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    1335 results match your criteria Biomedical Microdevices [Journal]

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    A novel photodynamic therapy-based drug delivery system layered on a stent for treating cholangiocarcinoma.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 22;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    This study aimed to investigate the drug delivery efficacy and bio-effectiveness of a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT)-matrix drug delivery system for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Metallic stents were coated with polyurethane (PU) as the first layer. A 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) layer and a poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA)/poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (K30) layer containing various concentrations of Photofrin were then incorporated onto the stent as the second and third layers. Read More

    Full-wafer in-situ fabrication and packaging of microfluidic flow cytometer with photo-patternable adhesive polymers.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 21;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium.
    Integration of microelectronics with microfluidics enables sophisticated lab-on-a-chip devices for sensing and actuation. In this paper, we investigate a novel method for in-situ microfluidics fabrication and packaging on wafer level. Two novel photo-patternable adhesive polymers were tested and compared, PA-S500H and DXL-009. Read More

    Molybdenum coated SU-8 microneedle electrodes for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 21;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Biomedical Engineering, Graduate Program, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Electrophysiological devices are connected to the body through electrodes. In some applications, such as nerve stimulation, it is needed to minimally pierce the skin and reach the underneath layers to bypass the impedance of the first layer called stratum corneum. In this study, we have designed and fabricated surface microneedle electrodes for applications such as electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. Read More

    Irreversible electroporation of the uterine cervix in a rabbit model.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 14;19(4):103. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Guangzhou Fuda Cancer Institute, Fuda Cancer Hospital, Jinan University School of Medicine, No. 2, Tangdexi Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510665, China.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the uterine cervix in a rabbit model. IRE ablation was performed in the cervices of 48 New Zealand rabbits, with one ablation lesion in each animal. Gross pathology, transmission electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome (MT) stain, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed at pre-set time points (0 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d post-IRE). Read More

    Engineered bone scaffolds with Dielectrophoresis-based patterning using 3D printing.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 13;19(4):102. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Patterning of cells into a specific pattern is an important procedure in tissue engineering to facilitate tissue culture and ingrowth. In this paper, a new type of 3D-printed scaffold utilizing dielectrophoresis (DEP) for active cell seeding and patterning was proposed. This scaffold adopted a concentric-ring design that is similar to native bone tissues. Read More

    A microfluidic in-line ELISA for measuring secreted protein under perfusion.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 11;19(4):101. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616, USA.
    Recent progress in the development of microfluidic microphysiological systems such as 'organs-on-chips' and microfabricated cell culture is geared to simulate organ-level physiology. These tissue models leverage microengineering technologies that provide capabilities of presenting cultured cells with input signals in a more physiologically relevant context such as perfused flow. Proteins that are secreted from cells have important information about the health of the cells. Read More

    3D gut-liver chip with a PK model for prediction of first-pass metabolism.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 7;19(4):100. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791, Korea.
    Accurate prediction of first-pass metabolism is essential for improving the time and cost efficiency of drug development process. Here, we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver co-culture chip that aims to reproduce the first-pass metabolism of oral drugs. This chip consists of two separate layers for gut (Caco-2) and liver (HepG2) cell lines, where cells can be co-cultured in both 2D and 3D forms. Read More

    A microfluidic device for quantitative investigation of zebrafish larvae's rheotaxis.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 7;19(4):99. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, York University, BRG 433B, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.
    Zebrafish is a model organism for various sensory-motor biological studies. Rheotaxis, or the ability of zebrafish to orient and swim against the water stream, is a common behavior that involves multiple sensory-motor processes such as their lateral line and visual systems. Due to the lack of a controllable and easy-to-use assay, zebrafish rheotaxis at larval stages is not well-understood. Read More

    Fabrication of flexible thin polyurethane membrane for tissue engineering applications.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 7;19(4):98. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Applied Modern Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Thin and flexible polymeric membranes play a critical role in tissue engineering applications for example organs-on-a-chip. These flexible membranes can enable mechanical stretch of the engineered tissue to mimic organ-specific biophysical features, such as breathing. In this work, we report the fabrication of thin (<20 μm), stretchable, and biocompatible polyurethane (PU) membranes. Read More

