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    13998 results match your criteria Biology of Reproduction[Journal]

    1 OF 280

    Quantitative proteomic profiling of bovine follicular fluid during follicle development.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Animal Reproduction and Veterinary Radiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Bovine follicular fluid (FF) constitutes the microenvironment of follicles and includes various biologically active proteins. We performed a study involving 18 healthy non-lactating Holstein cows to determine the protein expression profile of FF at key-stages of follicular development. Follicles were individually aspirated in vivo at pre-deviation (F1∼7. Read More

    Progesterone, the maternal immune system and the onset of parturition in the mouse.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Academic Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, UK.
    The role of progesterone (P4) in the regulation of the local (uterine) and systemic innate immune system, myometrial expression of connexin 43 (Cx-43) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the onset of parturition was examined in: 1) naïve mice delivering at term; 2) E16 mice treated with RU486 (P4-antagonist) to induce preterm parturition; and 3) in mice treated with P4 to prevent term parturition.In naïve mice, myometrial neutrophil and monocyte numbers peaked at E18 and declined with the onset of parturition. In contrast, circulating monocytes did not change and although neutrophils were increased with pregnancy, they did not change across gestation. Read More

    Nonrandom contribution of left and right testes to germline transmission from mouse spermatogonial stem cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
    Vast amounts of sperm are produced from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which continuously undergo self-renewal. We examined the possible effect of laterality in male germline transmission efficiency of SSCs using a spermatogonial transplantation technique. We transplanted the same number of wild-type and Egfp transgenic SSCs in the same or different testes of individual recipient mice and compared the fertility of each type of recipient by natural mating. Read More

    TGF-beta1 from Endometriomas Promotes Fibrosis in Surrounding Ovarian Tissues via Smad2/3 Signaling.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Assisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University; Key Laboratory of Reproductive Dysfunction Management of Zhejiang Province.
    To elucidate whether the endometriotic cells of endometriomas synthesize transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and understand how it affects surrounding ovarian tissue. We collected biopsies of the cystic walls from 42 endometriomas and 29 mature teratomas and compared mRNA and protein expression of fibrosis-related factors between the cystic walls. Then we detected TGFB1 mRNA synthesis in endometriomas, and tested TGF-beta1 fibrotic effect in vitro. Read More

    Med12 regulates ovarian steroidogenesis, uterine development and maternal effects in the mammalian egg.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    The transcriptional factor MED12 is part of the essential mediator transcriptional complex that acts as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. Missense gain of function mutations in human MED12 are associated with uterine leiomyomas, yet the role of MED12 deficiency in tumorigenesis and reproductive biology has not been fully explored. We generated a Med12 reproductive conditional knockout mouse model to evaluate its role in uterine mesenchyme, granulosa cells, and oocytes. Read More

    Dimethyl sulfoxide and quercetin prolong the survival, motility, and fertility of cold-stored mouse sperm for 10 days.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Division of Reproductive Engineering, Center for Animal Resources and Development (CARD), Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan.
    Technology for preserving sperm is useful for disseminating valuable male genetic traits. Cold storage is suitable for easily transporting sperm as an alternative to the shipment of live animals. However, there is a technical limitation in that the fertility of cold-stored sperm declines within 3 days. Read More

    Freezing-induced uptake of disaccharides for preservation of chromatin in freeze-dried stallion sperm during accelerated aging.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Unit for Reproductive Medicine, Clinic for Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Non-viable freeze-dried sperm have intact chromatin and can be used for fertilization via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Freeze-dried sperm preferably should be stored at 4°C or lower, because DNA damage accumulates during storage at room temperature. Disaccharides are known to protect biomolecules both during freezing and drying, by forming a highly viscous glassy state. Read More

    Heritable Sperm Chromatin Epigenetics: A Break to Remember.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, College of Agriculture and Applied Sciences.
    Sperm chromatin not only has a unique structure to condense and protect the paternal DNA in transit, but also provides epigenetic information that supports embryonic development. Most of the unique sperm nuclear architecture is formed during the sweeping postmeiotic chromatin remodeling events in spermiogenesis, where the majority of nucleosomes are removed and replaced by protamines. The remaining histones and other chromatin proteins are located in structurally and transcriptionally relevant positions in the genome and carry diverse posttranslational modifications relevant to the control of embryonic gene expression. Read More

