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    14152 results match your criteria Biology of Reproduction[Journal]

    1 OF 284

    Membrane Rafts Regulate Sperm Acrosome Reaction via cAMP-dependent Pathway in Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.
    Both transcriptionally and translationally inactive sperm need preassembled pathways into specific cellular compartments to function. Although initiation of the acrosome reaction (AR) involves several signaling pathways including protein kinase A (PKA) activation, how these are regulated remains poorly understood in avian sperm. Membrane rafts are specific membrane regions enriched in sterols and functional proteins and play important roles in diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction. Read More

    Porphyromonas gingivalis strain dependent inhibition of uterine spiral artery remodeling in the pregnant rat.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Microbiology & Immunology, A.T. Still University of Health Sciences, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO. USA.
    Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), is an important periodontal pathogen that is also implicated in pregnancy complications involving defective deep placentation (DDP). We hypothesized that Pg invasion of the placental bed promotes DDP. Pregnant rats were intravenously inoculated with sterile vehicle, Pg strain W83, or A7436 at gestation day (GD) 14 (acute cohort). Read More

    A carnivore embryo's perspective on essential amino acids and ammonium in culture medium: effects on the development of feline embryos.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine, Lone Tree, CO, USA.
    Carnivores are an interesting model for studies of embryonic amino acid metabolism and ammonium (NH4+) toxicity given the high protein content of their diets. Our objectives were to examine concentration- and stage-specific effects of essential amino acids (EAA; 0x, 0.125x, 0. Read More

    Long noncoding RNAs exchange during zygotic genome activation in goat.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Jiangsu Livestock Embryo Engineering Laboratory, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.
    In mammals, their proper development during the early cleavage stages strongly relies on the gene products newly transcribed by zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been characterized as key regulators of the ZGA process in mice and human. However, the ZGA stage has not yet been identified and epigenetic regulations of the ZGA process remain largely unknown in goats. Read More

    Preantral follicular atresia occurs mainly through autophagy, while antral follicles degenerate mostly through apoptosis.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Human and Animal Physiology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    There is general agreement that granulosa cell apoptosis is the cause of antral follicle attrition. Less clear is whether this pathway is also activated in case of preantral follicle degeneration, as several reports mention that the incidence of granulosa cell apoptosis in preantral follicles is negligible. Our objective is therefore to determine which cell-death pathways are involved in preantral and antral follicular degeneration. Read More

    Thyroid hormones and female reproduction.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children. Read More

    Hormone-responsive genes in the SHH and WNT/β-catenin signaling pathways influence urethral closure and phallus growth.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3010.
    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis. Read More

    Stratification of mouse vaginal epithelium. 1. Development of 3 dimensional models in vitro with clonal cell lines.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1, Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585, Japan.
    The mouse vagina consists of stratified squamous epithelium and stroma and is regulated by ovarian hormones. Vaginal epithelial cells do not stratify, but rather form a monolayer and show an inconsistent responsiveness to ovarian hormones when cultured on plastic dish or matrix. To address the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro observations, 3 dimensional (3D) co-culture models are developed with clonal vaginal epithelial and stromal cell lines; stromal cells are embedded in collagen gel and epithelial cells are seeded on the gel. Read More

    Stratification of mouse vaginal epithelium 2. Identification of factors inducing stratification.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585, Japan.
    Stratification of the vaginal epithelium is regulated by stromal factors. To analyze the mechanisms of stratification in vitro, 3 dimensional (3D) co-culture models were established with clonal cell lines. In the models, stromal cells were embedded in collagen gel and epithelial cells were seeded on the gel. Read More

    Complex integration of intrinsic and peripheral signaling is required for pituitary gland development.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801.
    The coordination of pituitary development is complicated and requires input from multiple cellular processes. Recent research has provided insight into key molecular determinants that govern cell fate specification in the pituitary. Moreover, increasing research aimed to identify, characterize and functionally describe the presumptive pituitary stem cell population has allowed for a better understanding of the processes that govern endocrine cell differentiation in the developing pituitary. Read More

