1,355 results match your criteria Biology open[Journal]


Higher incubation temperatures produce long-lasting upward shifts in cold tolerance, but not heat tolerance, of hatchling geckos.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 18;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, New South Wales 2007, Australia

Heatwaves are a regular occurrence in Australia, and are predicted to increase in intensity and duration in the future. These changes may elevate temperatures inside lizard nests, shortening the incubation period, so that hatchlings are more likely to emerge during heatwaves. Potentially, developmental plasticity or heat hardening could buffer hatchings from future warming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.042564DOI Listing

Hedgehog signaling regulates osteoblast differentiation in zebrafish larvae through modulation of autophagy.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Impaired osteoblast differentiation may result in bone metabolic disease such as osteoporosis. It was reported recently that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and autophagy are two important regulators of bone differentiation. In order to further dissect their relationship in bone development, we used a zebrafish larvae model to investigate how disruption of one of these signaling affects the function of another and impacts osteoblast differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040840DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Microenvironmental stimuli induce different macrophage polarizations in experimental models of emphysema.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Therapeutics (LIM-20), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Macrophages play a pivotal role in the development of emphysema and depending on the microenvironment stimuli can be polarized into M1- or M2-like macrophage phenotypes. To compare macrophage polarizations in cigarette smoke (CS)- and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema models. C57BL/6 mice were subdivided into four experimental groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040808DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Dominant-negative inhibition of canonical Notch signaling in trophoblast cells does not disrupt placenta formation.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 16;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ 07103, USA

Proper development and function of the mammalian placenta requires interactions between embryo-derived trophoblasts and uterine endothelial cells to form mosaic vessels that facilitate blood flow to a developing conceptus. Notch signaling utilizes a cell-cell contact dependent mechanism to drive cell behaviors, such as differentiation and invasion. In mice, is needed for proper placentation and embryo survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037721DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Quantitative analysis of the ThrbCRM1-centered gene regulatory network.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, The City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, NY, 10031, USA

Enhancer activity is determined by both the activity and occupancy of transcription factors as well as the specific sequences they bind. Experimental investigation of this dynamic requires the ability to manipulate components of the system, ideally in as close to an in vivo context as possible. Here we use electroporation of plasmid reporters to define critical parameters of a specific cis-regulatory element, ThrbCRM1, during retinal development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039115DOI Listing

Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein mediates the formation of stable multidrug resistance in human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

From the Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

To investigate the biological characteristics of acquired drug-resistant cells (AqMDRs) formed by intercellular P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transfer and whether AqMDRs can form stable drug-resistant strains. Drug-sensitive BIU-87 cells were cocultured with doxorubicin(DOX)-resistant derivative BIU-87/DOX cells in Transwell chambers for up to 96 h. The presence of P-gp in recipient cell membranes (AqMDRs) was detected by confocal microscopy, CCK-8, Western blot, and RT-PCR were used to detect resistance index (RI), P-gp expression andMDR1 mRNA expression in AqMDRs after 0, 4, 8, 16, and 20passages and frozen/resuscitated 20th generation AqMDRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.041889DOI Listing

The chromodomain helicase CHD4 regulates ERBB2 signaling pathway and autophagy in ERBB2 breast cancer cells.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 18;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132, Genova, Italy

The chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 4 (CHD4), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylases (NuRD) complex, has been identified as an oncogene that modulates proliferation and migration of breast cancers (BC). ERBB2 is an oncogenic driver in 20-30% of BC in which its overexpression leads to increased chemoresistance. Here we investigated whether CHD4 depletion affects the ERBB2 cascade and autophagy, which represents a mechanism of resistance against Trastuzumab (Tz), a therapeutic anti-ERBB2 antibody. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038323DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Physiological profile of undifferentiated bovine blastocyst-derived trophoblasts.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Trophectoderm of blastocysts mediate early events in fetal-maternal communication enabling implantation and establishment of a functional placenta. Inadequate or impaired developmental events linked to trophoblasts directly impact early embryo survival and successful implantation during a crucial period that corresponds high incidence of pregnancy losses in dairy cows. As yet, the molecular basis of bovine trophectoderm development and signaling towards initiation of implantation remains poorly understood. Read More

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http://bio.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/bio.037937
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037937DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Characterization and comparative analyses of transcriptomes of cloned and fertilized porcine pre-implantation embryos.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the only method known to rapidly reprogram differentiated cells into totipotent embryos. Most cloned embryos become arrested before implantation and the details of the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Dynamic regulation of the transcriptome is a key molecular mechanism driving early embryonic development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039917DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Distinct gene-selective roles for a network of core promoter factors in neural stem cell identity.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 4;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Basic Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA

The transcriptional mechanisms that allow neural stem cells (NSC) to balance self-renewal with differentiation are not well understood. Employing an RNAi screen we identify here NSC-TAFs, a subset of nine TATA-binding protein associated factors (TAFs), as NSC identity genes in We found that depletion of NSC-TAFs results in decreased NSC clone size, reduced proliferation, defective cell polarity and increased hypersensitivity to cell cycle perturbation, without affecting NSC survival. Integrated gene expression and genomic binding analyses revealed that NSC-TAFs function with both TBP and TRF2, and that NSC-TAF-TBP and NSC-TAF-TRF2 shared target genes encode different subsets of transcription factors and RNA-binding proteins with established or emerging roles in NSC identity and brain development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.042168DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of intracerebroventricular epinephrine microinjection on blood pressure and urinary sodium handling in gestational protein-restricted male adult rat offspring.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 1;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Fetal Programming Laboratory and Hydroelectrolyte Metabolism Laboratory, Nucleus of Medicine and Experimental Surgery, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences at State University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-894, São Paulo, Brazil

In this study, we hypothesized that blunting of the natriuresis response to intracerebroventricularly (ICV) microinjected adrenergic agonists is involved in the development of hypertension in maternal low-protein intake (LP) offspring. A stainless steel cannula was stereotaxically implanted into the right lateral ventricle (LV), then we evaluated the ICV administration of adrenergic agonists at increasing concentrations, and of α1 and α2-adrenoceptor antagonists on blood pressure and urinary sodium handling in LP offspring relative to an age-matched normal-protein intake (NP) group. We confirmed that epinephrine (Epi) microinjected into the LV of conscious NP rats leads to enhanced natriuresis followed by a reduction in arterial pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038562DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Nematicidal actions of the marigold exudate α-terthienyl: oxidative stress-inducing compound penetrates nematode hypodermis.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 16;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Environmental Biology, College of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan

α-terthienyl is an allelochemical derived from the roots of marigold ( spp.), which is used to suppress plant parasitic nematodes. We investigated the nematicidal activity of α-terthienyl against the model organism and the root-knot nematode, As reported previously, α-terthienyl action was much higher after photoactivation, but was still effective against dauer larvae and second stage juveniles, even without photoactivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038646DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Actin cytoskeleton remodeling defines a distinct cellular function for adhesion G protein-coupled receptors ADGRL/Latrophilins 1, 2 and 3.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México City, México, C.P. 07360

Latrophilins represent a subgroup of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptors family which bind to actin-associated scaffolding proteins. They are expressed in various tissues, suggesting that they might participate in biological processes that are ubiquitous. Here we focused on actin cytoskeleton dynamics to explore the role of Latrophilins in mammalian cells. Read More

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http://bio.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/bio.039826
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039826DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Transcriptomic analysis of Sf9 cells resistant to Cry1Ca toxin reveals that extracellular Ca, Mg and production of cAMP are involved in toxicity.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 18;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Université Côte d'Azur, INRA, CNRS, ISA, France

(Bt) produces pore forming toxins that have been used for pest control in agriculture for many years. However, their molecular and cellular mode of action is still unclear. While a first model - referred to as the pore forming model - is the most widely accepted scenario, a second model proposed that toxins could trigger an Mg-dependent intracellular signalling pathway leading to cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037085DOI Listing

Prostaglandin E2 promotes embryonic vascular development and maturation in zebrafish.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 18;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biology, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba R7A 6A9, Canada

Prostaglandin (PG)-E2 is essential for growth and development of vertebrates. PGE2 binds to G-coupled receptors to regulate embryonic stem cell differentiation and maintains tissue homeostasis. Overproduction of PGE2 by breast tumor cells promotes aggressive breast cancer phenotypes and tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039768DOI Listing

Jagged1 protein processing in the developing mammalian lens.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 26;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Cell Biology & Human Anatomy, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