    The function of HDL and LDL in the maintenance of mouse ovarian steroid balance.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Research, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Ji'nan, Shandong 250014, China.
    The membrane proteins, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI, gene name Scarb1), are lipoprotein receptors that play central roles in lipoprotein metabolism. Cholesterol bound in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL is transported into cells mainly by SR-BI and LDLR. The relative contribution of LDL and HDL to the steroidogenic cholesterol pool varies among species and may vary among tissues within one species. Read More

    Germline competency of human embryonic stem cells depends on EOMESODERMIN.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology.
    In humans, germline competency and the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are thought to occur in a restricted developmental window during early embryogenesis. Despite the importance of specifying the appropriate number of PGCs for human reproduction, the molecular mechanisms governing PGC formation remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared PGC-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation from eighteen independently derived human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and discovered that the expression of primitive streak genes were positively associated with hESC germline competency. Read More

    Transcriptome-wide analysis suggests that temporal changes in the relative contributions of hyperplasia, hypertrophy and apoptosis underlie liver growth in pregnant mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Academic Unit of Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.
    Maternal liver undergoes structural and metabolic changes during pregnancy to meet the demands of the developing fetus. In rodents, this involves increased liver weight, but the mechanism remains unclear. To address this, we analysed the histology, gene expression and DNA methylation of livers of non-pregnant and pregnant C57/BL6 mice. Read More

    Cell-based computational model of early ovarian development in mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Sep;97(3):365-377
    Institute of Environmental Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Despite its importance to reproduction, certain mechanisms of early ovarian development remain a mystery. To improve our understanding, we constructed the first cell-based computational model of ovarian development in mice that is divided into two phases: Phase I spans embryonic day 5.5 (E5. Read More

    Seipin deficiency leads to defective parturition in mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Sep;97(3):378-386
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.
    Seipin is an integral endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein encoded by Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2/Bscl2) gene. Seipin deficiency results in lipodystrophy, diabetes, muscle hypertrophy, and male infertility in both human and mouse. Seipin function in female reproduction is unknown. Read More

    Trio, a novel high fecundity allele: I. Transcriptome analysis of granulosa cells from carriers and non-carriers of a major gene for bovine ovulation rate.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
    A major gene for bovine ovulation rate has been mapped to a 1.2 Mb region of chromosome 10. Screening of coding regions of positional candidate genes within this region failed to reveal a causative polymorphism, leading to the hypothesis that the phenotype results from differences in candidate gene expression rather than alteration of gene structure. Read More

    Effect of lactation on conceptus-maternal interactions at the initiation of implantation in cattle: I. Effects on the conceptus transcriptome and amino acid composition of the uterine luminal fluid.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Approximately 65-75 days post-partum (dpp), the estrous cycles of non-lactating (dried off immediately post partum: n = 12) and lactating (n = 13) Holstein Friesian cows were synchronized and on Day 7 a single blastocyst derived from superovulated nulliparous Holstein Friesian heifers was transferred to each cow. A control group of nulliparous heifers (n = 8) were synchronized, inseminated to a standing heat and slaughtered on the same day as non-lactating and lactating recipients (Day 19; estrus = Day 0). The uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum was flushed with 10 ml PBS and the conceptus, and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Read More

    Distinct dynorphin expression patterns with low- and high-dose estrogen treatment in the arcuate nucleus of female rats.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kisspeptin (KISS1; encoded by Kiss1 ) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) co-express tachykinin 3 (TAC3; also known as neurokinin B) and dynorphin A (PDYN). Accordingly, they are termed KNDy neurons and considered to be crucial in generating pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Accumulating evidence suggests that Kiss1 and Tac3 are negatively regulated by estrogen. Read More

    Lesion development is modulated by the natural estrous cycle and mouse strain in a minimally-invasive model of endometriosis.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Discipline of Physiology, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Many rodent models of endometriosis are invasive, involving surgery to implant donor endometrial tissue into recipient animals. Moreover, few studies have compared and contrasted lesions between rodent strains and estrous stages without exogenous hormone manipulation. This is despite extensive data demonstrating that genetic and hormonal factors can influence endometriosis progression. Read More

