67,810 results match your criteria Biology of mood & anxiety disorders[Journal]


Assembly and Function of a Bioengineered Human Liver for Transplantation Generated Solely from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107711

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219-3110, USA; Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The availability of an autologous transplantable auxiliary liver would dramatically affect the treatment of liver disease. Assembly and function in vivo of a bioengineered human liver derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has not been previously described. By improving methods for liver decellularization, recellularization, and differentiation of different liver cellular lineages of human iPSCs in an organ-like environment, we generated functional engineered human mini livers and performed transplantation in a rat model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107711DOI Listing

Multiple Sequence Variants in STAC3 Affect Interactions with Ca1.1 and Excitation-Contraction Coupling.

Structure 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada. Electronic address:

STAC3 is a soluble protein essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Through its tandem SH3 domains, it interacts with the cytosolic II-III loop of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel. STAC3 is the target for a mutation (W284S) that causes Native American myopathy, but multiple other sequence variants have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.05.005DOI Listing

[Drosophila rDNA Genes Shape the Stable Contacts with the Tlk Gene at the Expression Area of Small RNAs and Affect on Looped Domains inside the Gene].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2020 May-Jun;54(3):445-449

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

In experiments on mouse and human cells it was demonstrated that rDNA plays an important role in epigenetic regulation of many genes. To identify and study rDNA-contacting genes in Drosophila we used the 4С (circular chromosome conformation capture) approach. We detected very stable contacts of rDNA genes within a 5-kb region inside the Tlk gene residing in X chromosome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31857/S0026898420020081DOI Listing

[Healthy Aging: Antioxidants, Uncouplers and/or Telomerase?]

Authors:
Y E Yegorov

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2020 May-Jun;54(3):355-361

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

The free radical theory of aging was proposed in 1956. Although it does not fully describe the mechanisms of aging, it is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the pathogenetic factors in aging and, in particular, in the development of pathologies associated with aging. The main source of ROS in the cell is mitochondria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31857/S0026898420030052DOI Listing
November 2019

In vitro analysis of the renin-angiotensin system and inflammatory gene transcripts in human bronchial epithelial cells after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2020 Apr-Jun;21(2):1470320320928872

Department of Haematology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Turkey.

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently identified coronavirus family member that triggers a respiratory disease similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are very similar to each other in many respects, such as structure, genetics, and pathobiology. We hypothesized that coronaviruses could affect pulmonary tissues via integration with the critical immune genes after their interaction with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) elements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470320320928872DOI Listing

Attenuation of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Binding Enhances Transduction of Human Primary Hepatocytes with AAV2.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020 Jun 13;17:1139-1154. Epub 2020 May 13.

Translational Vectorology Research Unit, Children's Medical Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Use of the prototypical adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) capsid delivered unexpectedly modest efficacy in an early liver-targeted gene therapy trial for hemophilia B. This result is consistent with subsequent data generated in chimeric mouse-human livers showing that the AAV2 capsid transduces primary human hepatocytes with low efficiency. In contrast, novel variants generated by directed evolution in the same model, such as AAV-NP59, transduce primary human hepatocytes with high efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260615PMC

Caterpillars on a phytochemical landscape: The case of alfalfa and the Melissa blue butterfly.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 21;10(10):4362-4374. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Biology Utah State University Logan UT USA.

Modern metabolomic approaches that generate more comprehensive phytochemical profiles than were previously available are providing new opportunities for understanding plant-animal interactions. Specifically, we can characterize the phytochemical landscape by asking how a larger number of individual compounds affect herbivores and how compounds covary among plants. Here we use the recent colonization of alfalfa () by the Melissa blue butterfly () to investigate the effects of indivdiual compounds and suites of covarying phytochemicals on caterpillar performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246198PMC

Detection of DNA (8-OHdG) as a toxicity bioindicator to the effects of nickel on Ni-Cr alloy prosthesis users.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 12;27(6):1643-1648. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to Ni from Ni-Cr alloys can affect the human body through oxidative stress. The present study discusses the effect of nickel from Ni-Cr alloy prostheses on the formation of DNA Adduct 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), evaluated based on creatinine and 8-OHdG concentrations in urine, determined with LC-MS/MS, for a Ni-Cr alloy user group and a never-user control group. The mean creatinine and 8-OHdG concentrations were not significantly different between the test groups, although highest levels were observed for the in the Ni-Cr user group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253878PMC

Ascofuranone suppresses invasion and F-actin cytoskeleton organization in cancer cells by inhibiting the mTOR complex 1 signaling pathway.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, 42472, Deagu, Korea.