    Paternal developmental toxicant exposure is associated with epigenetic modulation of sperm and placental Pgr and Igf2 in a mouse model.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.
    Preterm birth (PTB), parturition prior to 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. The causes of spontaneous PTB are poorly understood; however, recent studies suggest this condition may arise as a consequence of the parental fetal environment. Specifically, we previously demonstrated that developmental exposure of male mice (F1 animals) to the environmental endocrine disruptor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with reduced sperm quantity/quality in adulthood and control female partners frequently delivered preterm. Read More

    Obesity in mares promotes uterine inflammation and alters embryo lipid fingerprints and homeostasis.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
    Maternal body composition can be an important determinant for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Obesity-related outcomes in offspring may include epigenetic alterations; however, mechanisms of fetal programming remain to be fully elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the impact of maternal obesity in the absence of a high fat diet on equine endometrium and preimplantation embryos. Read More

    The history of the discovery of embryonic diapause in mammals.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria Australia.
    The first incidence of embryonic diapause in mammals was observed in the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus in 1854 and confirmed in the early 1900s. Since then scientists have been fascinated by this phenomenon which allows a growing embryo to become arrested for up to 11 months and then reactivate and continue development with no ill effects. The study of diapause has required unravelling basic reproductive processes we now take for granted and has spanned some of the major checkpoints of reproductive biology from the identification of the sex hormones to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to microRNA and exosomes. Read More

    Mouse models of preterm birth: suggested assessment and reporting guidelines.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Center for Reproductive Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.
    Preterm birth affects approximately 1 out of every 10 births in the United States, leading to high rates of mortality and long-term negative health consequences. To investigate the mechanisms leading to preterm birth so as to develop prevention strategies, researchers have developed numerous mouse models of preterm birth. However, the lack of standard definitions for preterm birth in mice limits our field's ability to compare models and make inferences about preterm birth in humans. Read More

    The flagellar protein Enkurin is required for mouse sperm motility and for transport through the female reproductive tract.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology.
    Enkurin was identified initially in mouse sperm where it was suggested to act as an intracellular adaptor protein linking membrane calcium influx to intracellular signaling pathways. In order to examine the function of this protein a targeted mutation was introduced into the mouse Enkurin gene. Males that were homozygous for this mutated allele were subfertile. Read More

    Ccdc87 is critical for sperm function and male fertility.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
    Male infertility has become an increasingly common health concern in recent years. Apart from environmental factors, nutrition, lifestyle, and sexually transmitted diseases, genetic defects are important causes of male infertility. Many genes have been demonstrated to be associated with male infertility. Read More

    WIP1 phosphatase suppresses the DNA damage response during G2/prophase arrest in mouse oocytes.
    Biol Reprod 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Integrative Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea.
    Maternal DNA damage during meiosis causes genetic abnormalities that can lead to infertility, birth defects, and abortion. While DNA damage can rapidly halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in somatic cells, mammalian oocytes are unable to mount a robust G2/prophase arrest in response to DNA damage unless damage levels are severe. Here we show that inhibition of WIP1 phosphatase enhances the ability of oocytes to respond to DNA damage. Read More

    Evolution of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development: insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong-Shandong University Joint Laboratory on Reproductive Genetics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China.
    Gonadal development is precisely regulated by the two gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Much progress on understanding the functions of LH and FSH signaling on gonad development has been achieved in the past decades, mostly from studies in mammals especially genetic studies in both mouse and human. The functions of both LH and FSH signaling in non-mammalian species are still largely unknown. Read More

    The antiepileptic drug Lamotrigine inhibits the CYP17A1 lyase reaction in vitro.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The potential endocrine disrupting effects of the commonly prescribed anti-epileptic drug lamotrigine (LAM) was investigated using the H295R steroidogenic in vitro assay and computational chemistry methods. The H295R cells were exposed to different concentrations of LAM and a multi-steroid LC-MS/MS method was applied to quantify the amount of secreted steroid hormones. LAM affected several steroid hormones in the steroidogenesis at therapeutic concentrations. Read More

    The intervention effect of aspirin on a lipopolysaccharide-induced preeclampsia-like mouse model by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China.
    Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy-related disorder, and patients usually present with high circulating inflammatory factor production as well as excessive activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Administration of aspirin (ASP) is effective for the prevention of preeclampsia, we proposed that ASP might affect placental function by regulating the NF-κB pathway. Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 μg/kg) was used to induce preeclampsia-like pregnant mouse model and low-dose ASP (15. Read More

