently activated but not of memory lymphocyte subsets. Frequencies of memory B and CD4 T cells were not correlated, suggesting that variation in them was unlikely to be determined by cumulative antigenic exposures. Read More

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December 2018

Involvement of C-terminal truncation mutation of kinesin-5 in resistance to kinesin-5 inhibitor.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209296. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Tumor Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-cho, Shiwa-gun, Iwate, Japan.

Cultured cells easily develop resistance to kinesin-5 inhibitors (K5Is) often by overexpressing a related motor protein, kinesin-12/KIF15, or by acquiring mutations in the N-terminal motor domain of kinesin-5/KIF11 itself. We aimed to identify novel mechanisms responsible for resistance to S-trityl L-cysteine (STLC), one of the K5Is, using human osteosarcoma cell lines. Among six lines examined, U-2OS and HOS survived chronic STLC treatment and gave rise to resistant cells with IC50s at least 10-fold higher than those of the respective parental lines. Read More

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December 2018

The Timed Up and Go Test in Children: Does Protocol Choice Matter? A Systematic Review.

Pediatr Phys Ther 2019 Jan;31(1):22-31

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy (Drs Verbecque and Hallemans, Ms Schepens, and Mr Theré) and Multidisciplinary Motor Center Antwerp (Drs Verbecque and Hallemans), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Laboratory of Physiology and Biomechanics of Locomotion (Dr Schepens), Institute of Neuroscience, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Rehabilitation Research Center (Dr Klingels), Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences (Dr Klingels), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Results on reliability and normative data for the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) in children who are developing typically are systematically reviewed.

Summary Of Key Points: Six different TUG protocols are presented for which normative data are available for ages 3 to 18 years. TUG time is consistent within and between raters and sessions and is influenced by age. Read More

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January 2019

Nutrition Support is a Potential Confounding Factor for the Relationship Between Body Weight Variation and the Risk of Bedsore.

Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;47(1):e64

Department of Respiratory, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, P.R. China; Department of Biomedical Sciences Laboratory, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, China; Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, China.

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January 2019

Mortality Update of a Cohort of Canadian Petroleum Workers.

J Occup Environ Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc. (Schnatter), ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., 1545 U.S. Highway 22 East, Annandale, NJ 08801 (Wojcik), Palisades Research, Inc.(Jorgensen).

Objective: This study updates the mortality experience of over 25,000 workers in a large Canadian petroleum company through December 31, 2006.

Methods: Standardized Mortality Ratios were generated for all cause and specific cause mortality.

Results: All cause and all cancer mortality were favorable compared to the general Canadian population. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of preclinical carotid atherosclerosis on global cardiovascular risk stratification and events in a 10-year follow-up: comparison between the algorithms of the Framingham Heart Study, the European SCORE and the Italian 'Progetto Cuore'.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Chair and Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Policlinico 'Paolo Giaccone', Palermo, Italy.

Background: The aim of the study was to compare three widely used algorithms for stratification of the global cardiovascular risk (GCVR): the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) score, the European systemic coronary risk estimation (SCORE) and the Italian 'Progetto Cuore' (heart project) score. It was also investigated how preclinical carotid atherosclerosis (pre-ATS) might influence the incidence and improve the risk prediction of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.

Methods: Subjects (n = 358) without previous history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recruited and the GCVR was calculated for each patient. Read More

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December 2018

Ixekizumab improves patient-reported outcomes in patients with active psoriatic arthritis and inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: SPIRIT-P2 results to 52 weeks.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Research Unit, University of Queensland, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.

Objectives: To report patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of ixekizumab-treated patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and an inadequate response (IR) or intolerance to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) to 52 weeks.

Methods: In SPIRIT-P2, patients with active PsA and an IR or intolerance to TNFi were randomised to ixekizumab 80 mg every 4 weeks (IXEQ4W; N=122) or every 2 weeks (IXEQ2W; N=123), or placebo (PBO; N=118) during the initial 24-week double-blind treatment period. At Week 16, background therapy was modified for IRs; additionally, IRs in the placebo group were re-randomised (1:1) to IXEQ2W or IXEQ4W. Read More

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November 2018
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AN INTERFERON GAMMA RELEASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF IMMUNE SENSITIZATION TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN AFRICAN WILD DOGS ( LYCAON PICTUS).

J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1   Department of Science and Technology-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research; South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research; Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

In South Africa, the largest proportion of the African wild dog ( Lycaon pictus) population resides in regions where buffaloes have a high prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Recent reports of deaths of wild dogs associated with bTB have raised concerns regarding the threat this disease might pose for this species. In order to understand the potential impact of the disease in wild dogs, diagnostic tools are required to identify infected individuals. Read More

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December 2018

The Metabolic Fate and Effects of 2-Bromophenol in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Xenobiotica 2018 Dec 17:1-22. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine , Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus , London , SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

1. The metabolic fate and urinary excretion of 2-bromophenol, a phenolic metabolite of bromobenzene, was investigated in male Sprague Dawley rats following single intraperitoneal doses at either 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg. 2. Read More

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December 2018
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Cryopreserved amniotic membrane in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a case series.

J Wound Care 2018 Dec;27(12):806-815

Department of General Surgery, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca. Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria, IMIB-Arrixaca). El Palmar, Spain.

Objective:: The amniotic membrane (AM) is a tissue with low immunogenity and high therapeutic potential due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and antimicrobial effects. This paper describes the use of cryopreserved amniotic membrane allografts to treat diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in patients with diabetes.

Method:: In this case series, AM was processed to obtain a final medicinal product: cryopreserved amniotic membrane. Read More

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December 2018

How many patients do I need? (Part 2).

Authors:
John Stephenson

J Wound Care 2018 Dec;27(12):803-804

Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Statistics at the University of Huddersfield.

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December 2018

Risk Stratification for Screening Mammography: Benefits and Harms.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 17:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Health, 765 Stewart Avenue, 2nd Floor, Garden City, NY 11530.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to compare commonly used breast cancer risk assessment models, describe the machine learning approach and big data in risk prediction, and summarize the potential benefits and harms of restrictive risk-based screening.

Conclusion: The commonly used risk assessment models for breast cancer can be complex and cumbersome to use. Each model incorporates different sets of risk factors, which are weighted differently and can produce different results for the same patient. Read More

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December 2018

Surface Dynamics and Ligand-Core Interactions of Quantum Sized Photoluminescent Gold Nanoclusters.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Materials and Department of Bioengineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering , Imperial College London , Exhibition Road , London SW7 2AZ , United Kingdom.

Quantum-sized metallic clusters protected by biological ligands represent a new class of luminescent materials; yet the understanding of structural information and photoluminescence origin of these ultrasmall clusters remains a challenge. Herein we systematically study the surface ligand dynamics and ligand-metal core interactions of peptide-protected gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with combined experimental characterizations and theoretical molecular simulations. We show that the peptide sequence plays an important role in determining the surface peptide structuring, interfacial water dynamics and ligand-Au core interaction, which can be tailored by controlling peptide acetylation, constituent amino acid electron donating/withdrawing capacity, aromaticity/hydrophobicity and by adjusting environmental pH. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of a Single Intravenous Dose of Miridesap in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Medicines Development, Japan Development Division, GlaxoSmithKline K.K., Tokyo, Japan.

This phase 1 study characterized the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of miridesap (GSK2315698) following an intravenous (IV) infusion in healthy Japanese men. Subjects in Cohort 1 received 1-hour IV infusions of 10, 20, and 40 mg of miridesap or placebo, and subjects in Cohort 2 received a 15-hour IV infusion of 20 mg/h of miridesap or placebo. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. Read More

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December 2018
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