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    13927 results match your criteria Biology of Reproduction[Journal]

    1 OF 279

    Erratum to: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, kisspeptin, and gonadal steroids directly modulate nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in murine hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and gonadotropes.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):1118
    Laboratory of Integrative Neuroendocrinology, Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Interaction between kisspeptin and adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 on the expression of pituitary gonadotropin subunits: a study using mouse pituitary lbetaT2 cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):1043-1051
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.
    We examined direct effect of kisspeptin on pituitary gonadotrophs. Kisspeptin-10 (KP10) significantly increased the promoter activities of the gonadotropin subunits, common alpha-glycoprotein (Cga), luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb), and follicle-stimulatinghormone beta (Fshb) in LbetaT2 cells overexpressing kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r). KP10 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) increased gonadotropin subunit levels to similar degrees and combined treatment with GnRH and KP10 did not potentiate their individual effects. Read More

    Analysis of cysteine-X-cysteine motif chemokine ligands 9, 10, and 11, their receptor CXCR3, and their possible role on the recruitment of immune cells at the maternal-conceptus interface in pigs.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):69-80
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Chemokines play critical roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in animals. Cysteine-X-cysteine motif chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and CXCL11 are involved in recruiting immune cells by binding to their shared receptor, CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3), in a variety of tissues. This study examined the expression and regulation of chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, their receptor CXCR3, and their role at the maternal-conceptus interface in pigs. Read More

    Persistence of risk factors associated with maternal cardiovascular disease following aberrant inflammation in rat pregnancy.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):143-152
    Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular and metabolic disease in the affected mothers. While aberrant inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, it is unclear whether maternal inflammation contributes to the increased risk of disease. Here, we determined the effect of aberrant inflammation in pregnancy on cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors. Read More

    Bovine lineage specification revealed by single-cell gene expression analysis from zygote to blastocyst.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):5-17
    State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.
    Preimplantation embryos undergo zygotic genome activation and lineage specification resulting in three distinct cell types in the late blastocyst. The molecular mechanisms underlying this progress are largely unknown in bovines. Here, we sought to analyze an extensive set of regulators at the single-cell level to define the events involved in the development of the bovine blastocyst. Read More

    Understanding avian egg cuticle formation in the oviduct: a study of its origin and deposition.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):39-49
    The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian, Scotland, UK.
    The cuticle is a unique invisible oviduct secretion that protects avian eggs from bacterial penetration through gas exchange pores. Despite its importance, experimental evidence is lacking for where, when, and what is responsible for its deposition. By using knowledge about the ovulatory cycle and oviposition, we have manipulated cuticle deposition to obtain evidence on these key points. Read More

    Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone profile in heifers from birth through puberty and relationship with puberty onset.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):153-161
    Laboratory of Theriogenology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
    The current study aimed to define the plasma profile of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in heifers during postnatal life until achieving puberty, as defined by plasma progesterone (P4) profile, to demonstrate a relationship between AMH and age of puberty onset. Blood samples collected from 11 Japanese Black female calves within 1 week after birth (W 0) and then biweekly until the sixth week after puberty (WP 6) were assayed for AMH, FSH, and P4. The heifers were classified into two groups based on age of puberty onset: ≤42 weeks (early puberty group; EP, n = 4) and ≥44 weeks (late puberty group; LP, n = 7). Read More

    A neurokinin 3 receptor-selective agonist accelerates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in lactating cattle.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):81-90
    Division of Animal Feeding and Management Research, Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Nasushiobara, Japan.
    Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle. Read More

    A delayed sperm penetration of cumulus layers by disruption of acrosin gene in rats.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):61-68
    Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    Acrosin, the trypsin-like serine protease in the sperm acrosome, was long viewed as a key enzyme required for zona pellucida penetration to fertilize eggs. However, gene disruption experiments in mice surprisingly showed that acrosin-disrupted males were fertile. Thus, the acrosin was considered to be not an essential enzyme for fertilization in mice. Read More

    Subfertility in bulls carrying a nonsense mutation in transmembrane protein 95 is due to failure to interact with the oocyte vestments.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):50-60
    School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    In a recent genome-wide association study, 40 Fleckvieh bulls with exceptionally poor fertility were found to be homozygous for a nonsense mutation in the transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95) encoding gene. Ejaculates from these individuals exhibited normal sperm concentration, morphology, viability, and motility. However, only 1. Read More