    Current Knowledge on the Acute Regulation of Steroidogenesis.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Louisville, Louisville KY 40202.
    How rapid induction of steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in response to trophic hormone stimulation of steroidogenic cells has been a subject of intensive investigation for approximately six decades. A key observation made very early was that acute regulation of steroid biosynthesis required swift and timely synthesis of a new protein whose role appeared to be involved in the delivery of the substrate for all steroid hormones, cholesterol, from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane where the process of steroidogenesis begins. It was quickly learned that this transfer of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane was the regulated and rate limiting step in steroidogenesis. Read More

    Polyspermy produces viable haploid/diploid mosaics in sturgeon.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Most of sturgeon species (Acipenseridae) are currently critically endangered. Attempts to revive these populations include artificial breeding in hatcheries. However, under artificial reproduction, sturgeon embryos occasionally develop atypically, showing 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, or 10 cells at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Read More

    Domain-functional analyses of PIWIL1 and PABPC1 indicate their synergistic roles in protein translation via 3'-UTRs of meiotic mRNAs.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510630, China.
    Translational regulation plays a central role during post-meiotic development of male germ cells. Previous studies suggested that PIWIL1, a PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) binding protein that is critical for sperm development, participates in the maintenance and translational regulation of post-meiotic mRNAs in haploid spermatids. However, how PIWIL1 regulates protein translation remains largely unclear. Read More

    Revisiting the scientific method to improve rigor and reproducibility of immunohistochemistry in reproductive science.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Center for Reproductive Science, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611.
    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a robust scientific tool whereby cellular components are visualized within a tissue, and this method has been and continues to be a mainstay for many reproductive biologists. IHC is highly informative if performed and interpreted correctly, but studies have shown that the general use and reporting of appropriate controls in IHC experiments is low. This omission of the scientific method can result in data that lacks rigor and reproducibility. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome: possible involvement of androgen-induced, chemerin-mediated ovarian recruitment of monocytes/macrophages.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Cellular & Molecular Medicine, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa; Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a continuum of endocrine and reproductive disorders characterized by hyperandrogenism, antral follicle growth arrest and chronic inflammation. Macrophages play key role in inflammation and the balance between M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages determines physiological/pathological outcomes. Here, we investigated if hyperandrogenism increases ovarian chemerin altering the balance of M1 and M2 macrophages and the granulosa cell death. Read More

    Endocrine Disruptor Exposure during Development Increases Incidence of Uterine Fibroids by Altering DNA Repair in Myometrial Stem Cells.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 820 South Wood Street, 2nd Fl, (M/C 808) Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    Despite the major negative impact uterine fibroids (UFs) have on female reproductive health, little is known about early events that initiate development of these tumors. Somatic fibroid-causing mutations in MED12, the most frequent genetic alterations in UFs (up to 85% of tumors), are implicated in transforming normal myometrial stem cells (MSCs) into tumor-forming cells, though the underlying mechanism(s) leading to these mutations remains unknown. It is well-accepted that defective DNA repair increases the risk of acquiring tumor-driving mutations, though defects in DNA repair have not been explored in UF tumorigenesis. Read More

    Isoprenoids increase bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin from Trueperella pyogenes.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Preventing postpartum uterine disease depends on the ability of endometrial cells to tolerate the presence of the bacteria that invade the uterus after parturition. Postpartum uterine disease and endometrial pathology in cattle is most associated with the pathogen Trueperella pyogenes. Trueperella pyogenes secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which causes cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of endometrial stromal cells. Read More

    Effects of Preovulatory Estradiol on Uterine Environment and Conceptus Survival from Fertilization to Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Animal Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings SD.
    Preovulatory estradiol is known to impact embryo quality and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of preovulatory estradiol on the uterine environment and conceptus survival through maternal recognition of pregnancy. Beef cows/heifers were AIed following induced ovulation. Read More

    Ovine placental steroid synthesis and metabolism in late gestation.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Departments of Population Health & Reproduction.
    Steroid synthesis is required for pregnancy maintenance and for parturition but comparatively little is known about the major metabolic routes that influence circulating concentrations. Dietary intake changes progesterone and estradiol concentrations in pregnant ewes but whether this reflects placental synthesis is unknown. Progesterone metabolism by 5alpha-reduction is a major metabolic route in other species and can influence the onset of parturition. Read More

