1,568 results match your criteria Biology open[Journal]


A fully automated deep learning pipeline for high-throughput colony segmentation and classification.

Biol Open 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland

Adenine auxotrophy is a commonly used non-selective genetic marker in yeast research. It allows investigators to easily visualize and quantify various genetic and epigenetic events by simply reading out colony color. However, manual counting of large numbers of colonies is extremely time-consuming, difficult to reproduce and possibly inaccurate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.052936DOI Listing

A gum arabic assisted sustainable drug delivery system for adult .

Biol Open 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Shanghai East Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University 6B, Shixun Bldg, 1239 Siping Road, Yangpu District, 20092 China

Large-scale compound screenings in adult flies is hampered by the lack of continuous drug delivery systems and poor solubility of numerous compounds. Here we found that gum Arabic (Acacia/Senegal gum), a widely used stabilizer, can also emulsify lipophilic compounds and profoundly increase their accessibility to target tissues in and mice. We further developed a gum Arabic-based drug delivery system, wherein the drug was grinded in gum Arabic and emulsified in liquid food fed to flies by siphoning through a U-shape glass capillary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.052241DOI Listing

Brain-encysting trematodes () decrease raphe serotonergic activity in California killifish ().

Biol Open 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway 1407, Norway

Modulation of brain serotonin (5-HT) signalling is associated with parasite-induced changes in host behaviour, potentially increasing parasite transmission to predatory final hosts. Such alterations could have substantial impact on host physiology and behaviour, as 5-HT serves multiple roles in neuroendocrine regulation. These effects however remain insufficiently understood, as parasites have been associated with both increased and decreased serotonergic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049551DOI Listing

V-ATPase subunit B plays essential roles in the molting process of the Chinese mitten crab, .

Biol Open 2020 May 29;9(5). Epub 2020 May 29.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China

Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a proton pump driven by ATP hydrolysis, and it plays an important role in numerous biological processes, such as protein degradation and synthesis, cell growth, and cell autophagy. The V-ATPase subunit B () is a conservative and regulatory subunit required for ATP hydrolysis during proton pumping. The of (), which includes an open reading frame (ORF) length of 1467 bp encoding 489 amino acids, was cloned to unveil the biological function of during the molting process of crustaceans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048926DOI Listing

LncRNA NEAT1 mediates sepsis progression by regulating Irak2 via sponging miR-370-3p.

Biol Open 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Jinan Chain Medical Laboratory Co., Ltd, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and often associated with multiple organ failure. Nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1), a member of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), was reported to be involved in the regulation of sepsis progression. However, its precise regulatory mechanism needs to be further explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049353DOI Listing

Characterization of MORN2 stability and regulatory function in LC3-associated phagocytosis in macrophages.

Biol Open 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503, Japan

Microtubule-associated protein A1/B1-light chain 3 (LC3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is a type of non-canonical autophagy that regulates phagosome maturation in macrophages. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of LAP remain largely unknown. Recently, membrane occupation and recognition nexus repeat-containing-2 (MORN2) was identified as a key component of LAP for the efficient formation of LC3-recruiting phagosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051029DOI Listing

Lizard colour plasticity tracks background seasonal changes.

Biol Open 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Societas Herpetologica Italica, Sezione Puglia, Bitritto (BA), Italy.

Environmental heterogeneity on spatial and temporal scale fosters organism's capacity to plastically alter coloration. Predation risk might favour the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colour patterns, as individuals, which change colour throughout the year, could be able to improve their fitness. Here we explored the change in dorsal pigmentation of the Italian wall lizard () along three time points (March, July, October) during the period of activity in a Mediterranean natural area in southern Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.052415DOI Listing

Endurance exercise protects aging from high-salt diet (HSD)-induced climbing capacity decline and lifespan decrease by enhancing antioxidant capacity.

Biol Open 2020 May 29;9(5). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Physical Education, Ludong University, City Yantai 264025, Shan Dong Province, China.

A high-salt diet (HSD) is a major cause of many chronic and age-related defects such as myocardial hypertrophy, locomotor impairment and mortality. Exercise training can efficiently prevent and treat many chronic and age-related diseases. However, it remains unclear whether endurance exercise can resist HSD-induced impairment of climbing capacity and longevity in aging individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.045260DOI Listing

Reissner fibre-induced urotensin signalling from cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons prevents scoliosis of the vertebrate spine.