    The superovulated environment, independent of embryo vitrification, results in low birthweight in a mouse model.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):133-142
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Epidemiological studies suggest that babies born following in vitro fertilization (IVF) and fresh embryo transfer are of lower birthweight than babies born following frozen embryo transfer, although the mechanism responsible for this phenotype is not known. We developed a novel mouse model that isolates the independent effects of embryo freezing and the superovulated environment, which cannot be performed in humans. We transferred blastocysts that had been vitrified and warmed, mixed with with fresh blastocysts, into individual pseudopregnant recipients produced by either natural mating or mating following injection with equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and hCG (superovulation). Read More

    The transcriptome of the endometrium and placenta is associated with pregnancy development but not lactation status in dairy cows.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):18-31
    Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, 160 Animal Science Research Center, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
    Infertility in lactating dairy cows is explained partially by the metabolic state associated with high milk production. The hypothesis was that lactating and nonlactating cows would differ in endometrial and placental transcriptomes during early pregnancy (day 28 to 42) and this difference would explain the predisposition for lactating cows to have embryonic loss at that time. Cows were either milked or not milked after calving. Read More

    Maternal placenta modulates a deleterious fetal mutation.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Chair of Livestock Biotechnology, Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany.
    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by dysregulation of placental metabolism. Paternally inherited IUGR mutations in the fetus influence maternal physiology via the placenta. However, it is not known whether the maternal placenta also affects the extent of IUGR in such fetuses. Read More

    Altered microRNA and Piwi-interacting RNA profiles in cumulus cells from patients with diminished ovarian reserve.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):91-103
    Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is defined as decreased number or quality of follicles and oocytes in a woman at childbearing age. It is estimated that up to 10% of women in the general population may suffer from DOR. This study aims to comprehensively characterize microRNA (miRNA) and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression profiles in cumulus cells of DOR patients. Read More

    Uterine responses to early pre-attachment embryos in the domestic dog and comparisons with other domestic animal species.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    In the dog there is no luteolysis in the absence of pregnancy. Thus, this species lacks any anti-luteolytic endocrine signal as found in other species that modulate uterine function during the critical period of pregnancy establishment. Nevertheless, in the dog an embryo-maternal communication must occur in order to prevent rejection of embryos. Read More

    Effect of simvastatin on baboon endometriosis.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):32-38
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Endometriosis, a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age, is characterized by ectopic growth of the endometrial tissues, altered steroid hormone response, and inflammation. Previous studies revealed that statins, selective inhibitors of the key step of mevalonate pathway, inhibit growth of endometrial stromal cells in vitro and reduce endometriotic lesions in murine models of endometriosis. This study evaluated the effects of simvastatin on the development of endometriosis in a baboon model of this disease. Read More

    Inhibition of polyamine synthesis causes entry of the mouse blastocyst into embryonic diapause.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):119-132
    Centre de recherché en reproduction et fertilité, Faculté de médicine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada.
    Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. Read More

    Yes-associated protein and WW-containing transcription regulator 1 regulate the expression of sex-determining genes in Sertoli cells, but their inactivation does not cause sex reversal.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):162-175
    Centre de Recherche en Reproduction et Fertilité, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1) are two functionally redundant transcriptional regulators that are downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, and that act as major regulators of cell growth and differentiation. To elucidate their role in Sertoli cells, primary Sertoli cell culture from Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox animals were infected with a Cre recombinase-expressing adenovirus. Concomitant inactivation of Yap and Wwtr1 resulted in a decrease in the mRNA levels of the male sex differentiation genes Dhh, Dmrt1, Sox9, and Wt1, whereas those of genes involved in female differentiation (Wnt4, Rspo1, and Foxl2) were induced. Read More

    Effects of early pregnancy on uterine lymphocytes and endometrial expression of immune-regulatory molecules in dairy heifers.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jul;97(1):104-118
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Reproductive Biology and Health, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Natural killer (NK) cells are essential for establishment of human and rodent pregnancies. The function of these and other cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is controlled by stimulatory and inhibitory signaling. A role for cytotoxic cells during early pregnancy in cattle has not been described, but regulation of their function at the fetal-maternal interface is thought to be critical for conceptus survival. Read More

    Acute bovine viral diarrhea virus infection inhibits expression of interferon tau-stimulated genes in bovine endometrium.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1142-1153
    Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, UK.
    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can evade host detection by downregulation of interferon signaling pathways. Infection of cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV can cause early embryonic mortality. Upregulation of type I interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) by blastocyst-secreted interferon tau (IFNT) is a crucial component of the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in ruminants. Read More

