14,369 results match your criteria Biology of Reproduction[Journal]


Intraflagellar transport protein 74 is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility in mice‡.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Physiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, United States.

IFT74 is a component of the core intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex, a bidirectional movement of large particles along the axoneme microtubules for cilia formation. In this study, we investigated its role in sperm flagella formation and discovered that mice deficiency in Ift74 gene in male germ cells were infertile associated with low sperm count and immotile sperm. The few developed spermatozoa displayed misshaped heads and short tails. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz071DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CXCR4 signaling at the ovine fetal-maternal interface regulates vascularization, CD34 + cell presence, and autophagy in the endometrium.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA.

Placenta development is characterized by extensive angiogenesis and vascularization but if these processes are compromised placental dysfunction occurs, which is the underlying cause of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Dysregulation of placental angiogenesis has emerged as one of the main pathophysiological features in the development of placental insufficiency and its clinical consequences. The signaling axis initiated by chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 stimulate angiogenesis in other tissues, and may be central to placental vascularization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz073DOI Listing

Sulforaphane ameliorates high-fat diet-induced spermatogenic deficiency in mice.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Clinic Research Center for Assisted Reproductive Technology and Embryonic Development, Wuhan 430060, China.

Sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary isothiocyanate that is mainly found in cruciferous vegetables, possesses anti-oxidative and anticancer activity and modulates inflammation. However, little is known about the role of SFN in obesity-related male reproductive defects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced male spermatogenic impairment and further clarify the possible underlying mechanisms. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz067DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Growth differentiation factor 8 regulates SMAD2/3 signaling and improves oocyte quality during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology, Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju 28644, Republic of Korea.

Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), also known as myostatin, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and has been identified as a strong physiological regulator of muscle differentiation. Recently, the functional role of GDF8 in reproductive organs has received increased interest following its detection in the human placenta and uterus. To investigate the effects of GDF8 during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), we assessed the quality of matured oocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz066DOI Listing

The incorporation of cystine by the soluble carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) is a component of the redox regulatory mechanism in stallion spermatozoa.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Equine Reproduction and Equine Spermatology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism causing sperm damage during cryopreservation and storage, and underlies male factor infertility. Currently, oxidative stress is no longer believed to be caused only by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, but rather by the deregulation of redox signaling and control mechanisms. With this concept in mind, here, we describe for the first time the presence of the soluble carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) antiporter, which exchanges extracellular cystine (Cyss) for intracellular glutamate, in stallion spermatozoa, as well as its impact on sperm function using the specific inhibitor sulfasalazine. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz069DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Molecular machinery providing copper bioavailability for spermatozoa along the epididymial tubule in mouse.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Genetics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

Progressive functional maturation of spermatozoa is completed during the transit of these cells through the epididymis, a tubule structure connecting a testicle to a vas deferens. Epididymal epithelial cells by means of their secretory and absorptive functions determine a highly specialized luminal microenvironment containing multiple organic and inorganic components. The latter include copper ions, which due to their redox properties are indispensable for critical homeostatic processes occurring in spermatozoa floating in different part of epididymis but can be potentially toxic. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz028DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Valine increases milk fat synthesis in mammary gland of gilts through stimulating AKT/MTOR/SREBP1 pathway‡.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed Science, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Lactating mammary glands are among the most active lipogenic organs and provide a large percentage of bioactive lipids and calories for infant growth. The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine is known to modulate fatty acids synthesis in adipose tissue; however, its effects on fat metabolism and the underlying mechanisms in mammary glands remain to be determined. Valine supplementation during late pregnancy significantly increased the contents of total milk fat, triglyceride, sphingomyelin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the colostrum of gilts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz065DOI Listing

CFTR mutation compromises spermatogenesis by enhancing miR-15b maturation and suppressing its regulatory target CDC25A.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Joint Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, SCU-CUHK, Key Laboratory of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been shown to be important for spermatogenesis; both DROSHA and Dicer1 KO mice exhibit infertility due to abnormal miRNA expression. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in spermatogenesis remain elusive. Here we demonstrated that miR-15b, a member of the miR-15/16 family, is primarily expressed in testis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz062DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impaired decidualization caused by downregulation of Circadian Clock Gene BMAL1 contributes to human recurrent miscarriage.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, 200135.