Biol Open 2020 May 14;9(5). Epub 2020 May 14.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Proteos, 61 Biopolis Drive, Singapore 138673

Reissner fibre (RF), discovered by the 19-century German anatomist Ernst Reissner, is a filamentous structure present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). RF forms by aggregation of a glycoprotein called SCO-spondin (Sspo), but its function has remained enigmatic. Recent studies have shown that zebrafish mutants develop a curved embryonic body axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.052027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240301PMC

Bumblebees land remarkably well in red-blue greenhouse LED light conditions.

Biol Open 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Experimental Zoology Group, Wageningen University & Research, De Elst 1, 6708WD Wageningen, The Netherlands

Red-blue emitting LEDs have recently been introduced in greenhouses to optimize plant growth. However, this spectrum may negatively affect the performance of bumblebees used for pollination, because the visual system of bumblebees is more sensitive to green light than to red-blue light. We used high-speed stereoscopic videography to 3D track and compare landing manoeuvres of bumblebees in red-blue light and in regular, broad-spectrum white light. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.046730DOI Listing

RNA-seq analysis and compound screening highlight multiple signalling pathways regulating secondary cell death after acute CNS injury .

Biol Open 2020 May 4;9(5). Epub 2020 May 4.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK

Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate secondary cell death after acute central nervous system (CNS) injury is critical for the development of effective neuroprotective drugs. Previous research has shown that neurotoxic processes including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation can cause secondary cell death. Nevertheless, clinical trials targeting these processes have been largely unsuccessful, suggesting that the signalling pathways underlying secondary cell death remain incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.050260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225090PMC

A novel and cost-effective orthotopic model for the study of human breast cancer in mouse mammary gland organ culture.

Biol Open 2020 May 29;9(5). Epub 2020 May 29.

Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA

Mouse mammary organ culture (MMOC) is used to evaluate the efficacy of chemopreventive agents against the development of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and is highly correlative to carcinogenesis models. Here, we developed a new MMOC model, by introducing human breast cancer cells into the mouse mammary gland. This novel model, termed human breast cancer in MMOC (BCa-MMOC), mimics orthotopic breast cancer mouse models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051649DOI Listing

Advanced oxidation protein products change biological behaviors of rat endometrial epithelial cells by activating ERK/P38 signaling pathways.

Biol Open 2020 Jun 1;9(5). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, People's Republic of China

Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are a family of oxidized protein compounds and could induce oxidative stress and inflammatory lesion in various cells. The accumulation of AOPPs was associated with female reproductive diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), leiomyoma and endometriosis. However, the relationship between AOPPs and endometrial cells is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048876DOI Listing

DJ-1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhancing FGF9 expression in colorectal cancer.

Biol Open 2020 May 19;9(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China

Tumor metastasis is the main contributor to high recurrence and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC). In a previous study, we found that DJ-1 plays an important role in CRC metastasis, and is the main target in Ciclopirox olamine (CPX)-treated CRC. However, the mechanism underlying DJ-1-induced CRC metastasis remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051680DOI Listing

Zebrafish disease model of human RNASET2-deficient cystic leukoencephalopathy displays abnormalities in early microglia.

Biol Open 2020 May 7;9(5). Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert- Koch- Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen, Germany

Human infantile-onset RNASET2-deficient cystic leukoencephalopathy is a Mendelian mimic of cytomegalovirus brain infection with prenatally developing inflammatory brain lesions. We used an RNASET2-deficient zebrafish model to elucidate the underlying disease mechanisms. Mutant and wild-type zebrafish larvae brain development between 2 and 5 days post fertilization (dpf) was examined by confocal live imaging in fluorescent reporter lines of the major types of brain cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225086PMC