    Follicle capacitation: A meta-analysis to investigate the transcriptome dynamics following FSH decline in bovine granulosa cells.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Centre de recherche en reproduction, développement et santé intergénérationnelle (CRDSI), Département des Sciences Animales, Faculté des sciences de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    In recent years, exciting progress was made to improve the embryo outcome after ovarian stimulation in domestic animals. The practice of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) withdrawal, which is defined as the period of time between the last injection of FSH and oocyte retrieval, resulted in embryo yields significantly superior. Since then, specific changes in the transcriptome of granulosa cells were associated with the increase and also the decline in oocyte developmental competence following the FSH decline. Read More

    Restraint-induced CRH elevation triggers apoptosis of ovarian cells and impairs oocyte competence via activation of the Fas/FasL system.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an City 271018, P. R. China.
    Mechanisms by which psychological stress damages oocytes are largely undetermined. Although a previous study showed that the stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) elevation impaired oocyte competence by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells, how CRH causes apoptosis in ovarian cells and oocytes is unknown. In this study, we have examined the hypothesis that restraint stress (RS)-induced CRH elevation triggers apoptosis of ovarian cells and impairs oocyte competence through activating the Fas/FasL system. Read More

    Bovine embryo elongation is altered due to maternal fatty acid supplementation.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    ETH Zurich, Animal Physiology.
    The pre-implantation period is prone to embryonic losses in bovine. Embryo-maternal communication is crucial to support embryo development. Thereby, factors of the uterine fluid (UF) are of specific importance. Read More

    Effects of catecholamines on secretion of interferon tau and expression of genes for synthesis of polyamines and apoptosis by ovine trophectoderm.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Animal Science.
    Ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells were used to investigate effects of epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) on their proliferation, migration and adhesion, secretion of interferon tau (IFNT), and expression of genes for synthesis of polyamines and apoptosis. Expression of mRNAs for agmatinase (AGMAT), arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) and solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A1) cationic amino acid transporter, Y + system), member 1 increased (P < 0.05) in oTr1 cells in response to EP and DA. Read More

    Organizational effects of the antiandrogen, Vinclozolin, on penis development in the mouse.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858 USA.
    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are pollutants found throughout the environment that disrupt normal endocrine processes. In mice, penis development is thought to be most susceptible to EDCs during a critical developmental window occurring on embryonic days (E) 15.5-17. Read More

    Comprehensive Analysis of long non-coding RNA and mRNA Expression Patterns in Sheep Testicular Maturation.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Jiangsu Livestock Embryo Engineering Laboratory, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified as important regulators of testis development, however, their expression patterns and roles in sheep are not yet clear. Thus, we used stranded specific RNA-seq to profile the testis transcriptome (lncRNAs and mRNAs) in premature and mature sheep. Hormone levels and the testis index were examined, and histological analyses were performed at five stages of testis development, 5-day-old (D5), 3-month-old (3M), 6-month-old (6M), 9-month-old (9M) and 2-year-old (2Y), the results of which indicate a significant difference in hormone levels and testis morphometries between the 3M and 9M stages (P < 0. Read More

    Sex Steroids Drive the Remodeling of Oviductal Extracellular Matrix in Cattle.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 110910, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a group of molecules that offer structural and biochemical support to cells and interact with them to regulate their function. Also, growth factors (GFs) stored in the ECM can be locally released during the ECM remodeling process. Here, we hypothesize that the balance between ECM components and remodelers is regulated according to the ovarian steroid milieu to which the oviduct is exposed during the periovulatory period. Read More

    Knockout of the Gnrh genes in zebrafish: effects on reproduction and potential compensation by reproductive and feeding-related neuropeptides.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is known as a pivotal upstream regulator of reproduction in vertebrates. However, reproduction is not compromised in the hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 knockout line in zebrafish (gnrh3-/-). In order to determine if Gnrh2, the only other Gnrh isoform in zebrafish brains, is compensating for the loss of Gnrh3, we generated a double Gnrh knockout zebrafish line. Read More