    Measurement of cell traction force with a thin film PDMS cantilever.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 4;19(4):97. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Division of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70809, USA.
    Adherent cells produce cellular traction force (CTF) on a substrate to maintain their physical morphologies, sense external environment, and perform essential cellular functions. Precise characterization of the CTF can expand our knowledge of various cellular processes as well as lead to the development of novel mechanical biomarkers. However, current methods that measure CTF require special substrates and fluorescent microscopy, rendering them less suitable in a clinical setting. Read More

    Correction to: Polymer-based interconnection cables to integrate with flexible penetrating microelectrode arrays.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Nov 2;19(4):96. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Eqs. (1) to (3), the gas constant 'R' should be replaced with Boltzmann constant 'k B. Read More

    Dielectrophoretic microbead sorting using modular electrode design and capillary-driven microfluidics.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Oct 30;19(4):95. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    IBM Research-Zurich GmbH, Säumerstrasse 4, 8803, Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
    Multiplexing assays using microbeads in microfluidics offers high flexibility and throughput, but requires the ability to sort particles based on their physical properties. In this paper, we present a continuous method for separating microbeads that is compact, modular and adaptive, employing an optimized electrode layout that alternates sorting and concentration of microbeads using dielectrophoresis and a nested design. By simulating the combined effects of the hydrodynamic drag and dielectrophoresis forces on polystyrene beads, the parameters of the electrode layout and voltage configuration are optimized for maximum separation based on particle size with a small number of slanted planar electrodes. Read More

    Highly efficient isolation and release of circulating tumor cells based on size-dependent filtration and degradable ZnO nanorods substrate in a wedge-shaped microfluidic chip.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Oct 25;19(4):93. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    College of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430200, People's Republic of China.
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been regarded as the major cause of metastasis, holding significant insights for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to develop methods for CTC isolation and release in microfluidic system, it remains significant challenges to realize highly efficient isolation and gentle release of CTCs for further cellular and bio-molecular analyses. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for CTC isolation and release using a simple wedge-shaped microfluidic chip embedding degradable znic oxide nanorods (ZnNRs) substrate. Read More

    Effect of drug-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays on osseointegration in an orthodontic miniscrew: an in-vivo pilot study.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Oct 25;19(4):94. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Research Institute for Dental Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, 25457, South Korea.
    Osseointegration was evaluated for the surface of miniscrews with TiO2 nanotube arrays containing drugs in this in-vivo study. The diameter and length of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were about 70 nm and 5 μm, respectively. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or ibuprofen was loaded in the TiO2 nanotube arrays with 12 miniscrews. Read More

    A novel method to understand tumor cell invasion: integrating extracellular matrix mimicking layers in microfluidic chips by "selective curing".
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Oct 17;19(4):92. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Microsystems Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Institute for Complex Molecular systems (ICMS), Eindhoven University of Technology, Groene Loper 15, 5612AZ, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    A major challenge in studying tumor cell invasion into its surrounding tissue is to identify the contribution of individual factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to the process. One of the important elements of the TME is the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) which is known to influence cancer cell invasion, but exactly how remains unclear. Therefore, there is a need for new models to unravel mechanisms behind the tumor-ECM interaction. Read More

    Characterisation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells under shear stress using an easy-to-use microfluidic cell culture system.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Oct 9;19(4):91. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Institute of Microchemical Technology Co., Ltd., 713A West KSP, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu, Kawasaki, 213-0012, Japan.
    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) can contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of heart and vascular diseases and developing their treatments. Their precise characteristics in fluid flow however remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to characterise these features. Read More

    Irreversible electroporation in the eradication of rabbit VX2 cervical tumors.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Oct 9;19(4):90. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Guangzhou Fuda Cancer Institute, Fuda Cancer Hospital, Jinan University School of Medicine, No. 2, Tangdexi Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510665, China.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the eradication of rabbit VX2 cervical tumors. A VX2 cervical cancer model was first made in 20 New Zealand rabbits. IRE ablation was performed for the cervical cancers of 15 rabbits when the diameter of the tumor was about 1. Read More