Coupled regulations of enzymatic activity and structure formation of aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald4p.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 28;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, 25/25 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Previously, we have developed an extramitochondrial assembly system, where mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS) can be removed from a given mitochondrial enzyme, which could be used to characterize the regulatory factors involved in enzyme assembly/disassembly Here, we demonstrate that addition of exogenous acetaldehyde can quickly induce the supramolecular assembly of MTS-deleted aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald4p in yeast cytoplasm. Also, by using PCR-based modification of the yeast genome, cytoplasmically targeted Ald4p cannot polymerize into long filaments when key functional amino acid residues are substituted, as shown by N192D, S269A, E290K and C324A mutations. This study has confirmed that extramitochondrial assembly could be a powerful external system for studying mitochondrial enzyme assembly, and its regulatory factors outside the mitochondria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197708PMC

A long lost key opens an ancient lock: Myb causes a synthetic multivulval phenotype in nematodes.

Biol Open 2020 May 7;9(5). Epub 2020 May 7.

Departments of Pathology, Genetics, and Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324, USA

The five-protein MuvB core complex is highly conserved in animals. This nuclear complex interacts with RB-family tumor suppressor proteins and E2F-DP transcription factors to form DREAM complexes that repress genes that regulate cell cycle progression and cell fate. The MuvB core complex also interacts with Myb family oncoproteins to form the Myb-MuvB complexes that activate many of the same genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225089PMC

Starvation causes female-to-male sex reversal through lipid metabolism in the teleost fish, medaka ().

Biol Open 2020 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan

The teleost fish, medaka (), employs the XX/XY genetic sex determination system. We show here that the phenotypic sex of medaka is affected by changes in lipid metabolism. Medaka larvae subjected to 5 days of starvation underwent female-to-male sex reversal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.050054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132775PMC

News from Biology Open in 2020.

Authors:
Rachel Hackett

Biol Open 2020 Apr 3;9(3). Epub 2020 Apr 3.

The Company of Biologists, Bidder Building, Station Road, Cambridge CB24 9LF, UK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132815PMC

Evolutionary insights in Amazonian turtles (Testudines, Podocnemididae): co-location of 5S rDNA and U2 snRNA and wide distribution of Tc1/Mariner.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 28;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Centro de Estudos Avançados da Biodiversidade, Cytogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

Eukaryotic genomes exhibit substantial accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. These sequences can participate in chromosomal reorganization events and undergo molecular cooption to interfere with the function and evolution of genomes. In turtles, repetitive DNA sequences appear to be accumulated at probable break points and may participate in events such as non-homologous recombination and chromosomal rearrangements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197720PMC

Overexpression of long non-coding RNA SBF2-AS1 promotes cell progression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by repressing miR-494 to up-regulate PFN2 expression.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Oncology Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Surgical, Huangshi Central Hospital (Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Polytechnic University), Edong Healthcare Group, Huangshi, Hubei, China

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an intractable esophageal cancer caused by smoking, alcohol consumption and nutritional deficiencies. Recently, long non-coding RNA SET-binding factor 2 antisense RNA 1 (SBF2-AS1) was validated as an oncogene in multiple cancers. However, the mechanism of SBF2-AS1 in ESCC progression is poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048793DOI Listing

Abnormal expression of GABA receptor subunits and hypomotility upon loss of in zebrafish.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA

We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to determine the genetic etiology of a patient with a multi-system disorder characterized by a seizure phenotype. WES identified a heterozygous missense mutation in the gene (c.875C>T). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.051367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197724PMC

Neuronal upregulation of Prospero protein is driven by alternative mRNA polyadenylation and Syncrip-mediated mRNA stabilisation.

Biol Open 2020 May 4;9(5). Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Biochemistry, The University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QU, UK

During and vertebrate brain development, the conserved transcription factor Prospero/Prox1 is an important regulator of the transition between proliferation and differentiation. Prospero level is low in neural stem cells and their immediate progeny, but is upregulated in larval neurons and it is unknown how this process is controlled. Here, we use single molecule fluorescent hybridisation to show that larval neurons selectively transcribe a long mRNA isoform containing a 15 kb 3' untranslated region, which is bound in the brain by the conserved RNA-binding protein Syncrip/hnRNPQ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225087PMC

Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission regulates calcium and F-actin dynamics during wound healing.

Biol Open 2020 May 3;9(5). Epub 2020 May 3.

CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Center, NOVA Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal

Mitochondria adapt to cellular needs by changes in morphology through fusion and fission events, referred to as mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial function and morphology are intimately connected and the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics is linked to several human diseases. In this work, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in wound healing in the embryonic epidermis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225088PMC

Nucleolar stress in neuroblasts, a model for human ribosomopathies.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA

Different stem cells or progenitor cells display variable threshold requirements for functional ribosomes. This is particularly true for several human ribosomopathies in which select embryonic neural crest cells or adult bone marrow stem cells, but not others, show lethality due to failures in ribosome biogenesis or function (now known as nucleolar stress). To determine if various neuroblasts display differential sensitivities to nucleolar stress, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt the gene that encodes two splice variant ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.046565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197718PMC

A topological analysis of difference topology experiments of condensin with topoisomerase II.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 3;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA

An experimental technique called difference topology combined with the mathematics of tangle analysis has been used to unveil the structure of DNA bound by the Mu transpososome. However, difference topology experiments can be difficult and time consuming. We discuss a modification that greatly simplifies this experimental technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132813PMC

Single cell force profiling of human myofibroblasts reveals a biophysical spectrum of cell states.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 24;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FY, UK

Mechanical force is a fundamental regulator of cell phenotype. Myofibroblasts are central mediators of fibrosis, a major unmet clinical need characterised by the deposition of excessive matrix proteins. Traction forces of myofibroblasts play a key role in remodelling the matrix and modulate the activities of embedded stromal cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104857PMC

MACF1 promotes preosteoblast migration by mediating focal adhesion turnover through EB1.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 24;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Laboratory for Bone Metabolism, Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China

Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) is a widely expressed cytoskeletal linker and plays an essential role in various cells' functions by mediating cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. However, the role of MACF1 on preosteoblast migration is not clear. Here, by using MACF1 knockdown and overexpressed MC3T3-E1 cells, we found MACF1 positively regulated preosteoblast migration induced by cell polarization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104863PMC

Methylated at promoter regions induces asthma occurrence via the PI3K/Akt/NFκB-mediated inflammation in IUGR mice.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 28;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China

Infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) have a high risk of developing bronchial asthma in childhood, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to disclose the role of vascular non-inflammatory molecule 1 (vannin-1, encoded by the gene) and its downstream signaling in IUGR asthmatic mice induced by ovalbumin. Significant histological alterations and an increase of vannin-1 expression were revealed in IUGR asthmatic mice, accompanied by elevated methylation of Vnn1 promoter regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197710PMC

The transcription factor Spalt and human homologue SALL4 induce cell invasion via the dMyc-JNK pathway in .

Biol Open 2020 Mar 24;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Entomology and MOA Key Laboratory for Monitory and Green Control of Crop Pest, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China

Cancer cell metastasis is a leading cause of mortality in cancer patients. Therefore, revealing the molecular mechanism of cancer cell invasion is of great significance for the treatment of cancer. In human patients, the hyperactivity of transcription factor Spalt-like 4 (SALL4) is sufficient to induce malignant tumorigenesis and metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104861PMC

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enhances formation of the blood-clot lysis protein plasmin.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 24;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Molecular Helminthology Laboratory, Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

Schistosomes are intravascular blood flukes that cause the parasitic disease schistosomiasis. In agreement with (Sm) proteomic analysis, we show here that the normally intracellular glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is also found at the parasite surface; live worms from all intravascular life stages display GAPDH activity. Suppressing GAPDH gene expression using RNA interference significantly lowers this live worm surface activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.050385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104858PMC

Nanomorphological and mechanical reconstruction of mesenchymal stem cells during early apoptosis detected by atomic force microscopy.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 30;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Stomatology of State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou 730030, China.

Stem cell apoptosis exists widely in embryonic development, tissue regeneration, repair, aging and pathophysiology of disease. The molecular mechanism of stem cell apoptosis has been extensively investigated. However, alterations in biomechanics and nanomorphology have rarely been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132806PMC

Suppression of store-operated calcium entry causes dilated cardiomyopathy of the heart.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA

Store-operated Ca entry (SOCE) is an essential Ca signaling mechanism present in most animal cells. SOCE refers to Ca influx that is activated by depletion of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (S/ER) Ca stores. The main components of SOCE are STIM and Orai. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075072PMC

Loss of cerebellar function selectively affects intrinsic rhythmicity of eupneic breathing.