    Transabdominal Ultrasound-guided Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction in 10 Cases of Monkeys.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedicine Research; Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.
    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) in non-human primates (NHPs), e.g. rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, has been widely used in researches of reproductive and developmental biology, and the success rate has been improved significantly. Read More

    A teleost androgen promotes development of primary ovarian follicles in coho salmon and rapidly alters the ovarian transcriptome.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105.
    Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli). Read More

    The mycotoxin metabolite deepoxy-deoxynivalenol increases apoptosis and decreases steroidogenesis in bovine ovarian theca cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Centre de recherche en reproduction et fertilité, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada.
    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) has been shown to inhibit ovarian granulosa cell function in cattle in vitro, but it is not known whether DON or its metabolite deepoxy-DON (DOM-1) affect theca cell function. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of DON and of DOM-1 on theca cell steroidogenesis and apoptosis, and to determine the main pathways through which they act. Bovine theca cells were cultured in a non-luteinizing serum-free culture system, and challenged with DON or DOM-1 for 4 d to measure steroidogenesis and apoptosis, for 1-8 h to measure immediate-early genes, and for 5-60 min to measure phosphorylation of intracellular signaling proteins. Read More

    Impaired sperm maturation in conditional Lcn6 knockout mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Human LCN6, a lipocalin protein, exhibits predominant expression in epididymis and location on the sperm surface. However, the biological function of LCN6 in vivo remains unknown. Herein, we found that unlike human LCN6, mouse Lcn6 gene encoded two transcript variants that were both up regulated by androgen. Read More

    Generation of transgenic marmosets using a tetracyclin-inducible transgene expression system as a neurodegenerative disease model.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Controllable transgene expression systems are indispensable tools for the production of animal models of disease to investigate protein functions at defined periods. However, in non-human primates that share genetic, physiological, and morphological similarities with humans, genetic modification techniques have not been well established; therefore, the establishment of novel transgenic models with controllable transgene expression systems will be valuable tools to understand pathological mechanism of human disease. In the present study, we successfully generated transgenic marmosets using a tetracyclin-inducible transgene expression (tet-on) system as a neurodegenerative disease model. Read More

    GLP-1 increases Kiss-1 mRNA expression in kisspeptin-expressing neuronal cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):240-248
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.
    Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. Read More

    Pregnancy-induced changes in metabolome and proteome in ovine uterine flushings.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):273-287
    Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    Mass spectrometry (MS) approaches were used herein to identify metabolites and proteins in uterine flushings (UF) that may contribute to nourishing the conceptus. Ovine uteri collected on Day 12 of the estrous cycle (n = 5 ewes exposed to vasectomized ram) or Days 12 (n = 4), 14 (n = 5), or 16 (n = 5) of pregnancy (bred with fertile ram) were flushed using buffered saline. Metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol and profiled using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

    Computational imaging of sperm locomotion.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):182-188
    Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Not only essential for scientific research, but also in the analysis of male fertility and for animal husbandry, sperm tracking and characterization techniques have been greatly benefiting from computational imaging. Digital image sensors, in combination with optical microscopy tools and powerful computers, have enabled the use of advanced detection and tracking algorithms that automatically map sperm trajectories and calculate various motility parameters across large data sets. Computational techniques are driving the field even further, facilitating the development of unconventional sperm imaging and tracking methods that do not rely on standard optical microscopes and objective lenses, which limit the field of view and volume of the semen sample that can be imaged. Read More

    Molecular regulation of sex change induced by methyltestosterone -feeding and methyltestosterone -feeding withdrawal in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):324-333
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.
    The sex identity of fish can be easily manipulated by exogenous hormones. Treatment with 17-methyltestosterone (MT) has been widely used to induce a male fate, but the molecular and cellular processes underlying sex changes induced by MT treatments and the withdrawal of MT are not well studied. In this study, we systematically investigated gonadal histology, gene expression profiles, sex steroid hormone levels, and cellular changes during sex changes induced by MT-feeding and MT-feeding withdrawal in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Read More

    Dynamic expression of long noncoding RNAs reveals their potential roles in spermatogenesis and fertility.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):313-323
    Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
    Mammalian reproduction requires that males and females produce functional haploid germ cells through complex cellular differentiation processes known as spermatogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. While numerous studies have functionally characterized protein-coding genes and small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and piRNAs) that are essential for gametogenesis, the roles of regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are yet to be fully characterized. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that intergenic regions of the mammalian genome encode thousands of long noncoding RNAs, and many studies have now demonstrated their critical roles in key biological processes. Read More

