548,762 results match your criteria Biomedical Microdevices [Journal]
Endoscopy 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Gastroenterology, HSK Hospital, Wiesbaden, Germany.
Background: Characterization of colonic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains challenging. We developed an endoscopic classification of visual characteristics to identify colitis-associated neoplasia using multimodal advanced endoscopic imaging (Frankfurt Advanced Chromoendoscopic IBD LEsions [FACILE] classification).
Methods: The study was conducted in three phases: 1) development - an expert panel defined endoscopic signs and predictors of dysplasia in IBD and, using multivariable logistic regression created the FACILE classification; 2) validation - using 60 IBD lesions from an image library, two assessments of diagnostic accuracy for neoplasia were performed and interobserver agreement between experts using FACILE was determined; 3) reproducibility - the reproducibility of the FACILE classification was tested in gastroenterologists, trainees, and junior doctors after completion of a training module. Read More
Appl Clin Inform 2018 Oct 12;9(4):884-891. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
Background: The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has outlined the benefits of health information exchange in emergency medical services (EMSs) according to the model-, , , -developed in collaboration with the California Emergency Medical Services Authority.
Objective: This scoping review aims to identify and characterize progress toward the adoption of prehospital health information exchange, as reported in the peer-reviewed literature.
Methods: A structured review of literature in MEDLINE-indexed journals was conducted using the "Electronic Health Records" topic-specific query, the "Emergency Medical Services" Medical Subject Headings descriptor, and a prehospital identifier. Read More
Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Molecular Biology Division, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, 82151 Martinsried, Germany.
Transcription regulators select their genomic binding sites from a large pool of similar, non-functional sequences. Although general principles that allow such discrimination are known, the complexity of DNA elements often precludes a prediction of functional sites. The process of dosage compensation in Drosophila allows exploring the rules underlying binding site selectivity. Read More
Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 773 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD, USA.
The perceived effort level of an action shapes everyday decisions. Despite the importance of these perceptions for decision-making, the behavioral and neural representations of the subjective cost of effort are not well understood. While a number of studies have implicated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in decisions about effort/reward trade-offs, none have experimentally isolated effort valuation from reward and choice difficulty, a function that is commonly ascribed to this region. Read More
Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1342-1351
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with renal progression in chronic kidney disease. Moreover, improvement of clinical outcomes after vitamin D supplementation has been reported in the diabetic and chronic kidney disease population.
Objective: We investigated the association between renal hyperfiltration (RHF) and vitamin D status in a relatively healthy population. Read More
J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.
Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. Read More
Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a fatal neglected tropical disease that is targeted for elimination in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Improved diagnostic tests are required for early case detection and for monitoring outcome of treatment. Previous investigations using Leishmania lysate antigen demonstrated that IgG1 response is a potential indicator of clinical status after chemotherapy. Read More
Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
Intervirology 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, Jenjarum,
Objective: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Read More
Nephron 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
Background/aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, are present in various bodily fluids, including urine. We and others previously reported that cells expressing fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) accumulate within damaged glomeruli, and that urinary FSP1, as well as urinary soluble CD163, could potentially serve as a biomarker of ongoing glomerular injury.
Methods: To test that idea, we collected urine samples from 37 patients with glomerular disease; purified the urinary EVs; characterized them using Nanosight, western blotting, and immunoelectron microscopy; and determined FSP1 and soluble CD163 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Read More
Phys Med Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, TX 75235, Dallas, Texas, 75205, UNITED STATES.