    Microfluidic device for novel breast cancer screening by blood test using miRNA beacon probe.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 30;19(4):89. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    PSG Centre for molecular medicine and therapeutics, PSG Institute of Medical Science and Research, Coimbatore, - 641004, India.
    Breast cancer is identified as the highest cause of death in women suffering from cancer. Early diagnosis is the key to increase the survival of breast cancer victims. Molecular diagnosis using biomarkers have advanced much in the recent years. Read More

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging guided carotid embolectomy using a novel resonant marker catheter: demonstration of preclinical feasibility.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 25;19(4):88. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    To assess the visualization and efficacy of a wireless resonant circuit (wRC) catheter system for carotid artery occlusion and embolectomy under real-time MRI guidance in vivo, and to compare MR imaging modality with x-ray for analysis of qualitative physiological measures of blood flow at baseline and after embolectomy. The wRC catheter system was constructed using a MR compatible PEEK fiber braided catheter (Penumbra, Inc, Alameda, CA) with a single insulated longitudinal copper loop soldered to a printed circuit board embedded within the catheter wall. In concordance with IACUC protocol (AN103047), in vivo carotid artery navigation and embolectomy were performed in four farm pigs (40-45 kg) under real-time MRI at 1. Read More

    Passive, wireless transduction of electrochemical impedance across thin-film microfabricated coils using reflected impedance.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 25;19(4):87. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, 1042 Downey Way, DRB-140, Los Angeles, CA, 90089-1111, USA.
    A new method of wirelessly transducing electrochemical impedance without integrated circuits or discrete electrical components was developed and characterized. The resonant frequency and impedance magnitude at resonance of a planar inductive coil is affected by the load on a secondary coil terminating in sensing electrodes exposed to solution (reflected impedance), allowing the transduction of the high-frequency electrochemical impedance between the two electrodes. Biocompatible, flexible secondary coils with sensing electrodes made from gold and Parylene C were microfabricated and the reflected impedance in response to phosphate-buffered saline solutions of varying concentrations was characterized. Read More

    All-in-one low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation system using piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) arrays for targeted cell stimulation.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 19;19(4):86. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, Daegu, South Korea.
    A novel cell-stimulation system was fabricated using 10 × 29 piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) arrays for targeted ultrasonic cell stimulation. Both the diameter of a single pMUT element and the edge-to-edge gap were 120 μm, and the size of a pMUT array was 2.27 × 6. Read More

    Embryonic body culturing in an all-glass microfluidic device with laser-processed 4 μm thick ultra-thin glass sheet filter.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 19;19(4):85. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Laboratory for Integrated Biodevice, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
    In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a method to fabricate an all-glass microfluidic cell culturing device without circulation flow. On-chip microfluidic cell culturing is an indispensable technique for cellular replacement therapies and experimental cell biology. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have become a popular material for fabricating microfluidic cell culture devices because it is a transparent, biocompatible, deformable, easy-to-mold, and gas-permeable. Read More

    Analyzing polymeric matrix for fabrication of a biodegradable microneedle array to enhance transdermal delivery.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 19;19(4):84. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Traditional drug delivery systems, using invasive, transdermal, and oral routes, are limited by various factors, such as the digestive system environment, skin protection, and sensory nerve stimulation. To improve the drug delivery system, we fabricated a polysaccharide-based, dissolvable microneedle-based array, which combines the advantages of both invasive and transdermal delivery systems, and promises to be an innovative solution for minimally invasive drug delivery. In this study, we designed a reusable aluminum mold that greatly improved the efficiency and convenience of microneedle fabrication. Read More

    A flexible cell concentrator using inertial focusing.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 11;19(4):83. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Key Laboratory of BME of the Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.
    Cell concentration adjustment is intensively implemented routinely both in research and clinical laboratories. Centrifuge is the most prevalent technique for tuning biosample concentration. But it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as requirement of experienced operator, high cost, low resolution, variable reproducibility and induced damage to sample. Read More

    An exploration of the reflow technique for the fabrication of an in vitro microvascular system to study occlusive clots.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 8;19(4):82. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Embolic ischemia and pulmonary embolism are health emergencies that arise when a particle such as a blood clot occludes a smaller blood vessel in the brain or the lungs, and restricts flow of blood downstream of the vessel. In this work, the reflow technique (Wang et al. Biomed. Read More

