549,557 results match your criteria Biomedical Informatics Insights [Journal]


In situ study of EDC/NHS immobilization on gold surface based on attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS).

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 6;175:300-305. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan. Electronic address:

In this study, the time-dependent reaction between 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) is precisely characterized using surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS). According to the high correlation between the spectral results of SEIRAS and the electrochemical behavior, it strongly demonstrates that the EDC/NHS reaction would be obviously interfered by phosphate ions in the neutral pH condition (pH = 7.0). Read More

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December 2018

Primary cultured neuronal networks and type 2 diabetes model mouse fatty liver tissues in aqueous liquid observed by atmospheric SEM (ASEM): Staining preferences of metal solutions.

Micron 2018 Nov 23;118:9-21. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Read More

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November 2018

Polyphasic characterization of Epicoccum sorghinum: A tenuazonic acid producer isolated from sorghum grain.

Int J Food Microbiol 2018 Dec 7;292:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Epicoccum sorghinum isolates from sorghum grain grown in Brazil were characterized using a polyphasic approach based on morphological, genetic and physiologic features. A considerable intraspecific variability was observed. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the 53 isolates studied formed four distinct clades, and their morphological features revealed a high variability in culture. Read More

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December 2018
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Patch spaces and fusion strategies in patch-based label fusion.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2018 Dec 6;71:79-89. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

DTIC, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

In the field of multi-atlas segmentation, patch-based approaches have shown promising results in the segmentation of biomedical images. In the most common approach, registration is used to warp the atlases to the target space and then the warped atlas labelmaps are fused into a consensus segmentation based on local appearance information encoded in form of patches. The registration step establishes spatial correspondence, which is important to obtain anatomical priors. Read More

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December 2018

Perceptual size discrimination requires awareness and late visual areas: A continuous flash suppression and interocular transfer study.

Conscious Cogn 2018 Dec 11;67:77-85. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology and Counselling, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

We applied continuous flash suppression (CFS) during an interocular transfer paradigm to evaluate the importance of awareness and the contribution of early versus late visual structures in size recognition. Specifically, we tested if size judgements of a visible target could be influenced by a congruent or incongruent prime presented to the same or different eye. Without CFS, participants categorised a target as "small" or "large" more quickly when it was preceded by a congruent prime - regardless of whether the prime and target were presented to the same or different eye. Read More

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December 2018

Successful genetic modification of porcine spermatogonial stem cells via an electrically responsive Au nanowire injector.

Biomaterials 2018 Dec 10;193:22-29. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, South Korea; Department of Applied Animal Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, South Korea. Electronic address:

Transgenic pigs are quite useful in many biomedical fields, such as xenotransplantation research and the production of biopharmaceutical materials. The genetic transformation of porcine spermatogonial stem cells (pSSCs) followed by differentiation into mature spermatozoa enables the effective production of transgenic pigs. Improving the transfection efficiency of pSSCs, however, has been much desired. Read More

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December 2018

An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor probe with sensitivity to detect astrocytic versus glioma uptake of glutamate in real time in vitro.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 16;126:751-757. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Biomedical Engineering, PO Box 10157, Ruston, LA 71272, USA; Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, PO Box 10157, Ruston, LA 71272, USA. Electronic address:

Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is essential for regulation of thought, movement, memory, and other higher functions controlled by the brain. Dysregulation of glutamate signaling is associated with severe neuropathological conditions, such as epilepsy, and glioma, a form of brain cancer. Glutamate signals are currently detected by several types of neurochemical probes ranging from microdialysis-based to enzyme-based carbon fiber microsensors. Read More

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November 2018
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A decade of Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) availability: News, actors, progress, prospects and access.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Proteomics Unit, Cancer Research Centre (IBMCC/CSIC/USAL/IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain; Department of Medicine and General Cytometry Service-Nucleus, Cancer Research Centre (IBMCC/CSIC/USAL/IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

Understanding the dynamic of the proteome is a critical challenge because it requires high sensitive methodologies in high-throughput formats in order to decipher its modifications and complexity. While molecular biology provides relevant information about cell physiology that may be reflected in post-translational changes, High-Throughput (HT) experimental proteomic techniques are essential to provide valuable functional information of the proteins, peptides and the interconnections between them. Hence, many methodological developments and innovations have been reported during the last decade. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-inflammatory action of HO-1/CO in human bronchial epithelium in response to cationic polypeptide challenge.