The aim of this work is to develop a novel recursive ensemble OARs segmentation (REOS) framework for accurate organs-at-risk (OARs) automatic segmentation. The REOS recursively segment individual OARs by ensembling images features extracted from an organ localization module and a contour detection module. Both modules are based on a 3D U-Net architecture. Read More
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 3;175:248-255. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion & New Carbon Materials of Hubei Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, PR China. Electronic address:
To realize efficiently cellular uptake and enhance the immunostimulation, thiolated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were self-assembled on hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) to form CpG-HGNs. The cellular uptake of CpG-HGNs in immune cells was studied in RAW 264.7 cells. Read More
J Crit Care 2018 Dec 5;50:138-143. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Critical Care Medicine (707), Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
The administration of β-blockers in patients with sepsis is a trending topic in intensive care medicine since the landmark study by Morelli and colleagues, showing a striking decrease in 28-day mortality compared to standard care. While the available evidence suggests that the use of β-blockers in septic shock is safe, the effects on hemodynamics are controversial. In this paper, we review the effect of β-blockade in septic shock on hemodynamics from animal models to critically ill patients. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1306-1311
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
Cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of ill-health and mortality, heart failure and arrhythmia being among the causes of sudden cardiac death. There are few drugs available for treatment or prevention and it remains difficult to predict who will develop these conditions, even when disease-causing mutations or associated gene variants are identified in individuals or families. This is in part because widely used rodent models may not fully capture the physiology of the human heart. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3215-3228.e9
Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074, USA; School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA; Tufts University School of Medicine, 145 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:
Molecular- and cellular-based therapies have the potential to reduce obesity-associated disease. In response to cold, beige adipocytes form in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and convert energy stored in metabolic substrates to heat, making them an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a robust method to generate a renewable source of human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3158-3168.e3
Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Electronic address:
Neural population space analysis was performed to assess the dimensionality and dynamics of the neural population in the primary motor cortex (M1) during a reach-grasp-manipulation task in which both the reach location and the object being grasped were varied. We partitioned neural activity into three components: (1) general task-related activity independent of location and object, (2) location- and/or object-related activity, and (3) noise. Neural modulation related to location and/or object was only one-third the size of either general task modulation or noise. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3099-3109.e3
Nanyang Technological University, School of Biological Sciences, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. Electronic address:
Inflammation-induced disappearance of tissue-resident macrophages represents a key pathogen defense mechanism. Using a model of systemic blood-stage malaria, we studied the dynamics of tissue-resident macrophages in multiple organs to determine how they are depleted and refilled during the course of disease. We show that Plasmodium infection results in a transient loss of embryonically established resident macrophages prior to the parasitemia peak. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3074-3085.e5
Aduro Biotech, Inc., Berkeley, CA 94710, USA. Electronic address:
Intratumoral (IT) STING activation results in tumor regression in preclinical models, yet factors dictating the balance between innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity are unclear. Here, clinical candidate STING agonist ADU-S100 (S100) is used in an IT dosing regimen optimized for adaptive immunity to uncover requirements for a T cell-driven response compatible with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). In contrast to high-dose tumor ablative regimens that result in systemic S100 distribution, low-dose immunogenic regimens induce local activation of tumor-specific CD8 effector T cells that are responsible for durable anti-tumor immunity and can be enhanced with CPIs. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3036-3046.e6
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA 30904, USA. Electronic address:
IL-10 functions as a suppressor of colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer, but it is also a risk locus associated with ulcerative colitis. The mechanism underlying the contrasting roles of IL-10 in inflammation and colon cancer is unknown. We report here that inflammation induces the accumulation of CD11bGr1 myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that express high levels of IL-10 in colon tissue. Read More
FASEB J 2018 Dec 12:fj201801973R. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Basic Science Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA; and.
p53 is a tumor suppressor protein that maintains genome stability, but its Δ133p53β and Δ160p53β isoforms promote breast cancer cell invasion. The sequence truncations in the p53 core domain raise key questions related to their physicochemical properties, including structural stabilities, interaction mechanisms, and DNA-binding abilities. Herein, we investigated the conformational dynamics of Δ133p53β and Δ160p53β with and without binding to p53-specific DNA by using molecular dynamics simulations. Read More
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
University of Tokushima Graduate School, Respiratory Medicine and Rheumatology, Tokushima, Japan ;
The signaling pathways of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can be considered specific targets for overcoming the poor prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Nintedanib, the recently approved multiple kinase inhibitor, has shown promising anti-fibrotic effects in IPF patients; however, its efficacy is still limited, and in some cases, treatment discontinuation is necessary due to toxicities such as gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, more effective agents with less toxicity are still needed. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208908. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a molecular imaging technique that maps the distribution of molecules in biological tissues with high spatial resolution. The most widely used MSI modality is matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), mainly due to the large variety of analyte classes amenable for MALDI analysis. However, the organic matrices used in classical MALDI may impact the quality of the molecular images due to limited lateral resolution and strong background noise in the low mass range, hindering its use in metabolomics. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208603. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Antwerp, Belgium.