Purpose: Ascofuranone is an antiviral antibiotic that is known to exert multiple anti-tumor effects, including cell cycle arrest, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, and inhibition of angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-metastatic effects of ascofuranone in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1)-responsive cancer cells.

Methods: The inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on cancer cell migration and invasion was assessed using scratch wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-020-00520-wDOI Listing

Protein signatures to identify the different genera within the Xanthomonadaceae family.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, 31793, USA.

The Xanthomonadaceae family comprises the genera Xanthomonas and Xylella, which include plant pathogenic species that affect economically important crops. The family also includes the plant growth-promoting bacteria Pseudomonas geniculata and Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and some other species with biotechnological, medical, and environmental relevance. Previous work identified molecular signatures that helped to understand the evolutionary placement of this family within gamma-proteobacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00304-2DOI Listing

GSTs polymorphisms are associated with epigenetic silencing of CDKN2A gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Medical Genetics Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed by incomplete combustion of organic matter is an important risk factor. Genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding PAH-metabolizing enzymes like glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1) which conjugate glutathione to PAHs for reduction of oxidative stress may affect an individual's response to PAH exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09408-6DOI Listing

Effects, interactions, and localization of Rickettsia and Wolbachia in the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius.

Microb Ecol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Biology and Environment, University of Haifa-Oranim, 36006, Tivon, Israel.

Many insect species harbor facultative microbial symbionts that affect their biology in diverse ways. Here, we studied the effects, interactions, and localization of two bacterial symbionts-Wolbachia and Rickettsia-in the parasitoid Spalangia endius. We crossed between four S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01520-xDOI Listing

Neutron scattering in photosynthesis research: recent advances and perspectives for testing crop plants.

Photosynth Res 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, POB 521, 6701, Szeged, Hungary.

The photosynthetic performance of crop plants under a variety of environmental factors and stress conditions, at the fundamental level, depends largely on the organization and structural flexibility of thylakoid membranes. These highly organized membranes accommodate virtually all protein complexes and additional compounds carrying out the light reactions of photosynthesis. Most regulatory mechanisms fine-tuning the photosynthetic functions affect the organization of thylakoid membranes at different levels of the structural complexity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-020-00763-6DOI Listing

Transcriptome Analysis of the Acid Stress Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC 7757.

Curr Microbiol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China.

The application of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) shows great potential in the anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine wastewater; therefore, it has attracted much attention. The low pH in acidic wastewater affects the growth and reducing power of SRB. To uncover the mechanism underlying the reduction efficiency of SRB under acidic conditions, in this study, transcriptomic analysis was performed with Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC 7757 under three different pH conditions (pH 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02051-xDOI Listing

Black widows as plastic wallflowers: female choosiness increases with indicators of high mate availability in a natural population.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 2;10(1):8981. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, M1C1A4, Toronto, Canada.

Female choice is an important driver of sexual selection, but can be costly, particularly when choosy females risk remaining unmated or experience delays to reproduction. Thus, females should reduce choosiness when mate encounter rates are low. We asked whether choosiness is affected by social context, which may provide reliable information about the local availability of mates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65985-zDOI Listing

AGO-bound mature miRNAs are oligouridylated by TUTs and subsequently degraded by DIS3L2.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 2;11(1):2765. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

RNA Mediated Gene Regulation Section; RNA Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associated with Argonaute proteins (AGOs) regulate gene expression in mammals. miRNA 3' ends are subject to frequent sequence modifications, which have been proposed to affect miRNA stability. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16533-wDOI Listing

Germline mutations: many roles in leukemogenesis.

Curr Opin Hematol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding of germline mutations as they contribute to leukemia development and progression. We also discuss how these new insights may help improve clinical management of germline mutations associated with leukemia.

