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    7076 results match your criteria Biomacromolecules [Journal]

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    Structural and Mechanical Roles for the C-Terminal Non-Repetitive Domain Become Apparent in Recombinant Spider Aciniform Silk.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Spider aciniform (or wrapping) silk is the toughest of the seven types of spider silks/glue due to a combination of high elasticity and strength. Like most spider silk proteins (spidroins), aciniform spidroin (AcSp1) has a large core repetitive domain flanked by relatively short N- and C-terminal non-repetitive domains (the NTD and CTD, respectively). The major ampullate silk protein (MaSp) CTD has been shown to control protein solubility and fiber formation, but the aciniform CTD function remains unknown. Read More

    Controlling Styrene Maleic acid lipid particles through RAFT.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    The ability of styrene maleic acid copolymers to dissolve lipid membranes into nanosized lipid particles is a facile method of obtaining membrane proteins in solubilized lipid discs while conserving part of its native lipid environment. While the currently used copolymers can readily extract membrane proteins in native nanodiscs, their highly disperse composition is likely to influence the dispersity of the discs as well as the extraction efficiency. In this study, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer was used to control the polymer architecture and dispersity of molecular weights with a high-precision. Read More

    Antimicrobial Chitosan and Chitosan Derivatives: A Review of the Structure-Activity Relationship.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    This review gives an updated overview of the current state-of-the-art for antimicrobial chitosan and chitosan derivatives and the effects of structural modifications on activity and toxicity. The various synthetic routes introduced for chemical modification of chitosan are discussed and the most common functional groups are highlighted. Different analytical techniques used for structural characterization of the synthesized chitosan derivatives are discussed and critically evaluated. Read More

    A biomimetic stress sensitive hydrogel controlled by DNA nanoswitches.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    One of the most intriguing and important aspects of biological supramolecular materials is its ability to adapt macroscopic properties in response to environmental cues for controlling cellular processes. Recently, bulk matrix stiffness, in particular stress sensitivity, has been established as a key mechanical cue in cellular function and development. However, stress-stiffening capacity and the ability to control and exploit this key characteristic is relatively new to the field of biomimetic materials. Read More

    Thermo-responsive and Active Functional Fiber Mats for Cultured Cell Recovery.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Thermo-responsive and active functional fiber mats were prepared from random copolymer of poly(pentafluorophenyl acrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) (P(PFPA-co-NIPAM)), which was synthesized by a controlled radical polymerization process based on reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT). As reactive sites, pentafluorophenyl ester (PFP) groups were incorporated in the copolymer to allow for a multiple post-polymerization modification. UV-crosslinkable moieties were first introduced by partially reacting PFP groups in the copolymer with ortho-nitrobenzyl (ONB)-protected diamine. Read More

    Fiber Alignment and Liquid Crystal Orientation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in the Electrospun Nanofibrous Mats.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Sulfate cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) dispersions always present specific self-assembled cholesteric mesophases which is easily affected by the inherent properties of particle size, surface charge and repulsion or affinity interaction, and external field force generated from ionic potential of added electrolytes, magnetic, electric, and/or mechanical shearing or stretching. Aiming at understanding the liquid crystal orientation and fiber alignment under high-voltage electric field, randomly distributed, uniform-aligned, or core-sheath nanofibrous mats involving PVA and charged CNCs were electrospun; and amongst them, specific straight arrayed fine nanofibers wi. Read More

    Catalytic activity of peptide-nanoparticle conjugates regulated by a conformational change.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Herein, we present the design and synthesis of a catalytically active peptide-nanoparticle conjugate whose activity is regulated by a defined conformational change in the self-assembled peptide monolayer. A catalytically active peptide, designed after the heterodimeric α-helical coiled-coil principle was immobilized onto gold nanoparticles and kinetic studies were performed according to the Michaelis-Menten model. The formed peptide monolayer at the gold nanoparticle surface accelerated p nitrophenylacetate (pNPA) hydrolysis by one order of magnitude compared to the soluble peptide while exhibiting no defined secondary structure as determined by infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Read More