    The expression of CXCR4 is induced by the luteinizing hormone surge and mediated by progesterone receptors in human preovulatory granulosa cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1256-1266
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    The chemokine CXC motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its cognate receptor, CXCR4, have been implicated in the ovulatory process in various animal models. However, little is known about the expression and regulation of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and their functions during the ovulatory period in the human ovary. In this study, we characterized the expression patterns of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in preovulatory follicles collected before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and at defined hours after hCG administration in women with the regular menstrual cycle. Read More

    Melatonin protects against cisplatin-induced ovarian damage in mice via the MT1 receptor and antioxidant activity.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1244-1255
    Nucleus of Biotechnology Applied to Ovarian Follicle Development, Federal University of São Francisco Valley - UNIVASF, Petrolina, Brazil.
    This study evaluated the receptor- and/or antioxidant stress-mediated mechanisms by which melatonin prevents the ovarian toxicity of cisplatin treatment. The expression of the MT1 receptor in mouse ovaries was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with melatonin (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight, i. Read More

    Maternal RNA regulates Aurora C kinase during mouse oocyte maturation in a translation-independent fashion.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1197-1209
    Department of Genetics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.
    During oocyte meiotic maturation, Aurora kinase C (AURKC) is required to accomplish many critical functions including destabilizing erroneous kinetochore-microtubule (K-MT)attachments and regulating bipolar spindle assembly. How localized activity of AURKC is regulated in mammalian oocytes, however, is not fully understood. Female gametes from many species, including mouse, contain stores of maternal transcripts that are required for downstream developmental events. Read More

    Stem cell activity of type A spermatogonia is seasonally regulated in rainbow trout.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1303-1316
    Department of Marine Bioscience, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) support continuous production of sperm throughout the male's life. However, the biological characteristics of SSCs are poorly understood in animals exhibiting seasonal reproduction, even though most wild animals are seasonal breeders. During the spermiation season in rainbow trout, the lumen of the testes contains only spermatozoa and scattered type A spermatogonia (ASG) along the walls of the testicular lobules. Read More

    Changes in immune cell distribution and their cytokine/chemokine production during regression of the rhesus macaque corpus luteum.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1210-1220
    Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon, USA.
    Our previous flow cytometry results demonstrated a significant increase in neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells in dispersed rhesus monkey corpora lutea (CL) after progesterone (P4) levels had fallen below 0.3 ng/ml for ≥3 days during the natural menstrual cycle. In this study, immunohistochemistry revealed the CD11b+ cells (neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes) present in the CL after luteal P4 synthesis ceased were distributed throughout the tissue. Read More

    Global oncofertility index-data gap slows progress.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1124-1128
    Thomas J. Watkins Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    The number of pediatric and young adult cancer survivors is increasing globally due to earlier diagnostics and expansion of targeted chemo- and biological-based therapeutics. As a consequence, cancer-related infertility and reproductive hormone loss is of increasing concern for both male and female survivors. We attempted to estimate the reproductive loss in oncofertility-practicing countries and to develop a global oncofertility index (OFI). Read More

    Consequences of endogenous and exogenous WNT signaling for development of the preimplantation bovine embryo.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1129-1141
    Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, and Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    The specific role of WNT signaling during preimplantation development remains unclear. Here, we evaluated consequences of activation and inhibition of β-catenin (CTNNB1)-dependent and -independent WNT signaling in the bovine preimplantation embryo. Activation of CTNNB1-mediated WNT signaling by the agonist 2-amino-4-(3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (AMBMP) and a glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor reduced development to the blastocyst stage. Read More

    Effects of propylene glycol or elevated LH during follicle development on ovulation, fertilization, and early embryo development.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
    Seventeen non-lactating Holstein cows were superovulated in a Latin-square designed experiment to determine effects of increased propylene glycol (PROP) and LH during antral follicle development on ovarian function, fertilization, and early embryo quality. PROP was orally drenched every 4 h for 7d to induce hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic changes. LH concentrations were altered by increasing LH (3-fold) during last 2 d of superovulation. Read More