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is characterized by two or more consecutive losses of a clinically established intrauterine pregnancy at early gestation. To date, the etiology of RM remains poorly understood. Impaired decidualization is thought to predispose women to subsequent pregnancy failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz063DOI Listing

Conservation of chicken male germ line by orthotopic transplantation of primordial germ cells from genetically distant donors†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs, Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic.

Successful derivation and cultivation of primordial germ cells (PGC) opened the way to efficient transgenesis and genome editing in the chicken. Furthermore, implantation of male PGCs from non-chicken galliform species into the chicken embryos resulted in cross-species germ line chimeras and viable offspring. We have recently improved the PGC technology by demonstrating that chicken male PGCs transplanted into the testes of adult cockerel recipients mature into functional sperms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz064DOI Listing

Active Peristaltic Movements and Fluid Production of the Mouse Oviduct: Their Roles in Fluid and Sperm Transport and Fertilization†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology, Institute for Biogenesis Research, John A. Burns, School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

To study how the oviduct behaves in relation to fluid secretion and sperm transport, ovary-oviduct-uterus complexes of the mouse were installed in a fluid-circulating chamber without disturbing the blood circulation or parasympathetic innervation. Injection of a bolus of Indian ink into the lower isthmus revealed very active adovarian peristalsis of the isthmus, which was most prominent during the periovulatory period. Oviduct fluid, secreted by the entire length of the isthmus, was rapidly transported to the ampulla and ovarian bursa before draining into the peritoneal cavity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz061DOI Listing

Bovine endometrium responds differentially to age-matched short and long conceptuses.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

This study combined in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, multiple embryo transfer techniques and a conceptus-endometrial explant co-culture system to test the hypothesis that bovine endometrium exposed to long vs. short Day 15 conceptuses would exhibit a different transcriptome profile reflective of potential for successful pregnancy establishment. Bovine endometrial explants collected at the late luteal stage of the estrous cycle were cultured in RPMI medium for 6 h with nothing (Control), 100 ng/ml recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT), a long Day 15 conceptus, or a short Day 15 conceptus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz060DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

The Genomic Distribution of Histone H3K4me2 in Spermatogonia is Highly Conserved in Sperm.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Animal Science.

Environmental exposures can alter the long-term health and development of offspring. How this environmental information is transmitted via the germline remains unknown, but it is thought to involve epigenetic inheritance. We recently determined that genetic disruption of histone H3 di-methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) in sperm alters gene expression in the embryo and negatively impacts development across generations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz055DOI Listing

GPAT2 is required for piRNA biogenesis, transposon silencing, and maintenance of spermatogonia in mice.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology, Medical School.

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a subclass of germ cell-specific non-coding small RNAs, are essential for de novo DNA methylation of retrotransposon genes in embryonic testes. PIWIL2/MILI, one of three mouse PIWI family members, is indispensable for piRNA production, DNA methylation of retrotransposons presumably via piRNA, and normal spermatogenesis. In vitro analysis using germ line stem cells (GS cells) revealed that glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (GPAT2), which is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein involved in generation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and highly expressed in testes, plays important roles in spermatogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz056DOI Listing

Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 are Elevated in Human Preterm Laboring Uterine Myometrium and Exacerbate Uterine Contractility.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

Introduction: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) have previously been shown to be elevated in serum and amniotic fluid from women undergoing preterm birth. We performed experiments to determine the effects of MMP2/9 on uterine contraction and birth timing.

Experimental Design: Pregnant mice were injected daily with 50 mg/kg of SB-3CT or vehicle control beginning on gestational day 14-18 to determine if MMP2/9 inhibition would affect parturition timing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz054DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The perforatorium and postacrosomal sheath of rat spermatozoa share common developmental origins and protein constituents†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, CA.