Mol Immunol 2018 Dec 12;105:205-212. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an anti-inflammatory gaseous molecule produced endogenously by heme oxygenases (HOs) HO-1 and HO-2. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of CO in the human bronchial epithelium are still not fully understood. In this study, the cationic peptide poly-l-arginine (PLA) was utilized to induce bronchial epithelial damage and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine release in the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-. Read More

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December 2018

Physical exercise enhances adult cortical plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic injury: Evidence from BOLD-fMRI and electrophysiological recordings.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, South Korea; Animal Research and Molecular Imaging, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Department of Global Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Neuroplasticity is considered essential for recovery from brain injury in developing brains. Recent studies indicate that it is especially effective during early postnatal development and during the critical period. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and local field potential (LFP) electrophysiological recordings in rats that experienced neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury during the critical period to demonstrate that physical exercise (PE) can improve cortical plasticity even when performed during adulthood, after the critical period. Read More

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December 2018

Reduction of cerebral blood flow in community-based adults with subclinical cerebrovascular atherosclerosis: A 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), one of the major metrics for cerebral perfusion, is associated with many brain disorders. Therefore, early characterization of CBF prior to occurrence of symptoms is essential for prevention of cerebral ischemic disorders. We hypothesized that large artery atherosclerosis might be a potential indicator for decline in cerebral perfusion. Read More

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December 2018
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Composite nanofibrous membranes of PLGA/Aloe vera containing lipid nanoparticles for wound dressing applications.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

NanoBioCel Group, Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. Electronic address:

Electrospun nanofibrous dressings present suitable characteristics to be used in wound healing, such as high porosity and high surface area-to-volume ratio. In this study, a wound dressing based on PLGA and Aloe vera containing lipid nanoparticles (NLCs) was developed. NLCs were added in order to add a lipid component that could avoid the adhesion of the dressing to the wound and improve its handling. Read More

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December 2018

Idebenone and T2D: A new insulin-sensitizing drug for personalized therapy.

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

International Center for T1D, Pediatric Clinical Research Center Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi, "L. Sacco" Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Transplantation Research Center, Nephrology Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Endocrinology Division, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Biogenic nanomaterials: Synthesis, characterization, growth mechanism, and biomedical applications.

J Microbiol Methods 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seoburo, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggido 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The biosynthesis of nanomaterials is a huge and intensifying field of research due to their application in various areas, in particular the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. In this review, we focused on the biosynthesis of both metallic and semiconductor nanomaterials and their application in biomedicine and pharmaceutics. In order to meet an exponentially increasing need for nanostructured materials, the biological route for the synthesis of nanomaterials will have to be explored, offering advantages over chemical and physical methods as a simpler, more cost effective, and environmentally friendly method, and for which there is no need to use high pressure and temperatures or toxic chemicals. Read More

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December 2018

The testosterone metabolite 3α-androstanediol inhibits oxidative stress-induced ERK phosphorylation and neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells through an MKP3/DUSP6-dependent mechanism.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Testosterone exerts neuroprotective effects on the brain, but the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted appear to be different in males and females. While in females they involve local conversion to estradiol, in males they may be androgen receptor-dependent, or mediated through metabolism to neurosteroids such as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol), which acts through different mechanisms than testosterone itself. Recently, we demonstrated that 3α-diol can protect neurons and neuronal-like cells against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity associated with prolonged phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Read More