    Hemicellulosic Polysaccharides Mimics: Synthesis of Tailored Bottlebrush-Like Xyloglucan Oligosaccharide Glycopolymers as Binders of Nanocrystalline Cellulose.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    We report in this contribution that while low molecular weight hemicellulosic building blocks are known not to interact with cellulosic materials, their multivalent presentation on a polymeric scaffold significantly enhanced the binding interactions that are remarkably in the same range as those usually observed for lectin-carbohydrate interactions. We developed a poly(propargyl methacrylate) scaffold on which we conjugated, by "post-click" reaction, a variety of azide reducing-end functionalized xyloglucan oligosaccharides with controlled enzymatic-mediated rate of degalactosylation. Bottlebrush-like xyloglucan oligosaccharide glycopolymers (poly(XGO(n))) were obtained and their self-assemblies in aqueous solution were investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Read More

    A rheological study of the association and dynamics of MUC5AC gels.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    The details of how the mucus hydrogel forms from its primary structural component, mucin polymers, remain incompletely resolved. To explore this, we use a combination of macrorheology and single particle tracking to investigate the bulk and microscopic mechanical properties of reconstituted MUC5AC mucin gels. We find that analyses of thermal fluctuations on the length scale of the micron-sized particles are not predictive of the linear viscoelastic response of the mucin gels, and that taken together, the results from both techniques help to provide complementary insight into the structure of the network. Read More

    Aqueous RAFT Synthesis of Glycopolymers for Determination of Saccharide Structure and Concentration Effects on Amyloid β Aggregation.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    GM1 ganglioside is known to promote amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation in Alzheimer's disease. The roles of the individual saccharides and their distribution in this process are not understood. Acrylamide-based glycomonomers with either β-D-glucose or β-D-galactose pendant groups were synthesized to mimic the stereochemistry of saccharides present in GM1 and characterized via 1H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Read More

    Medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer modified by bacterial cellulose for medical devices.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Medium chain-length PHAs (mPHAs) are flexible elastomeric biopolymers with valuable properties for biomedical applications like artificial arteries and other medical implants. However, an environmentally friendly and high productivity process together with the tuning of the mechanical and biological properties of mPHAs are mandatory for this purpose. Here, for the first time, a melt processing technique was applied for the preparation of bionanocomposites starting from poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BC). Read More

    SET-LRP in the Neoteric Ethyl Lactate Alcohol.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Ethyl lactate (EtLa), a green and safe agrochemical solvent, is gifted with some properties that make it a good candidate for SET-LRP. It dissolves CuBr2, mediates an efficient disproportionation of CuBr in the presence of tris(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amine (Me6-TREN), and is capable to dissolve both aqueous (polar) and hydrocarbon (non-polar) soluble monomers and polymers. Here, we report that EtLa is an excellent solvent for the Cu(0) wire-catalyzed SET-LRP to produce both hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyacrylates that exhibit precise chain end functionality. Read More

    Conformation Preservation of Alpha-Helical Peptides within Supramolecular Filamentous Assemblies.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Hydrogen-bonded β-sheets are the most commonly explored building motifs for creating peptide-based filamentous nanostructures, however, most bioactive epitopes must assume an α-helix conformation to exert their functions. Incorporating α-helical sequences into β-sheet-forming peptides often involves the use of a flexible spacer to alleviate the steric impact of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the α-helical conformation. In this context, we report our findings on the alkylation-regulated conformation preservation of α-helical peptides within their filamentous assemblies. Read More

    H-Ferritin Enriches the Curcumin Uptake and Improves the Therapeutic Efficacy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    NanoBioLab, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Università di Milano-Bicocca , 20126 Milano, Italy.
    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive, invasive, and metastatic tumor. Although it is reported to be sensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, frequent relapse and chemoresistance often result in treatment failure. In this study, we developed a biomimetic nanodrug consisting of a self-assembling variant (HFn) of human apoferritin loaded with curcumin. Read More

    Cationic Poly(benzyl ether)s as Self-Immolative Antimicrobial Polymers.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute , 110 8th St., Troy, New York 12180, United States.
    Self-immolative polymers (SIMPs) are macromolecules that spontaneously undergo depolymerization into small molecules when triggered by specific external stimuli. We report here the first examples of antimicrobial SIMPs with potent, rapid, and broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Their antibacterial and hemolytic activities were examined as a function of cationic functionality. Read More