The perinuclear theca (PT) is a cytosolic protein capsule that surrounds the nucleus of eutherian spermatozoa. Compositionally, it is divided into two regions: the subacrosomal layer (SAL) and the postacrosomal sheath (PAS). In falciform spermatozoa, a third region of the PT emerges that extends beyond the nuclear apex called the perforatorium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz052DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Plasminogen activator, tissue type regulates germinal vesicle breakdown and cumulus expansion of bovine cumulus-oocyte complex in vitro†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China.

Plasminogen activator, tissue type (PLAT) and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive processes. However, it is unknown whether this includes bovine oocyte maturation. We addressed this question in the present study by evaluating PLAT and SERPINE1 protein localization in immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), as well as PLAT mRNA and protein expression in cultured COCs after 0, 8, 16, and 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz049DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Human recombinant fsh induces chemoresistance in human breast cancer cells via hif-1α activation.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Gynecology and Obstetrics 1, Physiopathology of Reproduction and IVF Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, S. Anna Hospital, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Breast cancer patients under 40 years of age who are candidate to chemotherapy with alkylating drugs may undergo controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) in order to get fertility preservation by mature oocyte cryostorage. The direct effect(s) of exogenous rhFSH on the chemosensitivity of breast cancer is currently unknown. To clarify this issue, we incubated four different breast cancer cell lines with rhFSH (10 IU/L, 24h) and then we exposed them to doxorubicin (DOX) or cyclophosphamide (CPA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz050DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Prenatal Exposure to Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and High-fat Diet Synergistically Disrupts Mouse Fetal Oogenesis and Affects Folliculogenesis.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61802.

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a chemical that is widely used as a plasticizer. Exposure to DEHP has been shown to alter ovarian function in humans. Additionally, foods high in fat content, regularly found in the western diet, have been shown to be another potential disruptor of fetal ovarian function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz051DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Specific visualization of live type A spermatogonia of Pacific bluefin tuna using fluorescent dye-conjugated antibodies†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Marine Biosciences, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7 Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan.

During our previous work toward establishing surrogate broodstock that can produce donor-derived gametes by germ cell transplantation, we found that only type A spermatogonia (ASGs) have the potency to colonize recipient gonads. Therefore, the ability to visualize ASGs specifically would allow the sequential analysis of donor cell behavior in the recipient gonads. Here we produced monoclonal antibodies that could recognize the cell surface antigens of ASGs in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), with the aim of visualizing live ASGs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz047DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Formation of organotypic testicular organoids in microwell culture.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Three-dimensional (3D) organoids can serve as an in vitro platform to study cell-cell interactions, tissue development and toxicology. Development of organoids with tissue architecture similar to testis in vivo has remained a challenge. Here, we present a microwell aggregation approach to establish multicellular 3D testicular organoids from pig, mouse, macaque and human. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz053DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Dexamethasone Induces Primary Amnion Epithelial Cell Senescence through Telomere-P21 Associated Pathway.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine & Perinatal Research, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Dexamethasone (Dex), a corticosteroid hormone, is used during the perinatal period to help fetal lung and other organ development. Conversely, Dex-induced cell proliferation has been associated with accelerated aging. Using primary amnion epithelial cells (AECs) from term, not in labor, fetal membranes, we tested the effects of Dex on cell proliferation, senescence, and inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz048DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

MiR-664-2 impacts pubertal development in a precocious-puberty rat model through targeting the NMDA receptor-1.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Reasearch, Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Precocious puberty commonly results from premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the initial trigger for HPGA activation and plays an important role in puberty onset. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) can promote pulsatile GnRH secretion and accelerates puberty onset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz044DOI Listing

GIT2 deficiency attenuates inflammation induced expression of pro-labor mediators in human amnion and myometrial cells.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Mercy Perinatal Research Centre, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia, Obstetrics, Nutrition and Endocrinology Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Untimely activation of the inflammatory response by sterile or infective insults in uterine tissues can result in preterm birth. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathogenic activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates a biochemical cascade of events leading to myometrial activation and contractility, cervical dilatation, and rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes. GIT2 is a signaling protein known to play a role in innate and adaptive immunity; however, its role in the inflammatory pathways of human labor are not known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz041DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Molecular profiling demonstrates modulation of immune cell function and matrix remodeling during luteal rescue†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Animal Science, Center for Reproductive Biology and Health Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.

