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    291 results match your criteria Biomarker Insights [Journal]

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    A Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay Method for the Measurement of Compound W.
    Biomark Insights 2018 6;13:1177271918757484. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Division of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Services, Department of Radiological Sciences, School of Medicine, UC Irvine Medical Center and VA Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA, USA.
    Objective: Using compound W (a 3,3'-diiodothyronine sulfate [TS] immuno-crossreactive material)-specific polyclonal antibodies and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay assay techniques (AlphaLISA) to establish an indirect competitive compound W (ICW) quantitative detection method.

    Method: Photosensitive particles (donor beads) coated with compound W or TS and rabbit anti-W antibody were incubated with biotinylated goat anti-rabbit antibody. This constitutes a detection system with streptavidin-coated acceptor particle. Read More

    Nkx2-3-A Slippery Slope From Development Through Inflammation Toward Hematopoietic Malignancies.
    Biomark Insights 2018 6;13:1177271918757480. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    The development of peripheral lymphoid tissues from the mesoderm is the result of a complex convergence combining lymphohematopoietic differentiation with the local specification of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal components. Although the various transcriptional regulators with fate-determining effects in diversifying the mobile leukocyte subsets have been thoroughly studied and identified, the tissue-specific determinants promoting the regional differentiation of resident mesenchyme are less understood. Of these factors, various members of the NK-class Nkx paralogues have emerged as key regulators for the organogenesis of spleen and mucosal lymphoid tissues, and recent data have also indicated their involvement in various pathological events, including gut inflammation and hematopoietic malignancies. Read More

    Prion Proteins Without the Glycophosphatidylinositol Anchor: Potential Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
    Biomark Insights 2018 6;13:1177271918756648. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department for the Production of Diagnostic Reagents and Research, Blood Transfusion Centre of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Prion protein (PrP) is a biomolecule that is involved in neuronal signaling, myelinization, and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In the cell, PrP is shed by the ADAM10 protease. This process generates PrP molecules that lack glycophosphatidylinositol anchor, and these molecules incorporate into toxic aggregates and neutralize toxic oligomers. Read More

    Reactive Oxygen Species: A Key Constituent in Cancer Survival.
    Biomark Insights 2018 6;13:1177271918755391. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Cancer Biology Lab, Department of Biochemistry, GIS, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, India.
    Background: Cancer is one of the major heterogeneous disease with high morbidity and mortality with poor prognosis. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in redox balance, and deregulated redox signaling are common hallmarks of cancer progression and resistance to treatment. Mitochondria contribute mainly in the generation of ROS during oxidative phosphorylation. Read More

    Evaluation of a Serum Lung Cancer Biomarker Panel.
    Biomark Insights 2018 15;13:1177271917751608. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    20/20 GeneSystems, Rockville, MD, USA.
    Background: A panel of 3 serum proteins and 1 autoantibody has been developed to assist with the detection of lung cancer. We aimed to validate the accuracy of the biomarker panel in an independent test set and explore the impact of adding a fourth serum protein to the panel, as well as the impact of combining molecular and clinical variables.

    Methods: The training set of serum samples was purchased from commercially available biorepositories. Read More

    Kinetics of Procalcitonin in Pediatric Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
    Biomark Insights 2018 8;13:1177271917751900. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institut Recerca Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain.
    Objectives: To assess the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in pediatric patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and to analyze its relationship with morbidity and mortality.

    Patients And Methods: Prospective observational study including pediatric patients who required ECMO. Both PCT and CRP were sequentially drawn before ECMO (P0) and until 72 hours after ECMO. Read More

    Discovery and Longitudinal Evaluation of Candidate Biomarkers for Ischaemic Stroke by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics.
    Biomark Insights 2017 20;12:1177271917749216. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Stroke Department, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience & Mental Health and Melbourne Brain Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Application of acute therapies such as thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke (IS) is constrained because of diagnostic uncertainty and the dynamic nature of stroke biology. To investigate changes in blood proteins after stroke and as a result of thrombolysis treatment we performed label-free quantitative proteomics on serum samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry and long high-performance liquid chromatography gradient (5 hours) combined with a 50-cm column to optimise the peptide separation. We identified (false discovery rate [FDR]: 1%) and quantified a total of 574 protein groups from a total of 92 samples from 30 patients. Read More

    Plasma Cytochrome c Detection Using a Highly Sensitive Electrochemiluminescence Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
    Biomark Insights 2017 13;12:1177271917746972. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Resuscitation Institute, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Cytochrome c is an intermembrane mitochondrial protein that is released to the bloodstream following mitochondrial injury.