Notch signaling regulates a multitude of cellular processes. During ocular lens development this pathway is required for lens progenitor growth, differentiation and maintenance of the transition zone. After ligand-receptor binding, the receptor proteins are processed, first by ADAM proteases, then by γ-secretase cleavage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.041095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451331PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Exosomal transfer of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells-derived miR340 attenuates endometrial fibrosis.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Medical Genetics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have potential therapeutic benefit for the treatment of endometrial diseases and injury. BMSCs interact with uterus parenchymal cells by direct contact or indirect secretion of growth factors to promote functional recovery. In this study, we found that BMSCs treatment of rats subjected to mechanical damage (MD) significantly increased microRNA 340 (miR-340) levels in the regenerated endometrium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039958DOI Listing

Mbt/PAK4 together with SRC modulates N-Cadherin adherens junctions in the developing eye.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 18;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Institute of Medical Radiation and Cell Research, University of Würzburg, Biozentrum, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany

Tissue morphogenesis is accompanied by changes of adherens junctions (AJ). During eye development, AJ reorganization includes the formation of isolated N-Cadherin AJ between photoreceptors R3/R4. Little is known about how these N-Cadherin AJ are established and maintained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451336PMC

Alteration of 28S rRNA 2'--methylation by etoposide correlates with decreased SMN phosphorylation and reduced Drosha levels.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 27;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA

The most common types of modification in human rRNA are pseudouridylation and 2'- ribose methylation. These modifications are performed by small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs) which contain a guide RNA (snoRNA) that base pairs at specific sites within the rRNA to direct the modification. rRNA modifications can vary, generating ribosome heterogeneity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.041848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451326PMC

Simultaneous expression of ClopHensor and SLC26A3 reveals the nature of endogenous oxalate transport in CHO cells.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 1;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nesbitt School of Pharmacy, Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA 18766, USA

ClopHensor, a fluorescent fusion protein, is a dual function biosensor that has been utilized as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of intracellular chloride and pH in cells. ClopHensor has traditionally been used in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy for single cell measurements. Here, we present a promising multi-well format advancement for the use of ClopHensor as a potential high-throughput method capable of measuring fluorescence signal intensity across a well of confluent cells with highly reproducible results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.041665DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The 1ALCTL and 1BLCTL isoforms of Arg/Abl2 induce fibroblast activation and extra cellular matrix remodelling differently.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 27;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

School of Medicine & Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy

The fibrotic tissue and the stroma adjacent to cancer cells are characterised by the presence of activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) which play a role in creating a supportive tissue characterised by abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. The myofibroblasts remodel this tissue through secreted molecules and modulation of their cytoskeleton and specialized contractile structures. The non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Arg (also called Abl2) has the unique ability to bind directly to the actin cytoskeleton, transducing diverse extracellular signals into cytoskeletal rearrangements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451347PMC
March 2019
2.217 Impact Factor

Sonic hedgehog expression in the postnatal brain.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 26;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, NIA/NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA

Beyond its role in patterning the neural tube during embryogenesis, additional functions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in post-embryonic and mature brains have been coming into focus. However, the question of the abundance of endogenous Shh - the ligand of the signaling pathway - and its changes over time in post-embryonic and mature brains are less well understood. Here we find that while the amounts of Shh transcript and protein in rat brains are nearly undetectable at birth, they increase continuously during postnatal development and remain at readily detectable levels in young adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451348PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Independent and combined effects of daytime heat stress and night-time recovery determine thermal performance.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 26;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Climate Change Biology Research Group, State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2, Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China

Organisms often experience adverse high temperatures during the daytime, but they may also recover or repair themselves during the night-time when temperatures are more moderate. Thermal effects of daily fluctuating temperatures may thus be divided into two opposite processes (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451327PMC

Sperm-duct gland content increases sperm velocity in the sand goby.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 27;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

Sperm performance is often tightly linked to male reproductive success. In many demersal gobiid fishes, the male attaches sperm embedded in a mucus produced by sperm-duct glands to the nest substrate before spawning takes place. Sperm are activated as the mucus and embedded gland content dissolve into the water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451343PMC

Escort cell encapsulation of germline cells is maintained by irre cell recognition module proteins.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 5;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel

Differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the ovary is induced by somatic escort cells (ECs), which extend membrane protrusions encapsulating the germline cells (GCs). Germline encapsulation requires activated epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) signaling within the ECs, following secretion of its ligands from the GCs. We show that the conserved family of irre cell recognition module (IRM) proteins is essential for GC encapsulation by ECs, with a requirement for () and () in the germline and for () and () in ECs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451344PMC

Chromogranin A regulates neuroblastoma proliferation and phenotype.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 4;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA

Neuroblastoma is a commonly encountered solid tumor in early childhood with high neuroplasticity, and differentiation therapy is hypothesized to lead to tumor mass shrinkage and/or symptom relief. CgA is a tissue specific protein restricted to the diffuse neuroendocrine system, and widely expressed in neuroblastomas. Using knockdown and knockout approaches to deplete CgA levels, we demonstrated that CgA loss inhibits SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and leads to a morphological shift with increased expression of Schwann and extracellular matrix specific molecules, and suppression of chromaffin features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.036566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451332PMC

Infective larvae of (Nematoda) accumulate trehalose and glycogen in response to starvation and temperature stress.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 21;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 3, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland.