Biol Open 2020 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA

Respiration is controlled by central pattern generating circuits in the brain stem, whose activity can be modulated by inputs from other brain areas to adapt respiration to autonomic and behavioral demands. The cerebellum is known to be part of the neuronal circuitry activated during respiratory challenges, such as hunger for air, but has not been found to be involved in the control of spontaneous, unobstructed breathing (eupnea). Here we applied a measure of intrinsic rhythmicity, the CV2, which evaluates the similarity of subsequent intervals and is thus sensitive to changes in rhythmicity at the temporal resolution of individual respiratory intervals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197709PMC

A new rat model of treatment-naive quiescent choroidal neovascularization induced by human VEGF165 overexpression.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 21. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Center for Ophthalmology, Division of experimental vitreoretinal surgery, Tuebingen, Germany

VEGF is a crucial stimulator for choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Our aim was to develop a reproducible and valid treatment-naive quiescent CNV (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048736DOI Listing
February 2020

Long-term sucrose solution consumption causes metabolic alterations and affects hepatic oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 28;9(3). Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Biology, Biological Science Center, Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná - UENP, Luiz Meneghel Campus, Bandeirantes, 8630-000 Paraná, Brazil

As the number of overweight and obese people has risen in recent years, there has been a parallel increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The consumption of artificially sweetened beverages contributes to these epidemics. This study investigated the long-term effects of ingestion of a 40% sucrose solution on serum and hepatic parameters in male Wistar rats (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.047282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055397PMC
February 2020

TRBP-Dicer interaction may enhance HIV-1 TAR RNA translation via TAR RNA processing, repressing host-cell apoptosis.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 25;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

The transactivating response (TAR) RNA-binding protein (TRBP) has been identified as a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein, which associates with a stem-loop region known as the TAR element in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). However, TRBP is also known to be an enhancer of RNA silencing, interacting with Dicer, an enzyme that belongs to the RNase III family. Dicer cleaves long dsRNA into small dsRNA fragments called small interfering RNA or microRNA (miRNA) to mediate RNA silencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.050435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055394PMC
February 2020

Heart rate and cardiac response to exercise during voluntary dives in captive sea turtles (Cheloniidae).

Biol Open 2020 Feb 25;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Marine Bioscience, Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan.

In chelonids, oxygen is primarily stored in the lungs during a dive. Therefore, management of blood oxygen transportation to peripheral tissues by cardiovascular adjustments during submergence is crucial to maximize their dive duration, and consequently, the time spent for ecological activities such as foraging. However, the cardiac response to exercise has rarely been examined in sea turtles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055368PMC
February 2020

Tubulin-binding cofactor E-like (TBCEL), the protein product of the gene, is required in the germline for the regulation of inter-flagellar microtubule dynamics during spermatid individualization.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 26;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Mathematics, College of Mt St Vincent, Bronx, NY 10471, USA.

Individual sperm cells are resolved from a syncytium during late step of spermiogenesis known as individualization, which is accomplished by an Individualization Complex (IC) composed of 64 investment cones. encodes Tubulin-binding cofactor E-like (TBCEL), suggesting a role for microtubule dynamics in individualization. Indeed, a population of ∼100 cytoplasmic microtubules fails to disappear in mutant testes during spermatogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055396PMC
February 2020

MicroRNA-96-5p promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT of oral carcinoma cells by directly targeting FOXF2.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Stomatology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China

Recently, microRNA-96-5p (miR-96-5p) has been reported to function as both a tumor suppressor and oncogene in several cancer types, including gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer and lung cancer. However, the biological function of miR-96-5p and its precise mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have not been well clarified. The aim of this study was to study the roles of miR-96-5p/FOXF2 axis in OSCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.049478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075044PMC

Parametric generation of three-dimensional gait for robot-assisted rehabilitation.

Biol Open 2020 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Beijing Institute Traumatology & Orthopedics, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, China.

