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    14044 results match your criteria Biology of Reproduction[Journal]

    1 OF 281

    Heat exposure induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    The reproductive consequences of global warming are not currently understood. In order to address this issue we have examined the reproductive consequences of exposing male mice to a mild heat stress. For this purpose, adult male mice were exposed to an elevated ambient temperature of 35°C under two exposure models. Read More

    Maternal nutrient restriction impairs young adult offspring ovarian signaling resulting in reproductive dysfunction and follicle loss.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Reproductive abnormalities are included as health complications in offspring exposed to poor prenatal nutrition. We have previously shown in a rodent model, that offspring born to nutrient restriction during pregnancy are born small, enter puberty early, and display characteristics of early ovarian aging as adults. The present study investigated whether key proteins involved in follicle recruitment and growth mediate ovarian follicle loss. Read More

    Effects of excess thromboxane A2 on placental development and nutrient transporters in a Mus musculus model of fetal growth restriction.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of Neonatology, Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) with placental insufficiency is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the developed world. Despite the known negative consequences of HDP both to the mother and fetus, little is known about the longitudinal placental changes that occur as HDP progresses in pregnancy. This is because longitudinal sampling of human placentae during each gestation is impossible. Read More

    Progesterone Effects on Extracellular Vesicles in the Sheep Uterus.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Division of Animal Sciences, 158 ASRC, 920 East Campus Drive, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
    Progesterone (P4) acts via the endometrium to promote conceptus growth and implantation for pregnancy establishment. Many cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are membrane-bound vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin. In sheep, endometrial-derived EVs were found to traffic to the conceptus trophectoderm. Read More

    Meiotic spindle formation in mammalian oocytes: Implications for human infertility.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheong-Ju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    In the final stage of oogenesis, mammalian oocytes generate a meiotic spindle and undergo chromosome segregation to yield an egg that is ready for fertilization. Herein, we describe the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms controlling formation of the meiotic spindle in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) in mammalian oocytes, and focus on the differences between mouse and human oocytes. Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins (PCM), which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells. Read More

    Lhx8 ablation leads to massive autophagy of mouse oocytes associated with DNA damage.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Following proliferation of oogonia in mammals, great numbers of germ cells are discarded, primarily by apoptosis, while the remainder form primordial follicles (the ovarian reserve) that determine fertility and reproductive lifespan. More massive, rapid, and essentially total loss of oocytes, however, occurs when the transcription factor Lhx8 is ablated-though the cause and mechanism of germ cell loss from the Lhx8-/- ovaries has been unknown. We found that Lhx8-/- ovaries maintain the same number of germ cells throughout embryonic development; rapid decrease in the pool of oocytes starts shortly before birth. Read More

    Endometrial stem cell-derived G-CSF attenuates endometrial fibrosis via Sonic Hedgehog transcriptional activator Gli2.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is characterized by endometrial fibrosis, which ultimately leads to menstrual abnormalities, infertility and recurrent miscarriages. The Shh/Gli2 pathway plays a critical role in tissue fibrogenesis and regeneration; Gli2 activation induces profibrogenic effects in various tissues, such as the liver and kidney. However, the role of Gli2 in endometrial fibrosis remains unknown. Read More

    Delineating differential regulatory signatures of the human transcriptome in the choriodecidua and myometrium at term labor.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Division of Developmental Biology and Medicine.
    Background: Preterm deliveries remain the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Current therapies target only myometrial contractions and are largely ineffective. As labor involves multiple coordinated events across maternal and fetal tissues, identifying fundamental regulatory pathways of normal term labor is vital to understanding successful parturition and consequently labor pathologies. Read More

    Mediator complex component MED13 regulates zygotic genome activation and is required for postimplantation development in the mouse.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Understanding factors that regulate zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is critical for determining how cells are reprogrammed to become totipotent or pluripotent. There is limited information regarding how this process occurs physiologically in early mammalian embryos. Here we identify a mediator complex subunit, MED13, as translated during mouse oocyte maturation and transcribed early from the zygotic genome. Read More