Recent Findings: Germline mutations may represent important initial mutations in the development of leukemia where interaction with somatic mutations provide further hits in leukemic progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOH.0000000000000596DOI Listing

Inference of Bacterial Small RNA Regulatory Networks and Integration with Transcription Factor-Driven Regulatory Networks.

mSystems 2020 Jun 2;5(3). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York, USA

Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are key regulators of bacterial gene expression. Through complementary base pairing, sRNAs affect mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Here, we describe a network inference approach designed to identify sRNA-mediated regulation of transcript levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00057-20DOI Listing

Vulnerability to helpless behavior is regulated by the circadian clock component CRYPTOCHROME in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161.

The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a central component of the midbrain dopamine reward circuit, exhibits disturbed circadian rhythms in the postmortem brains of depressed patients. We hypothesized that normal mood regulation requires proper circadian timing in the NAc, and that mood disorders are associated with dysfunctions of the NAc cellular circadian clock. In mice exhibiting stress-induced depression-like behavior (helplessness), we found altered circadian clock function and high nighttime expression of the core circadian clock component CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) in the NAc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000258117DOI Listing

Environmental estrogen exposure disrupts sensory processing and nociceptive plasticity in the cephalopod, .

J Exp Biol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco CA 94132, USA

Endogenous estrogens affect multiple sensory systems, including those involved in processing noxious and painful stimuli. Extensive evidence demonstrates that estrogenic environmental pollutants have profound, negative effects on growth and reproductive physiology, but there is limited information about how estrogenic pollutants might affect sensory systems known to be modulated by endogenous estrogens. Here, we show that ethinyl estradiol, the most common artificial estrogen found in coastal marine environments, disrupts normal behavioral and neural responses to tissue injury in the sepiolid, (Hawaiian bobtail squid), which inhabits shallow tropical waters close to dense human habitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.218008DOI Listing

Race Does Not Affect Survival in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jun;40(6):3307-3314

Department of Radiation Oncology, New York - Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Recent evidence has shown that African American men with prostate cancer may have more radiosensitive disease with greater overall survival (OS) with radiotherapy compared to Caucasian men. We compared OS in African American and Caucasian men receiving radiotherapy utilizing the National Cancer Database.

Patients And Methods: African American or Caucasian men with N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 were selected and grouped into favorable and unfavorable risk based on clinical T-stage, clinical Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14313DOI Listing

Crystal structure of zirconia affects osteoblast behavior.

Dent Mater 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Biomaterials and Technology, Department of Reconstructive Dentistry, University Center for Dental Medicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Objectives: Different approaches are currently undertaken to structure the endosseous part of zirconia implants. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how surface roughness and monoclinic to tetragonal phase ratio of zirconia affect cell behavior of human osteoblasts.

Methods: Zirconia discs with five different surface structures were produced: machined; machined heat-treated; polished; polished heat-treated; sandblasted, etched and heat-treated (cer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2020.04.017DOI Listing

Urban air particulate matter induces mitochondrial dysfunction in human olfactory mucosal cells.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2020 Jun 1;17(1):18. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: The adverse effects of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) on the central nervous system is increasingly reported by epidemiological, animal and post-mortem studies in the last decade. Oxidative stress and inflammation are key consequences of exposure to PM although little is known of the exact mechanism. The association of PM exposure with deteriorating brain health is speculated to be driven by PM entry via the olfactory system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-020-00352-4DOI Listing

Structure and dynamics of hydrodynamically interacting finite-size Brownian particles in a spherical cavity: Spheres and cylinders.

J Chem Phys 2020 May;152(20):204109

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

The structure and dynamics of confined suspensions of particles of arbitrary shape are of interest in multiple disciplines from biology to engineering. Theoretical studies are often limited by the complexity of long-range particle-particle and particle-wall forces, including many-body fluctuating hydrodynamic interactions. Here, we report a computational study on the diffusion of spherical and cylindrical particles confined in a spherical cavity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5139431DOI Listing

Human Semenogelin 1 Promotes Sperm Survival in the Mouse Female Reproductive Tract.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 31;21(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kanagawa 214-8571, Japan.