    Expression of STRA8 is conserved in therian mammals but expression of CYP26B1 differs between marsupials and mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):217-229
    School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    The first sign of mammalian germ cell sexual differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in females and of mitotic arrest in males. In the mouse, retinoic acid induces ovarian Stra8 expression and entry of germ cells into meiosis. In developing mouse testes, cytochrome P450 family 26, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP26B1) produced by the Sertoli cells degrades retinoic acid, preventing Stimulated by Retinoic Acid Gene 8 (Stra8), expression and inhibiting meiosis. Read More

    Genomic identification, expression profiling, and functional characterization of CatSper channels in the bovine.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):302-312
    Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Cation channels of sperm (CatSper) are sperm-specific calcium channels with identified roles in the regulation of sperm function in humans, mice, and horses. We sought to employ a comparative genomics approach to identify conserved CATSPER genes in the bovine genome, and profile their expression in reproductive tissue. We hypothesized that CATSPER proteins expressed in bull testicular tissue mediates sperm hyperactivation and their rheotactic response in the reproductive tract of the cow. Read More

    P2X7 receptor blockade prevents preterm birth and perinatal brain injury in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):230-239
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    The P2X7 is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated ion channel involved in several facets of immune activation and neuronal function through its importance in interleukin (IL)-1β secretion. We hypothesized that blockade of P2X7 would prevent perinatal brain injury associated with exposure to intrauterine (IU) inflammation. Dams received 45 mg/kg of Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a specific P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) antagonist, on gestation day 17 (E17) prior to administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Read More

    SMAD7 regulates proinflammatory and prolabor mediators in amnion and myometrium.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):288-301
    Obstetrics, Nutrition and Endocrinology Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Preterm birth continues to be a significant public health problem. Infection (bacterial and or viral) and inflammation, by stimulating proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), play a central role in the rupture of membranes and myometrial contractions. SMAD7 has been implicated in regulating the inflammatory response; however, no studies have been performed with regard to human labor. Read More

    New hope for symptom management during natural and iatrogenic menopause transitions.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):177-178
    Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Bone loss is associated with aging and is exacerbated by female transition to menopause. Estrogen has long been associated with bone loss, and replacement therapy is effective at restoring bone health. In the last 10 years, pituitary and gonadal peptide hormones have been implicated in bone biology, and here we update the story on FSH and its potential role as a direct regulator of bone and adipose. Read More

    Cultured bovine embryo biopsy conserves methylation marks from original embryo.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):189-196
    Departamento de Reproducción Animal, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain.
    A major limitation of embryo epigenotyping by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis is the reduced amount of sample available from an embryo biopsy. We developed an in vitro system to expand trophectoderm cells from an embryo biopsy to overcome this limitation. This work analyzes whether expanded trophectoderm (EX) is representative of the trophectoderm (TE) methylation or adaptation to culture has altered its epigenome. Read More

    The response of the innate immune and cardiovascular systems to LPS in pregnant and nonpregnant mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Aug;97(2):258-272
    Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London, UK.
    Sepsis is the leading cause of direct maternal mortality, but there are no data directly comparing the response to sepsis in pregnant and nonpregnant (NP) individuals. This study uses a mouse model of sepsis to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular response to sepsis is more marked during pregnancy. Female CD1 mice had radiotelemetry probes implanted and were time mated. Read More

    Neonatal immune activation depletes the ovarian follicle reserve and alters ovarian acute inflammatory mediators in neonatal rats.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Priority Research Centre for Brain and Mental Health Research, School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Normal ovarian development is crucial for female reproductive success and longevity. Interruptions to the delicate process of initial folliculogenesis may lead to ovarian dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated that an early life immune challenge in the rat, induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5, depletes ovarian follicle reserve long term. Read More

    Extra-pituitary expressed follicle-stimulating hormone: Is it physiologically important?
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct;97(4):622-626
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
    Pituitary gonadotropes synthesize and secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is a heterodimer that consists of an α- and β-subunit. The α-subunit is common to other pituitary and placental glycoprotein hormones, and the β-subunit is the hormone/receptor-specific subunit. Read More