The corpus luteum (CL) is essential for maintenance of pregnancy in all mammals and luteal rescue, which occurs around day 16-19 in the cow, is necessary to maintain luteal progesterone production. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling were performed to compare the day 17 bovine CL of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Among mRNA and proteins measured, 140 differentially abundant mRNA and 24 differentially abundant proteins were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz037DOI Listing

Endo-siRNAs regulate early embryonic development by inhibiting transcription of long terminal repeat sequence in pig.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Animal Cellular and Genetics Engineering of Heilongjiang Province, College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Harbin 150030, China.

Activity of some endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) has been proven to be important for development of early mammalian embryo. However, abnormal activation of ERVs can also cause genetic diseases due to their ability to retrotranspose, so the regulatory mechanism to limit transcription of ERVs needs to be clarified. Endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) has been reported to protect cells against transposable elements (TEs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz042DOI Listing

Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 and 2 regulate granulosa cell mitosis and survival through a NFΚB-dependent mechanism.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Animal Sciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) interacts with PGRMC2 and disrupting this interaction in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCS) leads to an inappropriate entry into the cell cycle, mitotic arrest and ultimately cell death. The present study revealed that PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 localize to the cytoplasm of murine granulosa cells of non-atretric follicles with their staining intensity being somewhat diminished in granulosa cells of atretic follicles. Compared to controls (Pgrmc1fl/fl), the rate at which granulosa cells entered the cell cycle increased in non-atretic and atretic follicles of mice in which Pgrmc1 was conditionally deleted (Pgrmc1d/d) from granulosa cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz043DOI Listing

Endometrial cells contribute to preexisting endometriosis lesions in a mouse model of retrograde menstruation.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Endometriosis is characterized by extra-uterine growth of endometrial tissue accompanied by adverse clinical manifestations including chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Retrograde menstruation, the efflux of endometrium into the peritoneal cavity during menstruation, is believed to contribute to implantation of endometrial tissue and formation of endometriotic lesions at ectopic sites. While it is established through various rodent and non-human primate models that endometrial tissue fragments, as well as non-dissociated stroma and glands, are capable of seeding endometriosis in a manner mimicking retrograde menstruation, the ability of single endometrial cells to participate in endometriotic processes has not been evaluated due to their failure to establish macroscopic endometriosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz039DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Comprehensive evaluation of ubiquitous promoters suitable for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Stem Cells and Human Disease Models, Research Center for Animal Life Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are considered to be the most valuable models for human transgenic (Tg) research into disease, because human pathology is more closely recapitulated in NHPs than rodents. Previous studies have reported the generation of Tg NHPs that ubiquitously overexpress a transgene using various promoters, but it is not yet clear which promoter is most suitable for the generation of NHPs overexpressing a transgene ubiquitously and persistently in various tissues. To clarify this issue, we evaluated four putative ubiquitous promoters, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early enhancer and chicken beta-actin (CAG), Elongation factor 1α (EF1α), Ubiquitin C (UbC), and CMV, using an in vitro differentiation system of cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz040DOI Listing

Hyperprolactinemic African elephant (Loxodonta africana) females exhibit elevated dopamine, oxytocin and serotonin concentrations compared to normal cycling and non-cycling, low prolactin elephants.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA.

Many zoo elephants do not cycle normally, and for African elephants, it often is associated with hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonists successfully treat hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian dysfunction in women, but not elephants. The objective of this study was to determine how longitudinal dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin patterns in African elephants are related to ovarian cycle function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz036DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Gasotransmitters in pregnancy: from conception to uterine involution†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Division of Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Gaso-transmitters are endogenous small gaseous messengers exemplified by nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S or sulfide). Gasotransmitters are implicated in myriad physiologic functions including many aspects of reproduction.