L3 larvae infect fish and other seafood species such as squid or octopi; therefore, humans consuming raw or undercooked fish may become accidental hosts for this parasite. These larvae are induced to enter hypometabolism by cold temperatures. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose and glycogen) are instrumental for survival under environmental stress conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451339PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Serum-based inhibition of pitviper venom by eastern indigo snakes ().

Biol Open 2019 Mar 26;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Georgia Sea Turtle Center, Jekyll Island Authority, Jekyll Island, GA 31527, USA.

When organisms possess chemical defenses, their predators may eventually evolve resistance to their toxins. Eastern indigo snakes (; EIS) prey on pitvipers and are suspected to possess physiological resistance to their venom. In this study, we formally investigated this hypothesis using microassays that measured the ability of EIS blood sera to inhibit (A) hemolytic and (B) snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) activity of copperhead () venom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451346PMC

Transcriptomic analyses highlight the likely metabolic consequences of colonization of a cnidarian host by native or non-native species.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 27;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Molecular and Cell Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia

Reef-building corals and some other cnidarians form symbiotic relationships with members of the dinoflagellate family As is a highly diverse taxon, the physiological interactions between its members and their hosts are assumed to differ between associations. The presence of different symbiont types is known to affect expression levels of specific host genes, but knowledge of the effects on the transcriptome more broadly remains limited. In the present study, transcriptome profiling was conducted on the tropical corallimorpharian, following the establishment of symbiosis with either the 'homologous' symbiont (also known as ; ITS2 type C1) or 'heterologous' symbionts (predominantly , which is also known as ; ITS2 type D1a) isolated from a different corallimorpharian host (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451341PMC

The dense granule protein TgGRA3 interacts with host Golgi and dysregulates anterograde transport.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 18;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Plateforme de Protéomique et Peptides Modifiés (P3M), CNRS, Université de Lille, 59000 Lille, France

After entry into the host cell, the intracellular parasite resides within a membrane-bound compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV defines an intracellular, parasite-specific niche surrounded by host organelles, including the Golgi apparatus. The mechanism by which hijacks the host Golgi and subverts its functions remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451337PMC

Automated morphometry toolbox for analysis of microscopic model organisms using simple bright-field imaging.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 12;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China

Model organisms with compact genomes, such as yeast and , are particularly useful for understanding organism growth and life/cell cycle. Organism morphology is a critical parameter to measure in monitoring growth and stage in the life cycle. However, manual measurements are both time consuming and potentially inaccurate, due to variations among users and user fatigue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451328PMC

From polar bears to cell polarity and everything in between: 2018 in review.

Authors:
Rachel Hackett

Biol Open 2019 Feb 26;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 26.

The Company of Biologists, Bidder Building, Station Road, Cambridge CB24 9LF, UK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.042119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398460PMC
February 2019

Odd-skipped and Stripe act downstream of Notch to promote the morphogenesis of long appendicular tendons in .

Biol Open 2019 Mar 18;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

GReD Laboratory, Clermont-Auvergne University, INSERM U1103, CNRS UMR6293, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France

Multiple tissue interactions take place during the development of the limb musculoskeletal system. While appendicular myogenesis has been extensively studied, development of connective tissue associated with muscles has received less attention. In the developing leg, tendon-like connective tissue arises from clusters of epithelial cells that invaginate into the leg cavity and then elongate to form internal tube-shape structures along which muscle precursors are distributed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451353PMC

Motion characteristics of human roller skating.

Biol Open 2019 Apr 8;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

In order to achieve a high speed of skating robot based on the leg structure - with passive wheels on even ground - the motion characteristics of human roller skating are studied in this paper. Utilizing a three dimensional motion capture system, the linear and turning gait are analyzed to express the motion characteristics of human roller skating. According to the observation and analysis, the normal linear gait can be divided into four phases and normal turning can be divided into three phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037713DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Reprogramming of the cambium regulators during adventitious root development upon wounding of storage tap roots in radish ( L.).