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December 2018

Localization of Contextual and Context Removed Auditory Fear Memory within the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology at Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, USU School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Debilitating and persistent fear memories can rapidly form in humans following exposure to traumatic events. Fear memories can also be generated and studied in animals via Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study was designed to evaluate basolateral amygdala complex involvement following the formation of different fear memories (two contextual fear memories and one adjusted auditory fear memory). Read More

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December 2018

Administration of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids may improve the remodeling and browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue in mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in browning and thermogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we meant to evaluate the effect of EPA and DHA, administered alone or combined, with the activation of browning markers in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), and thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). C57BL/6 adult male mice received a control diet or a high-fructose diet (HFru) for eight weeks, but after the first three weeks, HFru was divided into new groups: HFru, HFru + EPA, HFru + DHA, and HFru-EPA + DHA. Read More

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December 2018

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxides as MPI Tracers: A Primer and Review of early applications.

Authors:
J W M Bulte

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, Cellular Imaging Section and Vascular Biology Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has recently emerged as a non-invasive, whole body imaging technique that detects superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles similar as those used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Based on tracer "hot spot" detection instead of providing contrast on MRI scans, MPI has already proven to be truly quantitative. Without the presence of endogenous background signal, MPI can also be used in certain tissues where the endogenous MRI signal is too low to provide contrast. Read More

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December 2018

Breast lesion detection and characterization with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: Prospective randomized intraindividual comparison of gadoterate meglumine (0.15 mmol/kg) and gadobenate dimeglumine (0.075 mmol/kg) at 3T.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the breast is highly sensitive for breast cancer detection. Multichannel coils and 3T scanners can increase signal, spatial, and temporal resolution. In addition, the T -reduction effect of a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) is higher at 3T. Read More

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December 2018

Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand reduces the expression of the neuroprotective Na /Ca exchanger isoform NCX3 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, University of Catania School of Medicine, Catania, Italy.

Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily, is regarded as a mediator of neurotoxicity. The constitutively expressed ion exchanger NCX3 has been shown to protect neurons from injury. Its expression is induced by Nerve growth factor (NGF) through activation of its tyrosine kinase receptor trkA. Read More

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December 2018

Nasal insulin administration does not affect hepatic glucose production at systemic fasting insulin levels.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Aim: Pharmacologic administration of insulin as nasal spray in humans has demonstrated a modulation of endogenous glucose production via the brain when systemic insulin levels are high. Results are conflicting under fasting insulin concentrations. To evaluate effects of brain insulin on endogenous glucose production in fasting humans with focus on hepatic glucose release, we performed a randomized, placebo controlled, blinded, cross-over experiment. Read More

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December 2018
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Effectiveness of a theory-based sun-safe randomised behavioural change trial among Australian adolescents.

Psychooncology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Queensland.

Objective: Sun safety is crucial for preventing skin cancer. This study evaluated a school-based intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which aimed to encourage sun-protective behaviour among adolescents.

Methods: Secondary school students (N=382; 61. Read More

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December 2018
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SIRT4 Depletion Promotes HCC Tumorigenesis through Regulating AMPKα/mTOR Axis.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Berkeley Biomedical Data Science Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.

Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) has been reported to play a vital role in the maintenance of glutamine catabolism and ATP homeostasis, but its character in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) remains obscure. In this study, we observed low expression of SIRT4 in both HCC cell lines and HCCs from patients. Decreased disease-free survival time is associated with low tumor levels of SIRT4 in patients. Read More

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December 2018

Photoacoustic response induced by nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bubbles beyond the thermal expansion for potential theranostics.

J Biomed Opt 2018 Dec;23(12):1-12

Xi'an Jiaotong University, School of Life Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Infor, China.