    A Polymer Therapeutic Having Universal Heparin Reversal Activity: Molecular Design and Functional Mechanism.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Centre for Blood Research and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia , Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Heparins are widely used to prevent blood clotting during surgeries and for the treatment of thrombosis. However, bleeding associated with heparin therapy is a concern. Protamine, the only approved antidote for unfractionated heparin (UFH) could cause adverse cardiovascular events. Read More

    Binding and Release between Polymeric Carrier and Protein Drug: pH Mediated Interplay of Coulomb forces, Hydrogen Bonding, van der Waals Interactions and Entropy.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    The accelerating search for new types of drugs and delivery strategies poses the challenge to understand the mechanism of delivery. To this end, a detailed atomistic picture of binding between the drug and the carrier is quintessential. While many studies focus on the electrostatics of drug-vector interactions, it has also been pointed out that entropic factors relating to water and counter ions can play an important role. Read More

    Influence of Size and Shape on the Biodistribution of Nanoparticles Prepared by Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly (PISA).
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is a facile one-pot synthetic technique for preparing polymeric nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes for application in a variety of fields including nanomedicine. However, the in vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles obtained by PISA still remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we report the synthesis, cytotoxicity and biodistribution in an in vivo tumour bearing mouse model of polystyrene micelles with various sizes and polystyrene filomicelles with different lengths prepared by PISA. Read More

    Supramolecular Copolymerization of Short Peptides and Polyoxometalates: toward the Fabrication of Underwater Adhesives.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    National Analytical Research Center of Electrochemistry and Spectroscopy, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, China.
    Peptide assembly has reached exquisite levels of efficiency in the creation of bioactive materials. However, we have not yet been able to take what we have learned from peptide assembly to develop a general strategy for the fabrication of biomimetic underwater adhesives, which retain significant advantages as medical glue for clinical treatment. Herein we report a simple approach to prepare peptide-based adhesives through the supramolecular polymerization of cationic peptides drove by polyoxometalates (PMs). Read More

    Hydrogelation of a Naphthalene Diimide Appended Peptide Amphiphile and Its Application in Cell Imaging and Intracellular pH Sensing.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati , Guwahati, Assam 781039, India.
    This study reports the self-assembly and application of a naphthalene diimide (NDI)-appended peptide amphiphile (PA). H-bonding among the peptide moiety in conjunction with π-stacking between NDI and hydrophobic interactions within the alkyl chain are the major driving forces behind the stepwise aggregation of the PA to form hydrogels. The PA produced efficient self-assemblies in water, forming a nanofibrous network that further formed a self-supportive hydrogel. Read More

    Reduction-Responsive Polypeptide Micelles for Intracellular Delivery of Antineoplastic Agent.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Changchun 130022, People's Republic of China.
    Reduction-responsive methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(S-tert-butylmercapto-L-cysteine) copolymers (i.e., mPEG113-b-PBMLC4 and mPEG113-b-PBMLC9) were facilely synthesized through primary amino-initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of disulfide-containing N-carboxyanhydride monomer. Read More

    Three-Dimensional Electroconductive Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels Incorporated with Carbon Nanotubes and Polypyrrole by Catechol-Mediated Dispersion Enhance Neurogenesis of Human Neural Stem Cells.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Electrically conductive hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels incorporated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and/or polypyrrole (PPy) were developed to promote differentiation of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs). The CNT and PPy nanocomposites, which do not easily disperse in aqueous phases, dispersed well and were efficiently incorporated into catechol-functionalized HA (HA-CA) hydrogels by the oxidative catechol chemistry used for hydrogel crosslinking. The prepared electroconductive HA hydrogels provided dynamic, electrically conductive three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environments that were biocompatible with hNSPCs. Read More

