14,649 results match your criteria Biology of Reproduction[Journal]


Selection of side of ovulation by intraovarianism in Bos taurus heifers†.

Authors:
O J Ginther

Biol Reprod 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Eutheria Foundation, Cross Plains, Wisconsin 53528, USA.

Intraovarianism refers to mechanisms within an ovary that affect local follicle and luteal dynamics and is well-represented in heifers by greater frequency of ovulation from right ovary (RO) than left ovary (LO). On average, the RO has more 6-mm follicles than the LO before one follicle is selected to deviate in diameter and become the future ovulatory follicle. Therefore, the ovulatory follicle is more frequently selected from RO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa118DOI Listing

Bridging the gap: advancing multipurpose prevention technologies from the lab into the hands of women†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa085DOI Listing

The postcoital test in the development of new vaginal contraceptives†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Postcoital tests (PCTs) have been used for over a century in the clinical evaluation of infertile couples, and for nearly 70 years in the evaluation of new vaginal contraceptive products. PCTs have been largely replaced by more modern methods in the study of infertility, but they remain the most useful way to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of vaginal contraceptive products. The World Health Organization has described important aspects of the procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa099DOI Listing

Synthesis of 2-phenyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoxaline derivatives and screening for P2X1-purinoreceptor antagonist activity in isolated preparations of rat vas deferens, for translation into a male contraceptive.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Vic. Australia.

Sympathetically mediated contractions of smooth muscle cells in vasa deferentia are mediated by neuronally released adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and noradrenaline, which stimulate P2X1-purinoreceptors and α1A-adrenoceptors respectively. This process is crucial for sperm transport, as demonstrated in knockout mouse studies where simultaneous genetic deletion of P2X1-purinoreceptors and α1A-adrenoceptors resulted in male infertility. We hypothesise that dual pharmacological antagonism of these two receptors could inhibit sperm transport sufficiently to provide a novel non-hormonal method of male contraception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa117DOI Listing

Towards a roadmap to advance non-hormonal contraceptive multipurpose prevention technologies: strategic insights from key stakeholders†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

The Initiative for Multipurpose Prevention Technologies, A Project of CAMI Health, Public Health Institute, Sacramento, CA, USA.

The development of non-hormonal contraceptives is critical to increase options for women. In combination with prevention against sexually transmitted infections, they can become an important component of multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) which address multiple reproductive health needs with a single product. Resulting from multiple rounds of expert consultations, this framework aims to guide the development of non-hormonal contraceptive MPTs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa092DOI Listing

Proteomic and metabolomic analyses uncover sex-specific regulatory pathways in mouse fetal germline differentiation.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan.

Regulatory mechanisms of germline differentiation have generally been explained via the function of signaling pathways, transcription factors, and epigenetic regulation; however, little is known regarding proteomic and metabolomic regulation and their contribution to germ cell development. Here, we conducted integrated proteomic and metabolomic analyses of fetal germ cells in mice on embryonic day (E)13.5 and E18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa115DOI Listing

Metabolic changes in mouse sperm during capacitation.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY.

Mammalian sperm are stored in the epididymis in a dormant state. Upon ejaculation, they must immediately start producing sufficient energy to maintain motility and support capacitation. While this increased energy demand during capacitation is well-established, it remains unclear how mouse sperm modify their metabolism to meet this need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa114DOI Listing

Distinct follicular and luteal transcriptional profiles in engineered human ectocervical tissue dependent on menstrual cycle phase.

Biol Reprod 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

To investigate genomic pathways that may influence physiology and infectivity during the menstrual cycle, RNA sequence analysis was performed on patient-matched engineered ectocervical tissue after follicular and luteal phase (LP) hormone treatments. We developed distinct cellular, molecular, and biological profiles in ectocervical epithelium dependent on the menstrual cycle phase. Follicular phase hormones were associated with proliferation, transcription, and cell adhesion, while LP samples expressed genes involved in immune cell recruitment, inflammation, and protein modifications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa056DOI Listing

Engineering monoclonal antibody-based contraception and multipurpose prevention technologies†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

ZabBio, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

Sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent, and over 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. We are producing new antibody-based multipurpose prevention technology products to address these problems and fill an unmet need in female reproductive health. We used a Nicotiana platform to manufacture monoclonal antibodies against two prevalent sexually transmitted pathogens, HIV-1 and HSV-2, and incorporated them into a vaginal film (MB66) for preclinical and Phase 1 clinical testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa096DOI Listing

Ageing in Human Parturition: Impetus of the Gestation Clock in the Decidua.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Pregnancy Research Centre, Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, the Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 3052.