    Methods And Results: We developed an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay to measure cytochrome c in human and rat plasma, which showed high sensitivity with broad dynamic range (2-1200 ng/mL in humans and 5-500 ng/mL in rat) and high assay reproducibility (inter-assay coefficient <6% in humans and <10% in rat). In patients after blunt trauma, plasma cytochrome c directly correlated with injury severity. Read More

    Inhaled Steroids and Active Smoking Drive Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Symptoms and Biomarkers to a Greater Degree Than Airflow Limitation.
    Biomark Insights 2017 7;12:1177271917730306. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Immunology, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Spring House, PA, USA.
    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease, and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes.

    Objectives: The purpose of the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics in a well-profiled COPD cohort.

    Methods: A total of 67 COPD subjects (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV]: 45%-80% predicted) and 63 healthy smoking and nonsmoking controls underwent multiple assessments including patient questionnaires, lung function, and clinical biomarkers including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), induced sputum, and blood. Read More

    Changes in Alternative Splicing as Pharmacodynamic Markers for Sudemycin D6.
    Biomark Insights 2017 12;12:1177271917730557. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
    Objective: The aim of the study was to define pharmacodynamic markers for sudemycin D6, an experimental cancer drug that changes alternative splicing in human blood.

    Methods: Blood samples from 12 donors were incubated with sudemycin D6 for up to 24 hours, and at several time points total RNA from lymphocytes was prepared and the pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing patterns were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Results: Similar to immortalized cells, blood lymphocytes change alternative splicing due to sudemycin D6 treatment. Read More

    Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Release From 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A New Treatment Opportunity for Obesity-Related Inflammation?
    Biomark Insights 2017 24;12:1177271917726964. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. Read More

    Prognostic Impact of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Expression in Pancreatic Cancer: Malignant Versus Stromal Cells.
    Biomark Insights 2017 22;12:1177271917715443. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been proposed as a potential prognostic factor for various malignancies. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of uPAR expression in neoplastic and stromal cells of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 122 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Read More

    Making Meaningful Clinical Use of Biomarkers.
    Biomark Insights 2017 19;12:1177271917715236. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences and Center for Health Disparities & Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
    This review discusses the current state of biomarker discovery for the purposes of diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring. We underscore relevant challenges that have defined the gap between biomarker discovery and meaningful clinical use. We highlight recent advancements in and propose a way to think about future biomarker development. Read More

    Influence of Circulating Endothelin-1 and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine on Whole Brain Circulation Time in Multiple Sclerosis.
    Biomark Insights 2017 6;12:1177271917712514. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Unit of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Department of Neurological and Neurosensorial Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, inflammatory and immune cell activation, and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion are features of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim is to determine the influence of endothelin-1 (ET1) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) on cerebral circulation time (CCT) in patients with MS. In all, 64 patients with MS (39 relapsing-remitting [RR]-MS; 25 secondary progressive [SP]-MS subtype) and 37 controls (C) were studied. Read More

    Data-Independent Acquisition and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Identification of Serum Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer.
    Biomark Insights 2017 5;12:1177271917710948. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    A data-independent acquisition (DIA)/parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) workflow was implemented to identify improved ovarian cancer biomarkers. Data-independent acquisition on ovarian cancer versus control sera and literature searches identified 50 biomarkers and indicated that apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) is the most significantly differentially regulated protein. Parallel reaction monitoring with Targeted Ovarian Cancer Proteome Assay validated differential ApoA-IV expression and quantified 9 other biomarkers. Read More

    Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.
    Biomark Insights 2017 12;12:1177271917704193. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR), a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. Read More

    Integrative Analysis of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Signatures and Pathways Modulating White Blood Cell Count in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
    Biomark Insights 2017 12;12:1177271917702895. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Genetics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, LA, USA.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of protein-coding genes and represent potential biomarkers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, information linking miRNAs with their messenger RNA (mRNA) target genes modulating white blood cell (WBC) count is lacking. Here, we analyzed miRNAs and gene expression data from pediatric patients with ALL to identify a signature of miRNAs involved in ALL and their mRNA target genes, molecular networks, and biological pathways modulating WBC. Read More