    Ovary-specific depletion of the nuclear receptor Nr5a2 compromises expansion of the cumulus oophorus but not fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1231-1243
    Centre de recherche en reproduction et fertilité, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada.
    The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1 (aka Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, Group A, Member 2 (Nr5a2)), is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, and its ovarian expression is restricted to granulosa cells of activated follicles. We employed the floxed Nr5a2 (Nr5a2f/f) mutant mouse line and two granulosa-specific Cre lines, Anti-Müllerian hormone receptor- 2 (Amhr2Cre) and transgenic cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (tgCyp19Cre), to develop two tissue- and time-specific Nr5a2 depletion models: Nr5a2Amhr2-/- and Nr5a2Cyp19-/-. In the Nr5a2Cyp19-/- ovaries, Nr5a2 was depleted in mural granulosa, but not cumulus cells. Read More

    Alpha-linolenic acid protects the developmental capacity of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured under lipotoxic conditions in vitro.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1181-1196
    Gamete Research Centre, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs), predominantly palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids (PSO), exert detrimental effects on oocyte developmental competence. This study examined the effects of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) in the presence of PSO on subsequent embryo development and quality, and the cellular mechanisms that might be involved. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were supplemented during IVM with ALA (50 μM), PSO (425 μM), or PSO+ALA. Read More

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in bovine cumulus cells protects the oocyte against saturated fatty acid stress.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):982-992
    Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Metabolic rich and poor conditions are both characterized by elevated free fatty acid levels and have been associated with impaired female fertility. In particular, saturated free fatty acids have a dose-dependent negative impact on oocyte developmental competence, while monounsaturated free fatty acids appear less harmful. Cumulus cells seem to protect the oocyte against free fatty acids, and the aim of this study was to determine the mechanism behind this protection In particular, the role of the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) that converts saturated into monounsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Read More

    MicroRNA-21 plays a pivotal role in the oocyte-secreted factor-induced suppression of cumulus cell apoptosis.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1167-1180
    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City, Shandong Province, P. R. China.
    It is known that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) are more resistant to apoptosis than other compartments of the antral follicle. However, although oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) have been found to be involved in suppressing bovine CC apoptosis, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms by which OSFs render CCs resistant to apoptosis. Here, we show that coculture with mouse or pig cumulus-denuded oocytes, culture with recombinant mouse growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), or culture in pig oocyte-conditioned medium (POCM) significantly inhibited CC apoptosis of mouse oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs). Read More

    Ca2+ signaling machinery is present at intercellular junctions and structures associated with junction turnover in rat Sertoli cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1288-1302
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Sertoli cells is a component of unique adhesion junctions (ectoplasmic specializations-ESs) and is closely associated with structures termed tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) that internalize intercellular junctions during sperm release and during the translocation of spermatocytes through the blood-testis barrier. A role for the ER in Ca2+ regulation at ESs and TBCs has been suspected, but evidence for this function has proved elusive. Using electron microscopy, we define two new ER-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites in apical Sertoli cell processes. Read More

    Hyperandrogenemia reduces endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation in mesenteric artery of female rats.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1221-1230
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, USA.
    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often presented with hyperandrogenemia along with vascular dysfunction and elevated blood pressure. In animal models of PCOS, anti-androgen treatment decreased blood pressure, indicating a key role for androgens in the development of hypertension. However, the underlying androgen-mediated mechanism that contributes to increased blood pressure is not known. Read More

    Intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms can lead to reproductive isolation and speciation: an example in red brocket deer (Mazama americana).
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1279-1287
    Núcleo de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cervídeos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil.
    The red brocket (Mazama americana) is a South American deer with a wide geographical distribution that presents different chromosomal variants depending on their location. At least six different cytotypes belonging to two distinct evolutionary lineages have been described. This study aimed to verify the existence of postzygotic reproductive isolation between cytotypes of M. Read More

    Antenatal blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by Memantine reduces the susceptibility to diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in rats with intrauterine growth restriction.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):960-970
    Department of Physiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is closely related to the later development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Excessive activation of N-methly-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes excitatory neurotoxicity, resulting in neuronal injury or death. Inhibition of NMDARs enhances the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and survival of islet cells in type 2 diabetic mouse and human islets. Read More

    Effects of in vitro exposure to dibutyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, and acetyl tributyl citrate on ovarian antral follicle growth and viability.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):1105-1117
    School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is present in consumer products and the coating of some oral medications. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) has been proposed as an alternative to DBP because DBP causes endocrine disruption in animal models. Following ingestion, DBP is converted to its main metabolite mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) which has been detected in >90% of human follicular fluid samples. Read More