    One-Step Production of Amphiphilic Nanofibrillated Cellulose Using a Cellulose-Producing Bacterium.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University , N13W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan.
    Nanofibrillated bacterial cellulose (NFBC) is produced by culturing a cellulose-producing bacterium (Gluconacetobacter intermedius NEDO-01) with rotation or agitation in medium supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Despite a high yield and dispersibility in water, the product immediately aggregates in organic solvents. To broaden its applicability, we prepared amphiphilic NFBC by culturing strain NEDO-01 in medium supplemented with hydroxyethylcellulose or hydroxypropylcellulose instead of CMC. Read More

    Diffusion-Controllable Biomineralization Conducted In Situ in Hydrogels Based on Reversibly Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycidol.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences , ul. Sienkiewicza 112, 90-363 Lodz, Poland.
    We present biocompatible hydrogel systems suitable for biomineralization processes based on hyperbranched polyglycidol cross-linked with acrylamide copolymer bearing carbonyl-coordinated boronic acid. At neutral pH, diol functional groups of HbPGL react with boronic acid of polyacrylamide to generate 3D network in water by the formation of boronic ester cross-links. The dynamic associative/dissociative characteristics of the cross-links makes the network reversible. Read More

    Modulating Supramolecular Peptide Hydrogel Viscoelasticity Using Biomolecular Recognition.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    University of Rochester , Department of Chemistry, Rochester, New York 14627, United States.
    Self-assembled peptide-based hydrogels are emerging materials that have been exploited for wound healing, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and other applications. In comparison to synthetic polymer hydrogels, supramolecular peptide-based gels have advantages in biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of synthesis and modification. Modification of the emergent viscoelasticity of peptide hydrogels in a stimulus responsive fashion is a longstanding goal in the development of next-generation materials. Read More

    Folate-Targeted Dendrimers Selectively Accumulate at Sites of Inflammation in Mouse Models of Ulcerative Colitis and Atherosclerosis.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Institute for Drug Discovery, Purdue University , West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.
    Folate-receptor-positive activated macrophages are critical for the development and maintenance of many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previously, small-molecule folate-targeted conjugates were found to specifically bind to these activated macrophages in vitro and selectively accumulate at sites of inflammation in vivo. While these small-molecule conjugates have shown promise, the use of a folate-targeted, higher cargo capacity nanovehicle may prove superior in delivering imaging or therapeutic agents in vivo. Read More

    Degradable Adhesives for Surgery and Tissue Engineering.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Polymer Science and ‡Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron , Akron, Ohio 44325, United States.
    This review highlights the research on degradable polymeric tissue adhesives for surgery and tissue engineering. Included are a comprehensive listing of specific uses, advantages, and disadvantages of different adhesive groups. A critical evaluation of challenges affecting the development of next generation materials is also discussed, and insights into the outlook of the field are explored. Read More

    Soft Substrates Containing Hyaluronan Mimic the Effects of Increased Stiffness on Morphology, Motility, and Proliferation of Glioma Cells.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania , 3340 Smith Walk, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    Unlike many other cancer cells that grow in tumors characterized by an abnormally stiff collagen-enriched stroma, glioma cells proliferate and migrate in the much softer environment of the brain, which generally lacks the filamentous protein matrix characteristic of breast, liver, colorectal, and other types of cancer. Glial cell-derived tumors and the cells derived from them are highly heterogeneous and variable in their mechanical properties, their response to treatments, and their properties in vitro. Some glioma samples are stiffer than normal brain when measured ex vivo, but even those that are soft in vitro stiffen after deformation by pressure gradients that arise in the tumor environment in vivo. Read More

    Reversible Dimerization of Polymeric Amphiphiles Acts as a Molecular Switch of Enzymatic Degradability.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University , Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Enzyme-responsive polymeric micelles have great potential as drug delivery systems due to the high selectivity and overexpression of disease-associated enzymes, which could be utilized to trigger the release of active drugs only at the target site. We previously demonstrated that enzymatic degradation rates of amphiphilic PEG-dendron hybrids could be precisely tuned by gradually increasing the hydrophobic to hydrophilic ratio. However, with the increase in hydrophobicity, the micelles rapidly became too stable and could not be degraded, as often encountered for many other amphiphilic assemblies. Read More