Photoacoustic responses induced by laser-excited photothermal bubbles (PTBs) in colloidal gold solutions are relevant to the theranostics quality in biomedical applications. Confined to the complexity of nonstationary, multiscale events, and multiphysical parameters of PTBs, systematic studies of the photoacoustic effects remain obscure. Photoacoustic effects mediated by PTB dynamics and a physical mechanism are studied based on a proof-of-principle multimodal platform integrating side-scattering imaging, time-resolved optical response, and acoustic detection. Read More

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December 2018
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A molecular approach combined with American Thyroid Association classification better stratifies recurrence risk of classic histology papillary thyroid cancer.

Cancer Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Prognosis among patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is widely variable. Better understanding of biologic subtypes is necessary to stratify patients and improve outcomes.

Methods: In patients diagnosed with classic histology papillary thyroid cancer treated from 1973 to 2009, BRAF V600E mutation status was determined on surgical tumor specimens by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnostic value of computed tomography combined with ultrasonography in detecting cervical recurrence in patients with thyroid cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: To determine the diagnostic role of CT added to ultrasound for the diagnosis of recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to evaluate potential benefits for patients.

Methods: A total of 193 patients with recurrent DTC were retrospectively included. The diagnostic performances of ultrasound and combination of ultrasound and CT (ultrasound/CT) in detecting recurrence were compared. Read More

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December 2018

Scutellarein inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in vitro and prevents LPS-induced bone loss in vivo.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Trauma Orthopedic and Hand Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Osteoporosis, arthritis, Peget's disease, bone tumor, periprosthetic joint infection, and periprosthetic loosening have a common characteristic of osteolysis, which is characterized by the enhanced osteoclastic bone resorptive function. At present, the treatment target of these diseases is to interfere with osteoclastic formation and function. Scutellarein (Scu), a flavonoids compound, can inhibit the progress of tumor and inflammation. Read More

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December 2018

Hereditary breast cancer; Genetic penetrance and current status with BRCA.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Medicine, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Gold Coast, QLD.

The most important cause of developing hereditary breast cancer is germline mutations occurring in breast cancer (BCs) susceptibility genes, for example, BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, PTEN, ATM, and PPM1D. Many BC susceptibility genes can be grouped into two classes, high- and low-penetrance genes, each of which interact with multiple genes and environmental factors. However, the penetrance of genes can also be represented by a spectrum, which ranges between high and low. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic potentials of the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the related mechanisms.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Datong University, Datong, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders are serious human health problems. Rho-kinase (ROCK) is emerging as a potentially important therapeutic target relevant to inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. This is supported by studies showing the beneficial effects of fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, in inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Generation by somatic cell nuclear transfer of GGTA1 knockout pigs expressing soluble human TNFRI-Fc and human HO-1.

Transgenic Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

Herein, we successfully generated transgenic pigs expressing both soluble human tumor necrosis factor receptor I IgG-Fc (shTNFRI-Fc) and human hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged-human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) without Gal epitope. Healthy cloned pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using the genetically modified cells. The genetic disruption of the GGTA1 genes and absence of expression of BS-IB4 lectin in tail-derived fibroblast of the SCNT-generated piglets were successfully confirmed. Read More

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December 2018

Variance based global sensitivity analysis of physiologically based pharmacokinetic absorption models for BCS I-IV drugs.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetic Research, Division of Pharmacy & Optometry, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Regulatory agencies have a strong interest in sensitivity analysis for the evaluation of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models used in pharmaceutical research and drug development and regulatory submissions. One of the applications of PBPK is the prediction of fraction absorbed and bioavailability for drugs following oral administration. In this context, we performed a variance based global sensitivity analysis (GSA) on in-house PBPK models for drug absorption, with the aim of identifying key parameters that influence the predictions of the fraction absorbed and the bioavailability for neutral, acidic and basic compounds. Read More

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December 2018

SIA: a scalable interoperable annotation server for biomedical named entities.

J Cheminform 2018 Dec 14;10(1):63. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

DFKI Language Technology Lab, Alt-Moabit 91c, Berlin, Germany.