Semenogelin 1 (SEMG1), a main component of human seminal plasma, is a multi-functional protein involved in the regulation of sperm motility and fertility. SEMG1 is orthologous to mouse seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2), required for sperm survival in the female reproductive tract after copulation; however, its in vivo function remains unclear. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining the effect of recombinant SEMG1 on intrauterine mouse sperm survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113961DOI Listing

Arginine Vasopressin Modulates Ion and Acid/Base Balance by Regulating Cell Numbers of Sodium Chloride Cotransporter and H-ATPase Rich Ionocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 31;21(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

Arginine vasopressin (Avp) is a conserved pleiotropic hormone that is known to regulate both water reabsorption and ion balance; however, many of the mechanisms underlying its effects remain unclear. Here, we used zebrafish embryos to investigate how Avp modulates ion and acid-base homeostasis. After incubating embryos in double-deionized water for 24 h, mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113957DOI Listing

Expression of HTRA Genes and Its Association with Microsatellite Instability and Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 31;21(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of General, Endocrine and Transplant Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Mariana Smoluchowskiego 17, 80-214 Gdansk, Poland.

HtrA proteases regulate cellular homeostasis and cell death. Their dysfunctions have been correlated with oncogenesis and response to therapeutic treatment. We investigated the relation between HtrA1-3 expression and clinicopathological, and survival data, as well as the microsatellite status of tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113947DOI Listing

Coumarin Derivatives as New Toxic Compounds to Selected K12, R1-R4 Strains.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 30;13(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland.

Coumarins are natural compounds that were detected in 80 species of plants. They have numerous applications including the medical, food, tobacco, perfumery, and spirit industries. They show anti-swelling and diastolic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112499DOI Listing

Evaluation of the Effect of Selected Brominated Flame Retardants on Human Serum Albumin and Human Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 30;21(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biophysics of Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland.

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been using to reduce the flammability of plastics contained in many products, such as household articles, furniture, mattresses, textiles or insulation. Considering the fact that these compounds may be released into the environment leading to the exposure of living organisms, it is necessary to study their possible effects and mechanisms of action. Proteins play a crucial role in all biological processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113926DOI Listing

Τhe Nematicidal Potential of Bioactive Strains Isolated from Greek Rhizosphere Soils Tested on Plants of Varying Susceptibility to spp.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 30;9(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 14561 Athens, Greece.

A total of 461 indigenous Streptomycetes strains recovered from various Greek rhizosphere habitats were tested for their bioactivity. All isolates were examined for their ability to suppress the growth of 12 specific target microorganisms. Twenty-six were found to exert antimicrobial activity and were screened for potential nematicidal action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060699DOI Listing

Extracellular Matrix Analysis of Human Renal Arteries in Both Quiescent and Active Vascular State.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 30;21(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Division of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

In vascular tissue engineering strategies, the addition of vascular-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components may better mimic the in vivo microenvironment and potentially enhance cell-matrix interactions and subsequent tissue growth. For this purpose, the exact composition of the human vascular ECM first needs to be fully characterized. Most research has focused on characterizing ECM components in mature vascular tissue; however, the developing fetal ECM matches the active environment required in vascular tissue engineering more closely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113905DOI Listing

Oxytocin Differentiated Effects According to the Administration Route in a Prenatal Valproic Acid-Induced Rat Model of Autism.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 May 29;56(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

"Grigore T.Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16, Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

: The hormone oxytocin (OXT) has already been reported in both human and animal studies for its promising therapeutic potential in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the comparative effectiveness of various administration routes, whether central or peripheral has been insufficiently studied. In the present study, we examined the effects of intranasal (IN) vs. intraperitoneal (IP) oxytocin in a valproic-acid (VPA) autistic rat model, focusing on cognitive and mood behavioral disturbances, gastrointestinal transit and central oxidative stress status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56060267DOI Listing

Current Status of Metabolomic Biomarker Discovery: Impact of Study Design and Demographic Characteristics.

Metabolites 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

BERG, Precision Medicine Division, Framingham, MA 01701, USA.

Widespread application of omic technologies is evolving our understanding of population health and holds promise in providing precise guidance for selection of therapeutic interventions based on patient biology. The opportunity to use hundreds of analytes for diagnostic assessment of human health compared to the current use of 10-20 analytes will provide greater accuracy in deconstructing the complexity of human biology in disease states. Conventional biochemical measurements like cholesterol, creatinine, and urea nitrogen are currently used to assess health status; however, metabolomics captures a comprehensive set of analytes characterizing the human phenotype and its complex metabolic processes in real-time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060224DOI Listing

Legume biology: the basis for crop improvement.