    Combination of Poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] and Poly(β-amino ester) Results in a Strong and Synergistic Transfection Activity.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra , 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.
    This work reports an innovative and very effective gene delivery nanosystem, based on the combination of poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and poly(β-amino ester) (PβAE) homopolymers, that has the capacity to efficiently deliver genetic material into target cells, even in the presence of serum. The best formulation, prepared with the combination PDMAEMA/4PβAE at the 25/1 nitrogen/phosphate (N/P) ratio, presented a 700-fold and 220-fold higher transfection activity than that obtained with branched polyethylenimine (PEI)-based polyplexes and block copolymer-based polyplexes, respectively. This new nanocarrier revealed high transgene expression in different human cells, including hard-to-transfect normal human astrocytes. Read More

    Modification of Poly(propylene fumarate)-Bioglass Composites with Peptide Conjugates to Enhance Bioactivity.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Polymer Science, The University of Akron , Akron, Ohio 44325, United States.
    Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) has been highlighted as one of the most promising materials for bone regeneration. Despite the promising advantages of using polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications, their inherent lack of bioactivity has limited their clinical application. In this study, PPF was successfully functionalized with Bioglass and a novel catechol-bearing peptide bioconjugate containing bioactive short peptide sequences of basic fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and osteogenic growth peptide. Read More

    Cyclic Dipeptide-Based Ambidextrous Supergelators: Minimalistic Rational Design, Structure-Gelation Studies, and In Situ Hydrogelation.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) , Jakkur, Bengaluru-560064, Karnataka, India.
    Ambidextrous supergelators are developed through structure-gelation screening of rationally designed cyclic dipeptides (CDPs). The organo- and hydrogels of CDPs were thoroughly characterized by their minimal gelation concentration (MGC) for organic and aqueous solvents, thermal stability (Tg), and viscoelastic properties. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding, the major driving force for gelation was evaluated using temperature-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Read More

    Core-Shell Fibers Electrospun from Phase-Separated Blend Solutions: Fiber Formation Mechanism and Unique Energy Dissipation for Synergistic Fiber Toughness.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 30;18(9):2906-2917. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University , Tainan 701, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Through single-tube electrospinning, the biodegradable core-shell fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) were obtained from blend solutions with different compositions at a total polymer concentration of 7 wt %. Regardless whether PHB is the major or minor component (PHB/PDLLA = 90/10, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 wt. ratio), these phase-separated solutions all yielded core-shell fibers with PHB as core and PDLLA as shell. Read More

    Tunicate-Inspired Gallol Polymers for Underwater Adhesive: A Comparative Study of Catechol and Gallol.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 30;18(9):2959-2966. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo , 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan.
    Man-made glues often fail to stick in wet environments because of hydration-induced softening and dissolution. The wound healing process of a tunicate inspired the synthesis of gallol-functionalized copolymers as underwater adhesive. Copolymers bearing three types of phenolic groups, namely, phenol, catechol, and gallol, were synthesized via the methoxymethyl protection/deprotection route. Read More

    Tuning and Predicting Mesh Size and Protein Release from Step Growth Hydrogels.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware , 150 Academy Street, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States.
    Hydrogel-based depots are of growing interest for release of biopharmaceuticals; however, a priori selection of hydrogel compositions that will retain proteins of interest and provide desired release profiles remains elusive. Toward addressing this, in this work, we have established a new tool for the facile assessment of protein release from hydrogels and applied it to evaluate the effectiveness of mesh size estimations on predicting protein retention or release. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel depots were formed by photoinitiated step growth polymerization of four-arm PEG functionalized with norbornene (PEG-norbornene, 4% w/w to 20% w/w, Mn ∼ 5 to 20 kDa) and different dithiol cross-linkers (PEG Mn ∼ 1. Read More

    Family of Bioactive Heparin-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Positive Contrast in Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Specific Biomedical Applications.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    UMR CNRS 7266 LIENSs, Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé environnement (AMES), University of La Rochelle , La Rochelle, France.
    Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are well-known for their anticoagulant properties. There is also currently a growing interest in using LMWH in targeted cancer therapy. In particular, several types inhibit heparanase, a key enzyme overexpressed in the tumor microenvironment that promotes angiogenesis progression and metastasis spreading. Read More