Biol Open 2019 Mar 12;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea

Cambium contains a stem cell population that produces xylem and phloem tissues in a radial direction during the secondary growth stage. The growth of many storage roots, including in the radish, L., also depends on cambium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451342PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase is present in the mitoplasts.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 18;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.

In the Lysine-acetyltransferase Gcn5 (KAT2) is part of the SAGA complex and is responsible for histone acetylation widely or at specific lysines. In this paper we report that deletion differently affects the growth of two strains. The defective mitochondrial phenotype is related to a marked decrease in mtDNA content, which also involves the deletion of specific regions of the molecule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.041244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398455PMC
February 2019
1 Read

The signal peptide plus a cluster of positive charges in prion protein dictate chaperone-mediated Sec61 channel gating.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 5;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saarland University, 66421 Homburg, Germany

The Sec61-complex as a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel mediates protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the help of additional components. ER membrane resident Hsp40-type co-chaperone Sec63 as well as the ER lumenal Hsp70-type chaperone BiP were proposed to facilitate channel opening in a precursor-specific fashion. Here, we report on their rules of engagement in ER import of the prion protein (PrP) by addressing sixteen PrP-related variants which differ in their signal peptides and mature parts, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451349PMC

Edar is a downstream target of beta-catenin and drives collagen accumulation in the mouse prostate.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 18;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA

Beta-catenin (CTNNB1) directs ectodermal appendage spacing by activating ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) transcription, but whether CTNNB1 acts by a similar mechanism in the prostate, an endoderm-derived tissue, is unclear. Here we examined the expression, function, and CTNNB1 dependence of the EDAR pathway during prostate development. hybridization studies reveal EDAR pathway components including in the developing prostate and localize these factors to prostatic bud epithelium where CTNNB1 target genes are co-expressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451354PMC

Identification of possible hypoxia sensor for behavioral responses in a marine annelid, .

Biol Open 2019 Mar 14;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.

Hypoxia often occurs in summer and causes deleterious effects on marine benthic animals. A marine annelid, , is tolerant to hypoxia, as shown by the fact that it inhabits organically polluted areas, where severe hypoxia is often observed. To understand how this species adapts to the environment, we focused on its hypoxia sensor, and we showed that TRPAbasal was a possible contributor to hypoxia detection in To examine the involvement of TRPA1 in the response of to hypoxia, we exposed to hypoxic water with or without a TRPA1-specific inhibitor, A-967079. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451338PMC

n-3 PUFA biosynthesis by the copepod documented using fatty acid profile analysis and gene expression analysis.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 11;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Roskilde University, Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde DK-4000, Denmark.

The cyclopoid copepod (Lindberg 1940) is one of two dominant mesozooplankton species in brackish Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. Periodically low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content in seston could potentially be a limiting factor for zooplankton diversity. 's potential ability to biosynthesize n-3 PUFA was investigated through a short-term feeding experiment on four species of microalgae Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding putative fatty acid elongase () and desaturase () enzymes in on long-term diets of the PUFA-poor and the PUFA-rich The copepods exhibited high contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) (>20% of total fatty acid) even when DHA-starved for two generations, and no significant differences were found in absolute DHA content between treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398464PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Ultraviolet B-induced Otx2 expression in lens epithelial cells promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 18;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Kanazawa Medical University School of Medicine, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of eyes is a major risk factor for cataractogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood and genes that are affected by UV radiation have not been fully identified. In this study, we examined the UV-related gene regulation in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of mouse eyes and investigated the molecular mechanisms of UV-triggered cataractogenesis. Forty-one genes were significantly upregulated in LECs following UVB exposure in two independent experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.035691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398467PMC
February 2019

Mutation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (mitf) in zebrafish sensitizes for glomerulopathy.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 4;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover 30625, Germany

Different glomerular diseases that affect podocyte homeostasis can clinically present as nephrotic syndrome with massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and edema. Up to now, no drugs that specifically target the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes are on the market and model systems for library screenings to develop anti-proteinuric drugs are of high interest. We developed a standardized proteinuria model in zebrafish using puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) via treatment in the fish water to allow for further drug testing to develop anti-proteinuric drugs for the treatment of glomerular diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.040253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451330PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Sea urchin immune cells in culture: formulation of the appropriate harvesting and culture media and maintenance conditions.