    Development of a shear stress-free microfluidic gradient generator capable of quantitatively analyzing single-cell morphology.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep 7;19(4):81. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Instructive Biomaterials Engineering, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200, MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Microfluidics, the science of engineering fluid streams at the micrometer scale, offers unique tools for creating and controlling gradients of soluble compounds. Gradient generation can be used to recreate complex physiological microenvironments, but is also useful for screening purposes. For example, in a single experiment, adherent cells can be exposed to a range of concentrations of the compound of interest, enabling high-content analysis of cell behaviour and enhancing throughput. Read More

    Development of a biodegradable flow resisting polymer membrane for a novel glaucoma microstent.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 26;19(4):78. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Institute for ImplantTechnology and Biomaterials e.V., Friedrich-Barnewitz-Straße 4, 18119, Rostock, Germany.
    Within this paper we analyzed the technical feasibility of a novel microstent for glaucoma therapy. For lowering of intraocular pressure, the flexible polyurethane (PUR) implant is designed to drain aqueous humour from the anterior chamber of the eye into subconjunctival, or alternatively suprachoroidal, space. The microstent includes a biodegradable, flow resisting polymer membrane serving as temporary flow resistance for the prevention of early postoperative hypotony. Read More

    Development of a novel intra-abdominal pressure transducer for large scale clinical studies.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 26;19(4):80. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 36 S. Wasatch Drive Rm. 3100, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
    Intra-abdominal pressure may be one of the few modifiable risk factors associated with developing a pelvic floor disorder. With one in eight women having surgery to correct a pelvic floor disorder in their lifetimes, intra-abdominal pressure may be a key to understanding the disease etiology and how to mitigate its occurrence and progression. Many traditional methods of intra-abdominal pressure measurement have limitations in data quality, environment of use, and patient comfort. Read More

    Wireless induction coils embedded in diamond for power transfer in medical implants.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 26;19(4):79. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Bionics Institute, 384 Albert St, East Melbourne, VIC, 3002, Australia.
    Wireless power and data transfer to medical implants is a research area where improvements in current state-of-the-art technologies are needed owing to the continuing efforts for miniaturization. At present, lithographical patterning of evaporated metals is widely used for miniature coil fabrication. This method produces coils that are limited to low micron or nanometer thicknesses leading to high impedance values and thus limiting their potential quality. Read More

    Polymer-based interconnection cables to integrate with flexible penetrating microelectrode arrays.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 25;19(4):76. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    There have been various types of interconnection methods for neural interfacing electrodes, such as silicon ribbon cables, wire bonding and polymer-based cables. In this study, interconnection cables were developed for integration with a Flexible Penetrating Microelectrode Array (FPMA) that was previously developed for neural signal recording or stimulation. Polyimide and parylene C were selected as base materials for the interconnection cables as both materials can preserve the flexibility of the FPMA better than other interconnection methods such as silicon ribbon cable or wire bonding. Read More

    MEMS measurements of single cell stiffness decay due to cyclic mechanical loading.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 25;19(4):77. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.
    The goal of this study was to measure the mechanical stiffness of individual cells and to observe changes due to the application of repeated cell mechanical loads. 28 single baker's yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were fatigue tested and had their stiffness measured during repetitive loading cycles performed by a MEMS squeezer in aqueous media. Electrothermal micro-actuators compressed individual cells against a reference back spring; cell and spring motions were measured using a FFT image analysis technique with ~10 nm resolution. Read More

    PDMS based multielectrode arrays for superior in-vitro retinal stimulation and recording.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 25;19(4):75. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721302, India.
    Understanding of the neural response to electrical stimulation requires simultaneous recording from the various neurons of retina. Electrodes form the physical interface with the neural or retinal tissue. Successful retinal stimulation and recording demands conformal integration of these electrodes with the soft tissue to ensure establishment of proper electrical connection with the excitable tissue. Read More

    Hands-free smartphone-based diagnostics for simultaneous detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue at point-of-care.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 22;19(4):73. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
    Infectious diseases remain the world's top contributors to death and disability, and, with recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections there has been an urgency for simple, sensitive and easily translatable point-of-care tests. Here we demonstrate a novel point-of-care platform to diagnose infectious diseases from whole blood samples. A microfluidic platform performs minimal sample processing in a user-friendly diagnostics card followed by real-time reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on the same card with pre-dried primers specific to viral targets. Read More