    Clonal variation of human induced pluripotent stem cells for induction into the germ cell fate.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1154-1166
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    The mechanisms for human germ cell development have remained largely unknown, due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable experimental materials. The establishment of an in vitro system to reconstitute human germ cell development will thus provide a critical opportunity to understand its mechanisms at a molecular level. It has previously been shown that human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are first induced into incipient mesoderm-like cells (iMeLCs), which are in turn induced into primordial germ-cell like cells (PGCLCs) with gene expression properties similar to early migratory PGCs. Read More

    Meiosis-specific proteins MEIOB and SPATA22 cooperatively associate with the single-stranded DNA-binding replication protein A complex and DNA double-strand breaks.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):1096-1104
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Meiotic recombination ensures faithful segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis and generates genetic diversity in gametes. MEIOB (meiosis specific with OB domains), a meiosis-specific single-stranded DNA-binding homolog of replication protein A1 (RPA1), is essential for meiotic recombination. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of MEIOB by characterizing its binding partners spermatogenesis associated 22 (SPATA22) and RPA. Read More

    Role of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 in spatial arrangement of the inner cell mass of the bovine embryo.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):948-959
    Department of Animal Sciences, D. H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program and Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    The process of spatial rearrangement of cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) that are destined to become hypoblast is not well understood. The observation that the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) and several other genes involved in chemokine signaling are expressed more in the ICM than in the trophectoderm of the bovine embryo resulted in the hypothesis that CCL24 participates in spatial organization of the ICM. Temporally, expression of CCL24 in the bovine embryo occurs coincidently with blastocyst formation: transcript abundance was low until the late morula stage, peaked in the blastocyst at Day 7 of development and declined by Day 9. Read More

    Development of a novel human recellularized endometrium that responds to a 28-day hormone treatment.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):971-981
    Division of Reproductive Science in Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have been established to study the physiology and pathophysiology of the endometrium. With emerging evidence that the native extracellular matrix (ECM) provides appropriate cues and growth factors essential for tissue homeostasis, we describe, a novel 3D endometrium in vitro model developed from decellularized human endometrial tissue repopulated with primary endometrial cells. Analysis of the decellularized endometrium using mass spectrometry revealed an enrichment of cell adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal proteins, and ECM proteins such as collagen IV and laminin. Read More

    Nonsense in the testis: multiple roles for nonsense-mediated decay revealed in male reproduction.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):939-947
    Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas.
    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, or NMD, is a quality control mechanism that identifies cytoplasmic mRNAs containing translational termination (stop) codons in specific contexts-either premature termination codons or unusually long 3΄ untranslated regions (UTRs)-and targets them for degradation. In recent studies, researchers in different labs have knocked out important genes involved in NMD, the up-frameshift genes Upf2 and Upf3a, and one component of chromatoid bodies, the Tudor domain-containing protein Tdrd6, and examined the consequences for spermatogenesis. Disruption of Upf2 during early stages of spermatogenesis resulted in disappearance of nearly all spermatogenic cells through loss of NMD. Read More

    Characterization of FOXO1, 3 and 4 transcription factors in ovaries of fetal, prepubertal and adult rhesus macaques.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):1052-1059
    Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.
    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway negatively regulates follicle activation via the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor in rodents. FOXO3 knockout mice exhibit global activation of primordial follicles leading to early depletion of ovarian follicles and subsequent infertility. Whether a similar mechanism for follicle activation exists in the primate ovary is unclear. Read More

    The accessible chromatin landscape during conversion of human embryonic stem cells to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic protein 4.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jun;96(6):1267-1278
    State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) exposed to the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the absence of FGF2 have been used as a model to study the development of placental development. However, little is known about the cis-regulatory mechanisms underlying this important process. In this study, we used the public available chromatin accessibility data of hESC H1 cells and BMP4-induced trophoblast (TB) cell lines to identify DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the two cell lines, as well as the transcription factor (TF) binding sites within the DHSs. Read More

    IFT25, an intraflagellar transporter protein dispensable for ciliogenesis in somatic cells, is essential for sperm flagella formation.
    Biol Reprod 2017 May;96(5):993-1006
    School of Public Health and Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, IFT25, a component of the IFT complex, is not required for the formation of cilia in somatic tissues. In mice, the gene is highly expressed in the testis, and its expression is upregulated during the final phase when sperm flagella are formed. Read More

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