For robot-assisted rehabilitation and assessment of patients with motor dysfunction, the parametric generation of their normal gait as the input for the robot is essential to match with the features of the patient to a greater extent. In addition, the gait needs to be in three-dimensional space, which meets the physiological structure of the human better, rather than only on a sagittal plane. Thus, a method for the parametric generation of three-dimensional gait based on the influence of the motion parameters and structure parameters is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.047332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063668PMC

Hormones as adaptive control systems in juvenile fish.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 17;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 17.

University of Bergen, Department of Biological Sciences, Postboks 7803, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.

Growth is an important theme in biology. Physiologists often relate growth rates to hormonal control of essential processes. Ecologists often study growth as a function of gradients or combinations of environmental factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.046144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044463PMC
February 2020

The absence of SOX2 in the anterior foregut alters the esophagus into trachea and bronchi in both epithelial and mesenchymal components.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 7;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Institutes for Protein Dynamics and Comprehensive Research, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan

In the anterior foregut (AFG) of mouse embryos, the transcription factor SOX2 is expressed in the epithelia of the esophagus and proximal branches of respiratory organs comprising the trachea and bronchi, whereas NKX2.1 is expressed only in the epithelia of respiratory organs. Previous studies using hypomorphic alleles have indicated that reduced SOX2 expression causes the esophageal epithelium to display some respiratory organ characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044460PMC
February 2020

Whole-genome fingerprint of the DNA methylome during chemically induced differentiation of the human AML cell line HL-60/S4.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 17;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Epigenomic regulation plays a vital role in cell differentiation. The leukemic HL-60/S4 [human myeloid leukemic cell line HL-60/S4 (ATCC CRL-3306)] promyelocytic cell can be easily differentiated from its undifferentiated promyelocyte state into neutrophil- and macrophage-like cell states. In this study, we present the underlying genome and epigenome architecture of HL-60/S4 through its differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.044222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044446PMC
February 2020

is required for axial elongation and segmentation in vertebrate embryos.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 11;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Cancer Research UK Developmental Genetics Laboratory, CRUK London Research Institute

During vertebrate embryonic development, the formation of axial structures is driven by a population of stem-like cells that reside in a region of the tailbud called the chordoneural hinge (CNH). We have compared the mouse CNH transcriptome with those of surrounding tissues and shown that the CNH and tailbud mesoderm are transcriptionally similar, and distinct from the presomitic mesoderm. Amongst CNH-enriched genes are several that are required for axial elongation, including , , and , and androgen/oestrogen receptor nuclear signalling components such as We show that the pattern and duration of tailbud expression is conserved in mouse, zebrafish and chicken embryos, and that is required for axial elongation and somitogenesis in zebrafish embryos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.047290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044451PMC
February 2020

Polyphyllin II inhibits liver cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion through downregulated cofilin activity and the AKT/NF-κB pathway.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 7;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Experimental Animal Disease Model, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China

The morbidity and mortality of primary liver cancer is one of the highest amongst all cancers. Deficiency of effective treatment and characteristics of cancer metastasis are believed to be responsible for this situation, thus a great demand is required for new agent development. Polyphyllin II (PP2), an important steroidal saponin extracted from Rhizoma Paris, has emerged as a potential anti-cancer agent, but the effects of PP2 in liver cancers and its underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.046854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044461PMC
February 2020

FAM172A inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer via ERK-MAPK signaling.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 7;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Intervention Therapy and Vascular Surgery, The Central Hospital of Huludao City, Huludao City, Liaoning Province, 125399 China.

FAM172A, as a newly discovered gene, is little known in cancer development, especially in pancreatic cancer (PC). We investigated the potential role and molecular mechanism of FAM172A in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both human clinical samples and PC cells. FAM172A was downregulated in human PC tissues compared with that in non-cancerous pancreas cells by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.048462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044457PMC
February 2020

Loss of Crb2b-lf leads to anterior segment defects in old zebrafish.

Biol Open 2020 Feb 11;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany

Defects in the retina or the anterior segment of the eye lead to compromised vision and affect millions of people. Understanding how these ocular structures develop and are maintained is therefore of paramount importance. The maintenance of proper vision depends, among other factors, on the function of genes controlling apico-basal polarity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.047555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044448PMC
February 2020