    CDKN1C (P57): one of the determinants of human endometrial stromal cell decidualization.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.
    Decidualization is regulated by crosstalk of progesterone and the cAMP pathway. It involves extensive reprogramming of gene expression and includes a wide range of functions. To investigate how cell cycle regulatory genes drive the human endometrial stromal cell (ESC) exit cell cycle and enter differentiation, primary cultured ESC was treated with 8-Br-cAMP and MPA and cell cycle distribution was investigated by flow cytometry. Read More

    Effect of fish meal supplementation on luteal sensitivity to intrauterine infusions of prostaglandin F2alpha in the bovine.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Animal Sciences and Equine Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Progesterone is a steroid hormone secreted from the corpus luteum (CL), which is responsible for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Early embryonic mortality often occurs due to inadequate regulation of uterine prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secretion, leading to decrease in progesterone and loss of pregnancy. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of fish meal supplementation on luteal sensitivity to intrauterine infusions of PGF2alpha. Read More

    Maternal metabolic, immune, and microbial systems in late pregnancy vary with malnutrition in mice.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. Read More

    The role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) in modulating immune detection of choriocarcinoma.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298.
    Gestational choriocarcinomas are derived from placental trophoblast cells, with HLA-C being the only class I polymorphic molecule expressed. However, choriocarcinomas have not been profiled for endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) expression. ERAP2 trims peptides presented by human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have shown to modulate immune response. Read More

    IL22 Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Preterm Labor in Mice.
    Biol Reprod 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA.
    Preterm birth is widespread and causes 35% of all neonatal deaths. Infants who survive face potential long-term complications. A major contributing factor of preterm birth is infection. Read More

    Anti-Müllerian hormone is a survival factor and promotes the growth of rhesus macaque preantral follicles during matrix-free culture.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.
    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a key role during ovarian follicular development, with local actions associated with a dynamic secretion profile by growing follicles. While results for AMH effects on antral follicle growth and function are consistent among studies in various species, any effects on preantral follicle development remain controversial. Therefore, experiments were conducted to investigate the direct actions and role of AMH during follicle development at the preantral stage. Read More

    Mechanisms for rescue of CL during pregnancy: Gene expression in bovine CL following intrauterine pulses of Prostaglandins E1 and F2α.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
    In ruminants, uterine pulses of prostaglandin (PG) F2α characterize luteolysis, while increased PGE2/PGE1 distinguish early pregnancy. This study evaluated intrauterine (IU) infusions of PGF2α and PGE1 pulses on CL function and gene expression. Cows on day 10 of estrous cycle received 4 IU infusions (every 6h; n = 5/treatment) of saline, PGE1 (2 mg PGE1), PGF2α (0. Read More

    Transcriptome signature identifies distinct cervical pathways induced in LPS-mediated preterm birth.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
    With half a million babies born preterm each year in the United States and about 15 million worldwide, preterm birth remains a global health issue. Preterm birth (PTB) is a primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality and can impact lives long past infancy. The fact that there are numerous, and many currently unidentified, etiologies of PTB has hindered development of tools for risk evaluation and preventative therapies. Read More

    Gestational restricted- and over-feeding promote maternal and offspring inflammatory responses that are distinct and dependent on diet in sheep.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Inflammation may be a mechanism of maternal programming because it has the capacity to alter the maternal environment and can persist postnatally in offspring tissues. This study evaluated the effects of restricted- and over-feeding on maternal and offspring inflammatory gene expression using RT-PCR arrays. Pregnant ewes were fed 60% (Restricted), 100% (Control) or 140% (Over) of NRC requirements beginning on day 30. Read More

    Effects of active immunization with newly modified GnRH peptides on spermatogenesis and production performance of Holstein bulls.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    State Key Laboratory of Sheep Genetic Improvement and Healthy Production, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural and Reclamation Sciences, Shihezi, China.
    Immunocastration via vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an effective alternative to surgical castration in livestock. In this study, male mice were immunized with eight GnRH peptide derivatives. Two, which exhibited highly significant effects in mice, and one which exhibited the least significant effects were selected for active immunization of 13 month-old bulls. Read More

    Identification of sex differences in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains during early sexual differentiation and masculinisation using 17α-methyltestoterone.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.
    Sexual behaviour in teleost fish is highly plastic. It can be attributed to the relatively few sex differences found in adult brain transcriptomes. Environmental and hormonal factors can influence sex-specific behaviour. Read More