    Hepatocyte Growth Factor/C-Met Axis in Thyroid Cancer: From Diagnostic Biomarker to Therapeutic Target.
    Biomark Insights 2017 30;12:1177271917701126. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met axis plays a crucial role in cancer development by promoting cellular proliferation, motility, and morphogenesis, as well as angiogenesis. Different cellular distributions of both the ligand and the receptor in benign vs malignant lesions indicate this biological system as a candidate for a diagnostic biomarker of malignancy occurring in endocrine glands, such as the thyroid and pituitary. Furthermore, the HGF/c-met expression may help to identify a subset of patients eligible for potential targeted therapies with HGF/c-met inhibitors or antagonists in thyroid tumour, as well as in other malignancies. Read More

    Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Is a Feasible Method for the Relative Quantification of Heregulin Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tissue.
    Biomark Insights 2017 30;12:1177271917699850. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Daiichi Sankyo Pharma Development, Edison, NJ, USA.
    In preclinical studies, heregulin () expression was shown to be the most relevant predictive biomarker for response to patritumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor 3 monoclonal antibody. In support of a phase 2 study of erlotinib ± patritumab in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for relative quantification ofexpression from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) NSCLC tissue samples was developed and validated and described herein. Test specimens included matched FFPE normal lung and NSCLC and frozen NSCLC tissue, and-positive and-negative cell lines. Read More

    A Novel Biomarker Panel to Identify Steroid Resistance in Childhood Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.
    Biomark Insights 2017 8;12:1177271917695832. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disorder of childhood. Response to initial treatment with corticosteroids is an indicator of prognosis, as resistant patients often present more progressive disease. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we set out to discover a panel of noninvasive biomarkers that could distinguish steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) from steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Read More

    An Integrative Genomics Approach for Associating Genome-Wide Association Studies Information With Localized and Metastatic Prostate Cancer Phenotypes.
    Biomark Insights 2017 16;12:1177271917695810. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Biology, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, South Africa.
    High-throughput genotyping has enabled discovery of genetic variants associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The goal of this study was to associate GWAS information of patients with primary organ-confined and metastatic prostate cancer using gene expression data and to identify molecular networks and biological pathways enriched for genetic susceptibility variants involved in the 2 disease states. The analysis revealed gene signatures for the 2 disease states and a gene signature distinguishing the 2 patient groups. Read More

    Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Gastric Cancer: A Therapeutical Challenge.
    Biomark Insights 2017 16;12:1177271917695237. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, First Internal Medicine Department, Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Klinikum, Neubrandenburg, Germany.
    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is a rare and mainly secondary site of metastasis in solid tumors. In gastric cancer (GC), it is associated with a devastating prognosis, lacking an efficient and standardized treatment approach. We report a case of primary manifestation of LC due to metastatic GC with rapid deterioration and refractory course to conventional and intrathecal chemotherapy. Read More

    Expression of Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Transcripts in Egyptian Children With Autism.
    Biomark Insights 2017 23;12:1177271917691035. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Microbial Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
    The molecular basis of the pathophysiological role of oxidative stress in autism is understudied. Herein, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array to analyze transcriptional pattern of 84 oxidative stress genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell pools isolated from 32 autistic patients (16 mild/moderate and 16 severe) and 16 healthy subjects (each sample is a pool from 4 autistic patients or 4 controls). The PCR array data were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR in 80 autistic children (55 mild/moderate and 25 severe) and 60 healthy subjects. Read More

    Cytochrome P-450 1B1 Leu432Val Polymorphism Does Not Show Association With Breast Cancer in Northern Iranian Women With a History of Infertility.
    Biomark Insights 2017 20;12:1177271916689058. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
    The Cytochrome P-4501B1 () Leu432Val polymorphism has been previously shown to be associated with some types of cancer and affects-mediated metabolism of various infertility drugs. To establish the frequency ofLeu432Val polymorphism among women with a history of infertility drug use, we studied the genotypes of 147 patients with breast cancer with a history of infertility and 150 cancer-free, infertile women (control group) in Northern Iran. A polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was used to detect GG (Val/Val), CG (Leu/Val), and CC (Leu/Leu) genotype frequencies, which did not vary significantly between the 2 patient groups (= . Read More

    Soluble P-selectin as a Biomarker for Infection and Survival in Patients With a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome on the Intensive Care Unit.
    Biomark Insights 2017 7;12:1177271916684823. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Aims: This study investigated the ability of soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin) to identify infection and predict 30-day mortality in patients with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) on the intensive care unit.