Objective: Ancestral M. tuberculosis complex lineages such as M. africanum are underrepresented among retreatment patients and those with drug resistance. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208085. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University Clinic for Small Animals, Small Animal Surgery, Section for Physical Therapy, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz, Vienna, Austria.
Current research on gait analysis mostly involves horses and dogs. Feline kinetics and kinematics are being investigated and receiving more clinical interest at present. Ground reaction forces measured on pressure-sensitive mattresses have been established in healthy Domestic Shorthair cats (DSH). Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208187. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (NIBR), Basel, Switzerland.
Differentiation of B cells is a stringently controlled multi-step process, which is still incompletely understood. Here we identify and characterize a rare population of human B cells, which surprisingly carry CD8AB on their surface. Existence of such cells was demonstrated both in tonsils and in human apheresis material. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207418. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States of America.
Objective: To describe the opinions of British general practitioners regarding the potential of future technology to replace key tasks carried out in primary care.
Design: Cross sectional online survey.
Participants: 1,474 registered GPs in the United Kingdom. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207699. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Objective: To identify the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) in a population of Cameroonian women.
Sample And Methods: We performed a matched case-control study; 88 women with diagnosed EP (cases), and 176 women with first trimester intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) (controls), who underwent questionnaires. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and adjusted for potential confounding factors via multivariate logistic regression analysis. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207358. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Leibniz Institute on Aging, Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI), Jena, Germany.
The adhesion molecule and co-receptor of receptor tyrosine kinases, CD44, is expressed in all cells of the immune system, but also in numerous non-immune cells. CD44 plays roles in the cellular response to different pathogens. The molecular actions of CD44 during these processes are by and large still unknown. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207161. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.
The success of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen is due in part to its ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions using signal transduction pathways, such as metabolite- responsive regulators and two-component systems. S. aureus has a two-component system encoded by the gene pair sav0224 (hptS) and sav0223 (hptR) that regulate the hexose phosphate transport (uhpT) system in response to extracellular glucose-6-phosphate. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207194. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Radiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America.
Background: The extent to which the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis by coronary computed tomography angiography influences a potential mortality benefit of statin is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between statin therapy, mortality, and subclinical atherosclerosis.
Methods: In the CONFIRM study, patients with normal or non-obstructive plaque (<50% diameter stenosis) for whom data on baseline statin use was available were included. Read More
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Headquarters Joint Force Command (HQ JFC) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Lago Patria, Giugliano in Campania (NA), Italy.
Study Design: Cross-sectional, retrospective, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study, performed during cadets' selection procedures of the Italian Air Force Academy.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of spinal MR imaging findings in asymptomatic young adults (18-22 yrs) candidate to Air Force Flight.
Summary Of Background Data: Spinal MR imaging findings are frequently detected in asymptomatic subjects. Read More
Nurs Res 2019 Jan/Feb;68(1):39-47
Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, PhD, is Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain. Helena García-Llana, PhD, is Psychology Associate Researcher, Department of Nephrology, La Paz University Hospital-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain. María Paz Ruiz-Álvarez, MP, is Registered Nurse, Department of Nephrology, La Paz University Hospital-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain. Alicia Gómez-Gómez, MP, is Registered Nurse, Department of Nephrology, Henares Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Gloria del Peso, PhD, is Nephrology Consultant, Department of Nephrology, La Paz University Hospital-IdiPAZ, Madrid Spain. Rafael Selgas, PhD, is Department Head, Department of Nephrology, La Paz University Hospital-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.
Background: The Emotional State Instrument for Dialysis Patients (ES-D) is a brief semistructured questionnaire to assess emotional distress in patients undergoing dialysis. It was designed to be administered by a healthcare provider. A previous study showed preliminary indicators of its content and face validity. Read More
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
College of Biomedical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.