    The Use of Purified Rat Leydig Cells Complements the H295R Screen to Detect Chemical Induced Alterations in Testosterone Production.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Reproductive Toxicity Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been associated with compromised testosterone production leading to abnormal male reproductive development and altered spermatogenesis. In vitro high throughput screening (HTS) assays are needed to evaluate risk to testosterone production, yet the main steroidogenesis assay currently utilized is a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, H295R, which does not synthesize gonadal steroids at the same level as the gonads, thus limiting assay sensitivity. Here, we propose a complementary assay using a highly purified rat Leydig cell assay to evaluate the potential for chemical induced alterations in testosterone production by the testis. Read More

    Role of calcium-sensing receptor in regulating spontaneous activation of post-ovulatory aging rat oocytes†.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an City 271018, P. R. China.
    Mechanisms for post-ovulatory aging (POA) of oocytes and for spontaneous activation (SA) of rat oocytes are largely unknown. Expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in rat oocytes and its role in POA remain unexplored. In this study, expression of CaSR in rat oocytes aging for different times was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting and the role of CaSR in POA was determined by observing the effects of regulating its activity on SA susceptibility and cytoplasmic calcium levels of oocytes. Read More

    Seipin deficiency leads to increased ER stress and apoptosis in mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells during lactation.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.
    Seipin is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein encoded by Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2/Bscl2) gene. Most litters (59%) from Bscl2-/- dams mated with WT (Bscl2+/+) males didn't survive PND5 and pups (Bscl2+/-) lacked milk in their stomachs. The survived litters had reduced pup survival rate at PND21. Read More

    Comparative transcriptomic analysis of human placentae at term and preterm delivery.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Division of Human Genetics, Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati OH USA.
    Purpose: Preterm birth affects 1 out of every 10 infants in the United States, resulting in substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few predictive markers and few treatment options to prevent preterm birth. A healthy, functioning placenta is essential to positive pregnancy outcomes. Read More

    Identification and characterization of a specific 13-miRNA expression signature during follicle activation in the zebrafish ovary.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Centre of Reproduction, Development and Aging (CRDA).
    Ovarian folliculogenesis is always of great interest in reproductive biology. However, the molecular mechanisms that control follicle development, particularly the early phase of follicle activation or recruitment, still remain poorly understood. In an attempt to decipher the gene networks and signaling pathways involved in such transition, we conducted a transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) on zebrafish primary growth (PG, stage I; inactive) and pre-vitellogenic (PV, stage II; activated) follicles. Read More

    Role of Yes-Associated Protein 1, Angiomotin and Mitogen Activated Kinase Kinase 1/2 in Development of the Bovine Blastocyst.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Animal Sciences, D. H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program and Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    The morula-stage embryo is transformed into a blastocyst composed of epiblast, hypoblast and trophectoderm (TE) through mechanisms that, at least in the mouse, involve the Hippo signaling and mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathways. Using the cow as an additional model, we tested the hypotheses that TE and hypoblast differentiation were regulated by the Hippo pathway regulators, YAP1 and AMOT, and MAPK kinase 1/2 (MAPK1/2). The presence of YAP1 and CDX2 in the nucleus and cytoplasm of MII oocytes and embryos was evaluated by immunofluorescence labeling. Read More

    Low-dose bisphenol A activates the ERK signaling pathway and attenuates steroidogenic gene expression in human placental cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Institute of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial material used for many plastic products and is considered an endocrine disruptor. BPA can be released into the environment and can spread through the food chain. It is well known that BPA exposure leads to lesions, especially in the reproductive system. Read More

    The oviduct: from sperm selection to the epigenetic landscape of the embryo.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Dpto. de Reproducción Animal, INIA, Ctra. de la Coruña Km 5.9, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    The mammalian oviduct is the place where life begins as it is the site of fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. Recent research has highlighted the important role played by the oviduct both in sperm selection for natural fertilization and in the genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of pre-implantation embryo development. This review examines oviduct fluid composition with a special emphasis on exosomes and the role played by the oviduct in sperm selection, early embryo development, and in reshaping the epigenetic landscape of the embryo. Read More