    Methods: Soluble platelet selectin levels were measured daily in the first 48 hours in patients presenting with SIRS. The outcome, proven infection, was established using predefined definitions. Read More

    A Comparison of Different Methodologies for the Measurement of Extracellular Vesicles and Milk-derived Particles in Raw Milk from Cows.
    Biomark Insights 2016 13;11:147-155. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK.
    Cow's milk is economically important to the agricultural industry with the nutritive value of milk being routinely measured. This does not give full insight into normal mammary tissue turnover during the course of lactation, which could be important for both an understanding of milk production and animal welfare. We have previously demonstrated that submicron particles, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), can be measured in unprocessed cow's milk by flow cytometry and that they correlate with stage of lactation. Read More

    Prognostic Value of MammaPrintin Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.
    Biomark Insights 2016 11;11:139-146. Epub 2016 Dec 11.
    Agendia NV, Science Park, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: MammaPrint® is a microarray-based gene expression test cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration to assess recurrence risk in early-stage breast cancer, aimed to guide physicians in making neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment decisions. The increase in the incidence of invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) over the past decades and the modest representation of ILC in the MammaPrint development data set calls for a stratified survival analysis dedicated to this specific subgroup.

    Study Aim: The current study aimed to validate the prognostic value of the MammaPrint test for breast cancer patients with early-stage ILCs. Read More

    Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Its Relation As a Biomarker in Nephrologic Diseases.
    Biomark Insights 2016 7;11:131-137. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Maltepe University, Maltepe, Istanbul, Republic of Turkey.
    It is encouraging to observe that a search for publications on "asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)" in PubMed, as updated on June 2016, yielded >2500 items, 24 years after a splendid paper published by Vallance et al in which the authors proposed that ADMA accumulation could be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney diseases. ADMA is the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is related to endothelial dysfunction, which plays an important role in vascular damage elicited by various cardiometabolic risk factors. Although current knowledge suggests that ADMA has critical central roles in renal diseases, there are still unexplained details. Read More

    Procalcitonin Is a Better Biomarker than C-Reactive Protein in Newborns Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The PROKINECA Study.
    Biomark Insights 2016 3;11:123-129. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Service, Hospital de Sant Joan de Déu Maternal, Fetal and Neonatology Center Barcelona (BCNatal), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Objectives: To assess the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in newborns after cardiothoracic surgery (CS), with and without cardiopulmonary bypass, and to assess whether PCT was better than CRP in identifying sepsis in the first 72 hours after CS.

    Patients And Methods: This is a prospective study of newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after CS.

    Interventions: PCT and CRP were sequentially drawn 2 hours before surgery and at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Read More

    Low Doses of Cisplatin Induce Gene Alterations, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells.
    Biomark Insights 2016 24;11:113-21. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Cellomics and Toxicogenomics Research Laboratory, NIH/NIMHD RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA.
    Cisplatin is a known antitumor drug, but its mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we studied the anticancer potential of cisplatin at doses of 1, 2, or 3 µM using HL-60 cells as a test model. We investigated cisplatin effects at the molecular level using RNA sequencing, cell cycle analysis, and apoptotic assay after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of treatment. Read More

    Plasminogen Activator System and Breast Cancer: Potential Role in Therapy Decision Making and Precision Medicine.
    Biomark Insights 2016 16;11:105-11. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria.
    Shifting from the historical TNM paradigm to the determination of molecular and genetic subtypes of tumors has been a major improvement to better picture cancerous diseases. The sharper the picture is, the better will be the possibility to develop subsequent strategies, thus achieving higher efficacy and prolonged survival eventually. Recent studies suggest that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA Receptor (uPAR), and plasmino-gen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Read More

    Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients.
    Biomark Insights 2016 3;11:95-104. Epub 2016 Jul 3.
    Drug Discovery and Development Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Diabetes is a global endemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. The American Diabetes Association has recommended glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a possible substitute to fasting blood glucose for diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c is an important indicator of long-term glycemic control with the ability to reflect the cumulative glycemic history of the preceding two to three months. Read More

    Changes in Urinary and Serum Levels of Novel Biomarkers after Administration of Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents.
    Biomark Insights 2016 29;11:91-4. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Objective: The aim of our study is to describe the changes in urinary and serum levels of novel biomarkers after gadolinium contrast administration in patients with normal renal function.