    Cross-Linkable Gelatins with Superior Mechanical Properties Through Carboxylic Acid Modification: Increasing the Two-Photon Polymerization Potential.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Polymer Chemistry & Biomaterials Group, Centre of Macromolecular Chemistry (CMaC), Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University , Krijgslaan 281, S4-Bis, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    The present work reports on the development of photo-cross-linkable gelatins sufficiently versatile to overcome current biopolymer two-photon polymerization (2PP) processing limitations. To this end, both the primary amines as well as the carboxylic acids of gelatin type B were functionalized with photo-cross-linkable moieties (up to 1 mmol/g) resulting in superior and tunable mechanical properties (G' from 5000 to 147000 Pa) enabling efficient 2PP processing. The materials were characterized in depth prior to and after photoinduced cross-linking using fully functionalized gelatin-methacrylamide (gel-MOD) as a benchmark to assess the effect of functionalization on the protein properties, cross-linking efficiency, and mechanical properties. Read More

    High Density Glycopolymers Functionalized Perylene Diimide Nanoparticles for Tumor-Targeted Photoacoustic Imaging and Enhanced Photothermal Therapy.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications , 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023, People's Republic of China.
    Near-infrared (NIR) absorbing nanoagents with functions of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and photothermal therapy (PTT) have received great attention for cancer therapy. However, endowing them with multifunctions, especially targeting ability, for enhancing in vivo PAI/PTT generally suffers from the problems of synthetic complexity and low surface density of function groups. We herein report high density glycopolymers coated perylenediimide nanoparticles (PLAC-PDI NPs), self-assembled by poly(lactose)-modified perylenediimide (PLAC-PDI), as tumor-targeted PAI/PTT nanoagents. Read More

    Calcium-Triggered Pulsatile Delivery of Parathyroid Hormone from Microbeads for Osteoporosis Treatment.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    WCSL, Department of New Drug Development, Inha University College of Medicine , B-308, Chungsuk Bldg, 366, Seohae-Daero, Jung-Gu, Incheon 22332, Republic of Korea.
    Recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (rhPTH 1-34) is the most potent anabolic drug recommended for patients with osteoporosis who do not respond to conventional treatment. However, subcutaneous intermittent injection is the only effective regimen due to its unusual action of mechanism. This regimen is inconvenient and is a big hurdle in clinical applications. Read More

    Single-Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization Platform to Practice, Develop, and Invent.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Roy & Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323, United States.
    The most fundamental aspects of single-electron transfer (SET) principles are presented. They are discussed according to different definitions used by expert practitioners and are applied to SET living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) according to the definition of the division of organic chemistry of IUPAC that relies on principles elaborated by Taube, Eberson, Chanon, and Kochi. Additional definitions are also discussed to help clarify for the nonexpert contradictory literature reports. Read More

    Dual Function Injectable Hydrogel for Controlled Release of Antibiotic and Local Antibacterial Therapy.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research , Jakkur, Bengaluru 560064, India.
    We present vancomycin-loaded dual-function injectable hydrogel that delivers antibiotic locally suitable for treatment of infections in avascular or necrotic tissues. The syringe-deliverable gels were developed using polydextran aldehyde and an inherently antibacterial polymer N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride along with vancomycin. The antibiotic was primarily encapsulated via reversible imine bonds formed between vancomycin and polydextran aldehyde in the hydrogel which allowed sustained release of vancomycin over an extended period of time in a pH-dependent manner. Read More

    Glycosidase Inhibition by Multivalent Presentation of Heparan Sulfate Saccharides on Bottlebrush Polymers.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa , Iowa City, Iowa 52242, United States.
    We report herein the first-time exploration of the attachment of well-defined saccharide units onto a synthetic polymer backbone for the inhibition of a glycosidase. More specifically, glycopolymers endowed with heparan sulfate (HS) disaccharides were established to inhibit the glycosidase, heparanase, with an IC50 value in the low nanomolar range (1.05 ± 0. Read More