Objective: Comprehensively review basic mechanisms and functions of gasotransmitters during pregnancy from conception to uterine involution and highlight future research opportunities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz038DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Time-Lapse Imaging: The State of the Art.

Biol Reprod 2019 02 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

IVI-RMA Global Valencia, Spain.

The introduction of time-lapse imaging to clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF) practice enabled the undisturbed monitoring of embryos throughout the entire culture period. Initially, the main objective was to achieve a better embryo development. However, this technology also provided an insight into the novel concept of morphokinetics, parameters regarding embryo cell dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz035DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Translational activation of maternally-derived mRNAs in oocytes and early embryos and the role of embryonic poly(A) binding protein (EPAB).

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Transcription ceases upon stimulation of oocyte maturation and gene expression during oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early cleavage relies on translational-activation of maternally-derived mRNAs. Two key mechanisms that mediate translation of mRNAs in oocytes have been described in detail: cytoplasmic polyadenylation-dependent and -independent. Both of these mechanisms utilize specific protein complexes that interact with cis-acting sequences located on 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), and both involve embryonic poly(A) binding protein (EPAB), the predominant poly(A) binding protein during early development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz034DOI Listing
February 2019

An Interview with Dr Blanche Capel.

Authors:
T Rajendra Kumar

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Sciences, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz033DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Sperm selection methods in the 21st century.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Boston IVF, 130 Second Avenue, Waltham MA.

Natural sperm selection in humans is a rigorous process resulting in the highest quality sperm reaching, and having an opportunity to fertilize, the oocyte. Relative to other mammalian species, the human ejaculate consists of a heterogeneous pool of sperm, varying in characteristics such as shape, size and motility. Semen preparation in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has long been performed using either a simple swim up method or density gradients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz032DOI Listing
February 2019

Cooperative effects of sequential PGF2α and IL-1β on IL-6 and COX-2 expression in human myometrial cells.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Complex cellular and physiological interactions are required to prepare the uterus for birth. The change from the state of pregnancy to the state of parturition, which we call uterine transitioning, requires the actions of inflammatory mediators and results in an activated uterus capable of performing the physiology of labor. Interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin (PG)F2α are two key mediators implicated in preparing the uterus for labor by regulating the expression of uterine activation proteins (UAPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz029DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Ovine Uterine Artery Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis in vivo: Effects of Ovarian Cycle and Pregnancy.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697.

Uterine vasodilation dramatically increases during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and pregnancy which are estrogen-dominant physiological states. Uterine vasodilation is believed to be mainly controlled by local uterine artery (UA) production of vasodilators and angiogenic factors. The extremely potent vasodilator and proangiogenic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is synthesized via metabolizing L-cysteine by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz027DOI Listing
February 2019
3.318 Impact Factor

miR-21 reverses impaired decidualization through modulation of KLF12 and NR4A1 expression in human endometrial stromal cells†.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Impaired decidualization has been considered a major cause of infertility in adenomyosis. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that micro RNAs (miR) play a crucial role in embryo implantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz026DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Breakthroughs and new horizons in reproductive biology of rare and endangered animal species.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2SF, UK.

Because of higher extinction rates due to human and natural factors, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required to preserve wild species and design proper strategies leading to sustainable populations. The objective of the review is to highlight recent, inspiring breakthroughs in wildlife reproduction science that will set directions for future research and lead to more successes in conservation biology. Despite new tools and approaches allowing a better and faster understanding of key mechanisms, we still know little about reproduction in endangered species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz031DOI Listing
February 2019

Dual role of TGF-B in early pregnancy: Clues from tumor progression.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

TGF-β signaling in the endometrium is active during the implantation period and has a pivotal role in regulating endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. During embryo implantation, both apoptosis and proliferation of endometrial cells happen at the same time and it seems TGF-β is the factor that controls both of these processes. As shown in cancer cells, in special conditions this cytokine can have a dual effect and switch the action from apoptosis to proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz024DOI Listing
February 2019

Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Endangered Species Conservation: Developing sophisticated protocols with limited access to animals with unique reproductive mechanisms.