Despite sharing many common features, the relationship between ageing and parturition remains poorly understood. The decidua is a specialized lining of endometrial tissue, which develops in preparation for pregnancy. The structure and location of the decidua supports its role as the physical scaffold for the growing embryo and placenta, and thus it is vital to sustain pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa113DOI Listing

Knockout of family with sequence similarity 170 member A (Fam170a) causes male subfertility, while Fam170b is dispensable in mice†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Families with sequence similarity 170 members A and B (FAM170A and FAM170B) are testis-specific, paralogous proteins that share 31% amino acid identity and are conserved throughout mammals. While previous in vitro experiments suggested that FAM170B, an acrosome-localized protein, plays a role in the mouse sperm acrosome reaction and fertilization, the role of FAM170A in the testis has not been explored. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate null alleles for each gene, and homozygous null (-/-) male mice were mated to wild-type females for 6 months to assess fertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa082DOI Listing

The Na+ and K+ transport system of sperm (ATP1A4) is essential for male fertility and an attractive target for male contraception†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Institute for Therapeutics Discovery and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA.

One of the mechanisms that cells have developed to fulfil their specialized tasks is to express different molecular variants of a particular protein that has unique functional properties. Na,K-ATPase (NKA), the ion transport mechanism that maintains the transmembrane Na+ and K+ concentrations across the plasma membrane of cells, is one of such protein systems that shows high molecular and functional heterogeneity. Four different isoforms of the NKA catalytic subunit are expressed in mammalian cells (NKAα1, NKAα2, NKAα3, and NKAα4). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa093DOI Listing

Role of AMP-activated protein kinase during postovulatory aging of mouse oocytes†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an City, P. R. China.

Studies suggested that postovulatory oocyte aging might be prevented by maintaining a high maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity. Whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays any role in postovulatory oocyte aging is unknown. Furthermore, while activation of AMPK stimulates meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes, it inhibits meiotic resumption in pig and bovine oocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa081DOI Listing
May 2020
3.318 Impact Factor

CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in mice uncovers 13 testis- or epididymis-enriched genes individually dispensable for male reproduction†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Experimental Genome Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Developing a safe and effective male contraceptive remains a challenge in the field of medical science. Molecules that selectively target the male reproductive tract and whose targets are indispensable for male reproductive function serve among the best candidates for a novel non-hormonal male contraceptive method. To determine the function of these genes in vivo, mutant mice carrying disrupted testis- or epididymis-enriched genes were generated by zygote microinjection or electroporation of the CRISPR/Cas9 components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa083DOI Listing

Timing of exposure to gonadotropins has differential effects on the conceptus: evidence from a mouse model.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Superovulation with gonadotropins alters the hormonal milieu during early embryo development and placentation, and may be responsible for fetal and placental changes observed after IVF. We hypothesized that superovulation has differential effects depending on timing of exposure. To test our hypothesis, we isolated the effect of superovulation on pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa109DOI Listing

Roles of gonad-inhibiting hormone in the protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite peppermint shrimp†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, People's Republic of China.

To date, the molecular mechanisms of the unique gonadal development mode known as protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (PSH) are unclear in crustaceans. In this study, cDNA of a gonad-inhibiting hormone (Lv-GIH1) was isolated from the PSH peppermint shrimp Lysmata vittata, and its expression was exclusively found in the eyestalk ganglion. qRT-PCR revealed that the expression of Lv-GIH1 increased during gonadal development of the functional male stages, but decreased significantly at subsequent simultaneous hermaphroditism stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa111DOI Listing
June 2020
3.318 Impact Factor

Phosphorylation of YAP Impairs Trophoblast Invasion and Migration: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Fetal Growth Restriction.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition in which a newborn fails to achieve his or her prospective hereditary growth potential. This condition is associated with high newborn mortality, second only to that associated with premature birth. FGR is associated with maternal, fetal and placental abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa112DOI Listing
June 2020
3.318 Impact Factor

Spatiotemporal expression of aquaporin 9 is critical for the antral growth of mouse ovarian follicles††.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Sungshin University, Seoul, 136-742, Korea.