    Elimination of primordial germ cells in sturgeon embryos by UV-irradiation.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    A technique for rescuing and propagating endangered species involves implanting germ line stem cells into surrogates of a host species whose primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been destroyed. We induced sterilization in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) embryos by means of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at the vegetal pole, the source of early stage PGCs of sturgeon eggs. The optimal cell stage and length of UV irradiation for the effective repression of the developing PGCs was determined by exposing embryos at the 1 to 4 cell stage to different doses of irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm (the optimal absorbance spectrum for germplasm destruction). Read More

    Sox17 is Essential for Proper Formation of the Marginal Zone of Extraembryonic Endoderm Adjacent to a Developing Mouse Placental Disk.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Veterinary Anatomy, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    In mouse conceptus, two yolk-sac membranes, the parietal endoderm (PE) and visceral endoderm (VE), are involved in protecting and nourishing early-somite-stage embryos prior to the establishment of placental circulation. Both PE and VE membranes are tightly anchored to the marginal edge of the developing placental disk, in which the extraembryonic endoderm (marginal zone endoderm: ME) shows the typical flat epithelial morphology intermediate between those of PE and VE in vivo. However, the molecular characteristics and functions of the ME in mouse placentation remain unclear. Read More

    Spermatogonial stem cells.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the most primitive spermatogonia in the testis and have an essential role to maintain highly productive spermatogenesis by self-renewal and continuous generation of daughter spermatogonia that differentiate into spermatozoa, transmitting genetic information to the next generation. Since the 1950s, many experimental methods, including histology, immunostaining, whole-mount analyses, and pulse-chase labeling had been used in attempts to identify SSCs, but without success. In 1994, a spermatogonial transplantation method was reported that established a quantitative functional assay to identify SSCs by evaluating their ability to both self-renew and differentiate to spermatozoa. Read More

    Interferon-gamma inhibits seminal plasma induction of colony stimulating factor 2 in mouse and human reproductive tract epithelial cells.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Robinson Research Institute and Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, AUSTRALIA.
    Seminal fluid interacts with the female reproductive tract to initiate a permissive immune response that facilitates embryo implantation and pregnancy success. The immune-regulatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFNG), which can be elevated in seminal plasma and is associated with reduced fertility. Here we investigated how IFNG influences the female immune response to seminal fluid. Read More

    Alteration of transporter activities in the epididymides of infertile initial segment-specific Pten knockout mice.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Department of Cell Biology.
    A fully functional initial segment, the most proximal region of the epididymis, is important for male fertility. Our previous study generated a mouse model to investigate the importance of initial segment function in male fertility. In that model, Pten was conditionally removed from the initial segment epithelium, which resulted in epithelial de-differentiation. Read More

    Mouse oocytes connect with granulosa cells by fusing with cell membranes and form a large complex during follicle development.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Department of Physiology, Aichi Medical University, 1-1 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan.
    Proper development and maturation of oocytes requires interaction with granulosa cells. Previous reports have indicated that mammalian oocytes connect with cumulus cells through gap junctions at the tip of transzonal projections that extend from the cells. Although the gap junctions between oocytes and transzonal projections provide a pathway through which small molecules (< 1 kDa) can travel, it is unclear how molecules > 1 kDa are transported between the oocytes and cumulus cells. Read More

    Mutations causing specific arrests in the development of mouse primordial germ cells and gonocytes.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Amsterdam Research Institute Reproduction and Development, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    This review focusses on those mouse mutations that cause an effect on the morphology, viability and/or behavior of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and gonocytes at specific steps of their fetal development up to the start of spermatogenesis, a few days after birth. To restrict the area covered, mice with mutations that cause abnormal hormone levels or mutations of genes not expressed in germ cells that secondarily cause spermatogenic problems, are not discussed. To make our literature search as comprehensive as possible, Pubmed was searched for "(primordial germ cells OR prospermatogonia OR prespermatogonia OR gonocytes OR spermatogonia or meiosis or spermiogenesis or spermatogenesis) AND mouse AND (knockout or mutant or transgenic). Read More

    Surfactant Protein (SP)-A Suppresses Preterm Delivery Induced by Live E. coli in Mice.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL.
    Preterm birth accounts for the majority of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world. A significant proportion of cases of spontaneous preterm labor are attributable to infections within gestational tissues. Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a collectin produced in the fetal lung and other tissues, has been shown previously in mice to suppress preterm delivery due to intrauterine (IU) instillation of sterile pro-inflammatory substances. Read More

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