Funct Plant Biol 2013 Dec;40(12):v-viii

Legumes represent the most valued food sources in agriculture after cereals. Despite the advances made in breeding food legumes, there is a need to develop and further improve legume productivity to meet increasing food demand worldwide. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect legume crop productivity throughout the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FPv40n12_FODOI Listing
December 2013

Acclimation of leaf dark respiration to nocturnal and diurnal warming in a semiarid temperate steppe.

Funct Plant Biol 2013 Nov;40(11):1159-1167

Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Biology, College of Life Sciences, Henan University, Henan 475004, China.

A better understanding of thermal acclimation of leaf dark respiration in response to nocturnal and diurnal warming could help accurately predict the changes in carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems under global warming, especially under the asymmetric warming. A field manipulative experiment was established with control, nocturnal warming (1800-0600hours), diurnal warming (0600-1800hours), and diel warming (24h) under naturally fluctuating conditions in a semiarid temperate steppe in northern China in April 2006. Temperature response curves of in situ leaf dark respiration for Stipa krylovii Roshev. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12369DOI Listing
November 2013

Consequences of elevated temperatures on legume biomass and nitrogen cycling in a field warming and biodiversity experiment in a North American prairie.

Funct Plant Biol 2013 Nov;40(11):1147-1158

Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, 1445 Gortner Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Increases in global temperature are likely to have effects on the nitrogen cycle, including those mediated through effects on legumes, which have a role in the N cycle by fixing N2. These effects may alter plant functioning and community structure, especially in N-limited ecosystems. We manipulated temperature and plant diversity in the field to investigate the effects of elevated temperature on aboveground biomass, shoot N concentration ([N]), and reliance on N2 fixation of four prairie legumes (Amorpha canescens Pursh. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12345DOI Listing
November 2013

Estimation of the steady-state cyclic electron flux around PSI in spinach leaf discs in white light, CO-enriched air and other varied conditions.

Funct Plant Biol 2013 Oct;40(10):1018-1028

Division of Plant Science, Research School of Biology, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.

Cyclic electron flux (CEF) around PSI is essential for efficient photosynthesis and aids photoprotection, especially in stressful conditions, but the difficulty in quantifying CEF is non-trivial. The total electron flux through PSI (ETR1) and the linear electron flux (LEFO2) through both photosystems in spinach leaf discs were estimated from the photochemical yield of PSI and the gross oxygen evolution rate, respectively, in CO2-enriched air. ΔFlux=ETR1 - LEFO2 is an upper estimate of CEF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP13010DOI Listing
October 2013

Tropical forest responses to increasing atmospheric CO: current knowledge and opportunities for future research.

Funct Plant Biol 2013 Jul;40(6):531-551

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, PO Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama.

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12309DOI Listing

The regulation of antioxidant enzymes in two Plantago species differing in salinity tolerance under combination of waterlogging and salinity.

Funct Plant Biol 2013 May;40(5):484-493

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Natural waterlogging affects vegetation dynamics in many areas of the world. Goose-tongue (Plantago spp.) plants include diverse group of species differing in salt tolerance, some of which are adapted to live in saline wetlands, which makes the genus Plantago a good model for comparative studies on the responses to waterlogging and salinity stresses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12147DOI Listing

Stomatal pore size and density in mangrove leaves and artificial leaves: effects on leaf water isotopic enrichment during transpiration.

Funct Plant Biol 2014 May;41(6):648-658

Department of Biology, University of Miami, 1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA.

We tested the hypothesis that the previously observed low isotopic enrichment of mangrove leaf water is caused by larger stomatal pores and lower densities compared with freshwater plants. First, we measured and compared pore size and density in mangroves, transitional and freshwater species in South Florida. We pooled this data with other reports encompassing 14 mangrove species and 134 freshwater species and tested for differences in pore size and density between mangroves and freshwater plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP13235DOI Listing

Effects of organic acids on the formation of the barrier to radial oxygen loss in roots of Hordeum marinum.

Funct Plant Biol 2014 Feb;41(2):187-202

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.

A barrier to radial O2 loss (ROL) is an adaptive trait of many wetland plants, yet the signal(s) for barrier induction remain uncertain. We assessed the effects of monocarboxylic acids produced in waterlogged soils (acetic, propionic, N-butyric and caproic acids) on barrier formation in adventitious roots of the waterlogging tolerant Hordeum marinum Huds. These acids were applied in nutrient solution either individually (at 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP13178DOI Listing
February 2014

Regulation of stomatal movement and photosynthetic activity in guard cells of tomato abaxial epidermal peels by salicylic acid.