Although a few aquaporins (AQPs) expressed in granulosa cells have been postulated to mediate fluid passage into the antrum, the specific expression of AQPs in different follicle cell types and stages and their roles have not been evaluated extensively. The spatiotemporal expression of aquaporin (Aqp) 7, 8, and 9 and the functional roles of Aqp9 in antral growth and ovulation were examined using a superovulation model and 3-dimensional follicle culture. Aqp9 was expressed at a high level in the rapid growth phase (24-48 h post equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for superovulation induction) compared to Aqp7 (after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)) and Aqp8 (8-24 h post eCG and 24 h post hCG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa108DOI Listing

Preclinical contraceptive development for men and women.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

This manuscript endeavors to present research considerations for the preclinical development of non-hormonal contraceptives. Topics include (1) how advances in genomics and bioinformatics impact the identification of novel targets for non-hormonal contraception, (2) the importance of target validation prior to investment in a contraceptive development campaign, (3) considerations on targeting gametogenesis vs gamete maturation/function, (4) how targets from the male reproductive system are expanding women's options for 'on demand' contraception, and (5) some emerging non-hormonal methods that are not based on a specific molecular target. Also presented are ideas for developing a pipeline of non-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-acting contraceptives for men and women while balancing risk and innovation, and our perspective on the pros and cons of industry and academic environments on contraceptive development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa076DOI Listing

HIV, progestins, genital epithelial barrier function, and the burden of objectivity†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Contributions from a diverse set of scientific disciplines will be needed to help individuals make fully informed decisions regarding contraceptive choices least likely to promote HIV susceptibility. This commentary recaps contrasting interpretations of results from the Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) Trial, a study that compared HIV risk in women using the progestin-only injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) vs. two other contraceptive choices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa078DOI Listing

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-edited mice reveal 10 testis-enriched genes are dispensable for male fecundity.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

As the world population continues to increase to unsustainable levels, the importance of birth control and the development of new contraceptives are emerging. To date, male contraceptive options have been lagging behind those available to women, and those few options available are not satisfactory to everyone. To solve this problem, we have been searching for new candidate target proteins for non-hormonal contraceptives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa084DOI Listing

Interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 is a target of progesterone receptor and steroid receptor coactivator-1 in the mouse uterus†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI.

The endometrium, composed of epithelial and stromal cell compartments, is tightly regulated by the ovarian steroid hormones estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) during early pregnancy. Through the progesterone receptor (PGR), steroid receptor coactivators, and other transcriptional coregulators, progesterone inhibits E2-induced cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of stromal cells in a process called decidualization to promote endometrial receptivity. Although interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (Il13ra2) is expressed in the human and mouse endometrium, its potential role in the steroid hormone regulation of the endometrium has not been thoroughly examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa110DOI Listing

The Role of the IL-1 System in Pregnancy and the Use of IL-1 System Markers to Identify Women at Risk for Pregnancy Complications†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

University of Geneva, Switzerland.

The interleukin (IL)-1 system plays a major role in immune responses and inflammation. The IL-1 system components include IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor type 1 and IL-1 receptor type 2 (decoy receptor), IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). These components have been shown to play a role in pregnancy, specifically in embryo-maternal communication for implantation, placenta development, and protection against infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa102DOI Listing

Review of rationale and progress towards targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) for male contraception1.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a member of the larger cell cycle regulating CDK family of kinases, activated by binding partner cyclins as its name suggests. Despite its canonical role in mitosis, CDK2 knockout mice are viable but sterile, suggesting compensatory mechanisms for loss of CDK2 in mitosis but not meiosis. Here, we review the literature surrounding the role of CDK2 in meiosis, particularly a cyclin-independent role in complex with another activator, Speedy 1 (SPY1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa107DOI Listing

Exogenous sex steroids regulate genital epithelial barrier function in female rhesus macaques.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