    Effects of Exportin 1 on Nuclear Transport and Meiotic Resumption in Porcine Full-grown and Growing Oocytes.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Animal Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Exportin 1 (XPO1) is a nuclear transport receptor involved in the nuclear export of majority proteins in somatic cells. In mammalian oocytes, however, only the presence of XPO1 has been reported at mRNA and protein levels, and the definitive functions of XPO1 and its effects on the meiotic maturation of oocytes have never been directly examined. In the present study, the expression state and the nuclear-export function of porcine XPO1 were analyzed in porcine oocytes. Read More

    Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Oppositely Regulate miR-221 that Targets Thrombospondin-1 in Bovine Luteal Endothelial Cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Animal Sciences, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
    Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is an important mediator of corpus luteum (CL) regression. Highly induced during luteolysis, it acts as a natural anti-angiogenic, proapoptotic compound. THBS1 expression is regulated in bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs) by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1) acting in an opposite manner. Read More

    Proteomics analysis of good and poor quality human sperm demonstrates several proteins are routinely aberrantly regulated.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Environmental and Life Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, 2308, Australia.
    Male infertility is a complex condition, and for the most part, all men produce defective spermatozoa, but infertile men have a tendency to produce more. Despite attempts to classify infertility, there is no definitive test. One approach would be to use protein biomarkers, however as yet, we still do not understand proteins that are differentially expressed within defective spermatozoa. Read More

    Metformin attenuates susceptibility to inflammation-induced preterm birth in mice with higher endocannabinoid levels.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Premature decidual senescence is a contributing factor to preterm birth. Fatty acid amide hydrolase mutant females (Faah-/-) with higher endocannabinoid levels are also more susceptible to preterm birth upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge due to enhanced decidual senescence; this is associated with MAPK p38 activation. Previous studies have shown that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) contributes to decidual senescence and promotes the incidence of preterm birth. Read More

    Fertility impairment with defective spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male zebrafish lacking androgen receptor.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    The pivotal role of androgen receptor (AR) in regulating male fertility has attracted much research attention in the past two decades. Previous studies have shown that total androgen receptor knockout would lead to incomplete spermatogenesis and a lowered serum testosterone levels in mice, resulting in azoospermia and infertility. However, the precise physiological role of ar in controlling fertility of male fish is still poorly understood. Read More

    Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization Requires Transcriptional Reprogramming by PLZF.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 25. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030.
    Infertility and early embryo-miscarriage is linked to inadequate endometrial decidualization. Although transcriptional reprogramming is known to drive decidualization in response to progesterone, the key signaling effectors that directly mediate this hormone response are not fully known. This knowledge-gap is clinically significant because identifying the early signals that directly mediate progesterone-driven decidualization will address some of the current limitations in diagnosing and therapeutically treating patients at most risk for early pregnancy loss. Read More

    Early Histone H4 Acetylation during Chromatin Remodeling in Equine Spermatogenesis.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 25. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, College of Agriculture and Applied Sciences.
    Chromatin remodeling during spermatogenesis culminates in the exchange of nucleosomes for transition proteins and protamines as an important part of spermatid development to give rise to healthy sperm. Comparative immunofluorescence analyses of equine and murine testis histological sections were used to characterize nucleoprotein exchange in the stallion. Histone H4 hyperacetylation is considered a key event of histone removal during the nucleoprotein transition to a protamine-based sperm chromatin structure. Read More

    Obesity-induced changes in hepatic and placental clock gene networks in rat pregnancy.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 25. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia.
    Maternal obesity induces pregnancy complications and disturbs fetal development, but the specific mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unclear. Circadian rhythms are implicated in metabolic complications associated with obesity, and maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy. Accordingly, obesity-induced circadian dysfunction may drive adverse outcomes in obese pregnancy. Read More

    Mice with either diminished or elevated levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) have decreased litter sizes.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.
    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is both a gonadal hormone and a putative paracrine regulator of neurons, the uterus and the placenta. A mouse line with neuronal expression of AMH (Thy1.2-AMH) was generated to examine the role of paracrine AMH in the brain. Read More

    Prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts ovarian function in a transgenerational manner in female mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer found in polyvinyl chloride products such as vinyl flooring, plastic food containers, medical devices, and children's toys. DEHP is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. Little is known about the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on the ovary and whether effects occur in subsequent generations. Read More