Recent years showed a strong increase in biomedical sciences and an inherent increase in publication volume. Extraction of specific information from these sources requires highly sophisticated text mining and information extraction tools. However, the integration of freely available tools into customized workflows is often cumbersome and difficult. Read More

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December 2018

Imaging in neurointerventional stroke treatment: review of the recent trials and what your neurointerventionalist wants to know from emergency radiologists.

Emerg Radiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, 550 16th. Street, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Standard treatment for stroke is intravenous (IV) injection of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) rapidly after symptom onset. However, there are limitations of IV t-PA treatment, such as a short time window for administration and risk for hemorrhage. Read More

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December 2018

Sex-specific differences in genotoxic and epigenetic effects of 1,3-butadiene among mouse tissues.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Exposure to environmental chemicals has been shown to have an impact on the epigenome. One example is a known human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene which acts primarily by a genotoxic mechanism, but also disrupts the chromatin structure by altering patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and histone modifications. Sex-specific differences in 1,3-butadiene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are well established; however, it remains unknown whether 1,3-butadiene-associated epigenetic alterations are also sex dependent. Read More

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December 2018

Skewed X-inactivation is common in the general female population.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. Read More

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December 2018
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Comment on: Eponymous women in ophthalmology: syndromes with prominent eye manifestations named after female physicians.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, West Suffolk Hospital, Bury St Edmunds, UK.

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December 2018

Author Correction: A human monoclonal antibody prevents malaria infection by targeting a new site of vulnerability on the parasite.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

In the version of this article originally published, data were incorrectly ascribed to monoclonal antibody CIS34 because of a labeling error. The data were generated with monoclonal antibody CIS04. Full details can be found in the correction notice. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide mapping of nucleotide excision repair with XR-seq.

Nat Protoc 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Nucleotide excision repair is a versatile mechanism to repair a variety of bulky DNA adducts. We developed excision repair sequencing (XR-seq) to study nucleotide excision repair of DNA adducts in humans, mice, Arabidopsis thaliana, yeast and Escherichia coli. In this protocol, the excised oligomers, generated in the nucleotide excision repair reaction, are isolated by cell lysis and fractionation, followed by immunoprecipitation with damage- or repair factor-specific antibodies from the non-chromatin fraction. Read More

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December 2018

Minimal residual disease quantification by flow cytometry provides reliable risk stratification in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Leukemia 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by PCR of clonal IgH/TCR rearrangements predicts relapse in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and serves as risk stratification tool. Since 10% of patients have no suitable PCR-marker, we evaluated flowcytometry (FCM)-based MRD for risk stratification. We included 274 T-ALL patients treated in the NOPHO-ALL2008 protocol. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of ezetimibe on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations as monotherapy or in combination with statins: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17887. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials was to assess the effect of ezetimibe on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Only randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the impact of ezetimibe treatment on cholesterol lowering that include lipoprotein(a) measurement were searched in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases (from inception to February 26, 2018). A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Read More

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December 2018

Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes can bind to host receptors integrins αVβ3 and αVβ6 through DBLδ1_D4 domain of PFL2665c PfEMP1 protein.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17871. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Major complications and mortality from Plasmodium falciparum malaria are associated with cytoadhesion of parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE). The main parasite ligands for cytoadhesion are members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. Read More

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December 2018

Combined deficiency of SLAMF8 and SLAMF9 prevents endotoxin-induced liver inflammation by downregulating TLR4 expression on macrophages.

Cell Mol Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Immunology and School of Medicine, Beijing Key Lab for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Tsinghua University, 100086, Beijing, China.

Classical signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM) family receptors are abundant within many types of immune cells, whereas the nonclassical SLAM family receptors SLAMF8 and SLAMF9, which uniquely lack cytoplasmic signaling motifs, are highly expressed by myeloid cells. Due to the potential redundancy, whether these two receptors regulate macrophage function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that SLAMF8 and SLAMF9 co-regulate macrophage-mediated liver inflammation. Read More

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December 2018

Author Correction: Telomere length and survival in primary cutaneous melanoma patients.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17963. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper. Read More

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December 2018

Nanopore-based detection and characterization of yam viruses.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17879. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CIRAD, BGPI, Montpellier, France.