There is concern that using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for pregnancy prevention heightens HIV susceptibility. While no clinical data establishes causal link between HIV acquisition and use of this injectable progestin, prior work from our laboratory showed that DMPA comparably lowers genital levels of the cell-cell adhesion molecule desmoglein-1 (DSG1) and weakens genital epithelial barrier function in female mice and humans. We likewise saw DMPA increase mouse susceptibility to multiple genital pathogens including HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa105DOI Listing

Nesfatin-1-Like Peptide Suppresses Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal mRNAs, Gonadal Steroidogenesis and Oocyte Maturation in Fish.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Integrative Neuroendocrinology, Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Nucleobindin (Nucb)-1 and Nucb2 are DNA and Ca2+ binding proteins with multiple functions in vertebrates. Prohormone convertase-mediated processing of Nucb2 results in the production of biologically active nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1 is involved in the regulation of reproduction in many vertebrates, including fish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa106DOI Listing

High fat diet induced obesity increases proportion of linoleic acyl residues in dam serum and milk and in suckling neonate circulation.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Animal Sciences Department, Purdue University, Indiana 47907, USA.

Maternal obesity increases the risk of offspring to become obese and develop related pathologies. Exposure to maternal high fat diet (HFD) only during lactation increases risk of obesity-related diseases, suggesting factors in milk affect long-term health. We hypothesized that prepregnancy obesity induced by HFD alters milk lipidome, and in turn, alterations may affect neonate serum lipidome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa103DOI Listing

Mechanism of semen liquefaction and its potential for a novel non-hormonal contraception†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

School of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

Semen liquefaction is a proteolytic process where a gel-like ejaculated semen becomes watery due to the enzymatic activity of prostate-derived serine proteases in the female reproductive tract. The liquefaction process is crucial for the sperm to gain their motility and successful transport to the fertilization site in Fallopian tubes (or oviducts in animals). Hyperviscous semen or failure in liquefaction is one of the causes of male infertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa075DOI Listing

The new contraceptive revolution: developing innovative products outside of industry†,‡.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Reproductive Health Product Innovation & Introduction, Global Health Population & Nutrition, FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA.

A significant global unmet need for new contraceptive options for both women and men remains due to side effect profiles, medical concerns, and inconvenience of many currently available products. The pharmaceutical industry has largely abandoned early research and development for contraception and will not likely engage to bring new products to the market unless they have been significantly de-risked by showing promise in early phase clinical trials. This lack of interest by big pharma comes at a time when scientific and technological advances in biology and medicine are creating more opportunities than ever for the development of new and innovative drug products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa067DOI Listing

Tmprss12 is required for sperm motility and uterotubal junction migration in mice†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Experimental Genome Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Spermatozoa are produced in the testis but gain their fertilizing ability during epididymal migration. This necessary step in sperm maturation includes posttranslational modification of sperm membrane proteins that includes protein processing by proteases. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning this epididymal sperm maturation remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa060DOI Listing

Zucchini: the key ingredient to unveil piRNA precursor processing.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa090DOI Listing

Regulation of the neuroendocrine axis in male rats by soy-based diets is independent of age and due specifically to isoflavone action†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn AL 36849.

Soy-based foods are consumed for their health beneficial effects, implying that the population is exposed to soy isoflavones in the diet. Herein, male rats at 21, 35 and 75 days of age were maintained either on a casein control diet, soybean meal (SBM), or control diet supplemented with daidzin and genistin (G + D) for 14 days. Feeding of SBM and G + D diets decreased testicular testosterone (T) secretion regardless of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa101DOI Listing

IRX3 and IRX5 Collaborate During Ovary Development and Follicle Formation to Establish Responsive Granulosa Cells in the Adult Mouse.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Healthy development of ovarian follicles depends on appropriate interactions and function between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. Previously, we showed that double knockout of Irx3 and Irx5 (Irx3/5 DKO) in mice resulted in abnormal follicle morphology and follicle death. Further, female mouse models of individual Irx3 or Irx5 knockouts were both subfertile but with distinct defects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa100DOI Listing

MiRNA-155 regulates cumulus cells function, oocyte maturation and blastocyst formation.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Numerous oocytes are retrieved during in vitro fertilization (IVF) from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The poor quality of these oocytes leads to lower fertilization, and decreases in cleavage and implantation. MiR-155 is one miRNA that is increased in serum and granulose cells of PCOS patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa098DOI Listing

MicroRNA-204-5p Regulates Apoptosis by Targeting Bcl2 in Rat Ovarian Granulosa.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environment Factors and Cancer, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health.