Authors:
Jason R Herrick

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been proposed as a means of overcoming the significant challenges of managing small, isolated populations of endangered species in zoos. However, efficient protocols for ARTs do not exist for most endangered species. This review will focus on research efforts to characterize unique reproductive mechanisms and develop species-specific ARTs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz025DOI Listing
February 2019
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Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is required in female mice for optimal embryonic development and implantation1.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Dept. Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, and.

Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) regulates central immune tolerance by inducing expression of tissue-restricted antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells, thereby ensuring elimination of autoreactive T cells. Aire mutations in humans and targeted Aire deletion in mice results in multi-organ autoimmune disease, known in humans as Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1 (APS-1). APS-1 is characterized by presence of adrenal insufficiency, chronic mucosal candidiasis, and/or hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz023DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

MicroRNA-30a-3p regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition to affect embryo implantation by targeting Snai2.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Key Laboratory of Obstetrics & Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, P. R. China.

Objective: To study the potential role of miR-30a-3p in embryo implantation and explore underlying mechanisms.

Methods: We first established normal pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation, and artificial decidualization mouse models. Next, we detected miR-30a-3p expression profiles of these models with real-time reverse transcription PCR(qRT-PCR), then predicted potential target genes through a dual-luciferase assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz022DOI Listing
February 2019

A high-throughput method for unbiased quantitation and categorisation of nuclear morphology.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NJ, UK.

The physical arrangement of chromatin in the nucleus is cell type and species specific; a fact particularly evident in sperm, in which most of the cytoplasm has been lost. Analysis of the characteristic falciform ("hook shaped") sperm in mice is important in studies of sperm development, hybrid sterility, infertility and toxicology. However, quantification of sperm shape differences typically relies on subjective manual assessment, rendering comparisons within and between samples difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz013DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
3.318 Impact Factor

Luteinizing hormone signaling is involved in synchronization of Leydig cell clock and is crucial for rhythm robustness of testosterone production.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Laboratory for Chronobiology and Aging; Laboratory for Reproductive Endocrinology and Signaling, Faculty of Sciences University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.

In mammals, circadian clock regulates concentration of many reproductive hormones including testosterone. Previously, we characterized pattern of circadian transcription of core clock genes in testosterone-producing Leydig cells. Here the potential role of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR)-cAMP signaling in synchronization of Leydig cell's circadian clock and rhythmic testosterone production were examined. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz020DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads
3.318 Impact Factor

LncRNAs and paraspeckles predict cell fate in early mouse embryo.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz021DOI Listing
February 2019

microRNAs in endometriosis: Biological function and emerging biomarker candidates.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, have been recognized as key post-transcriptional regulators associated with a multitude of human diseases. Global expression profiling studies have uncovered hundreds of miRNAs that are dysregulated in several diseases, and yielded many candidate biomarkers. This review will focus on miRNAs in endometriosis, a common chronic disease affecting nearly 10% of reproductive-aged women, which can cause pelvic pain, infertility, and a myriad of other symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz014DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Clinical application of embryo aneuploidy testing by NGS.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Igenomix Foundation/Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain.

We review here the evolution in the field of embryo aneuploidy testing over the last 20 years, from the analysis of a subset of chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to the transition toward a more comprehensive analysis of all 24 chromosomes. This current comprehensive aneuploidy testing most commonly employs next-generation sequencing (NGS). We present our experience in over 130,000 embryo biopsies using this technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz019DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads
3.318 Impact Factor

Membrane raft-mediated regulation of glucose signaling pathway leading to acrosome reaction in chicken sperm.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 JAPAN.

Despite knowledge that glucose metabolism is essential for the regulation of signaling cascades in the sperm that are pre-assembled into specific areas and function at multistage for fertilization, the physiological roles of glucose in avian sperm are poorly understood. Accumulated results of studies conducted in our laboratory and others indicate that sperm possess membrane microdomains, or membrane rafts, which play important roles in several processes, including the induction of acrosome reaction (AR). When characterizing proteomes associated with chicken sperm rafts, we observed marked enrichment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz015DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read