    Successful in vitro maturation of oocytes: a matter of follicular differentiation.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Centre de Recherche en reproduction, Développement et Santé Intergénérationnelle (CRDSI), Département des Sciences Animales, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.
    Folliculogenesis is remarkably similar in cattle and humans. In this review, we consider the known differences and provide a possible explanation for the greater success of oocyte in vitro maturation in cattle. Two different parallel processes that are critical for oocyte competence acquisition are examined. Read More

    Pharmacological blockage of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in endometriosis leads to contrasting effects in proliferation, migration and invasion.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Basic Sciences, Ponce Health Sciences University - School of Medicine & Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, PR, USA.
    High levels of inflammatory factors including chemokines have been reported in peritoneal fluid and blood of women with endometriosis. CXCL12 mediates its action by interaction with its specific receptor, CXCR4, which has been reported to be elevated in human endometriosis lesions and in the rat model of endometriosis. Activation of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis increases cell proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. Read More

    Nuclear localization of EIF4G3 suggests a role for the XY body in translational regulation during spermatogenesis in mice.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609 US.
    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (EIF4G) is an important scaffold protein in the translation initiation complex. In mice mutation of the Eif4g3 gene causes male infertility, with arrest of meiosis at the end of meiotic prophase. This study documents features of the developmental expression and sub-cellular localization of EIF4G3 that might contribute to its highly specific role in meiosis and spermatogenesis. Read More

    Distinct reorganization of collagen architecture in lipopolysaccharide - mediated premature cervical remodeling.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences.
    Previous work has identified divergent mechanisms by which cervical remodeling is achieved in preterm birth (PTB) induced by hormone withdrawal (mifepristone) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our current study aims to document how collagen architecture is modified to achieve premature cervical remodeling in mice treated with LPS as a model of infection induced inflammation. Cervices were collected on gestation day (d) 15 from mice with premature cervical ripening induced by LPS and compared to d15 and d18 controls as well as a hormone withdrawal preterm birth model. Read More

    Group B Streptococcus Activates Transcriptomic Pathways Related to Premature Birth in Human Extraplacental Membranes In Vitro.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. Read More

    Quantitative proteomic profiling of bovine follicular fluid during follicle development.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jan;97(6):835-849
    Department of Animal Reproduction and Veterinary Radiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Bovine follicular fluid (FF) constitutes the microenvironment of follicles and includes various biologically active proteins. We performed a study involving 18 healthy nonlactating Holstein cows to determine the protein expression profile of FF at key stages of follicular development. Follicles were individually aspirated in vivo at predeviation (F1 ∼ 7. Read More

    Progesterone, the maternal immune system and the onset of parturition in the mouse.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Academic Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, UK.
    The role of progesterone (P4) in the regulation of the local (uterine) and systemic innate immune system, myometrial expression of connexin 43 (Cx-43) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the onset of parturition was examined in: 1) naïve mice delivering at term; 2) E16 mice treated with RU486 (P4-antagonist) to induce preterm parturition; and 3) in mice treated with P4 to prevent term parturition.In naïve mice, myometrial neutrophil and monocyte numbers peaked at E18 and declined with the onset of parturition. In contrast, circulating monocytes did not change and although neutrophils were increased with pregnancy, they did not change across gestation. Read More

    Nonrandom contribution of left and right testes to germline transmission from mouse spermatogonial stem cells.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jan;97(6):902-910
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Vast amounts of sperm are produced from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which continuously undergo self-renewal. We examined the possible effect of laterality in male germline transmission efficiency of SSCs using a spermatogonial transplantation technique. We transplanted the same number of wild-type and Egfp transgenic SSCs in the same or different testes of individual recipient mice and compared the fertility of each type of recipient by natural mating. Read More

    Transforming growth factor beta1 from endometriomas promotes fibrosis in surrounding ovarian tissues via Smad2/3 signaling.
    Biol Reprod 2017 Jan;97(6):873-882
    Assisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Reproductive Dysfunction Management of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China.
    To elucidate whether the endometriotic cells of endometriomas synthesize transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and understand how it affects surrounding ovarian tissue. We collected biopsies of the cystic walls from 42 endometriomas and 29 mature teratomas and compared mRNA and protein expression of fibrosis-related factors between the cystic walls. Then we detected TGFB1 mRNA synthesis in endometriomas, and tested TGF-beta1 fibrotic effect in vitro. Read More

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