This study aimed to investigate whether cadmium (Cd) cytotoxicity in rat ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs) is mediated through apoptosis or autophagy and to determine the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in Cd cytotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, rat OGCs were exposed to 0, 10 and 20 μM CdCl2 in vitro. As the Cd concentration increased, OGC apoptosis increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa091DOI Listing

Patients who failed to conceive following an IVF cycle can be clustered into different failure causes using gene expression hierarchical analysis.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centre de Recherche en Reproduction, Développement et Santé Intergénérationnelle (CRDSI), Université Laval, 2440 Boulevard Hochelaga, Québec, QC, Canada, G1V 0A6.

The patient's response to the IVF stimulation protocol is highly variable and thus difficult to predict. When a cycle fails, there are often no apparent or obvious reasons to explain the failure. Having clues on what went wrong during stimulation could serve as a basis to improve and personalize the next stimulation protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa089DOI Listing

Attenuated lymphocyte activation leads to the development of immunotolerance in bovine fetuses persistently infected with BVDV†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, USA.

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to cost the cattle industry millions of dollars each year despite control measures. The primary reservoirs for BVDV are persistently infected (PI) animals, which are infected in utero and shed the virus throughout their lifetime. The difficulty in controlling the virus stems from a limited understanding of transplacental transmission and fetal development of immunotolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa088DOI Listing

Development of Multipurpose Technologies Products for Pregnancy and STI Prevention; update on polyphenylene carboxymethylene MPT gel development.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Yaso Therapeutics, Scottsdale, AZ 85255.

Current modern contraceptives rely heavily on the use of hormones. These birth control drug products, including pills, patches, injections, and IUDS, have been extremely beneficial to millions of women and their families over the past 50 years. But a surprisingly high number of women abandon such modern methods, many because they cannot tolerate the side effects, and others because they have medical issues for which hormonal methods are contraindicated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa087DOI Listing

The Role of Team Science in the Future of Male Contraception†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Male Contraceptive Initiative, Durham, North Carolina.

Efforts to develop a male contraceptive method beyond condoms and vasectomy have been on-going for nearly 70 years. During this time there have been ebbs and modest flows of resources available to support product development, but not at a level sufficient to carry research efforts through to market. The small community of researchers that have continued to pursue the development of male contraceptives is comprised of dedicated scientists who have a great deal of knowledge and experience to offer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa086DOI Listing

A cell-based high-content screen identifies isocotoin as a small molecule inhibitor of the meiosis-specific MEIOB-SPATA22 complex†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

MEIOB and SPATA22 are meiosis-specific proteins, interact with each other, and are essential for meiotic recombination and fertility. Aspartic acid 383 (D383) in MEIOB is critical for its interaction with SPATA22 in biochemical studies. Here we report that genetic studies validate the requirement of D383 for the function of MEIOB in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa062DOI Listing
April 2020
3.318 Impact Factor

Anti-Müllerian Hormone production in the ovary: a comparative study in bovine and porcine granulosa cells.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC), INRAE, CNRS, IFCE, Université de Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France.

In this study, we aimed to determine the origin of the difference, in terms of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) production, existing between the bovine and porcine ovaries. We first confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA assay and immunohistochemistry that AMH mRNA and protein production are very low in porcine ovarian growing follicles compared to bovine ones. We then have transfected porcine and bovine granulosa cells with vectors containing the luciferase gene driven by the porcine or the bovine AMH promoter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa077DOI Listing

CIB4 is essential for the haploid phase of spermatogenesis in mice†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Experimental Genome Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process that involves the proliferation of diploid cells, meiotic division, and haploid differentiation. Many genes are shown to be essential for male fertility using knockout (KO) mice; however, there still remain genes to be analyzed to elucidate their molecular mechanism and their roles in spermatogenesis. Calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that possesses three paralogs: CIB2, CIB3, and CIB4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa059DOI Listing

Gene analysis of major signalling pathways regulated by gonadotropins in human ovarian granulosa tumour cells (KGN)†.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Centre de recherche en Reproduction, Développement et Santé Intergénérationnelle, Faculté des sciences de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation, Département des Sciences animales, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.