Biol Open 2019 Mar 5;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare 'A. Monroy', Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy.

The sea urchin is an emergent model system for studying basic and translational immunology. Here we report a new method for the harvesting and maintenance of primary immune cells isolated from adult , a common Mediterranean sea urchin species. This optimised method uses coelomocyte culture medium, containing a high-affinity Ca chelator, as the ideal harvesting and anti-clotting vehicle and short-term culture medium (≤48 h), and artificial seawater as the master medium that maintains cell survival and physiological homeostasis over 2 weeks. Read More

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http://bio.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/bio.039289
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451355PMC
March 2019
11 Reads

The role of NF-κB and Elk-1 in the regulation of mouse ADAM17 expression.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 1;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Cell Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków 30-387, Poland

ADAM17 is a cell membrane metalloproteinase responsible for the release of ectodomains of numerous proteins from the cell surface. Although ADAM17 is often overexpressed in tumours and at sites of inflammation, little is known about the regulation of its expression. Here we investigate the role of NF-κB and Elk-1 transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways, NF-κB and ERK1/2 in ADAM17 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells stimulated with pro-inflammatory factors (TNF, IL-1β, LPS) or a phorbol ester (PMA), a well-known stimulator of ADAM17 activity. Read More

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http://bio.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/bio.039420
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398470PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Microtubule stabilizer reveals requirement of Ca-dependent conformational changes of microtubules for rapid coiling of haptonema in haptophyte algae.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 11;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 5-10-1 Shimoda, Shizuoka 415-0025, Japan

A haptonema is an elongated microtubule-based motile organelle uniquely present in haptophytes. The most notable and rapid movement of a haptonema is 'coiling', which occurs within a few milliseconds following mechanical stimulation in an unknown motor-independent mechanism. Here, we analyzed the coiling process in detail by high-speed filming and showed that haptonema coiling was initiated by left-handed twisting of the haptonema, followed by writhing to form a helix from the distal tip. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.036590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398456PMC
February 2019

Zebrafish mutations provide a model for human congenital hypothyroidism.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 22;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Cell Matrix Biology & Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

Thyroid dyshormonogenesis is a leading cause of congenital hypothyroidism, a highly prevalent but treatable condition. Thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In humans, the primary sources for ROS production during thyroid hormone synthesis are the NADPH oxidases DUOX1 and DUOX2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398463PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Mart. & Zucc. elicits vasorelaxation of rat thoracic aorta through nitric oxide and K channels dependent mechanism.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 27;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Federal University of Piauí, 64049-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil

Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) is a plant commonly found in the regions of the Brazilian cerrado, popularly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.035238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398462PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Tracking diphyodont development in miniature pigs and .

Biol Open 2019 Feb 1;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Molecular Laboratory for Gene Therapy & Tooth Regeneration, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China

Abnormalities of tooth number in humans, such as agenesis and supernumerary tooth formation, are closely related to diphyodont development. There is an increasing demand to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind diphyodont development through the use of large animal models, since they are the most similar to the mechanism of human tooth development. However, attempting to study diphyodont development in large animals remains challenging due to large tooth size, prolonged growth stage and embryo manipulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398454PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

A neurodevelopmental TUBB2B β-tubulin mutation impairs Bim1 (yeast EB1)-dependent spindle positioning.

Biol Open 2019 Jan 29;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, GIN, F-38000, Grenoble, France

Malformations of the human cerebral cortex can be caused by mutations in tubulins that associate to compose microtubules. Cerebral cortical folding relies on neuronal migration and on progenitor proliferation partly dictated by microtubule-dependent mitotic spindle positioning. A single amino acid change, F265L, in the conserved TUBB2B β-tubulin gene has been identified in patients with abnormal cortex formation. Read More

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http://bio.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/bio.038620
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.038620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361202PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Joint moments during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses.

Biol Open 2019 Feb 18;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Artificial Intelligence Research Center, National Institute of Advanced industrial Science and Technology, 135-0064 Tokyo, Japan

Knowledge of joint moments will provide greater insight into the manner in which lower-extremity amputees wearing running-specific prostheses regain running capacity and compensate for replacement of an active leg with a passive prosthetic implement. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate three-dimensional joint moments during sprinting for unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Ten sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation performed maximal sprinting at the 22 m mark while wearing running-specific prostheses. Read More

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http://bio.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/bio.039206
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.039206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398468PMC
February 2019
7 Reads