    Cellulose-Organic Montmorillonite Nanocomposites as Biomacromolecular Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Lund University , Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    The aim of this study was to develop simple cellulose nanocomposites that can interfere with the quorum-sensing (QS)-regulated physiological process of bacteria, which will provide a sustainable and inexpensive solution to the serious challenges caused by bacterial infections in various products like food packaging or biomedical materials. Three cellulose nanocomposites with 1-5 w% octadecylamine-modified montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) were prepared by regeneration of cellulose from ionic liquid solutions in the presence of ODA-MMT suspension. Structural characterization of the nanocomposites showed that the ODA-MMT can be exfoliated or intercalated, depending on the load level of the nanofiller. Read More

    Supramolecular Peptide Nanofiber Morphology Affects Mechanotransduction of Stem Cells.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago , Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States.
    Chirality and morphology are essential factors for protein function and interactions with other biomacromolecules. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are also similar to other proteins in this sense; however, the complexity of the natural ECM makes it difficult to study these factors at the cellular level. The synthetic peptide nanomaterials harbor great promise in mimicking specific ECM molecules as model systems. Read More

    Porous Stimuli-Responsive Self-Folding Electrospun Mats for 4D Biofabrication.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    University of Bayreuth , 95447 Bayreuth, Germany.
    We report fabrication and characterization of electrospun, porous multi-layer scaffolds based-on thermo-responsive polymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). We found that the electrospun mats fold into various 3D structures in an aqueous environment at different temperatures. We could determine the mechanism behind different folding behaviors under different conditions by consideration of the properties of the individual polymers. Read More

    Development of a Drug Delivery System Based on Chitosan Nanoparticles for Oral Administration of Interferon-α.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology , Technion City, Haifa, Israel.
    Despite the good clinical efficacy of interferon-alpha (IFNα) to treat some types of cancer and viral infections, this biological drug is underused given its severe adverse effects and high dosing parenteral regimens. Aiming to achieve a breakthrough in therapy with IFNα, this work reports for the first time on the design and full characterization of a novel nanomedicine of IFNα-2b-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (IFN-CT NPs) for oral delivery. IFN-CT NPs produced by ionotropic gelation, encapsulating approximately 100% of the drug, showed a size of 36 ± 8 nm, zeta potential of +30 mV (dynamic light scattering), and spherical morphology (transmission electron microscopy). Read More

    Structure-Dependent Antimicrobial Theranostic Functions of Self-Assembled Short Peptide Nanoagents.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University , Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.
    Gadolinium (Gd[III])-based nanoaggregates are potential noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes with excellent spatial and temporal resolution for cancer diagnosis. Peptides conjugated with Gd(3+) can aid in supramolecular scaffolding for MRI nanoagents because of their inherent biocompatibility and degradability. We report here a strategy to tune the MR relaxivity of tumor cell-targeted nanoagents and enhance the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of nanoagents based on rationally designed antimicrobial peptide (AMP) assembly. Read More

    Glutathione-Sensitive Hyaluronic Acid-Mercaptopurine Prodrug Linked via Carbonyl Vinyl Sulfide: A Robust and CD44-Targeted Nanomedicine for Leukemia.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Biomedical Polymers Laboratory, and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University , Suzhou 215123, P. R. China.
    6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is an essential medicine used for treating leukemia in the clinics. 6-MP suffers, however, from poor water solubility, low bioavailability, and significant side effects. Here, we designed CD44-targeted glutathione-sensitive hyaluronic acid-mercaptopurine prodrug (HA-GS-MP) linked via carbonyl vinyl sulfide for safer and enhanced treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Read More

    Revealing the Cytotoxicity of Residues of Phosphazene Catalysts Used for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene oxide).
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China.
    We herein report a case study on the toxicity of residual catalyst in metal-free polymer. Eight-arm star-like poly(ethylene oxide)s were successfully synthesized via phosphazene-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide using sucrose as an octahydroxy initiator. The products were subjected to MTT assay using human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and A2780). Read More

    Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems.
    Biomacromolecules 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States.
    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19-30 mg/mL pAsp, 50-100 mM Ca(2+), Ca/P = 2). Read More

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