    Fabrication and characterization of low-cost, bead-free, durable and hydrophobic electrospun membrane for 3D cell culture.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 22;19(4):74. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4111, Australia.
    This paper reports the fabrication of electrospun polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes/scaffolds that are suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Through modification the ratio between PDMS and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as carrier polymer, we report the possibility of increasing PDMS weight ratio of up to 6 for electrospinning. Increasing the PDMS content increases the fiber diameter, the pore size, and the hydrophobicity. Read More

    Biocontractile microfluidic channels for peristaltic pumping.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 9;19(4):72. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Laboratory of Biophysics of Excitable Systems, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russian Federation, 141701.
    Bio-actuated micro-pumps do not need any external power source and pose no risk of electrical or heat shock for the biological materials in lab-on-chip systems. Several different designs of bio-actuated micro-pumps based on the use of the contractile force of cultured cardiomyocites have been proposed earlier. Here we present a novel type of a bio-actuated micro-pump representing a microfluidic channel with a contractile wall. Read More

    A multiscale fluidic device for the study of dendrite-mediated cell to cell communication.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Aug 8;19(3):71. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, NY, 10031, USA.
    Many cell types communicate by means of dendritic extensions via a multi-tiered set of geometric and chemical cues. Until recently, mimicking the compartmentalized in vivo cellular environment of dendrite-expressing cells such as osteocytes and motor neurons in a spatially and temporally controllable manner was limited by the challenges of in vitro device fabrication at submicron scales. Utilizing the improved resolution of current fabrication technology, we have designed a multiscale device, the Macro-micro-nano system, or Mμn, composed of two distinct cell-seeding and interrogation compartments separated by a nanochannel array. Read More

    Development of a co-culture device for the study of human tenocytes in response to the combined stimulation of electric field and platelet rich plasma (PRP).
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):69
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    One of the objectives of rotator cuff repairs is to achieve biological healing and recovery in the tendon-bone zone. Some clinical evaluations reported the feasibility of tendon healing based on the stimulations of electric field and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). However, because of lack of appropriate tool for in vitro primary culture under complicated conditions, the efficacy and standard protocol of these healing approaches are still controversial among clinical experts. Read More

    Rapid prototyping and parametric optimization of plastic acoustofluidic devices for blood-bacteria separation.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):70
    Draper, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.
    Acoustic manipulation has emerged as a versatile method for microfluidic separation and concentration of particles and cells. Most recent demonstrations of the technology use piezoelectric actuators to excite resonant modes in silicon or glass microchannels. Here, we focus on acoustic manipulation in disposable, plastic microchannels in order to enable a low-cost processing tool for point-of-care diagnostics. Read More

    Multifractal-based nuclei segmentation in fish images.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):67
    School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    The method for nuclei segmentation in fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) images, based on the inverse multifractal analysis (IMFA) is proposed. From the blue channel of the FISH image in RGB format, the matrix of Holder exponents, with one-by-one correspondence with the image pixels, is determined first. The following semi-automatic procedure is proposed: initial nuclei segmentation is performed automatically from the matrix of Holder exponents by applying predefined hard thresholding; then the user evaluates the result and is able to refine the segmentation by changing the threshold, if necessary. Read More

    An array of porous microneedles for transdermal monitoring of intercellular swelling.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):68
    Department of Finemechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan.
    An array of porous microneedles was developed for minimally-invasive transdermal electrolytic connection through the human skin barrier, the stratum corneum. The length of microneedle was designed to be 100 μm so that it penetrates into the epidermis layer without pain. Each microneedle was supported by a thicker cylindrical post protruding from a planar substrate to realize its effective penetration even into elastic human skin. Read More

    Combination of antibody-coated, physical-based microfluidic chip with wave-shaped arrays for isolating circulating tumor cells.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):66
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an Shaanxi, 710021, China.
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic cancers, which have critical significance in cancer prognosis and diagnostics. Enumeration is significantly valuable since number of CTCs is strongly correlated to severity of disease. This article is proposed and demonstrated an antibody-coated, size-based microfluidic chip with wave-shaped arrays could efficiently capture CTCs combining two separation methods of both size- and deformability-based and affinity-based segregation. Read More