    CASAnova: a multiclass support vector machine model for the classification of human sperm motility patterns.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC USA 27599.
    The ability to accurately monitor alterations in sperm motility is paramount to understanding multiple genetic and biochemical perturbations impacting normal fertilization. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) of human sperm typically reports motile percentage and kinematic parameters at the population level, and uses kinematic gating methods to identify subpopulations such as progressive or hyperactivated sperm. The goal of this study was to develop an automated method that classifies all patterns of human sperm motility during in vitro capacitation following the removal of seminal plasma. Read More

    IL6 secretion from alternatively activated macrophages promotes the migration of endometriotic epithelial cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea.
    Accumulating evidence has suggested an interaction between endometriotic cells and macrophages in the endometriotic microenvironment and the potential role of this interaction in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, how endometriotic cells communicate with macrophages to influence their function is poorly understood. In the present study, we found that the mRNA expression and production of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were much higher in human endometriotic epithelial cells (11Z and 12Z) than those in human endometrial epithelial cells (HES). Read More

    The developmental origin and compartmentalization of glutathione-s-transferase omega 2 isoforms in the perinuclear theca of eutherian spermatozoa.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct;97(4):612-621
    Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    The perinuclear theca (PT) is a condensed, nonionic detergent resistant cytosolic protein layer encapsulating the sperm head nucleus. It can be divided into two regions: the subacrosomal layer, whose proteins are involved in acrosomal assembly during spermiogenesis, and the postacrosomal sheath (PAS), whose proteins are implicated in sperm-oocyte interactions during fertilization. In continuation of our proteomic analysis of the PT, we have isolated two prominent PT-derived proteins of 28 and 31 kDa from demembranated bovine sperm head fractions. Read More

    Strong inhibition of neutrophil-sperm interaction in cattle by selective PI3-kinase inhibitors.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Androgenix Limited, the Institute for Innovation in Biotechnology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    The vast majority of sperm are lost from the female reproductive tract in hours following natural mating or artificial insemination in mammals. Multiple complex processes including uterine contractions, mucus barriers and phagocytosis of sperm by neutrophils have been reported to be involved in the sperm loss, although the contribution of each process is uncertain. If phagocytosis by neutrophils has a significant role in sperm loss, inhibition of neutrophil response to sperm could potentially reduce the dose of sperm required for artificial insemination. Read More

    Porcupine-dependent Wnt activity within the uterine epithelium is essential for fertility.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    The secretion of mammalian Wnt ligands within the cell is dependent on the activity of Porcupine, a gene located on the X-chromosome that encodes for a membrane bound o-acyl transferase. Here, we report that post-natal ablation of Porcupine in the uterine luminal epithelium alone results in the decrease in endometrial gland number. Despite having uterine glands, mutant females are completely infertile. Read More

    Effects of noncavity-distorting fibroids on endometrial gene expression and function.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Oct;97(4):564-576
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, 550 16th street, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Uterine fibroids are a common finding in infertility patients. Impaired implantation and decidualization have been proposed to contribute to compromised fertility. Data are limited on the endometrial transcriptome from subjects with uterine fibroids, as well as endometrial receptivity and decidualization potential of endometrial stromal fibroblasts (eSF) from women with fibroids. Read More

    Heat stress induces autophagy in pig ovaries during follicular development.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Sep;97(3):426-437
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.
    Hyperthermia or heat stress (HS) occurs when heat dissipation mechanisms are overwhelmed by external and internal heat production. Hyperthermia negatively affects reproduction and potentially compromises oocyte integrity and reduces developmental competence of ensuing embryos. Autophagy is the process by which cells recycle energy through the reutilization of cellular components and is activated by a variety of stressors. Read More

    Transcriptome profiling of individual rhesus macaque oocytes and preimplantation embryos.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Sep;97(3):353-364
    Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
    Early mammalian embryonic transcriptomes are dynamic throughout the process of preimplantation development. Cataloging of primate transcriptomics during early development has been accomplished in humans, but global characterization of transcripts is lacking in the rhesus macaque: a key model for human reproductive processes. We report here the systematic classification of individual macaque transcriptomes using RNA-Seq technology from the germinal vesicle stage oocyte through the blastocyst stage embryo. Read More

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