Funct Plant Biol 2012 Dec;39(12):1028-1037

Department of Plant Biology, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged, Középfasor 52, PO Box 654, Hungary.

Salicylic acid (SA), a signalling molecule in plant-pathogen interactions induces stomatal closure in intact leaves and it has a direct control over stomatal movement by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells (GC). Stomatal closure on the abaxial epidermal peels of tomato leaves was induced at 10-7 and 10-3M SA but stomata remained open at 10-4M. At concentrations that reduced stomatal aperture, the ROS and NO levels were raised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12187DOI Listing
December 2012

Measuring the diurnal pattern of leaf hyponasty and growth in Arabidopsis - a novel phenotyping approach using laser scanning.

Funct Plant Biol 2012 Nov;39(11):860-869

Center for Integrative Genomics, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Plants forming a rosette during their juvenile growth phase, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., are able to adjust the size, position and orientation of their leaves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12018DOI Listing
November 2012

Plants in constrained canopy micro-swards compensate for decreased root biomass and soil exploration with increased amounts of rhizosphere carboxylates.

Funct Plant Biol 2017 May;44(5):552-562

School of Plant Biology, and Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

Root traits related to phosphorus (P) acquisition are used to make inferences about a species' P-foraging ability under glasshouse conditions. However, the effect on such root traits of constrained canopy spread, as occurs in dense pasture swards, is unknown. We grew micro-swards of Trifolium subterraneum L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP16398DOI Listing

In vivo and in vitro approaches demonstrate proline is not directly involved in the protection against superoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrite.

Funct Plant Biol 2016 Sep;43(9):870-879

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Av. Gral. E. Garzón 809, Montevideo 12900, Uruguay.

Plants accumulate proline under diverse types of stresses, and it has been suggested that this α-amino acid has the capacity to protect against oxidative stress. However, it is still controversial whether its protection is due to the direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To solve this issue and considering that nitrosative stress is directly related with an oxidative stress condition, we evaluated whether proline can protect against nitrosative damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP16060DOI Listing
September 2016

Halophytes as a source of salt tolerance genes and mechanisms: a case study for the Salt Lake area, Turkey.

Funct Plant Biol 2016 Jul;43(7):575-589

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

The worst case scenario of global climate change predicts both drought and salinity would be the first environmental factors restricting agriculture and natural ecosystems, causing decreased crop yields and plant growth that would directly affect human population in the next decades. Therefore, it is vital to understand the biology of plants that are already adapted to these extreme conditions. In this sense, extremophiles such as the halophytes offer valuable genetic information for understanding plant salinity tolerance and to improve the stress tolerance of crop plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP15288DOI Listing

The amino acid transporter OsAAP1 mediates growth and grain yield by regulating neutral amino acids uptake and reallocation in Oryza sativa.

J Exp Bot 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Center of Integrative Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Nitrogen (N) is a major element necessary for crop yield. In most plants, organic nitrogen is primarily transported in the form of amino acids. Here, we show that OsAAP1 (Amino Acid Permease 1) functions as a positive regulator of growth and grain yield in rice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa256DOI Listing

Temperature and concentration of ZnO particles affect life history traits and oxidative stress in Daphnia magna.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 May 16;224:105517. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand; Gut Biology and Microbiota Research Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand. Electronic address:

Temperature affects physiological processes in organisms and the toxicity of chemicals. The widespread industrial use of ZnO causes contamination in aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to investigate the chronic toxicity of ZnO at different temperatures using Daphnia magna as a model organism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105517DOI Listing

Hepatocytes paradoxically affect intrahepatic IFN-γ production in autoimmune hepatitis due to Gal-9 expression and TLR2/4 ligand release.

Mol Immunol 2020 May 30;123:106-115. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Hepatocytes are the targets in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) that results in T cell-dependent liver injury. However, hepatocytes may also affect the hepatic T cells in AIH, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we report that hepatocytes could secrete galectin-9 (Gal-9) to suppress the intrahepatic production of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and restrict AIH development, but hepatocyte damage resulted in opposite effects due to release of TLR2/4 ligands that promoted the intrahepatic production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2020.05.014DOI Listing