The female reproductive function largely depends on timing and coordination between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Even though it was suggested that these hormones act on granulosa cells via shared signalling pathways, mainly protein kinases A, B, and C (PKA, PKB, PKC), there is still very little information available on how these signalling pathways are regulated by each hormone to provide such differences in gene expression throughout folliculogenesis. To obtain a global picture of the principal upstream factors involved in PKA, PKB, and PKC signalling in granulosa cells, human granulosa-like tumour cells (KGN) were treated with FSH or specific activators (forskolin, SC79, PMA) for each pathway to analyze gene expression with RNA seq technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa079DOI Listing

ACE2 Receptor Expression in Testes: Implications in COVID-19 Pathogenesis.

Biol Reprod 2020 05 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Department of Urology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314215PMC

CCL20-CCR6 axis directs sperm-oocyte interaction and its dysregulation correlates/associates with male infertility.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Dermatology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

The interaction of sperm with the oocyte is pivotal during the process of mammalian fertilization. The limited numbers of sperm that reach the fallopian tube as well as anatomic restrictions indicate that human sperm-oocyte encounter is not a matter of chance but a directed process. Chemotaxis is the proposed mechanism for re-orientating sperm towards the source of a chemoattractant, and hence to the oocyte. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa072DOI Listing

Loss of myosin VI expression affects acrosome/acroplaxome complex morphology during mouse spermiogenesis.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Torun, Poland.

During spermiogenesis in mammals actin filaments and a variety of actin-binding proteins are involved in the formation and function of highly specialized testis-specific structures. Actin-based motor proteins, such as myosin Va and VIIa, play a key role in this complex process of spermatid transformation into mature sperm. We have previously demonstrated that myosin VI (MYO6) is also expressed in mouse testes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa071DOI Listing

In vitro ovarian follicle growth: a comprehensive analysis of key protocol variables.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Folliculogenesis is a complex process that requires integration of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine factors together with tightly regulated interactions between granulosa cells and oocytes for the growth and survival of healthy follicles. Culture of ovarian follicles is a powerful approach for investigating folliculogenesis and oogenesis in a tightly controlled environment. This method has enabled unprecedented insight into the fundamental biology of follicle development but also has far-reaching translational applications, including in fertility preservation for women whose ovarian follicles may be damaged by disease or its treatment or in wildlife conservation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa073DOI Listing

Knockdown of IP3R1 Disrupts TBC-ER Contact Sites and the Morphology of Apical Processes Encapsulating Late Spermatids.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Life Sciences Institute and Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) internalize intercellular junctions during sperm release. One of the characteristic features of TBCs is that they form 'bulbs' or swollen regions that have well defined membrane contact sites (MCS) with adjacent cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we have localized the IP3R calcium channel to the TBC bulb-ER contacts and have hypothesized that fluctuations in local calcium levels may facilitate the maturation of TBC bulbs into putative endosomes, or alter local actin networks that cuff adjacent tubular regions of the TBCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa074DOI Listing

Experimentally induced endometritis impairs the developmental capacity of bovine oocytes.

Biol Reprod 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.

Uterine infection is associated with infertility in women and dairy cows, even after the resolution of infection. However, the mechanisms causing this persistent infertility are unclear. Here, we hypothesized that induced endometritis in non-lactating dairy cows would reduce the developmental competence of oocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa069DOI Listing
May 2020
3.318 Impact Factor

Is there a definite relationship between placental mTOR signaling and fetal growth?

Biol Reprod 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Reproductive Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710038, China.

Fetal growth restriction and overgrowth are common obstetrical complications that result in adverse perinatal outcomes and long-term health risks later in life, including neurodevelopmental dysfunction and adult metabolic syndrome. Placenta plays a critical role in the nutrition transfer from mother to fetus and even exert adaptive mechanism when the fetus is under poor developmental conditions. The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling serves as a critical hub of cell growth, survival, and metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors, energy, and stress signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa070DOI Listing