Disorders of lipid metabolism and inflammation play an important role in atherosclerosis. LongShengZhi capsule (LSZ), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treatment of patients with vascular diseases for many years. Herein, we determined the effect of LSZ on the progression of established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient (apoE) mice. Read More
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Cardiologia, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan.
Aims: An increased mortality risk during weekend hospital admission has been consistently observed. In the present study, we evaluated whether the current improvement in management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has reduced this phenomenon.
Methods And Results: We extracted data from the Italian National Healthcare System Databank of 80 391 ACS admissions in the region of Lombardia between 2010 and 2014. Read More
Pain 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.
Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.
Although self-report pain ratings are the gold standard in clinical pain assessment, they are inherently subjective in nature and significantly influenced by multidimensional contextual variables. Although objective biomarkers for pain could substantially aid pain diagnosis and development of novel therapies, reliable markers for clinical pain have been elusive. In this study, individualized physical maneuvers were used to exacerbate clinical pain in patients with chronic low back pain (N = 53), thereby experimentally producing lower and higher pain states. Read More
Anticancer Drugs 2019 Jan;30(1):110-115
Department of Oncology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.
Trabectedin is used routinely in the palliative management of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It is not generally considered to be cardiotoxic, and there is no specific caution for its use in patients with a history of cardiac disease or risk factors. Here, we report six cases from a single academic centre where life-threatening cardiotoxicity occurred acutely during treatment with trabectedin. Read More
Clin J Pain 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
The University of Queensland, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, St Lucia, QLD, Australia, 4072.
Objectives: The review article was designed to assess the effectiveness of regional anesthesia, specifically peripheral nerve blocks, in the treatment of burn pain; with noting of clinical indications and contraindications for peripheral nerve block application, along with discussion of evidence-based analgesic strategies for providing improved, comprehensive burn pain management.
Methods: A search of relevant literature was performed using CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and SCOPUS with a publication date between January 2005 and December 2017.
Results: The search yielded ten results that met criteria. Read More
Clin J Sport Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between preinjury risk factors (RFs) and subsequent occurrence of concussion and examine whether preinjury RFs or postinjury assessments predict clinical recovery in collegiate athletes.
Methods: Risk factors (sex, sport, and self-report history of concussion, migraine, attention-deficit disorder, learning disability, depression, and anxiety) and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT), depression/anxiety screenings, and neuropsychological testing were obtained before the season. For athletes who sustained concussion, RFs, postinjury SCAT, neuropsychological assessment, and clinical recovery were assessed. Read More
Endocr Relat Cancer 2019 Feb;26(2):227-239
Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an established treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors grade 1-2 (G1-G2). However, its possible benefit in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN G3) is largely unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the benefits and side effects of PRRT in patients with GEP NEN G3. Read More
Mol Biol Cell 2018 Dec 12:mbcE18060402. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH 03755, USA.
During the asymmetric division of the C. elegans zygote, germ (P) granules are disassembled in the anterior cytoplasm and stabilized/assembled in the posterior cytoplasm, leading to their inheritance by the germline daughter cell. P granule segregation depends on MEG-3 and MEG-4, which are enriched in P granules and in the posterior cytoplasm surrounding P granules. Read More
J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology - College of Osteopathic Medicine, United States.
Previous studies have demonstrated a progression of function when healthy subjects counter a sudden mechanical load. Short-latency reflexes are linked to local stretch of the particular muscle and its antagonist. Long-latency reflexes integrate stretch information from both local sources and muscles crossing remote joints appropriate for limb's mechanical interactions. Read More