    Methods: We measured four biomarkers in 28 volunteers: interleukin-18 (IL-18), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and cystatin C. Urinary and serum samples were collected at 0, 3, and 24 hours following gadolinium administration. Read More

    Role of Biomarkers in the Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension.
    Biomark Insights 2016 23;11:85-9. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Echocardiography Unit, Cardiology division, University Hospital Notre Dame des Secours, Byblos, Lebanon.
    Pulmonary hypertension is a severe and debilitating disease with no definite cure, and the domain of targeted therapies is a promising field for better management of this severe condition. The disease comprises pulmonary arterial remodeling, hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, with subsequent organ damage including right heart and liver dysfunction. Biomarkers have a valuable role at different levels of the disease, from diagnosis to risk assessment and management, in order to decrease the burden of the disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Precision-Cut Kidney Slices as a Tool to Understand the Dynamics of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis.
    Biomark Insights 2016 22;11:77-84. Epub 2016 May 22.
    Nordic Bioscience, Herlev, Denmark.
    The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Read More

    Prediction of the Risk for Essential Hypertension among Carriers of C825T Genetic Polymorphism of G Protein β3 (GNB3) Gene.
    Biomark Insights 2016 17;11:69-75. Epub 2016 May 17.
    Endocrine Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: The guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) 825T allele encodes a product that enhances the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, which is associated with the occurrence of the splice variant Gβ3 s that could play a role in vascular reactivity and hyperproliferation of smooth muscle cells, that makes such proteins attractive candidate gene products for susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH).

    Objective: To predict the risk for EH in individuals with C825T genetic polymorphism of G protein β3 gene.

    Methods: The study consisted of 222 normotensive individuals and 216 hypertensive patients. Read More

    Heme Oxygenase Activity Correlates with Serum Indices of Iron Homeostasis in Healthy Nonsmokers.
    Biomark Insights 2016 19;11:49-54. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
    Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirmed such participation of HO in iron homeostasis of humans. Carbon monoxide produced through HO activity will bind to hemoglobin in circulating erythrocytes, and therefore, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) can be used as an index of HO activity. Read More

    Evaluation of Ischemia-Modified Albumin, Malondialdehyde, and Advanced Oxidative Protein Products as Markers of Vascular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy.
    Biomark Insights 2016 2;11:63-8. Epub 2016 May 2.
    Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.
    Aim: This study aimed at evaluation of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) as markers of vascular injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with derivation of cutoff values for the same.

    Materials And Methods: Study population comprised 60 diabetes patients and 30 controls, with diabetes patients further categorized into three groups based on urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) of <30 mg/g (diabetes without microalbuminuria), 30-300 mg/g (early DN), and >300 mg/g of creatinine (overt DN). Serum IMA, MDA, and AOPP were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HbA1c, serum creatinine, urine albumin, and urine creatinine were estimated using automated analyzers. Read More

    Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis.
    Biomark Insights 2016 27;11:55-62. Epub 2016 Apr 27.
    PPPSRU, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Fayetteville, AR, USA.
    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. Read More

    Urine Proteome Biomarkers in Kidney Diseases. I. Limits, Perspectives, and First Focus on Normal Urine.
    Biomark Insights 2016 16;11:41-8. Epub 2016 Mar 16.
    Laboratory on Physiopathology of Uremia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.; Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.
    Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine. Read More

    Assessment of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy.
    Biomark Insights 2016 16;11:31-40. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes. The study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) as biomarkers for early detection of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. The current study was performed on 150 type 2 diabetic patients. Read More

    DNA Subtraction of In Vivo Selected Phage Repertoires for Efficient Peptide Pathology Biomarker Identification in Neuroinflammation Multiple Sclerosis Model.
    Biomark Insights 2016 16;11:19-29. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    INSERM U1049, Neuroinflammation, Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis, Bordeaux, France.
    To streamline in vivo biomarker discovery, we developed a suppression subtractive DNA hybridization technique adapted for phage-displayed combinatorial libraries of 12 amino acid peptides (PhiSSH). Physical DNA subtraction is performed in a one-tube-all-reactions format by sequential addition of reagents, producing the enrichment of specific clones of one repertoire. High-complexity phage repertoires produced by in vivo selections in the multiple sclerosis rat model (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE) and matched healthy control rats were used to evaluate the technique. Read More