We here assessed the capability of the MinION sequencing approach to detect and characterize viruses infecting a water yam plant. This sequencing platform consistently revealed the presence of several plant virus species, including Dioscorea bacilliform virus, Yam mild mosaic virus and Yam chlorotic necrosis virus. A potentially novel ampelovirus was also detected by a complimentary Illumina sequencing approach. Read More

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December 2018

Serum alkaline phosphatase relates to cardiovascular risk markers in children with high calcium-phosphorus product.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17864. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Pediatric Endocrinology group, (Girona Biomedical Research Institute) IDIBGI, Girona, Spain.

Although alkaline phosphatase (ALP) correlates with cardiovascular risk in adults, there are no studies in children. We evaluated the association between serum ALP levels, calcium-phosphorus product (Ca*P) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy children. Children aged 7. Read More

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December 2018
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Human sex reversal is caused by duplication or deletion of core enhancers upstream of SOX9.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5319. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, 3052, VIC, Australia.

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are conditions affecting development of the gonads or genitalia. Variants in two key genes, SRY and its target SOX9, are an established cause of 46,XY DSD, but the genetic basis of many DSDs remains unknown. SRY-mediated SOX9 upregulation in the early gonad is crucial for testis development, yet the regulatory elements underlying this have not been identified in humans. Read More

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December 2018
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MoVE identifies metabolic valves to switch between phenotypic states.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5332. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5, Canada.

Metabolism is highly regulated, allowing for robust and complex behavior. This behavior can often be achieved by controlling a small number of important metabolic reactions, or metabolic valves. Here, we present a method to identify the location of such valves: the metabolic valve enumerator (MoVE). Read More

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December 2018

Transcriptome 3'end organization by PCF11 links alternative polyadenylation to formation and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5331. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation, Cancer Research and Experimental Haemostasis, University Medical Centre Mainz, Mainz, 55131, Germany.

Diversification at the transcriptome 3'end is an important and evolutionarily conserved layer of gene regulation associated with differentiation and dedifferentiation processes. Here, we identify extensive transcriptome 3'end-alterations in neuroblastoma, a tumour entity with a paucity of recurrent somatic mutations and an unusually high frequency of spontaneous regression. Utilising extensive RNAi-screening we reveal the landscape and drivers of transcriptome 3'end-diversification, discovering PCF11 as critical regulator, directing alternative polyadenylation (APA) of hundreds of transcripts including a differentiation RNA-operon. Read More

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December 2018

Supported self-management for people with type 2 diabetes: a meta-review of quantitative systematic reviews.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024262. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objectives: Self-management support aims to give people with chronic disease confidence to actively manage their disease, in partnership with their healthcare provider. A meta-review can inform policy-makers and healthcare managers about the effectiveness of self-management support strategies for people with type 2 diabetes, and which interventions work best and for whom.

Design: A meta-review of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed adapting Cochrane methodology. Read More

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December 2018

Vascular and cognitive effects of cocoa-rich chocolate in postmenopausal women: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024095. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Primary Health Care Research Unit, La Alamedilla Health Center, Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca (IBSAL), Health Service of Castilla y León (SACyL), Salamanca, Spain.

Introduction: The intake of polyphenols has certain health benefits. This study will aim to assess the effect of adding a daily amount of chocolate high in cocoa content and polyphenols to the normal diet on blood pressure, vascular function, cognitive performance, quality of life and body composition in postmenopausal women.

Methods And Analysis: Here we plan a randomised clinical trial with two parallel groups involving a total of 140 women between 50 and 64 years in the postmenopausal period, defined by amenorrhoea of ​​at least 12 consecutive months. Read More

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December 2018
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