Environ Health Perspect 2018 Dec;126(12):125001
16 School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, California, USA.
Background: The Life Cycle Initiative, hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme, selected human toxicity impacts from exposure to chemical substances as an impact category that requires global guidance to overcome current assessment challenges. The initiative leadership established the Human Toxicity Task Force to develop guidance on assessing human exposure and toxicity impacts. Based on input gathered at three workshops addressing the main current scientific challenges and questions, the task force built a roadmap for advancing human toxicity characterization, primarily for use in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Titanium dioxide nanomaterials have good capability to prevent human cells from damage under UV irradiation. However, some studies indicated that the nanoscale of titanium dioxide could potentially cause harmful effects such as free radicals generation under UV irradiation and thereby accelerate the progress of cell aging. Fullerenes can scavenge large amounts of free radicals due to the fact that fullerenes contain enormous amount of π electrons with low lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), but its adverse properties, such as the poor solubility in water, restricted the applicability. Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
In order to develop a novel kind of antibacterial Cu-containing TiN film with good corrosion resistance, impressive mechanical properties and low cytotoxicity, three differently designed multilayer films of TiCu/TiCuN multilayer (M1, M2, M3) were deposited on the surface of 316L stainless steel surface using the axial magnetic field-enhanced arc ion plating (AMFE-ARP) method, in which the interlayer of TiCu was firstly introduced for Cu-containing TiN film in order to improve comprehensive properties especially corrosion resistance of film. The performance of the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer films were compared with that of the two single layers, TiN and TiCuN, which were deposited by the same method and the same total deposition time. The results indicated that the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer film of M2 revealed the best comprehensive corrosion resistance with low electric current values, high pitting potential and high polarization resistance due to the proper thickness of TiCu interlayers and more number of TiCu/TiCuN bilayers. Read More
JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
Importance: Biologic systems involved in the regulation of motor activity are intricately linked with other homeostatic systems such as sleep, feeding behavior, energy, and mood. Mobile monitoring technology (eg, actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment devices) allows the assessment of these multiple systems in real time. However, most clinical studies of mental disorders that use mobile devices have not focused on the dynamic associations between these systems. Read More
Biomater Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, P. R. China. and City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518075, P. R. China.
In this review, we summarize the recent design strategies (2015-present) of nanomaterial-based vaccine delivery systems via multiple routes to induce robust protective immunity. The selected topics are focused on the novel design strategies of nanomaterial carriers for vaccine delivery. Inspired by recent advances, we also briefly introduce the emerging administration routes that may give rise to synergistic immune effects with advanced delivery systems. Read More
BMC Proc 2018 15;12(Suppl 11):17. Epub 2018 Aug 15.
WHO Country Office, Kigali, Rwanda.
Background: The use of digital technologies to improve access to health is gaining momentum in Africa. This is more pertinent with the increasing penetration of mobile phone technology and internet use, and calls for innovative strategies to support implementation of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage on the continent. However, the huge potential benefits of digital health to advance health services delivery in Africa is yet to be fully harnessed due to critical challenges such as proliferation of pilot projects, poor coordination, inadequate preparedness of the African health workforce for digital health, lack of interoperability and inadequate sustainable financing, among others. Read More
J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):1029-1032
Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratory, Department of Bacteriology, Belfast City Hospital, Lisburn Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT9 7AD, UK E-mail: School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK and Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK.
The frequency of seasonal snowfall results in the transient covering of gardens/amenity sites/open public spaces, which encourages recreational interaction mainly with children. No data is available demonstrating the microbiological composition of such fallen snow and therefore a study was undertaken to examine the microbiology of snow from 37 sites, estimating (i) total viable count (TVC), (ii) identification of bacteria, and (iii) the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mean TVC count of 8. Read More
J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):991-1006
Department of Aquatic Production, Abel Salazar Institute for the Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal E-mail: LAQV, Requimte, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.
The Ave River in northern Portugal has a history of riverbanks and water quality degradation. The river water quality was assessed by physicochemical, biological (macroinvertebrates) and microbiological (Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli) parameters in six locations (A-F, point A being the nearest to the source) throughout its course during a year. Read More
Elife 2018 Dec 12;7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, United States.
The Mediator complex stimulates the cooperative assembly of a pre-initiation complex (PIC) and recruitment of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) for gene activation. The core Mediator complex is organized into head, middle, and tail modules, and in budding yeast (), Mediator recruitment has generally been ascribed to sequence-specific activators engaging the tail module triad of Med2-Med3-Med15 at upstream activating sequences (UASs). We show that yeast lacking Med2-Med3-Med15 are viable and that Mediator and PolII are recruited to promoters genome-wide in these cells, albeit at reduced levels. Read More