    Histone H3 Phosphorylation in Human Skin Histoculture as a Tool to Evaluate Patient's Response to Antiproliferative Drugs.
    Biomark Insights 2015 18;10(Suppl 4):73-6. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
    Discovery Biologics, Merck Research Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA.
    Unlabelled: Evaluation of patient's response to chemotherapeutic drugs is often difficult and time consuming. Skin punch biopsies are easily accessible material that can be used for the evaluation of surrogate biomarkers of a patient's response to a drug. In this study, we hypothesized that assessment of phosphorylated histone H3 in human skin punch biopsies could be used as a pharmacodynamics biomarker of patient's response to the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor SCH2047069. Read More

    Challenges and Current Efforts in the Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Inflammatory and Remodeling Conditions of the Lungs.
    Biomark Insights 2015 16;10(Suppl 4):59-72. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    This review discusses biomarkers that are being researched for their usefulness to phenotype chronic inflammatory lung diseases that cause remodeling of the lung's architecture. The review focuses on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension. Bio-markers of environmental exposure and specific classes of biomarkers (noncoding RNA, metabolism, vitamin, coagulation, and microbiome related) are also discussed. Read More

    Management of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients Resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Treatment.
    Biomark Insights 2015 18;10(Suppl 3):49-54. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
    Charité, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Berlin, Germany.
    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. This oncogene is generated by the fusion of breakpoint cluster region (BCR) and Abelson leukemia virus (ABL) genes and encodes a novel fusion gene translating into a protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. The discovery and introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) irreversibly changed the landscape of CML treatment, leading to dramatic improvement in long-term survival rates. Read More

    Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells from Multiple Epithelial Cancers with ApoStream(®) for Detecting (or Monitoring) the Expression of Folate Receptor Alpha.
    Biomark Insights 2016 1;11:7-18. Epub 2016 Feb 1.
    Director Diagnostics, Translational Medicine and Diagnostics, Morphotek, Inc., Exton, PA, USA.
    This study describes our efforts to further the field of noninvasive diagnostics, specifically in the area of liquid biopsies in oncology. We employed laser scanning cytometry using highly selective antibodies to interrogate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that were isolated using ApoStream(®) technology to identify folate receptor alpha (FRα)-positive cells. We demonstrate that FRα(+) CTCs can be isolated from patients with metastatic cancers, including NSCLC adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer, whereas squamous cell lung cancer and normal healthy controls were devoid of FRα(+) CTCs. Read More

    Beyond the Ribosome: Extra-translational Functions of tRNA Fragments.
    Biomark Insights 2016 28;11(Suppl 1):1-8. Epub 2016 Jan 28.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth campus, Duluth, MN, USA.
    High-throughput sequencing studies of small RNAs reveal a complex milieu of noncoding RNAs in biological samples. Early data analysis was often limited to microRNAs due to their regulatory nature and potential as biomarkers; however, many more classes of noncoding RNAs are now being recognized. A class of fragments initially excluded from analysis were those derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs) because they were thought to be degradation products. Read More

    Bioinformatics Resources for MicroRNA Discovery.
    Biomark Insights 2015 18;10(Suppl 4):53-8. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA.
    Biomarker identification is often associated with the diagnosis and evaluation of various diseases. Recently, the role of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in the development of diseases, particularly cancer. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the amount of data on miRNA has increased tremendously in the last decade, requiring new bioinformatics approaches for processing and storing new information. Read More

    MicroRNAs Expressed during Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential and Therapeutic Considerations.
    Biomark Insights 2015 18;10(Suppl 4):25-52. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Read More

    Urinary Vitamin D-Binding Protein as a Biomarker of Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome.
    Biomark Insights 2016 13;11:1-6. Epub 2016 Jan 13.
    Professor, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Background: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular disorders of childhood and is associated with increased urinary vitamin D-binding protein (uVDBP) excretion. We tested the hypothesis that uVDBP represents a biomarker to differentiate steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) from the more benign forms of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS).

    Methods: This cross-sectional study included children with SRNS (n = 24), SSNS (n = 28), and normal controls (n = 5). Read More

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