    Non-electrolytic microelectroporation.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):65
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.
    Micro and nano technologies are of increasing importance in microfluidics devices used for electroporation (electroporation - the permeabilization of the cell membrane with brief high electric field pulses). Electrochemical reactions of electrolysis occur whenever an electric current flows between an electrode and an ionic solution. It can have substantial detrimental effects, both on the cells and solutions during the electroporation. Read More

    Point-of-care coagulation monitoring: first clinical experience using a paper-based lateral flow diagnostic device.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):64
    James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, 3225 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, 45267, USA.
    Vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin are the most widely used class of oral anticoagulants. Due to a narrow therapeutic window, patients on warfarin require regular monitoring. Self-testing using point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices is available, but cost makes this monitoring method beyond reach for many. Read More

    Study of the behavior of Euglena viridis, Euglena gracilis and Lepadella patella cultured in all-glass microaquarium.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):63
    Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, 11/17 Janiszewskiego St, 50-372, Wrocław, Poland.
    In the paper, the microaquarium fabricated in a form of entirely glass lab-on-a-chip for culturing and microscale study of microorganisms has been presented. A new approach towards cellular studies that brings a significant improvement over commonly utilized - polymer-based solutions has been shown. For the first time, all-borosilicate glass chip was applied for the culturing of the selected microorganisms and enabled notable population growth and behaviorism investigation. Read More

    Long term performance of porous platinum coated neural electrodes.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):62
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
    Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in neural implants for the study and diagnostics of neurological disorders as well as for the symptomatic treatment of central nervous system related diseases. One of the major challenges is the trade-off between small electrode sizes for high selectivity between single neurons and large electrode-tissue interface areas for excellent stimulation and recording properties. This paper presents an approach of increasing the real surface area of the electrodes by creating a surface microstructure. Read More

    Impedance feedback control of microfluidic valves for reliable post processing combinatorial droplet injection.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):61
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Clark Hall 118B, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.
    Droplet microfluidics has found use in many biological assay applications as a means of high-throughput sample processing. One of the challenges of the technology, however, is the ability to control and merge droplets on-demand as they flow through the microdevices. It is in the interest of developing lab-on-chip devices to be able to combinatorically program additive mixing steps for more complex multistep and multiplex assays. Read More

    Integration of solid-state nanopores into a functional device designed for electrical and optical cross-monitoring.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):60
    LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INSA, UPS, Toulouse, France.
    We present a new strategy for fabricating a silicon nanopore device allowing straightforward fluidic integration and electrical as well as optical monitoring. The device presents nanopores of diameters 10 nm to 160 nm, and could therefore be used to obtain solvent-free free-standing lipid bilayers from small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) or large unilamellar vesicles (LUV). The silicon chip fabrication process only requires front side processing of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Read More

    Microfluidic device flow field characterization around tumor spheroids with tunable necrosis produced in an optimized off-chip process.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):59
    Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate School, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan.
    Tumor spheroids are a 3-D tumor model that holds promise for testing cancer therapies in vitro using microfluidic devices. Tailoring the properties of a tumor spheroid is critical for evaluating therapies over a broad range of possible indications. Using human colon cancer cells (HCT-116), we demonstrate controlled tumor spheroid growth rates by varying the number of cells initially seeded into microwell chambers. Read More

    Bubble removal with the use of a vacuum pressure generated by a converging-diverging nozzle.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):58
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60607, USA.
    Bubbles are an intrinsic problem in microfluidic devices and they can appear during the initial filling of the device or during operation. This report presents a generalizable technique to extract bubbles from microfluidic networks using an adjacent microfluidic negative pressure network over the entire microfluidic channel network design. We implement this technique by superimposing a network of parallel microchannels with a vacuum microfluidic channel and characterize the bubble extraction rates as a function of negative pressure applied. Read More

    Carbon nanotubes embedded in embryoid bodies direct cardiac differentiation.
    Biomed Microdevices 2017 Sep;19(3):57
    WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan.
    We embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) for modulating mechanical and electrical cues of the stem cell niche. The CNTs increased the mechanical integrity and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Measured currents for the unmodified EBs (hereafter, EBs) and the EBs-0. Read More

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